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A & M RECORDS, INC. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000) percent per month. Id.

percent per month. Id., Exh. 127 at ER00130. Approximately 10,000 music files are shared per second using
U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California - 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000) Napster, and every second more than 100 users attempt to connect to the system. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 29.
August 10, 2000 3. Napster, Inc. currently collects no revenues and charges its clientele no fees; it is a free service. See,
e.g., 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 179:15. However, it has never been a non-profit
organization. See id. at 116:10. It plans to delay the maximization of revenues while it attracts a large user
OPINION base. See id., Exh. 127 at ER00130; 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 160:1-162:14, Exh. 254 at
PATEL, Chief Judge. SF00099. The value of the system grows as the quantity and quality of available music increases. See id. at
The matter before the court concerns the boundary between sharing and theft, personal use and the 112:18-113:2, Exh. 127 at ER00130; David J. Teece Rep. at 4. Defendant's internal documents reveal a
unauthorized world-wide distribution of copyrighted music and sound recordings.[1] On December 6, 1999, A & strategy of attaining a "critical mass" of music in an "ever-expanding library" as new members bring their MP3
M Records and seventeen other record companies ("record company plaintiffs") filed a complaint for collections online. See 1 Frackman Dec. (Richardson Dep.), Exh. 127 at ER00130; Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at
contributory and vicarious copyright infringement, violations of the California Civil Code section 980(a) (2), and 160:1-162:14, Exh. 254 at SF00099.
unfair competition against Napster, Inc.,[2] an Internet start-up that enables users to download MP3 music files Defendant eventually plans to "monetize" its user base. See id. at 115:24-116:13; Teece Rep. at 4, 7-11.
without payment. On January 7, 2000, plaintiffs Jerry Leiber, Mike Stoller, and Frank Music Corporation filed a Potential revenue sources include targeted email; advertising; commissions from links to commercial websites;
complaint for vicarious and contributory copyright infringement on behalf of a putative class of similarly- and direct marketing of CDs, Napster products, and CD burners and rippers. See 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C
situated music publishers ("music publisher plaintiffs") against Napster, Inc. and former CEO Eileen (Parker Dep.) at 160:1-162:14, Exh. 254 at SF00099-100; Teece Rep. at 2-3. Defendant also may begin to
Richardson. The music publisher plaintiffs filed a first amended complaint on April 6, 2000, and on May 24, charge fees for a premium or commercial version of its software. See Teece Rep. at 8; cf. 1 Frackman Dec.,
2000, the court entered a stipulation of dismissal of all claims against Richardson.[3] Now before this court is Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 179:6-25. The existence of a large user base that increases daily and can be
the record company and music publisher plaintiffs' joint motion to preliminarily enjoin Napster, Inc. from "monetized" makes Napster, Inc. a potentially attractive acquisition for larger, more established
engaging in or assisting others in copying, downloading, uploading, transmitting, or distributing copyrighted firms. See Teece Rep. at 7.
music without the express permission of the rights owner. 4. Napster Inc.'s value which is measured, at least in part, by the size of its user base lies between 60 and 80
In opposition to this motion, defendant seeks to expand the "fair use" doctrine *901 articulated in Sony Corp. million dollars. See Teece Rep. at 11-12; Def.'s Opp. at 35. Defendant obtained substantial capital infusions
of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417, 104 S. Ct. 774, 78 L. Ed. 2d 574 (1984), to after the onset of this litigation. For example, in May 2000, the venture firm Hummer Winblad purchased a
encompass the massive downloading of MP3 files by Napster users. Alternatively, defendant contends that, twenty-percent ownership interest in the company for 13 million dollars; other investors simultaneously
even if this third-party activity constitutes direct copyright infringement, plaintiffs have not shown probable invested 1.5 million dollars. See Hank Barry Dec. ¶ 7.
success on the merits of their contributory and vicarious infringement claims. Defendant also asks the court to 5. The evidence shows that virtually all Napster users download or upload copyrighted *903 files and that the
find that copyright holders are not injured by a service created and promoted to facilitate the free downloading vast majority of the music available on Napster is copyrighted. Eighty-seven percent of the files sampled by
of music files, the vast majority of which are copyrighted. plaintiffs' expert, Dr. Ingram Olkin, "belong to or are administered by plaintiffs or other copyright
Having considered the parties' arguments, the court grants plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction against holders."[6] Olkin Rep. at 7. After analyzing Olkin's data, Charles J. Hausman, anti-piracy counsel for the RIAA,
Napster, Inc. The court makes the following Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law to support the determined that 834 out of 1,150 files in Olkin's download database belong to or are administered by plaintiffs;
preliminary injunction under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 65(d). plaintiffs alone own the copyrights to more than seventy percent of the 1,150 files. See Charles J. Hausman
Dec. ¶ 8. Napster users shared these files without authorization. See id.
6. Napster, Inc. has never obtained licenses to distribute or download, or to facilitate others in distributing or
I. FINDINGS OF FACT downloading, the music that plaintiffs own. See Kevin Conroy Dec. ¶ 4; Richard Cottrell Dec. ¶ 5; Mark R.
Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 21; Lawrence Kenswil Dec. ¶ 15; Paul Vidich Dec. ¶ 8; Mike Stoller Dec. ¶ 11.
A. MP3 Technology 7. Defendant's internal documents indicate that it seeks to take over, or at least threaten, plaintiffs' role in the
1. Digital compression technology makes it possible to store audio recordings in a digital format that uses less promotion and distribution of music. See, e.g., 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.), 160:1-162:14, Exh.
memory and may be uploaded and downloaded over the Internet. See David M. Lisi Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 11. 254, at SF00099 (declaring that "[u]ltimately Napster could evolve into a full-fledged music distribution
MP3 is a popular, standard format used to store such compressed audio files. See Edward Kessler Dec. ¶ platform, usurping the record industry as we know it today and allowing us to digitally promote and distribute
3;[4] Lisi Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 11. Compressing data into MP3 format results in some loss of sound emerging artists at a fraction of the cost" but noting that "we should focus on our realistic short-term goals
quality. See List Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 12. However, because MP3 files are smaller, they require less time to while wooing the industry before we try to undermine it").[7]
transfer and are therefore better suited to transmission over the Internet. See id. at 11. 8. Defendant's internal documents also demonstrate that its executives knew Napster users were engaging in
2. Consumers typically acquire MP3 files in two ways. First, users may download audio recordings that have unauthorized downloading and uploading of copyrighted music. See, e.g. 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker
already been converted into MP3 format by using an Internet service such as Napster. See Lisi Dec. (Tygar Dep.) at 160:1-162:14, Exh. 254 at SF00100 (stating that Napster users "are
Rep.) at 11. Second, "ripping" software makes it possible to copy an audio compact disc ("CD") directly onto a exchanging pirated music."); id. at SF00102 ("[W]e are not just making pirated music available but also
computer hard-drive; ripping software compresses the millions of bytes of information on a typical CD into a pushing demand"). Several Napster executives admitted in their depositions that they believed many of the
smaller MP3 file that requires a fraction of the storage space. See id.; Kessler Dec. ¶ 32; 1 Laurence F. millions of MP3 music files available on Napster were copyrighted. *904 See, e.g., 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. B
Pulgram Dec., Exh. A (Conroy Dep.) at 13:19-24. (Fanning Dep.) at 105:10-108:2.
9. At least on paper, the promotion of new artists constituted an aspect of defendant's plan as early as
October 1999. SeeSean F. Parker Dec. ¶ 5 & Exh. B[8]; Scott Krause Dec. ¶ 6. New or unsigned artists now
B. Defendant's Business may promote their works and distribute them in MP3 format via the Napster service. See Krause Dec. ¶¶ 8-15.
1. Napster, Inc. is a start-up company based in San Mateo, California. It distributes its proprietary file-sharing Napster, Inc. has sought business alliances and developed both Internet- and software-based technologies to
software free of charge via its Internet website. People who have downloaded this software can log-on to the support its New Artist Program. See Parker Dec. ¶ 6.
Napster system and share MP3 music files with other users who are also logged-on to the However, the court finds that the New Artist Program accounts for a small portion of Napster use and did not
system. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 6. It is uncontradicted that Napster users currently upload or download MP3 files become central to defendant's business strategy until this action made it convenient to give the program top
without payment to each other, defendant, or copyright owners. billing. An early version of the Napster website advertised the ease with which users could find their favorite
According to a Napster, Inc. executive summary, the Napster service gives its users the unprecedented ability popular music without "wading through page after page of unknown artists." 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker
to "locate music by their favorite artists in MP3 format." 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.), Exh. 127 Dep.) at 104:16-105:10, Exh. 235. Defendant did not even create the New Artist Program that runs on its
at ER000131.[5]Defendant *902 boasts that it "takes the frustration out of locating servers with MP3 files" by Internet website until April 2000 well after plaintiffs filed this action.[9]See Krause Dec. ¶ 9, Exh. A.
providing a peer-to-peer file-sharing system that allows Napster account holders to conduct relatively Moreover, in Olkin's sample of 1,150 files (which were randomly selected from over 550,000), only 232 files
sophisticated searches for music files on the hard drives of millions of other anonymous users. See A & M matched anyof the 19,440 names that were listed in defendant's new artist database as of July
Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 2000 WL 573136, at *1 (N.D.Cal. May 12, 2000) (citing Def.'s Mot. for Summ. 2000. See Olkin Reply Dec. ¶¶ 3-5; Hausman Reply Dec. ¶¶ 3-6. An RIAA representative who analyzed the
Adjud.) at 4. data also noted that the list of so-called new artists actually contained many popular stars represented by
2. Although Napster was the brainchild of a college student who wanted to facilitate music-swapping by his major record labels among them teen sensation Britney Spears and the legendary alternative rock band
roommate, see1 Frackman Dec., Exh. B (Fanning Dep.) at 31:10-35:1, it is far from a simple tool of distribution Nirvana. See Hausman Reply Dec. ¶ 5. Once established artists were eliminated from the results, only eleven
among friends and family. According to defendant's internal documents, there will be 75 million Napster users new artists and fourteen of their music files remained in Olkin's sample of 1,150 files. See id.¶ 6.
by the end of 2000. See 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 318:19-319:1, Exh. 166 at 002725. At 10. Defendant employs the term "space-shifting" to refer to the process of converting a CD the consumer
one point, defendant estimated that even without marketing, its "viral service" was growing by more than 200 already owns into MP3 format and using Napster to transfer the music to a different computer from home to

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office, for example.[10]SeeDef. Opp. at 12. The court finds that space-shifting accounts for a de minimis portion between two users by calculating the amount of time it takes for ping responses to be returned to the client
of Napster use and is not a significant aspect of defendant's business. According to the court's understanding software. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 56:3-10, Exh. 5 at 3; Shawn Fanning Dec. ¶ 8.
of the Napster technology, a user who wanted to space-shift files from her home to her office would have to Users can also search for files that meet certain technical criteria, such as the host user's bandwidth. See
log-on to the system from her home computer, leave that computer online, commute to work, and log- id. Finally, the file name or "data object description" includes the size and bytes stored and "attributes of
on *905 to Napster from her office computer to access the desired file. In the meantime, many users might quality," such as bit rate. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 153:16-154:24; Fanning Dec. ¶ 8.
download it before she reached the office. Common sense dictates that this use does not draw users lo the These Napster options contribute to the ease with which the user can locate and obtain the music she wants.
system. Defendant fails to cite a single Napster, Inc. document indicating that the company saw space-shifting 8. Alternatively, users may access MP3 files via the hotlist function. This function enables a Napster user to
as an attraction for its user base, and survey evidence shows that almost half of college-student survey archive other user names and learn whether account holders who access the network under those names are
respondents previously owned less than ten percent of the songs they have downloaded. See E. Deborah Jay online. See Kessler Dec. ¶¶ 8-9. A requesting user can access or browse all files listed in the user libraries of
Rep. at 4, 21 & Tbl. 7. hotlisted users. See id. ¶ 9. Then she can request a particular file in a host user's user library by selecting, or
clicking on, that file name. See id. The hotlist function is a feature that helps make Napster users a virtual
C. The Napster Technology community they are not only able to download the music they desire, but also to obtain files from particular
1. Internet users may download defendant's proprietary MusicShare software free of charge from the Napster individuals whom they know by user name.
website. This free software enables users to access the Napster computer network. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 6. 9. The Napster network facilitates the same mode of file-transfer, whether a requesting user accesses a
2. The software becomes fully functional after users register with Napster by selecting an account name, or specific MP3 file with the search engine or the hotlist. See id. ¶ 12. Once a requesting user locates and selects
"user name," and a password. See Kessler Dec. ¶¶ 6, 23. Persons who register may include biographical the file she wishes to download, the server-side software engages in a dialogue with her browser and that of
data, but registration does not require a real name or address. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at the "host user" (that is, the user who makes the MP3 available for downloading). See Kessler Dec. ¶ 12; 2
255:20-257:22. Napster does not associate user names with the biographical information that individuals Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 80:19-22; 56:3-10. Napster servers obtain the necessary
provide at registration. See id. Indeed, after a user logs-on, her physical address information is no longer IP *907 address information from the host user. See Daniel Farmer Dec. ¶ 17; Frackman Dec., Exh. 1 (Kessler
available to the Napster server. See id. Dep.) at 103-05. The servers then communicate the host user's address or routing information to the
3. The software features a browser interface, search engine, and chat functions that operate in conjunction requesting user; the requesting user's computer employs this information to establish a connection with the
with defendant's online network of servers. See id. ¶¶ 6, 13. The software also contains a "hotlist" tool that host user's browser software and download the MP3 file from the host user's library. See Kessler Dec. ¶¶ 10-
allows users to compile and store lists of other account holders' user names. See id. ¶ 8. In addition, the 13; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 56:3-10. The content of the actual MP3 file is transferred over
Napster software may be used to play and categorize audio files, which users can store in specific file the Internet between users, not through the Napster servers. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 12; A & M Records, Inc. v.
directories on their hard drives. See id. ¶¶ 6-7. Those directories, which allow account holders to share files on Napster, Inc., 2000 WL 573136, at *7 (N.D.Cal. May 12, 2000). However, users would not be able to access
Napster, constitute the "user library." Id. Some users store their MP3 files in such directories; others do the uploaded file names and corresponding routing data without signing on to the Napster
not. See id. system. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 23.
4. Defendant maintains clusters of servers that compose its network or system. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 13. 10. In some instances, a requested file is not immediately ready for download. Those files are "queued" or
Account holders who access the Napster network may communicate, share files, and learn of designated deferred until the host user is able to transmit the file. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep. at 80:2-22).
hotlist names only within the cluster to which they are assigned. See id. Users can access the network of The request may be deferred, for example, because the host user has limited the number of downloads she
servers free of charge. can provide simultaneously, or because the host user has signed off the Napster network. See id.
5. Once an account holder signs on to the Napster network, the Napster browser interacts with its proprietary Defendant employs technology that permits users to resume queued downloads at a later time. See 2
server-side software. See id. ¶¶ 7, 8; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 54:16-56:10. If a user sets Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 112:3-13. Every MP3 file has a mathematically-generated and
the "allowable uploads" function of the MusicShare software above zero, all of the MP3 file names she stores unique fingerprint or "checksum." SeeKessler Dec. ¶ 32; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 112:3-13.
in her user library automatically become available to other online Napster users. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 7. Any requesting user who is unable to download a particular MP3 file may use the client software to send the
However, before the client software uploads MP3 file names to defendant's master servers, it "validates" the file's checksum and full intended size to the Napster servers and attempt to locate a match for
files stored in the user library directories. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 145:2-18. The client download. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 112:3-13.
software reads those files to ensure they are indeed MP3 files, checking to see whether they contain the 11. Defendant also provides Napster users with a chat service. Its central servers permit users who are
proper syntax specification and content. See id. If the files are not properly formatted, their file names will not logged-on to communicate with other online users, including those whose user names comprise the
be not uploaded to the Napster servers. See id. hotlist. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 13. Aside from communicating with specific online users logged-on to the same
Once the file names are successfully uploaded to the servers, each user library, identified by a user name, cluster of servers, the chat service allows users to communicate in groups. Defendant organizes these groups
becomes a "location" on the servers. Kessler Dec. ¶ 8. Napster locations are short-lived; they are respectively within "channels" or "chat rooms" named after particular musical genres. See id.; 2 Pulgram Dec., Exh. B (2
added or purged every time a user signs on or off of the network. See id. Thus, a user's MP3 files are only Fanning Dep.) at 219: 4-14. Alternatively, users can create their own channels in which to
accessible to other users while she is online. communicate. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 13.
6. A user who is logged-on to the Napster servers via the client software may access the content of other 12. Defendant's New Artist Program technology functions in two interrelated environments: (a) on its Internet
users' uploaded "locations" in one of two ways: (a) by utilizing defendant's proprietary search engine, *906 or website and (b) through its network-client browser and search technology. See Krause Dec. ¶¶ 9-15. The
(b) by employing the hotlist tool featured in the client software. See id. ¶ 12. website version performs several functions. It allows new or unsigned artists to create a "profile" that consists
7. An account holder may use the search tools included in the Napster client software to find MP3 files. See of certain biographical and descriptive data including artist and band names, similar artists or influences, and
id. ¶ 10. The server-side application software maintains a search index that is updated in real time as users news about the band. See id. ¶¶ 9-10, Exh. C. Defendant only accepts completed forms if the submitting artist
log-on and -off of the system. See id.; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 56:3-10. The file-name index authorizes Napster users to share his music. See id. ¶ 10, Exh. D. Once defendant accepts the profile, it
contains the names of MP3 files that on-line users save in their designated user library stores all of the relevant information in a database linked to its Internet website. See id. ¶ 11. Defendant has
directories. See Kessler Dec. ¶¶ 7, 14; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 55:14-56:10; Exh. 2. Users accepted several thousand such profiles. See id. ¶¶ 9, 16.
who wish to search for a song or artist may do so by entering the name of the song or artist in the search Members of the public can then search the new artist database in several ways: (1) by artist name, (2) by artist
fields of the client software and then clicking the "Find It" button. When the search form is transmitted to the influence, or (3) by browsing the different genres of music and then scrolling down lists of new artists
Napster network, the Napster servers send the requesting user a list of files that include the same term(s) she categorized in those genres. See id. ¶ 12. The Napster site does not store any of the new artists' music,
entered on the search form. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 5; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 56:3-10. however. See id. ¶ 9. Instead, those who access the website-based service acquire information about an
After the application software returns a list of specific MP3 file names to the requesting user, the user then artist, such as his name. See id., Exh. E. Once an individual obtains this data, she is directed to switch to
must peruse the list to determine whether she desires any of those files. See id. ¶ 10. She must read through Napster's software- and network-based service to *908 search for and download the new artist's music. See
the list because the Napster application software does not search for a particular song or recording artist per id. ¶ 15.
se. Napster does not organize MP3 files based on content because, currently, they are not designed for such Napster account holders who use MusicShare software and log-on to the Napster system can locate and
indexing. See id. ¶ 11. Instead, Napster performs a text search of the file names indexed in a particular download new artists' songs in the same manner they would find and download any other files: by utilizing the
cluster. Those file names may contain typographical errors or otherwise inaccurate descriptions of the content search engine, or by browsing user libraries. See id. ¶ 9. While on the Napster network, both new artists and
of the files since they are designated by other users. See id. ¶¶ 13, 10, 27; 2 Pulgram Dec. Exh. B (Fanning other users may use the chat function to market music directly or learn about new artists. See id. ¶¶ 8, 15.
Dep.) at 116:8-19.
In addition to listed text results from an executed search, Napster's servers provide other information about
particular MP3 files. For instance, the client software can sort the results of "echo packets" or "ping requests"
that it sends out to host users; these requests help gauge the "responsiveness value" of a transmission

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D. Plaintiffs' Business CEO Michael Fine lends support to Jay's findings. After examining data culled from three types of retail stores
1. The music publisher plaintiffs compose music and write songs. See, e.g., Stoller Dec. ¶ 2. They depend near college or university campuses,[13] Fine concluded that "on-line *910 file sharing has resulted in a loss of
financially upon the sale of sound recordings because they earn royalties from such sales. See id. at ¶¶ 2, 11, album sales within college markets."[14] Fine Rep. at 1.
13. However, they do not get a royalty when a Napster user uploads or downloads an MP3 file of their For the reasons discussed in the court's separate order, the report by defendant's expert, Dr. Peter S. Fader,
compositions without payment or authorization. See id. ¶ 11. The record company plaintiffs' sound recordings does not provide credible evidence that music file-sharing on Napster stimulates more CD sales than it
also result from a substantial investment of money, time, manpower, and creativity. See Conroy Dec. ¶ 5; displaces.[15] Nor do the recording industry documents that defendant cites reliably show increased music
Cottrell Dec. 5; Eisenberg Dec. ¶¶ 5, 21; Kenswil Dec. ¶ 5. sales due to Napster use. One such memorandum deals with the effect of Warner's promotional downloads,
In contrast, defendant invests nothing in the content of the music which means that, compared with plaintiffs, it which are "timed-out" and thus differ from MP3 files obtained using Napster. See 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. N
incurs virtually no costs in providing a wide array of music to satisfy consumer demand. See Teece Rep. at 14. (Vidich Dep.), Exh. 279 at T3122-23; Vidich Dec. ¶¶ 7(d), 8 (stating that free, promotional downloads are
2. To make a profit, the record company plaintiffs largely rely on the success of "hit" or popular recordings, "timed-out."). Another purported "smoking gun" is a Universal survey on music-purchasing by people who
which may constitute as little as ten or fifteen percent of albums released. See, e.g., Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 7. download MP3 files. See 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. F (Kenswil Dep.) at 110:22-111:15. However, the court has too
Many, or all, of their top recordings have been available for free on Napster. See Frank Creighton Dec. ¶ 5. little information about this survey to rely on it, and the deponent, Universal representative Lawrence Kenswil,
3. The record company plaintiffs have invested substantial time, effort, and funds in actual or planned entry declined to vouch for the survey's accuracy. See id. at 111:8, 14-15.
into the digital downloading market. BMG Music ("BMG")[11] began to explore digital down-loading in early 2. Because plaintiffs entered the digital download market very recently, or plan to enter it in the next few
1996 and has made more than twenty tracks commercially available for downloading through the digital months, they are especially vulnerable to direct competition from Napster, Inc. See Teece Rep. at 15-16. The
service providers ("DSPs") Amplified.com and the Liquid Music Network. See Conroy Dec. ¶ 9. BMG has court finds that, in choosing between the free Napster service and pay-per-download sites, consumers are
entered several business partnerships, strategic marketing agreements, and clearinghouse relationships to likely to choose Napster. See id. at 14; Jay Rep. at 4, 18 (reaching this conclusion with regard to a survey
develop a plan for secure, commercial digital downloading; July 2000 was the target date for BMG's sample of college students).
launch. See id. at ¶¶ 10-17. Defendant's economic expert, Dr. Robert E. Hall, opines that plaintiffs' music could still command a high price
Plaintiffs Capitol Record, Inc. and Virgin Records America are affiliated with EMI Recorded Music, North after a period when the price has been zero due to Napster use; thus, he concludes, plaintiffs will not suffer
America ("EMI"). See Cottrell Dec. ¶ 1. EMI has developed business plans to distribute its music through irreparable harm between now and a trial verdict against defendant. See Lisi Dec. (Hall Rep.) ¶¶ 39, 54. This
several DSPs which represent more than 800 retail websites. See id. ¶ 7. All digital downloads that EMI offers argument does not square with Hall's assertion that preliminarily enjoining defendant will put it out of business
will be encrypted and watermarked. See id. ¶ 12. because users will switch to services offered by "kindred spirits." Hall Rep. ¶ 15-19, 73; see also Barry Dec. ¶
Sony Music Entertainment ("Sony") has already begun to make selected singles available through its websites 13. If this is true, consumers will not necessarily resume buying music if Napster is enjoined; rather, they will
and those of its artists; to obtain a permanent copy of this music, consumers must pay for the go to other sites offering free MP3 files.[16] Indeed, as Dr. David J. Teece avers, defendant has contributed to a
download. See Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 13. As of May 31, 2000, Sony also began selling downloadable music new attitude that digitally-downloaded songs ought to be free an attitude that creates formidable hurdles for
through a distribution network of about thirty-five retail sites. See id. at ¶ 17. the establishment *911 of a commercial downloading market. See Teece Rep. at 14-18.
Plaintiffs A & M Records, Geffen Records, Interscope Records, Island Records, MCA Records, Motown Hall also maintains that Napster, Inc. will increase the volume of plaintiffs' online sales by stimulating
Records, UMG Records, and Universal Records (collectively, "Universal") have spent millions of dollars consumer investment in the hardware and software needed to obtain and play MP3 files. See Hall Rep. ¶¶ 45-
preparing a secure digital distribution system scheduled for launch in midsummer 2000. See Kenswil Dec. ¶ 9- 49. However, he ignores evidence of reduced CD-buying among college students due to Napster use, see Jay
16. Rep. at 18, and the data upon which he relies to argue that Napster has enhanced sales is either weak (in the
Warner Music Group and its associated labels plaintiffs Atlantic Recording Corp., London-Sire Records Inc. case of the Fader Report) or unavailable for the court's review. See, e.g., id. ¶ 17 (relying on IDC and
(f/k/a Sire Records Group Inc.), Elektra Entertainment Group Inc., and Warner Bros. Records (collectively, Forrester Research studies), ¶¶ 27-28 (discussing reports by Student Monitor and Andersen Consulting), ¶ 34
"Warner") have done due diligence and dedicated a substantial budget to digital distribution. See Vidich (citing a study by the University of Southern California). The court therefore finds that the barriers to
Dec. *909 ¶ 7(a)-(e). Warner expects to launch its commercial digital distribution of hundreds of recordings by commercial distribution posed by an emerging sense of entitlement to free music probably outweigh the
the fourth quarter of 2000. See id. at ¶ 7(e) benefits that defendant purports to confer.
4. Promotional samples offered by plaintiffs and other retail sites differ significantly from using Napster to 3. Downloading on Napster also has the potential to disrupt plaintiffs' promotional efforts because it does not
decide whether to buy a CD. The record company plaintiffs have made some free downloads available but involve any of the restrictions on timing, amount, or selection that plaintiffs impose when they offer free music
have limited them in amount and duration. They have not provided entire albums, and the downloads typically files. See Conroy Dec. ¶ 19-17; Cottrell Dec. ¶ 15; Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 13; Kenswil Dec. ¶ 12; Vidich Dec. ¶¶
have been "timed-out" so that users can only play them for a finite period of time often less than a 7(d), 8; see also Teece Rep. at 18. Even if Napster users sometimes download files to determine whether they
month. See Conroy Dec. ¶ 9-17; Cottrell Dec. ¶ 15; Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 13; Kenswil Dec. ¶ 12; Vidich Dec. ¶¶ want to purchase a CD, sampling on Napster is vastly different than that offered by plaintiffs. On Napster, the
7(d), 8. Although plaintiffs have not been completely successful in managing the rights to promotional user not the copyright owner determines how much music to sample and how long to keep it.
downloads, record company executives accord importance to the security of music distributed in this
manner.[12]See Conroy Dec. ¶ 9-17; Cottrell Dec. ¶ 15; Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 13; Kenswil Dec. ¶ 12; Vidich Dec. ¶¶
7(d), 8. II. CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
Retail sites, such as Amazon.com, offer thirty-to-sixty-second song samples in streaming audio format, rather
than as downloads. See David Lambert Reply Dec. ¶ 2. Unlike downloading, streaming does not copy the A. Legal Standard
music onto the listener's computer hard drive; it merely allows her to hear it. See id. Because companies like 1. The Ninth Circuit authorizes preliminary injunctive relief for "a party who demonstrates either (1) a
DiscoverMusic that provide song samples to these Internet retailers enter licensing agreements, rights holders combination of probable success on the merits and the possibility of irreparable harm, or (2) that serious
earn royalties from this form of sampling. See id. ¶ 3. questions are raised and the balance of hardships tips in its favor." Prudential Real Estate Affiliates, Inc. v.
In contrast, persons who obtain MP3 files for free using Napster can retain and play them indefinitely and, PPR Realty, Inc., 204 F.3d 867, 874 (9th Cir. 2000).
even if they download a song to make a purchasing decision, they may decide not to buy the music. While 2. The standard is a sliding scale which requires a greater degree of harm the lesser the probability of
Napster users can burn CDs comprised of unauthorized downloads they obtained to "sample" new songs, success. See id. In a copyright infringement case, demonstration of a reasonable likelihood of success on the
sampling on sites affiliated with plaintiffs does not substitute for purchasing the entire disc. See Teece Rep. at merits creates a presumption of irreparable harm.[17]See Micro Star v. Formgen, Inc., 154 F.3d 1107, 1109
17. (9th Cir. 1998).

E. Effect of Napster on the Market for Plaintiffs' Copyrighted Works B. Proof of Direct Infringement
1. The court finds that Napster use is likely to reduce CD purchases by college students, whom defendant 1. To prevail on a contributory or vicarious copyright infringement claim, a plaintiff must show direct
admits constitute a key demographic. See Jay Rep. at 4, 18; Michael Fine Rep. at 1; Julia Greer Reply Dec. infringement by a third party. See Sony Corp. of Am. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417, 434, 104 S.
(Brooks Dep.) at 145:10-12 ("We believes [sic] ourselves to have a high college demographic, and beyond Ct. 774, 78 L. Ed. 2d 574 (1984). As a threshold matter, plaintiffs in this action must demonstrate that Napster
that to be primarily [ages] 12 to 24."). Plaintiffs' expert, Dr. E. Deborah Jay, opined that forty-one percent of users are engaged in direct infringement.
her college-student survey respondents "gave a reason for using Napster or described the nature of its impact 2. Plaintiffs have established a prima facie case of direct copyright infringement. As discussed above, virtually
on their music purchases in a way which either explicitly indicated or suggested that Napster displaces CD all Napster users engage in the unauthorized downloading or uploading of copyrighted music; as much as
sales." Jay Rep. at 4, 18. She also found that twenty-one percent of the college students surveyed revealed eighty-seven percent of the files available on Napster may be copyrighted, and more than seventy percent
that Napster helped them make a better selection or decide what to buy. See id., Tbl. 4. However, Jay's may be owned or administered by plaintiffs. See Olkin Rep. at 7; Hausman Dec. ¶ 8.
overall conclusion was that "[t]he more songs Napster users have downloaded," the more likely they are to
admit or imply that such use has reduced their music purchases. See id. at 4, 18. The report of Soundscan

3
*912 C. Affirmative Defense of Fair Use and Substantial Non-Infringing Use any financial benefit on the user. See, e.g., Sony, 464 U.S. at 423, 449-50, 104 S. Ct. 774. Instead, sampling
1. Defendant asserts the affirmative defenses of fair use and substantial non-infringing use. The latter defense on Napster amounts to obtaining permanent copies of songs that users would otherwise have to purchase; it
is also known as the staple article of commerce doctrine. See Sony, 464 U.S. at 442, 104 S. Ct. also carries the potential for viral distribution to millions of people. Defendant ignores critical differences
774. Sony stands for the rule that a manufacturer is not liable for selling a "staple article of commerce" that is between sampling songs on Napster and VCR usage in Sony. First, while "time-shifting [TV broadcasts]
"capable of commercially significant non-infringing uses." Id. The Supreme Court also declared in Sony, "Any merely enables a viewer to see ... a work which he ha[s] been invited to witness in its entirety free of charge,"
individual may reproduce a copyrighted work for a `fair use'; the copyright holder does not possess the plaintiffs in this action almost always charge for their music even if it is downloaded song-by-song. Sony, 464
exclusive right to such a use." Id. at 433, 104 S. Ct. 774. Defendant bears the burden of proving these U.S. at 449-50, 104 S. Ct. 774; see e.g., Conroy Dec. ¶ 9; Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 16. They only make promotional
affirmative defenses. See Bateman v. Mnemonics, Inc., 79 F.3d 1532, 1542 n. 22 (11th Cir.1996) ("[I]t is clear downloads available on a highly restricted basis. See Conroy Dec. ¶ 9-17; Cottrell Dec. ¶ 15; Eisenberg Dec.
the burden of proving fair use is always on the putative infringer."). ¶ 13; Kenswil Dec. ¶ 12; Vidich Dec. ¶¶ 7(d), 8. Copyright owners also earn royalties from streamed song
2. For the reasons set forth below, the court finds that any potential non-infringing use of the Napster service samples on retail websites like Amazon.com. See Lambert Reply Dec. ¶ 3. Second, the majority of VCR
is minimal or connected to the infringing activity, or both. The substantial or commercially significant use of the purchasers in Sony did not distribute taped television broadcasts, but merely enjoyed them at home. See id. at
service was, and continues to be, the unauthorized downloading and uploading of popular music, most of 423, 104 S. Ct. 774. In contrast, a Napster user who downloads a copy of a song to her hard drive may make
which is copyrighted. that song available to millions of other individuals, even if she eventually chooses to purchase the CD.
3. Section 107 of the Copyright Act provides a non-exhaustive list of fair use factors. These factors include: Socalled sampling on Napster may quickly facilitate unauthorized distribution at an exponential rate.
Defendant's argument that using Napster to sample music is akin to visiting a free listening station in a record
(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for store, or listening to song samples on a retail website, *914 fails to convince the court because Napster users
nonprofit educational purposes; can keep the music they download. Whether or not they decide to buy the CD, they still obtain a permanent
(2) the nature of the copyrighted work; copy of the song. In contrast, many retail sites only offer thirty-to-sixty-second samples in streaming audio
(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and format, see Lambert Reply Dec. ¶ 2, and promotional downloads from the record company plaintiffs are often
"timed-out." See Cottrell Dec. ¶ 15; Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 13; Kenswil Dec. ¶ 12; Vidich Dec. ¶¶ 7(d), 8.
(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The global scale of Napster usage and the fact that users avoid paying for songs that otherwise would not be
17 U.S.C. § 107. free militates against a determination that sampling by Napster users constitutes personal or home use in the
4. In the instant action, the purpose and character of the use militates against a finding of fair use. traditional sense.[18]
Ascertaining whether the new work transforms the copyrighted material satisfies the main goal of the first 12. Even if the type of sampling supposedly done on Napster were a non-commercial use, plaintiffs have
factor. See Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., 510 U.S. 569, 579, 114 S. Ct. 1164, 127 L. Ed. 2d 500 (1994). demonstrated a substantial likelihood that it would adversely affect the potential market for their copyrighted
Plaintiff persuasively argues that downloading MP3 files does not transform the copyrighted music. See UMG works if it became widespread. See Sony, 464 U.S. at 451, 104 S. Ct. 774. Plaintiffs claim three general types
Recordings, Inc. v. MP3.Com, Inc., 92 F. Supp. 2d 349, 351 (S.D.N.Y.2000) (concluding that repackaging of harm: a decrease in retail sales, especially among college students; an obstacle to the record company
copyrighted recordings in MP3 format suitable for downloading "adds no `new aesthetics, new insights and plaintiffs' future entry into the digital downloading market; and a social devaluing of music stemming from its
understandings' to the original"). free distribution. With regard to sampling, twenty-one percent of the Jay survey respondents indicated that
5. Under the first factor, the court must also determine whether the use is commercial. In Acuff-Rose, the Napster helps them decide what music to purchase. See Jay Rep., Tbl. 4. Nevertheless, Jay reached the
Supreme Court clarified that a finding of commercial use weighs against, but does not preclude, a overarching conclusion that the more songs Napster users download, the more likely they are to reveal that
determination of fairness. See Acuff-Rose, 510 U.S. at 584, 114 S. Ct. 1164. such use reduces their music buying. See id. at 4, 18. Jay's evidence suggests that sampling and building a
6. If a use is non-commercial, the plaintiff bears the burden of showing a meaningful likelihood that it would free music library through unauthorized downloading are not mutually exclusive: it is likely that survey
adversely affect the potential market for the copyrighted work if it became widespread. See Sony, 464 U.S. at respondents who sample are primarily direct infringers. Napster users not the record companies control the
451, 104 S. Ct. 774. music selection, the amount and the timing of the sampling activity, and they may keep many songs after
7. Although downloading and uploading MP3 music files is not paradigmatic commercial activity, it is also not deciding not to purchase the entire CD.
personal use in the traditional sense. Plaintiffs have not shown that the majority of Napster users download Defendant maintains that sampling does not decrease retail music sales and may even stimulate them. To
music to sell that is, for profit. However, given the vast scale of Napster use among anonymous individuals, support this assertion, it relies heavily on the Fader Report, which concludes that consumers do not view MP3
the court finds that downloading and uploading MP3 music files with the assistance of Napster are not private files as perfect substitutes for CDs. See Lisi Dec. (Fader Rep.) ¶ 63. Fader cites a survey that he did not
uses. At the very least, a host user sending a file cannot be said to engage in a personal use when distributing conduct for the assertion that "60% of online users who download free digital music do so to preview music
that file to an anonymous requester. Moreover, the fact that Napster users get for free something they would before buying the CD." Fader Rep. ¶ 74. Examining the results of a different survey that he purportedly
ordinarily have to buy suggests that they reap economic advantages from Napster use. See Sega Enters. Ltd. designed, but did not carefully supervise, he reports that about twenty-eight percent of Napster users indicate
v. MAPHIA, 857 F. Supp. 679, 687 (N.D.Cal.1994) ("Sega I") (holding that copying to save users expense of that their music purchases have increased since they began using the Napster software. See id. ¶ 43. For
purchasing authorized *913 copies has commercial character and thus weighs against finding of fair reasons explained in the court's evidentiary order, the Fader Report is unreliable and fails to rebut plaintiffs'
use); cf. American Geophysical Union v. Texaco, Inc., 60 F.3d 913, 922 (2d Cir.1994) (holding that for-profit showing of harm. Plaintiffs have demonstrated a meaningful likelihood that the activity defendant calls
enterprise which made unauthorized copies of scholarly articles to facilitate scientific research reaped indirect sampling actually decreases retail sales of their music.
economic advantage from copying and, hence, that copying constituted commercial use). 13. Any potential enhancement of plaintiffs' sales due to sampling would not tip the fair use analysis
8. The court finds that the copyrighted musical compositions and sound recordings are creative in nature; they conclusively in favor of defendant. Indeed, courts have rejected the suggestion that a positive impact on sales
constitute entertainment, which cuts against a finding of fair use under the second factor. See Harper & Row negates the copyright holder's entitlement to licensing fees or access to derivative markets. See Ringgold v.
Publishers, Inc. v. Nation Enters., 471 U.S. 539, 563, 105 S. Ct. 2218, 85 L. Ed. 2d 588 (1985); Sega I, 857 F. Black Entertainment Television, 126 F.3d 70, 81 n. 16 (2d Cir.1997) (noting that, even if allegedly infringing
Supp. at 687; Playboy Enters., Inc. v. Frena, 839 F. Supp. 1552, 1558 (M.D.Fla.1993) (citing In re New Era use of plaintiff's poster in television program increased poster sales, plaintiff retained right to
Publications Int'l v. Carol Publ'g, 904 F.2d 152, 157-58 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 921, 111 S. Ct. 297, licensing *915 fee); DC Comics, Inc. v. Reel Fantasy, Inc., 696 F.2d 24, 28 (2d Cir.1982) (stating that
112 L. Ed. 2d 251 (1990)). speculated increase in plaintiff's comic book sales due to unauthorized use of Batman and Green Arrow
9. With regard to the third factor, it is undisputed that downloading or uploading MP3 music files involves figures on advertising flyers did not establish fair use defense as matter of law); MP3.Com, 92 F. Supp. 2d at
copying the entirety of the copyrighted work. The Ninth Circuit held prior to Sony that "wholesale copying of 352 (holding that allegedly positive impact on plaintiffs' prior market "in no way frees defendant to usurp a
copyrighted material precludes application of the fair use doctrine." Marcus v. Rowley, 695 F.2d 1171, 1176 further market that directly derives from reproduction of [the] copyrighted works.").
(9th Cir.1983). Even after Sony,wholesale copying for private home use tips the fair use analysis in plaintiffs' The MP3.Com opinion is especially instructive. Although MP3.com's activities arguably stimulated CD sales,
favor if such copying is likely to adversely affect the market for the copyrighted material. See Sony, 464 U.S. at the plaintiffs "adduced substantial evidence that they ... [had] taken steps to enter [the digital downloading
449-50, 456, 104 S. Ct. 774. market]." MP3.Com, 92 F. Supp. 2d at 352. The fourth factor thus weighed against a finding of fair use.
10. The fourth factor, the effect on the potential market for the copyrighted work, also weighs against a finding Plaintiffs in the instant action similarly allege that Napster use impedes their entry into the online market. The
of fair use. Plaintiffs have produced evidence that Napster use harms the market for their copyrighted musical record company plaintiffs have already expended considerable funds and effort to commence Internet sales
compositions and sound recordings in at least two ways. First, it reduces CD sales among college and licensing for digital downloads. See Conroy Dec. ¶¶ 9-18; Cottrell Dec. ¶¶ 6-17; Eisenberg Dec. ¶¶ 9-22;
students. See Jay Rep. at 4, 18; cf. Fine Rep. at 1. Second, it raises barriers to plaintiffs' entry into the market Vidich Dec. ¶¶ 7-10. Plaintiffs' economic expert opined that the availability of free MP3 files will reduce the
for the digital downloading of music. See Teece Rep. at 12-18. market for authorized, commercial downloading. See Teece Dec. at 14-18. This point is corroborated by the
11. Defendant asserts several potential fair uses of the Napster service including sampling, space-shifting, fact that all forty-nine songs available for purchase on Sony's website can be obtained for free using
and the authorized distribution of new artists' work. Sampling on Napster is not a personal use in the Napster. See Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 16. If consumers choose to buy, rather than burn, entire CDs they are still
traditional sense that courts have recognized copying which occurs within the household and does not confer

4
more likely to obtain permanent copies of songs on Napster than buy them from Sony's site or listen to new artists constituted a very small percentage of music available on Napster. SeeKrause Dec. ¶ 9, Exh. A;
streamed samples at other online locations. Olkin Reply Dec. ¶¶ 3-5; Hausman Reply Dec. ¶¶ 3-6.
The court concludes that, even assuming the sampling alleged in this case is a non-commercial use, the In any event, Napster's primary role of facilitating the unauthorized copying and distribution established artists'
record company plaintiffs have demonstrated a meaningful likelihood that it would adversely affect their entry songs renders Sony inapplicable. See General Audio Video, 948 F.Supp. at 1456-57; RCA Records, 594 F.
into the online market if it became widespread. See Sony, 464 U.S. at 451, 104 S. Ct. 774. Moreover, it Supp. at 339.
deprives the music publisher plaintiffs of royalties for individual songs. The unauthorized downloading of 18. Plaintiffs do not object to all of the supposedly non-infringing uses of Napster. They do not seek an
plaintiffs' music to sample songs would not constitute a fair use, even if it enhanced CD sales. injunction covering chat rooms or message boards, the New Artist Program or any distribution authorized by
14. The court is also unconvinced that Sony applies to space-shifting. Defendant erroneously relies on the rights holders. See Pl.'s Reply at 19. Nor do they seek to enjoin applications unrelated to the music recording
Ninth Circuit's assertion, in a case involving an inapplicable statute, that space-shifting constitutes non- industry.[21]See id. Because plaintiffs do not ask the court to shut down such satellite activities, the fact that
commercial personal use. SeeRecording Indus. Ass'n of Am. v. Diamond Multimedia Sys., Inc., 180 F.3d these activities may be non-infringing does not lessen plaintiffs' likelihood of success. The court therefore finds
1072, 1079 (9th Cir.1999) (discussing the applicability of the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 to the Rio that plaintiffs have established a reasonable probability of proving third-party infringement.
MP3 player).[19]*916 Defendant also implies that space-shifting music is sufficiently analogous to time-shifting
television broadcasts to merit the protection of Sony. According to the gravely flawed Fader Report, space- *918 D. Contributory Copyright Infringement
shifting like time-shifting leaves the value of the copyrights unscathed because it does not displace 1. Once they have shown direct infringement by Napster users, plaintiffs must demonstrate a likelihood of
sales. See Fader Rep. ¶ 77; Sony, 464 U.S. at 421, 104 S. Ct. 774 (concluding that plaintiffs did not prove that success on their contributory infringement claim. A contributory infringer is "one who, with knowledge of the
time-shifting created any likelihood of harm). Defendant again cites Fader for the statistic that seventy percent infringing activity, induces, causes or materially contributes to the infringing conduct of another." Gershwin
of Napster users at least sometimes engage in space-shifting. See Lisi Dec. (Fader Rep.) ¶ 77. In contrast, Publ'g Corp. v. Columbia Artists Management, Inc., 443 F.2d 1159, 1162 (2d Cir.1971); see Fonovisa, Inc. v.
Jay opined that approximately forty-nine percent of her college-student survey respondents previously owned Cherry Auction, Inc., 76 F.3d 259, 264 (9th Cir.1996). Courts do not require actual knowledge; rather, a
less than ten percent of the songs they downloaded, and about sixty-nine percent owned less than a defendant incurs contributory copyright liability if he has reason to know of the third party's direct
quarter. See Jay Rep. at 4, 21 & Tbl. 7. The court has already held that the Jay Report bears greater indicia of infringement. See Cable/Home Communication Corp., 902 F.2d at 846; Sega Enter. Ltd. v. MAPHIA, 948 F.
reliability than the Fader Report. Moreover, under either analysis, the instant matter is distinguishable Supp. 923, 933 (N.D.Cal.1996) ("Sega II").
from Sony because the Supreme Court determined in Sony that time-shifting represented the principal, rather 2. Plaintiffs present convincing evidence that Napster executives actually knew about and sought to protect
than an occasional use of VCRs. See Sony, 464 U.S. at 421, 104 S. Ct. 774. use of the service to transfer illegal MP3 files. For example, a document authored by co-founder Sean Parker
15. Defendant argues that, if space-shifting is deemed a fair use, the staple article of commerce doctrine mentions the need to remain ignorant of users' real names and IP addresses "since they are
precludes liability for contributory or vicarious infringement. Under Sony, the copyright holder cannot extend exchanging pirated music." 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 160:1-162:14, Exh. 254 at SF00100
his monopoly to products "capable of substantial noninfringing uses." Sony, 464 U.S. at 442, 104 S. Ct. 774. (emphasis added). The same document states that, in bargaining with the RIAA, defendant will benefit from
Defendant fails to show that space-shifting constitutes a commercially significant use of Napster. Indeed, the the fact that "we are not just making pirated music available but also pushing demand." Id. at 160:1-162:14,
most credible explanation for the exponential growth of traffic to the website is the vast array of free MP3 files Exh. 254 at SF00102 (emphasis added). These admissions suggest that facilitating the unauthorized
offered by other users not the ability of each individual to space-shift music she already owns. Thus, even if exchange of copyrighted music was a central part of Napster, Inc.'s business strategy from the inception.
space-shifting is a fair use, it is not substantial enough to preclude liability under the staple article of Plaintiff also demonstrate that defendant had actual notice of direct infringement because the RIAA informed it
commerce doctrine. See Cable/Home Communication Corp. v. Network Prods., Inc., 902 F.2d 829, 846 (11th of more than 12,000 infringing files. See Creighton 12/3/99 Dec., Exh. D. Although Napster, Inc. purportedly
Cir.1990) (affirming finding of contributory infringement where defendant primarily promoted pirate computer terminated the users offering these files, the songs are still available using the Napster service, as are the
chips and other devices capable of descrambling pay-TV broadcasts as infringement aids); A&M Records v. copyrighted works which the record company plaintiffs identified in Schedules A and B of their
General Audio Video Cassettes, Inc., 948 F. Supp. 1449, 1456 (C.D.Cal.1996) (rejecting Sony defense complaint. See Creighton Supp. Dec. ¶¶ 3-4.
because counterfeiting was chief purpose of time-loaded cassettes that defendant sold).[20] 3. The law does not require actual knowledge of specific acts of infringement. See Gershwin, 443 F.2d at 1163
16. This court also declines to apply the staple article of commerce doctrine because, as paragraphs (D) (6) (holding that general knowledge that third parties performed copyrighted works satisfied knowledge element of
and (E) (2) of the legal conclusions explain, Napster exercises ongoing control over its service. In Sony, the contributory infringement); Sega I, 857 F. Supp. at 686-87 (concluding that plaintiffs established knowledge
defendant's participation did not extend past manufacturing and selling the VCRs: "[t]he only contact between element, even though electronic bulletin board company did not know exactly when infringing video games
Sony and the users of the Betamax *917... occurred at the moment of sale." Sony, 464 U.S. at 438, 104 S. Ct. would be uploaded to or downloaded from bulletin board). Accordingly, the court rejects defendant's argument
774. Here, in contrast, Napster, Inc. maintains and supervises an integrated system that users must access to that titles in the Napster directory cannot be used to distinguish infringing from non-infringing files and thus
upload or download files. Courts have distinguished the protection Sony offers to the manufacture and sale of that defendant cannot know about infringement by any particular user of any particular musical recording or
a device from scenarios in which the defendant continues to exercise control over the device's composition. See Lisi Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 29 (offering expert opinion about difficulty of identifying copyrighted
use. See General Audio Video, 948 F. Supp. at 1456-57 (finding Sony doctrine inapplicable to seller of blank works by file name); Lars Ulrich Dep. at 36:16-37:2 (stating that in the past he did not object to individuals
tapes who "acted as a contact between his customers and suppliers of other material necessary for taping his band's concerts and making MP3 files of such concerts available via Napster); Sanders Dep. at
counterfeiting"); RCA Records v. All-Fast Sys., Inc., 594 F. Supp. 335, 339 (S.D.N.Y.1984) (holding that 24:23-29:13 (discussing complex process for determining chain of title for copyright owners).[22]
defendant in position to control cassette-copying machine could not invoke Sony); see also Columbia Pictures 4. Defendant's reliance on Religious Technology Center v. Netcom On-Line Communication Services,
Indus., Inc. v. Aveco, Inc., 800 F.2d 59, 62 & n. 3 (3d Cir.1986) (holding that business which rented rooms Inc., 907 F. Supp. 1361(N.D.Cal.1995), does not alter the court's conclusion that plaintiffs have a reasonable
where public viewed copyrighted video cassettes engaged in contributory infringement, even when it was not likelihood of proving contributory liability. The cited passage from Religious Technology Center states:
source of cassettes). Napster, Inc.'s facilitation of unauthorized file-sharing smacks of the contributory
infringement in these cases, rather than the legitimate conduct of the VCR manufacturers. Given defendant's Where a BBS [bulletin board service] operator cannot reasonably verify a *919 claim of infringement, either
control over the service, as opposed to mere manufacturing or selling, the existence of a potentially because of a possible fair use defense, the lack of copyright notices on the copies, or the copyright holder's
unobjectionable use like space-shifting does not defeat plaintiffs' claims. failure to provide the necessary documentation to show that there is likely infringement, the operator's lack of
17. Nor do other potential non-infringing uses of Napster preclude contributory or vicarious liability. Defendant knowledge will be found reasonable and there will be no liability for contributory infringement for allowing the
claims that it engages in the authorized promotion of independent artists, ninety-eight percent of whom are not continued distribution of the works on its system.
represented by the record company plaintiffs. See Def.'s Opp. at 10 (citing, inter alia, Krause Dec. ¶ 16), 27. Id. at 1374. This language is dicta because the plaintiffs in Religious Technology Center raised a genuine
However, the New Artist Program may not represent a substantial or commercially significant aspect of issue of material fact regarding knowledge. More importantly, Napster is not an Internet service provider that
Napster. The evidence suggests that defendant initially promoted the availability of songs by major stars, as acts as a mere conduit for the transfer of files. See A & M Records v. Napster, Inc., 2000 WL 573136, at *6, 8
opposed to "page after page of unknown artists." See 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 104:16- (N.D.Cal. May 12, 2000). Rather, it offers search and directory functions specifically designed to allow users to
105:10, Exh. 235. Its purported mission of distributing music by artists unable to obtain record-label locate music, the majority of which is copyrighted. See id. at *6. Thus, even if dicta from another federal district
representation appears to have been developed later. court were binding, Religious Technology Center would not mandate a determination that Napster, Inc. lacks
Other facts point to the conclusion that the New Artists Program was an afterthought, not a major aspect of the the knowledge requisite to contributory infringement.
Napster business plan. Former CEO Eileen Richardson claimed in her deposition that she told the press 5. At the very least, defendant had constructive knowledge of its users' illegal conduct. Some Napster
Napster is not about known artists like Madonna. But, tellingly, discovery related to downloads by Napster executives boast recording industry experience, see 1 Frackman Dec. (Ricardson Dep.), Exh. 129 at
executives reveals that Richardson's own computer contained about five Madonna files obtained using ER00138, and defendant does not dispute that it possessed enough sophistication about intellectual property
Napster. See 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 238:2-240:25. Defendant did not launch the laws to sue a rock band that copied its logo. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. M (online news article about court
website aspect of its New Artist Program until after plaintiffs filed suit, and as recently as July 2000, bona fide proceedings to halt The Offspring's use of Napster logo).[23]The evidence indicates that Napster executives
downloaded infringing material to their own computers using the service and promoted the website with

5
screen shots listing infringing files. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. D (Brooks Dep.) at 51:8-24, 54:25-56:11, Exh. entrepreneurial enterprise is not profiting is not a defense to the plaintiffs' copyright infringement
64 at 2-4, Exh. 126 at 002260, 002263; 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 20:5-22:10, 25:2-26:1; claims."); Broadcast Music, Inc. v. Hobi, Inc., 1993 WL 404152, at *3 (M.D.La.1993) (holding defendant
Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 70:14-16, Exh. 230, ¶ 3-5; Exh. B (Fanning Dep.), Exhs. 174-76. Such conduct vicariously liable because it operated with goal of making a profit, even though it did not actually make
satisfies the objective test for constructive knowledge defendant had reason to know about infringement by one), aff'd 20 F.3d 1171 (5th Cir.1994).
third parties. SeeCable/Home Communication Corp., 902 F.2d at 846.[24] Although Napster, Inc. currently generates no revenue, its internal documents state that it "will drive [sic]
6. Plaintiffs have also shown that defendant materially contributed to the infringing activity. In Fonovisa, the revenues directly from increases in userbase." 1 Frackman Dec. (Parker Dep.), Exh. 251.[25] The Napster
owners of copyrights for musical recordings stated a contributory infringement claim against the operators of a service attracts more and more users by offering an increasing amount of quality music for free. See, e.g, 1
swap meet at which independent vendors sold counterfeit recordings. See Fonovisa, 76 F.3d at 264. The Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 112:18-113:2. It hopes to "monetize" its user base through one
Ninth Circuit held the copyright owners' allegations were "sufficient to show material contribution" because "it of several generation revenue models noted in the factual findings.
would have been difficult for the infringing activity to take place in the massive quantities alleged without the This is similar to the type of direct financial interest the Ninth Circuit found sufficient for vicarious liability
support services provided by the swap meet." Id.According to plaintiffs in the instant action, "Napster is in Fonovisa,where the swap meet's revenues flowed directly from customers drawn by the availability of music
essentially an Internet swap meet more technologically sophisticated but in many *920 ways indistinguishable at bargain basement prices. See Fonovisa, 76 F.3d at 263-64; see also Famous Music Corp. v. Bay State
from the [defendant] in Fonovisa." Pl.'s Br. at 6. The court largely agrees with this characterization. Harness Horse Racing and Breeding Ass'n, 554 F.2d 1213, 1214 (1st Cir.1977) (holding racing association
Unlike the swap meet vendors, Napster users offer their infringing music for free. However, defendant's vicariously liable for infringing broadcast of music to entertain race-goers "when they were not absorbed in
material contribution is still analogous to that of the swap meet in Fonovisa. The swap meet provided support watching the races"); Playboy Enters., Inc. v. Webbworld, Inc., 968 F. Supp. 1171, 1177 (N.D.Tex.1997)
services like parking, booth space, advertising, and clientele. See Fonovisa, 76 F.3d at 264. Here, Napster, (holding defendant vicariously liable because "plaintiff's photographs enhanced the attractiveness of the
Inc. supplies the proprietary software, search engine, servers, and means of establishing a connection Neptics' website to potential customers"); Polygram Int'l Publ'g, Inc. v. Nevada/Tig, Inc., 855 F. Supp. 1314,
between users' computers. Without the support services defendant provides, Napster users could not find and 1332 (D.Mass.1994) (finding that music used to cultivate trade show attendees' interest provided direct
download the music they want with the ease of which defendant boasts. financial benefit to trade show).
Several contributory infringement cases involving online services are in accord with the court's conclusion that Napster, Inc.'s cursory discussion of the second element of vicarious liability does little to rebut this line of
defendant materially contributes to the infringing activity. For example in Sega II, an electronic bulletin board reasoning. Relying on Religious Technology Center, 907 F. Supp. at 1376-77, defendant maintains that it
service acted as a central depository for unauthorized copies of computer games and materially contributed to does not have a policy of ignoring infringement, and that even if it did, its non-infringing uses lure consumers
infringement because it provided software, hardware, and phone lines needed for uploading and downloading to its service. The latter contention, for which it provides no factual support, does not square with its prediction
copyrighted material. See Sega II,948 F. Supp. at 933. Similarly, in Religious Technology Center, a case that "the requested injunction would effectively put *922 Napster out of business." Def.'s Opp. Br. at 31. If
defendant ignores when convenient, a court in this district stated that an Internet access provider is not a mere many of defendant's commercially significant uses were non-infringing, an injunction limited to unlawful activity
landlord; rather, it exerts control akin to a radio station replaying infringing broadcasts. See Religious Tech. would not have such a dire impact. Defendant's representations about the primacy of its legitimate uses thus
Ctr., 907 F. Supp. at 1375 (holding that plaintiffs raised genuine issue of material fact as to service provider's appear disingenuous. The ability to download myriad popular music files without payment seems to constitute
substantial participation). the glittering object that attracts Napster's financially-valuable user base.
Defendant marshals two district court cases in an attempt to rebut plaintiffs' argument about material 4. Plaintiffs has shown a reasonable likelihood of success on their vicarious infringement claims.
contribution. SeeIntellectual Reserve, Inc. v. Utah Lighthouse Ministry, 75 F. Supp. 2d 1290, 1293 (D.Utah
1999) (holding that posting links to infringing websites did not contribute to infringement by those websites' F. Defendant's First Amendment Challenge
operators); Bernstein v. JC Penney, Inc., 50 U.S.P.Q.2d 1063, 1998 WL 906644 (C.D.Cal.1998) (paraphrasing 1. According to Napster, Inc., the requested injunction would impose a prior restraint on its free speech, as
defendant's apparently successful argument that "multiple linking does not constitute substantial participation well as that of its users and the unsigned artists that depend upon its service. This First Amendment argument
in any infringement where the linking website does not mention the fact that Internet users could, by following centers on the fact that defendant offers an electronic directory, which does not itself contain copyrighted
the links, find infringing material on another website"). The Bernstein court offered no reasoning for its material. Directories have been accorded First Amendment protection. See Princeton Community Phone
dismissal of the complaint. Neither case is factually apposite, for Napster provides its users with much more Book, Inc. v. Bate, 582 F.2d 706, 710-11 (3d Cir.) (holding that First Amendment affords as much protection to
than hyperlinking; Napster is an integrated service designed to enable users to locate and download MP3 listing in directory as it does to newspaper advertisement), cert. denied, 439 U.S. 966, 99 S. Ct. 454, 58 L. Ed.
music files. In keeping with its view that Napster, Inc. plays a more active role in facilitating file-sharing than an 2d 424 (1978).
Internet service provider acting as a passive conduit, this court finds it probable that defendant materially 2. Although an overbroad injunction might implicate the First Amendment, free speech concerns "are
contributed to unlawful conduct. protected by and coextensive with the fair use doctrine." Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. v. Comline Bus. Data,
7. Because they have made a convincing showing with regard to both the knowledge and material contribution Inc., 166 F.3d 65, 74 (2d Cir. 1999); Religious Tech. Ctr., 907 F. Supp. at 1377 (stating that, where otherwise
elements, plaintiffs have established a reasonable likelihood of success on their contributory infringement appropriate, imposing liability for copyright infringement does not necessarily create First Amendment
claims. concerns because the fair use defense encompasses this issue). This court has already determined that
plaintiffs do not seek to enjoin any fair uses of the Napster service that are not completely contrived or
E. Vicarious Copyright Infringement peripheral to its existence.
1. Even in the absence of an employment relationship, a defendant incurs liability for vicarious copyright 3. The parties dispute the extent to which infringing and non-infringing aspects of the service are separable.
infringement if he "has the right and ability to supervise the infringing activity and also has a direct financial Napster, Inc.'s interim CEO Hank Barry and Vice President of Engineering Edward Kessler both opine that the
interest in such activities." Fonovisa, 76 F.3d at 262 (quoting Gershwin, 443 F.2d at 1162). requested injunction would have the practical effect of compelling defendant to exclude all songs from its
2. In Fonovisa, the swap meet operator satisfied the first element of vicarious liability because it had the right system, including those which plaintiffs do not own. See Barry Dec. ¶ 13; Kessler Dec. ¶ 39. In this view, the
to terminate vendors at will; it also controlled customers' access and promoted its services. See id. Although injunction would destroy the Napster service, or if the service did not shut down completely, forcibly supplant
Napster, Inc. argues that it is technologically difficult, and perhaps infeasible, to distinguish legal and illegal peer-to-peer file-sharing with a model under which defendant dictated the content. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 39.
conduct, plaintiffs have shown that defendant supervises Napster use. Indeed, Napster, Inc. itself takes pains Barry avers that, as a result of the injunction, Napster would lose its competitive edge vis-a-vis similar
to inform the court of its improved methods of blocking users about whom rights holders complain. See Def.'s services. See Barry Dec. ¶ 13.
Opp. Br. at 19 *921 (citing Kessler Dec. ¶ 22), 33 (citing Kessler Dec. ¶¶ 23-24). This is tantamount to an In contrast, plaintiffs contend that Napster's New Artist Program, message boards, chat rooms, and file-
admission that defendant can, and sometimes does, police its service. See Religious Tech. Ctr., 907 F. Supp. sharing applications for business and scientific research would remain viable if the court granted the
at 1376 (concluding that evidence that Internet access provider acted to suspend subscribers' accounts and requested relief. See Pl.'s Reply at 19; Daniel Farmer Dec. ¶¶ 3-4. Plaintiffs expert Daniel Farmer suggests
could delete specific postings raised genuine issue of material fact about vicarious liability). several potentially viable methods of limiting the Napster service to music files authorized for sharing. First,
Moreover, a defendant need not exercise its supervisory powers to be deemed capable of doing defendant could compile a database of authorized music and then write a software program to read the files
so. See Gershwin, 443 F.2d at 1161-63. The court therefore finds that Napster, Inc. has the right and ability to on users' hard drives when they logon to the Napster service. The program would compare those file names
supervise its users' infringing conduct. with the authorized list, and only those files that matched could be uploaded onto Napster. See Farmer Dec. ¶
3. Plaintiffs have shown a reasonable likelihood that Napster, Inc. has a direct financial interest in the 3. Alternatively, defendant could write a software program that prevented users from successfully searching
infringing activity. Citing several non-governing cases from other districts, they contend that direct financial for file names excluded from the authorized list. See id.
benefit does not require earned revenue, so long as the defendant has economic incentives for tolerating In the event that Napster, Inc. cannot separate the infringing and non-infringing aspects of its service, its First
unlawful behavior. For instance, in Major Bob Music v. Stubbs, 851 F. Supp. 475 (S.D.Ga. 1994), a bar Amendment argument still fails. Courts will not sustain a First Amendment challenge where *923 the
derived direct financial benefit from infringing musical performances on its premises. The court noted that "an defendant entraps itself in an "all-or-nothing predicament." Dr. Seuss Enters., L.P. v. Penguin Books USA,
enterprise is considered to be `profit-making' even if it never actually yields a profit." Id. at 480; see Inc., 109 F.3d 1394, 1406 (9th Cir.) (enjoining entire book that included parody in style of Dr. Seuss poem
also Walden Music, Inc. v. C.H.W., Inc., 1996 WL 254654, at *5 (D.Kan.1996) ("The fact that defendant' because defendant proceeded with book production after onset of litigation), cert. dismissed, 521 U.S. 1146,

6
118 S. Ct. 27, 138 L. Ed. 2d 1057 (1997). Even if it is technologically impossible for Napster, Inc. to offer such impossible to identify all of the copyrighted music they own, plaintiffs have made at least a minimal effort to
functions as its directory without facilitating infringement, the court still must take action to protect plaintiffs' describe the works in suit.
copyrights. See, e.g., Orth-O-Vision, Inc. v. Home Box Office, 474 F. Supp. 672, 686 n. 14 (S.D.N.Y.1979). 3. Furthermore, in Walt Disney Co. v. Powell, 897 F.2d 565, 568 (D.C.Cir.1990), the D.C. Circuit allowed a
permanent injunction covering works owned by the plaintiff but not in suit. The Walt Disney court found such a
G. Misuse of Copyright Defense broad injunction appropriate where "liability has been determined adversely to the infringer, there has been a
1. Defendant essentially raises an antitrust argument as an equitable defense against the preliminary history of continuing infringement and a significant threat of future infringement remains." Id. Here, the
injunction motion. Under the rubric of misuse of copyright, Napster, Inc. argues that plaintiffs seek to evidence establishes that unauthorized sharing of plaintiffs' copyrighted music occurred on a massive scale in
aggrandize their monopoly beyond the scope of their copyrights by (1) restricting the flow of unsigned artists' the past; Napster continues to be used to download and upload files illegally despite defendant's purportedly
music, which competes with their own, and (2) controlling the distribution of music over the Internet. Alleged enhanced ability to terminate infringers; and the court anticipates a hemorrhage of plaintiffs' copyrighted
antitrust violations by a copyright plaintiff generally do not afford a valid defense against an infringement action material as users rush to obtain free music before trial. The courts therefore finds it necessary to issue an
and ought not to dissuade a court from granting injunctive relief. See4 Nimmer on Copyright § 13.09[A], at 13- injunction covering both plaintiffs' copyrighted works in suit and those not yet named.
286 (citing, inter alia, Orth-O-Vision, 474 F.Supp. at 680).
2. Furthermore, most of the cases defendant cites deal with improper attempts to enlarge a copyright J. Irreparable Harm
monopoly through restricted or exclusive licensing. See, e.g., Practice Management Info. Corp. v. American 1. Because plaintiffs have shown a reasonable likelihood of success on the merits of their contributory and
Med. Ass'n, 121 F.3d 516, 521 (9th Cir.) (1997), as amended 133 F.3d 1140 (9th Cir.1998) (finding licensing vicarious copyright infringement claims, they are entitled to a presumption of irreparable harm. See Micro
agreement precluding use of competitor's products to be misuse), and cert. denied 522 U.S. 933, 118 S. Ct. Star, 154 F.3d at 1109.
339, 139 L. Ed. 2d 263 (1997); see also, e.g., Alcatel USA, Inc. v. DGI Tech., Inc., 166 F.3d 772, 792-95 2. The court rejects defendant's contention that it has rebutted this presumption by demonstrating that any
(overturning district court's rejection of misuse defense based on licensing agreement allowing plaintiff to gain harm is de minimis. The declarations of record company executives, combined with the Teece Report,
control over uncopyrighted products), reh'g and reh'g en banc denied, 180 F.3d 267 (5th Cir. establish that plaintiffs have invested in the digital downloading market and that their business plans are
1999); Lasercomb Am., Inc. v. Reynolds, 911 F.2d 970, 978-79 (4th Cir.1990) (concluding that exclusive threatened by a service that offers the same product for free. See Conroy Dec. ¶¶ 9-18; Cottrell Dec. ¶¶ 6-17;
licensing clause inhibiting licensees from developing own products constituted misuse). Plaintiffs have granted Eisenberg Dec. ¶¶ 9-22; Teece Rep. at 14-18; Vidich Dec. ¶¶ 7-10. Moreover, while the court recognizes the
no licenses to defendant, let alone impermissibly restrictive ones. See Conroy Dec. ¶ 4; Cottrell Dec. ¶ 5; limitations of a survey that only targets college students, the Jay Report suggests the tendency of Napster use
Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 21; Kenswil Dec. ¶ 15; Vidich Dec. ¶ 8; Stoller Dec. ¶ 11. to suppress CD purchases, especially among heavy users. See Jay Rep. at 4, 18.
3. Accordingly, this court rejects the misuse of copyright defense.
K. Balance of the Hardships
H. Waiver 1. The court cannot give much weight to defendant's lament that *926 the requested relief will put it out of
1. Napster, Inc. also avers that plaintiffs waived their entitlement to copyright protection because (a) they business. SeeSun Microsystems, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp., 188 F.3d 1115, 1119 (9th Cir.1999). Although even a
hastened the proliferation of MP3 files on the Internet, and (b) they plan to enter the market for digital narrow injunction may so fully eviscerate Napster, Inc. as to destroy its user base[30] or make its service
downloading themselves. These arguments are unavailing. technologically infeasible, the business interests of an infringer do not trump a rights holder's entitlement to
Defendant has submitted deposition excerpts related to the record company plaintiffs' business dealings with copyright protection. Nor does defendant's supposed inability to separate infringing and non-infringing
Internet and software companies that provide ripping software, custom CDs,[26] and players capable of playing elements of its service constitute a valid reason for denying plaintiffs relief or for issuing a stay. See Dr.
unencrypted MP3 files.[27]See, e.g., 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. A (Conroy Dep.) at 51:8-52:16, Exh. B (Cottrell Seuss, 109 F.3d at 1406.
Dep.) at 141:10-142:142. None of plaintiffs' online partners is a party to this action. But at least one plaintiff Any destruction of Napster, Inc. by a preliminary injunction is speculative compared to the statistical evidence
Sony sells a device capable of playing downloaded MP3 files, regardless of whether the distribution of such of massive, unauthorized downloading and uploading of plaintiffs' copyrighted works as many as 10,000 files
files is authorized. *924 See id., Exh. E (Eisenberg Dep.) at 44:5-48:10, Exh. 220. per second, by defendant's own admission. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 29. The court has every reason to believe
This limited evidence fails to convince the court that the record companies created the monster that is now that, without a preliminary injunction, these numbers will mushroom as Napster users, and newcomers
devouring their intellectual property rights.[28] Although plaintiffs have not sued their business partners for attracted by the publicity, scramble to obtain as much free music as possible before trial.
contributory infringement, they typically have asked them to discourage unauthorized ripping and have made 2. Napster, Inc. contends that its service poses no harm to plaintiffs because future SDMI specifications will
security part of their agreements. See, e.g., Exh. A (Conroy Dep.) at 17:13-23, 18:22-19:6, 38:3-22, 51:8-14; protect their music releases in both CD and downloadable formats.[31] Defendant purportedly intends to
Exh. B (Cottrell Dep.) at 135:24-136:7. Defendant fails to show that, in hastening the proliferation of MP3 files, support SDMI-compliant formats when they become available. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 37. However, this
plaintiffs did more than seek partners for their commercial downloading ventures and develop music players argument *927 suffers from two fatal flaws. First, assuming SDMI protections work, they will only affect
for files they planned to sell over the Internet.[29] Nor did plaintiffs invite wholesale infringement when they plaintiffs' new releases; neither the copyrighted material in Schedules A and B of the complaint nor any other
distributed a small number of free MP3 files for promotional purposes, especially since many of these files existing music that plaintiffs own will be covered. See 1 Pulgram Dec. (Vidich Dep.) at 54:6-55:4, 59:8-62:10.
automatically "timed-out." See Conroy Dec. ¶ 9-17; Cottrell Dec. ¶ 15; Eisenberg Dec. ¶ 13; Kenswil Dec. ¶ Second, because the SDMI specifications have not yet taken effect, they cannot shield plaintiffs from
12; Vidich Dec. ¶¶ 7(d), 8. irreparable harm at this moment the moment in which the preliminary injunction is sought. See id. at 59:8-
To support its waiver argument, defendant primarily cites inapposite cases involving implied licenses. See, 62:10. A rights-friendly regime scheduled for implementation, at the earliest, by the end of 2000 does nothing
e.g., Effects Assocs., Inc. v. Cohen, 908 F.2d 555, 559 (9th Cir.1990) (finding implied license where plaintiff to staunch the illegal flow of plaintiffs' copyrighted material over the Internet in the summer and autumn of this
created work at defendant's request and gave work to defendant with intent that defendant copy and distribute year.
it), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1103, 111 S. Ct. 1003, 112 L. Ed. 2d 1086 (1991). The evidence here does not 3. Thus, even if the court were required to balance the hardships, which it is not because plaintiffs have raised
reveal the existence of *925 an implied license; indeed, the RIAA gave defendant express notice that it serious questions and shown a strong likelihood of success on the merits, plaintiffs would prevail in their
objected to the availability of its members' copyrighted music on Napster. See Creighton 12/3/99 Dec., Exh. D. motion for a preliminary injunction.

I. Failure to Present Evidence of Copyright Registration III. CONCLUSION


1. Defendant argues that, to claim infringement of multiple works, plaintiffs must specify the works with For the foregoing reasons, the court GRANTS plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction against Napster,
particularity and provide proof of copyright registration. The cited statutory subsection, 17 U.S.C. section Inc. Defendant is hereby preliminarily ENJOINED from engaging in, or facilitating others in copying,
411(a), provides with certain exceptions: "[N]o action for infringement of the copyright in any work shall be downloading, uploading, transmitting, or distributing plaintiffs' copyrighted musical compositions and sound
instituted until registration of the copyright claim has been made in accordance with this title." 17 U.S.C. § recordings, protected by either federal or state law, without express permission of the rights owner. This
411(a); see also Kodadek v. MTV Networks, Inc., 152 F.3d 1209, 1211 (9th Cir.1998). A copyright injunction applies to all such works that plaintiffs own; it is not limited to those listed in Schedules A and B of
infringement claim consists of two elements: (a) ownership of a valid copyright, and (b) copying of original the complaint.
elements of the copyrighted work. See Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Serv. Co., 499 U.S. 340, Plaintiffs have shown persuasively that they own the copyrights to more than seventy percent of the music
361, 111 S. Ct. 1282, 113 L. Ed. 2d 358 (1991). available on the Napster system. See Hausman Dec. ¶ 8. Because defendant has contributed to illegal
2. Napster, Inc. exaggerates the import of a non-governing case, Cole v. Allen, 3 F.R.D. 236, 237 copying on a scale that is without precedent, it bears the burden of developing a means to comply with the
(S.D.N.Y.1942). In Cole, the defendant allegedly copied episodes from six books. Cole failed to plead her injunction. Defendant must insure that no work owned by plaintiffs which neither defendant nor Napster users
infringement claim with sufficient particularity because she merely listed the books' titles without specifying have permission to use or distribute is uploaded or downloaded on Napster. The court ORDERS plaintiffs to
which portions were copied. Here, plaintiffs have attached two schedules listing works allegedly infringed in cooperate with defendant in identifying the works to which they own copyrights. To this end, plaintiffs must file
their entirety. Schedule A includes proof of registration; Schedule B (works recorded before 1972) does not a written plan no later than September, 5, 2000, describing the most expedient method by which their rights
because this material is governed by state law. Thus, despite their claim that it would be burdensome or even

7
can be ascertained. The court also ORDERS plaintiffs to post a bond for the sum of $ 5,000,000.00 to [10] Defendant also provides an audio player capable of playing MP3 files on a user's hard drive, regardless of
compensate defendant for its losses in the event that this injunction is reversed or vacated.[32] how those files were obtained. See Edward Kessler Reply Dec. in Support of Def.'s Mot. for Summ. Adjud. ¶
IT IS SO ORDERED. 29. Neither party has briefed the function of the audio player in support of its position on the necessity of a
NOTES preliminary injunction. However, the player has little or no connection to the alleged copying that occurs when
[1] Hereafter, the court will use the term "music" to encompass both musical compositions and sound Napster users upload or download music and, hence, is not relevant to the requested relief. See id. While a
recordings, unless otherwise specifically noted. consumer might rip CDs and then play the resultant MP3 files on the Napster player, the court rejects any
[2] For the sake of clarity, the court will refer to the defendant Internet company as "Napster, Inc." The term suggestion that this activity constitutes a substantial, non-infringing use of Napster for the same reasons it
"Napster" will be used to denote Napster, Inc.'s integrated service, including but not limited to its software, dismisses defendant' argument about space-shifting from home to office. The court also notes that, because
servers, search functions, and indexing functions. Where "Napster" appears as an adjective, the aspect of the the audio player can only play music files which a user already possesses, it cannot be used for sampling.
service to which the adjective refers should be clear from the context. The term "Napster user" refers to any [11] BMG's labels include plaintiffs Arista Records, LaFace Records, and RCA Records. See Conroy Dec. ¶ 1.
individual who uses Napster software to download and/or upload files. BMG Music is also a plaintiff in this action.
[3] Although the parties sporadically include Eileen Richardson as a defendant in the caption, the court notes [12] If such music is not protected technologically, an individual consumer may become a worldwide distributor
that she was dismissed from this action pursuant to the May 24, 2000 stipulation of dismissal. of copyrighted material after obtaining a single, promotional copy in digital format. See Teece Rep. at 13.
[4] In this Memorandum and Order, the court will cite to and quote from any declaration, deposition, or other [13] Fine's study tracked retail music sales trends in three types of stores in the United States: (1) all stores
material filed under protective order if the parties relied upon it, or it is necessary to explain the court's findings located within one mile of any college or university on a list acquired from Quality Education Data; (2) all
and conclusions. Documents unsealed on this ground include: Russell Frackman Declaration (vols. 1 & 2), stores located within one mile of any college or university on a list of colleges and universities that have
Kevin Conroy Declaration, Richard Cottrell Declaration, Mark Eisenberg Declaration, Lawrence Kenswil banned Napster use; (3) all stores within one mile of any college or university listed among the "Top 40 Most
Declaration, Paul Vidich Declaration, David J. Teece Declaration, Edward Kessler Declaration, Laurence F. Wired Colleges in 1999," according to Yahoo Internet Life. Researchers working on the Fine Report used
Pulgram Declaration (vols. 1 & 2), Daniel Farmer Declaration, Russell Frackman Reply Declaration, Julia Soundscan Point of Sale data to compare music sales totals from the latter two categories with (1) national
Greer Reply Declaration, and David Lambert Reply Declaration. This list includes any, or all, supporting totals and (2) sales from the first category, "All College Stores." The report tracked retail sales in the first
exhibits that may contain internal company plans, deposition transcripts, or other material upon which the quarter ("Q1") of 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000. See Fine Rep. at 2-4.
court has relied. Any other document formerly covered by protective order but cited in this Memorandum and [14] Fine's conclusions were not limited to Napster, but rather assessed the effects of online music file-sharing
Order is also deemed to be unsealed. in general. See id. While national sales grew "significantly and consistently" in the quarters Fine studied, sales
[5] Defendant objects to this exhibit to former CEO Eileen Richardson's deposition on the grounds that it is at stores near colleges or universities declined, with sales in the "Top 40 Most Wired Colleges" and "Napster-
neither properly authenticated nor "relevant to Napster work today." Def's Objections to Pl.'s Evidence at 10. banned" subsets showing an even sharper decline than those in the "All College Stores" category. See id.
The court does not intend to rule directly on each of defendant's myriad objections, many of which are The court has noted the limitations of the Jay and Fine Reports in its separate order regarding the admissibility
unfounded; however, it notes that Richardson testified that she reviewed this document and that it dated from of expert opinions. Despite flaws in each report, the court relies on Jay's insights into the music purchasing
October 1999. She confirmed much of its content under oath, and defendant's counsel failed to object to the and downloading habits of college students, as opposed to all Napster users, and considers the Fine Report
document during the deposition on relevancy, foundational, or authentication grounds. Defendant's early relevant to corroborate Jay's findings.
business plans are relevant to this action because they reveal facts about the early operation of the Napster [15] The court's memorandum and order regarding the admissibility of expert reports includes a detailed
service, as well as the knowledge and goals of Napster, Inc. executives. Accordingly, Exhibit 127 to the discussion of flaws in the Fader Report. Among the shortcomings the court noted are Fader's heavy reliance
Richardson Deposition is admissible. on journalistic articles and studies that he did not conduct, the fact the centerpiece of his report is a survey
[6] Plaintiffs' expert Dr. Ingram Olkin, a professor of statistics at Stanford University, divided his study into two that he only distantly supervised, and the lack of tables offering statistical breakdowns of survey respondents
projects. In the User Project, a sample list of users and file names was taken every hour for four days. and their answers.
Researchers culled a random sub-sample of 1,150 users from 28,000 sampled and determined that all 1,150 [16] The availability of free MP3 music files elsewhere in cyberspace means that enjoining Napster fails to
users offered to share at least two copyrighted songs. See id. at 4-5, 7. The Download Project performed provide a complete panacea for plaintiffs' problems. However, arguing that third-parties also facilitate unlawful
downloads at eight separate times for a five-minute period and generated a list of 1,150 songs from a activity does not constitute valid defense to claims of contributory and vicarious copyright infringement.
population of approximately 574, 185 files. See id. at 6. Olkin found that plaintiffs or other copyright holders [17] Defendant cites Cadence Design Systems, Inc. v. Avant! Corp., 125 F.3d 824, 829 (9th Cir.1997), cert.
own or administer the rights to 1,002 (or 87.1 percent) of the 1,150 files. Thirty-seven (or 3.2 percent) of the denied, 523 U.S. 1118, 118 S. Ct. 1795, 140 L. Ed. 2d 936 (1998), for the proposition that showing a plaintiff
files are likely to copyrighted and distributed without authorization. Dr. Olkin identified only three files (or .26 has suffered no injury, or de minimisinjury, rebuts the presumption of irreparable harm. Such language
percent) which were clearly offered without objection from the rights holder, while 108 (or 9.4 percent) of the in Cadence constitutes pure dicta. Moreover, the passage from Nimmer on Copyright to which
files did not present enough data to yield a conclusion. See id. at 7. Charles J. Hausman, anti-piracy counsel the Cadence court refers deals with defeating an allegation of substantial similarity by demonstrating that the
for the RIAA, determined that 834 out of 1,150 files in Olkin's download database belonged to or were amount of copying was de minimis. Defendant does not suggest that downloading entire copyrighted songs
administered by plaintiffs and were exchanged on Napster without permission. See Charles J. Hausman Dec. is de minimis copying, but rather that obtaining music using Napster does not displace CD sales. See Def's
¶ 8. Opp. at 29.
[7] Defendant's objection to Exhibit 254 of the Parker Deposition exemplifies a strategy, in which both parties [18] Defendant cites the Office of Technology Assessment ("OTA") report on home taping to bolster its
have engaged, of indiscriminately challenging unfavorable evidence. This approach is both fruitless and misguided argument about the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992. See infra note 19. Plaintiffs note that the
burdensome for the court. Defendant characterizes Exhibit 254 as irrelevant to how the company "actually OTA Report expressly contemplates use by "a household and its normal circle of friends, rather than the
operates;" yet the early business strategies of Napster, Inc. are plainly relevant to such issues as defendant's public." Pl.'s Reply at 4 (citing U.S. Cong., OTA, Copyright and Home Copying: Technology Challenges the
knowledge of the infringing activity and its intended effect on the market. Law). Although this definition of home use does not control, it nevertheless suggests flaws in defendant's
While defendant raises many meritless objections, it also correctly notes that plaintiffs failed to authenticate position.
some of the documents upon which they rely. For example, plaintiffs did not get Shawn Fanning to [19] Defendant's opposition brief opens with a perplexing argument. It cites Recording Industry Association of
authenticate Exhibits 186 and 188 to his deposition. They have paid a price for this oversight. The court America v. Diamond Multimedia Systems, Inc., 180 F.3d 1072, 1079 (9th Cir.1999), for the proposition that the
cannot rely on documents that would otherwise be "smoking guns" indicating that Napster, Inc. sought to Audio Home Recording Act of 1992, 17 U.S.C. §§ 1001-1010 ("AHRA"), immunizes the non-commercial use of
"bypass the record industry entirely," make record stores obsolete, and "bring[] about the death of the CD." 1 Napster to space-shift music. The AHRA is irrelevant to the instant action. Neither the record company nor
Frackman Dec. (Fanning Dep.), Exh. 186 at 00017; Exh. 188. music publisher plaintiffs have brought claims under the AHRA; moreover, the Ninth Circuit did not hold
[8] Sean Parker appears to have mistakenly identified this document, numbered NAP003687 an October 28, in Diamond Multimedia that the AHRA covers the downloading of MP3 files.
1999 email from Stephanie Norton to other Napster employees, including Parker as Exhibit A to his Diamond Multimedia involved a suit under the AHRA by the Recording Industry Association of America
declaration. In fact, it is Exhibit B. Although the email indicates that defendant planned to solicit interest among ("RIAA") to enjoin the manufacture and distribution of the Rio portable music player a hand-held device that
unsigned artists, it contains a cryptic statement regarding the creation of indexes listing available MP3s: "For can receive, store, and re-play MP3 files. See Diamond Multimedia, 180 F.3d at 1074. The Ninth Circuit held
now, we should do this for UNSIGNED artists only so the RIAA thinks we are not infringing on copyright." that the Rio player is not a digital audio recording device subject to the AHRA's restrictions. See id. at 1081.
Parker Dec., Exh. B (second emphasis added). As is often the case with defendant's internal documents, Nor are computers and their hard drives digital audio recording devices. See id. at 1078. The Diamond
whether defendant viewed the promotion of new artists as a genuine goal or a smokescreen remains Multimedia court did opine that making copies with the Rio to space-shift, or make portable, files already on a
ambiguous. user's hard drive constitutes "paradigmatic noncommercial personal use entirely consistent with the purposes
[9] See infra at section (C) (12) of the Findings of Fact for a description of the two aspects of defendant's New of the Act [i.e. the facilitation of personal use]." Id. at 1079. However, this dicta is of limited relevance.
Artist Program a website version and a software-based version. Because plaintiffs have not made AHRA claims, the purposes and legislative history of the AHRA do not
govern the appropriateness of a preliminary injunction against Napster, Inc. Furthermore, as explained below,

8
the court is not persuaded that space-shifting constitutes a substantial, non-infringing use of the Napster transmission. See id. at 45:5-46:7. That such a system eventually might encompass some version of Napster
service. The Ninth Circuit did not discuss the fair use doctrine in Diamond Multimedia. does not demonstrate a waiver of plaintiffs' copyrights.
This court denies defendant's request for judicial notice of the legislative history of the AHRA, filings According to another internal Universal plan, the "[g]oal is not just to equal Napster et al, but to surpass
in Diamond Multimedia, and certain other materials deemed irrelevant or inappropriate for judicial notice. them." Id., Exh. 258 at U0840. Defendant argues that Universal intended to commandeer Napster for its own
[20] Relying on Vault Corp. v. Quaid Software, Ltd., 847 F.2d 255 (5th Cir.1988), defendant argues that benefit. Yet the strategic plan repeatedly employs the word "secure" emphasizing its "secure ... core
even one substantial non-infringing use precludes contributory liability. RAMKEY, one feature of Quaid's technology" and referring to the "perceived attractiveness of secure content by users" as a barometer of
computer diskette, had an unobjectionable use because consumers could use it to make archival copies of success. Id. (emphasis added). Nowhere does this document state or imply that Universal planned to promote
Vault's anti-piracy software if Vault's program were inadvertently destroyed. Based on this one use, the Fifth unrestricted downloading of its music for free.
Circuit held that there was no contributory copyright infringement, even though third parties did engage in [30] Because the Napster service appears to enjoy a cult following, the court doubts that a preliminary
direct infringement. See id. at 262. Other jurisdictions have disagreed with the Vault approach where the injunction would destroy defendant's user base. If users switch to other services like Gnutella while Napster is
product's primary purpose is unlawful. See Cable/Home Communication Corp.902 F.2d at 846; General Audio temporarily enjoined, there is a reasonable likelihood that they will switch back, especially considering
Video, 948 F. Supp. at 1456. A Fifth Circuit opinion does not bind this court. Moreover, even the Fifth Circuit defendant's claim to offer more music and more efficient search tools than its competitors.
declined to consider the legitimate functions of Copywrite, another feature of Quaid's product, because [31] The Secure Digital Music Initiative, "SDMI," is a forum that brings together interested parties to develop
"without RAMKEY, Copywrite would have no commercial value." Vault, 847 F.2d at 264 n. 16. The Napster technology specifications for protecting the distribution of digital media. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 36. Some time in
service arguably has little commercial value without the availability of copyrighted popular music. the future, but no earlier than the end of the year 2000, SDMI will select certain specifications for content
[21] For example, defendant notes that its technology might be used for collaborative working relationships in media, such as CDs and digital file formats. See 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. N (Vidich Dep.) at 59:8-62:10. The first
business, education, and research. See Def's Opp. at 9 n. 10. phase of SDMI covered portable physical devices, but still allowed these devices to play unencrypted
[22] MP3 files do not bear a copyright notice or watermark. See Lisi Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 37-47. More than files. See 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. F (Kenswil Dep.) at 54:8-54:19.
one artist may use a song title; and multiple recordings of the same work may carry different Generally speaking, the next phase of SDMI will concern two forms of digital rights management technology:
authorizations. See id. at 29. encryption and watermarking. See Kessler Dec. ¶¶ 35, 36; 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. N (Vidich Dep.) at 59:8-
[23] Defendant objects to Exhibit M to the Frackman Declaration because press articles constitute hearsay 62:10. Encryption codes files in a way that requires "keys," such as the consumer's hardware serial numbers,
and statements reported within them are double hearsay. See Def.'s Objections to Pl.'s Evidence at 12. to access the files' content. See Kessler Dec. ¶ 36; 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. N (Vidich Dep.) at 53:10-56:8.
However, defendant does not appear to dispute the truth of the matter asserted that Napster, Inc. sued The Encryption technology has limitations, however. For example, encrypted CDs will not function in existing CD
Offspring for violating its intellectual property rights. Indeed, defendant's second ground for objecting indicates players because the players will not be able to read them. See 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. N (Vidich Dep.) at 52:21-
that it admits such a lawsuit was filed. See id. If the exhibit should be excluded because the suit involved 53:2. Thus, consumers will have to purchase new CD players to listen to encrypted CD music. See id. at
trademark, rather than copyright, defendant effectively concedes that it brought a trademark action. 53:22-54:4. Also, encryption technology will provide only prospective protection because it will not affect
[24] This finding also puts an end to defendant's persistent attempts to invoke the protection of the Digital existing discs. See id. 54:6-55:4.
Millennium Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. § 512. In its opposition brief, Napster, Inc. attempts to persuade the court Watermarking imbeds "bits" or inaudible marks on content media; future SDMI-compliant devices or software
that subsection 512(d) provides an applicable safe harbor. However, this subsection expressly excludes from players will be able to read the presence or absence of those bits and control copying
protection any defendant who has "[a]ctual knowledge that the material or activity is infringing," § 512(d) (1) accordingly. See Pulgram Dec., Exh. N (Vidich Dep.) at 57:2-9; 59:8-62:10. One form of copy control will allow
(A), or "is aware of facts or circumstances from which infringing activity is apparent." § 512(d) (1) (B). consumers to copy CDs onto their SDMI-compliant devices, but will prevent further copying or transmission
Defendant has failed to persuade this court that subsection 512(d) shelters contributory infringers. over the Internet. See id. at 60:14-25; 61:11-62:10; Exh. 227 at TW 0556742. Some time in the future, but not
[25] Although defendant appears to object to Exhibit 251 to the Parker Deposition, it does not assert any before year's end, several record company plaintiffs intend to implement watermarking technology that
grounds for doing so. See Def.'s Objections to Pl.'s Evidence at 11. The court declines to speculate about complies with SDMI specifications. See, e.g., Pulgram Dec., Exh. N (Vidich Dep.) at 59:8-62:10); Exh. B
defendant's reasons for objecting. Exhibit 251 is deemed admissible due to defendant's failure to make a (Cottrell Dep.) at 99:24-101:4(EMI). However, watermarking technology also has limitations. For instance, the
proper objection. first phase of SDMI-compliant devices and popular digital music software like the Real Jukebox can play
[26] Custom CDs can be created using a CD burner, a device that allows consumers to convert MP3 files from formats that do not contain watermarking. See Pulgram Dec., Exh. N (Vidich Dep. at 59:8-60:25), Exh. F
a computer hard drive to CD format. See, e.g., 1 Pulgram Dec., Exh. A (Conroy Dep.) at 14:10-17. (Kenswil Dep.) at 54:8-56:19. Finally, like encryption, watermarking only offers prospective copy protection; it
[27] Player software enables consumers to play MP3 files. Such software is available on the Internet, possibly will not affect existing media because (a) such media cannot be "queried" to determine if the copy is
free of charge, and may be part of the bundled software sold by PC manufacturers. See, e.g., 1 Pulgram Dec., legitimate, and (b) only future SDMI-compliant players will be able to make that query. See 1 Pulgram Dec.,
Exh. A (Conroy Dep.) at 14:21-17:12. Exh. N (Vidich Dep.) at 59:8-62:10.
[28] For example, such plaintiffs as BMG and Sony have entered into agreements with Listen.com, a site that [32] On July 26, 2000, the court ordered defendant to comply with the preliminary injunction by midnight on
provides links to CD-ripping applications. See Exh. A (Conroy Dep.) at 49:22-51:20, Exh. 295; Exh. E July 28, 2000; however, on July 28, a Ninth Circuit panel stayed the injunction. That same day, plaintiffs
(Eisenberg Dep.) at 135:2-24. However, BMG representative Kevin Conroy stated in his deposition that BMG posted their bond.
encourages its online partners "to provide only for authorized ripping" and that BMG has agreements with
such sites "to legitimately and securely market, promote, and sell [BMG] artists' music." Id. at 43:20-24, 51:8-
14.
In the case of Musicmaker.com, in which EMI owns an equity stake, consumers can purchase single tracks
and have them burned into a custom CD. See id., Exh. B (Cottrell Dep.) at 141:10-142:17. It is not clear that
Musicmaker.com promotes the use of pirated music. Similarly, Universal has entered agreements related to
commercial downloading with Real Jukebox, which the first phase of the Secure Digital Music Initiative
("SDMI") did not cover. See id., Exh. F (Kenswil Dep.) at 54:8-56:25; see also infra note 31 (discussing SDMI
`specifications). Under its agreement with Universal, Real-Jukebox will become SDMI-compliant, but still will
be able to play unencrypted files to the extent the SDMI specifications allow. Defendant provides no
conclusive evidence that Universal has encouraged the use of Real Jukebox to play copyrighted music for
which no authorization has been obtained.
Finally, Sony VAIO Music Clip appears to be a Sony product that facilitates the downloading, arrangement,
storage, and playback of MP3, ATRAC3, or WAV files. However, while the VAIO Music Clip may not be able to
screen out unauthorized files, one advertisement promotes the "secure music download capability of the
software" and indicates that consumers should "purchase the wave of titles for major artists and record labels
that are soon to come" on music websites. See id.,Exh. E (Eisenberg Dep.) at 44:5-48:10, Exh. 220 (emphasis
added).
[29] An internal Universal document that mentions "superdistribution" constitutes the most compelling
evidence of defendant's position. See id., Exh. F (Kenswil Dep), Exh. 257 at U0866. "Superdistribution" means
viral distribution through a chain of consumers and their friends. See id. at 45:1-4, 19-25. However, in his
deposition, Lawrence Kenswil indicated that Universal envisioned a model of viral distribution in which
consumers would pay for the product and permission of the rights holder would be obtained prior to

9
FIRST DIVISION On August 1, 1988, respondent Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. filed its answer to the
[G.R. No. 131522. July 19, 1999] complaint[7] and alleged that petitioners had no cause of action against Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.
PACITA I. HABANA, ALICIA L. CINCO and JOVITA N. FERNANDO, petitioners, since it was not privy to the misrepresentation, plagiarism, incorporation and reproduction of
vs. FELICIDAD C. ROBLES and GOODWILL TRADING CO., INC., respondents. the portions of the book of petitioners; that there was an agreement between Goodwill and the
DECISION respondent Robles that Robles guaranteed Goodwill that the materials utilized in the manuscript
PARDO, J.: were her own or that she had secured the necessary permission from contributors and sources;
The case before us is a petition for review on certiorari[1] to set aside the (a) decision of the that the author assumed sole responsibility and held the publisher without any liability.
Court of Appeals[2], and (b) the resolution denying petitioners motion for reconsideration,[3] in which On November 28, 1988, respondent Robles filed her answer[8], and denied the allegations
the appellate court affirmed the trial courts dismissal of the complaint for infringement and/or unfair of plagiarism and copying that petitioners claimed. Respondent stressed that (1) the book DEP is
competition and damages but deleted the award for attorneys fees. the product of her independent researches, studies and experiences, and was not a copy of any
The facts are as follows: existing valid copyrighted book; (2) DEP followed the scope and sequence or syllabus which are
Petitioners are authors and copyright owners of duly issued certificates of copyright common to all English grammar writers as recommended by the Association of Philippine Colleges
registration covering their published works, produced through their combined resources and of Arts and Sciences (APCAS), so any similarity between the respondents book and that of the
efforts, entitled COLLEGE ENGLISH FOR TODAY (CET for brevity), Books 1 and 2, and petitioners was due to the orientation of the authors to both works and standards and syllabus;
WORKBOOK FOR COLLEGE FRESHMAN ENGLISH, Series 1. and (3) the similarities may be due to the authors exercise of the right to fair use of copyrigthed
Respondent Felicidad Robles and Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. are the author/publisher and materials, as guides.
distributor/seller of another published work entitled DEVELOPING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY Respondent interposed a counterclaim for damages on the ground that bad faith and malice
(DEP for brevity), Books 1 and 2 (1985 edition) which book was covered by copyrights issued to attended the filing of the complaint, because petitioner Habana was professionally jealous and the
them. book DEP replaced CET as the official textbook of the graduate studies department of the Far
In the course of revising their published works, petitioners scouted and looked around Eastern University.[9]
various bookstores to check on other textbooks dealing with the same subject matter. By chance During the pre-trial conference, the parties agreed to a stipulation of facts[10] and for the trial
they came upon the book of respondent Robles and upon perusal of said book they were surprised court to first resolve the issue of infringement before disposing of the claim for damages.
to see that the book was strikingly similar to the contents, scheme of presentation, illustrations After the trial on the merits, on April 23, 1993, the trial court rendered its judgment finding
and illustrative examples in their own book, CET. thus:
After an itemized examination and comparison of the two books (CET and DEP), petitioners WHEREFORE, premises considered, the court hereby orders that the complaint filed against
found that several pages of the respondents book are similar, if not all together a copy of defendants Felicidad Robles and Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. shall be DISMISSED; that said
petitioners book, which is a case of plagiarism and copyright infringement. plaintiffs solidarily reimburse defendant Robles for P20,000.00 attorneys fees and defendant
Petitioners then made demands for damages against respondents and also demanded that Goodwill for P5,000.00 attorneys fees. Plaintiffs are liable for cost of suit.
they cease and desist from further selling and distributing to the general public the infringed copies IT IS SO ORDERED.
of respondent Robles works. Done in the City of Manila this 23rd day of April, 1993.
However, respondents ignored the demands, hence, on July 7, 1988, petitioners filed with (s/t) MARVIE R. ABRAHAM SINGSON
the Regional Trial Court, Makati, a complaint for Infringement and/or unfair competition with Assisting Judge
damages[4]against private respondents.[5] S. C. Adm. Order No. 124-92[11]
In the complaint, petitioners alleged that in 1985, respondent Felicidad C. Robles being On May 14, 1993, petitioners filed their notice of appeal with the trial court[12], and on July
substantially familiar with the contents of petitioners works, and without securing their permission, 19, 1993, the court directed its branch clerk of court to forward all the records of the case to the
lifted, copied, plagiarized and/or transposed certain portions of their book CET. The textual Court of Appeals.[13]
contents and illustrations of CET were literally reproduced in the book DEP. The plagiarism, In the appeal, petitioners argued that the trial court completely disregarded their evidence
incorporation and reproduction of particular portions of the book CET in the book DEP, without the and fully subscribed to the arguments of respondent Robles that the books in issue were purely
authority or consent of petitioners, and the misrepresentations of respondent Robles that the same the product of her researches and studies and that the copied portions were inspired by foreign
was her original work and concept adversely affected and substantially diminished the sale of the authors and as such not subject to copyright. Petitioners also assailed the findings of the trial court
petitioners book and caused them actual damages by way of unrealized income. that they were animated by bad faith in instituting the complaint.[14]
Despite the demands of the petitioners for respondents to desist from committing further On June 27, 1997, the Court of Appeals rendered judgment in favor of respondents Robles
acts of infringement and for respondent to recall DEP from the market, respondents and Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. The relevant portions of the decision state:
refused. Petitioners asked the court to order the submission of all copies of the book DEP, together It must be noted, however, that similarity of the allegedly infringed work to the authors or
with the molds, plates and films and other materials used in its printing destroyed, and for proprietors copyrighted work does not of itself establish copyright infringement, especially if the
respondents to render an accounting of the proceeds of all sales and profits since the time of its similarity results from the fact that both works deal with the same subject or have the same
publication and sale. common source, as in this case.
Respondent Robles was impleaded in the suit because she authored and directly committed Appellee Robles has fully explained that the portion or material of the book claimed by
the acts of infringement complained of, while respondent Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. was appellants to have been copied or lifted from foreign books. She has duly proven that most of
impleaded as the publisher and joint co-owner of the copyright certificates of registration covering the topics or materials contained in her book, with particular reference to those matters claimed
the two books authored and caused to be published by respondent Robles with obvious by appellants to have been plagiarized were topics or matters appearing not only in appellants
connivance with one another. and her books but also in earlier books on College English, including foreign books, e.i. Edmund
On July 27, 1988, respondent Robles filed a motion for a bill of particulars [6] which the trial Burkes Speech on Conciliation, Boerigs Competence in English and Broughtons, Edmund
court approved on August 17, 1988. Petitioners complied with the desired particularization, and Burkes Collection.
furnished respondent Robles the specific portions, inclusive of pages and lines, of the published xxx
and copyrighted books of the petitioners which were transposed, lifted, copied and plagiarized Appellants reliance on the last paragraph on Section 11 is misplaced. It must be emphasized
and/or otherwise found their way into respondents book. that they failed to prove that their books were made sources by appellee. [15]

10
The Court of Appeals was of the view that the award of attorneys fees was not proper, since He died on Monday, April 15, 1975.
there was no bad faith on the part of petitioners Habana et al. in instituting the action against Miss Reyes lives in 214 Taft Avenue,
respondents. Manila[22]
On July 12, 1997, petitioners filed a motion for reconsideration,[16] however, the Court of On page 73 of respondents Book 1 Developing English Today, they wrote:
Appeals denied the same in a Resolution[17] dated November 25, 1997. He died on Monday, April 25, 1975.
Hence, this petition. Miss Reyes address is 214 Taft Avenue Manila[23]
In this appeal, petitioners submit that the appellate court erred in affirming the trial courts On Page 250 of CET, there is this example on parallelism or repetition of sentence
decision. structures, thus:
Petitioners raised the following issues: (1) whether or not, despite the apparent textual, The proposition is peace. Not peace through the medium of war; not peace to be hunted
thematic and sequential similarity between DEP and CET, respondents committed no copyright through the labyrinth of intricate and endless negotiations; not peace to arise out of
infringement; (2) whether or not there was animus furandi on the part of respondent when they universal discord, fomented from principle, in all parts of the empire; not peace to depend
refused to withdraw the copies of CET from the market despite notice to withdraw the same; and on the juridical determination of perplexing questions, or the precise marking of the
(3) whether or not respondent Robles abused a writers right to fair use, in violation of Section 11 boundary of a complex government. It is simple peace; sought in its natural course, and in
of Presidential Decree No. 49.[18] its ordinary haunts. It is peace sought in the spirit of peace, and laid in principles purely
We find the petition impressed with merit. pacific.
The complaint for copyright infringement was filed at the time that Presidential Decree No. --- Edmund Burke, Speech on Criticism.[24]
49 was in force. At present, all laws dealing with the protection of intellectual property rights have On page 100 of the book DEP[25], also in the topic of parallel structure and repetition, the
been consolidated and as the law now stands, the protection of copyrights is governed by Republic same example is found in toto. The only difference is that petitioners acknowledged the author
Act No. 8293. Notwithstanding the change in the law, the same principles are reiterated in the new Edmund Burke, and respondents did not.
law under Section 177. It provides for the copy or economic rights of an owner of a copyright as In several other pages[26] the treatment and manner of presentation of the topics of DEP are
follows: similar if not a rehash of that contained in CET.
Sec.177. Copy or Economic rights.Subject to the provisions of chapter VIII, copyright or We believe that respondent Robles act of lifting from the book of petitioners substantial
economic rights shall consist of the exclusive right to carry out, authorize or prevent the following portions of discussions and examples, and her failure to acknowledge the same in her book is an
acts: infringement of petitioners copyrights.
177.1 Reproduction of the work or substantial portion of the work; When is there a substantial reproduction of a book? It does not necessarily require that the
177.2 Dramatization, translation, adaptation, abridgement, arrangement or other transformation entire copyrighted work, or even a large portion of it, be copied. If so much is taken that the value
of the work; of the original work is substantially diminished, there is an infringement of copyright and to an
177.3 The first public distribution of the original and each copy of the work by sale or other forms injurious extent, the work is appropriated.[27]
of transfer of ownership; In determining the question of infringement, the amount of matter copied from the
177.4 Rental of the original or a copy of an audiovisual or cinematographic work, a work copyrighted work is an important consideration. To constitute infringement, it is not necessary that
embodied in a sound recording, a computer program, a compilation of data and other materials the whole or even a large portion of the work shall have been copied. If so much is taken that the
or a musical work in graphic form, irrespective of the ownership of the original or the copy which value of the original is sensibly diminished, or the labors of the original author are substantially
is the subject of the rental; (n) and to an injurious extent appropriated by another, that is sufficient in point of law to constitute
177.5 Public display of the original or copy of the work; piracy.[28]
177.6 Public performance of the work; and The essence of intellectual piracy should be essayed in conceptual terms in order to
177.7 Other communication to the public of the work[19] underscore its gravity by an appropriate understanding thereof. Infringement of a copyright is a
The law also provided for the limitations on copyright, thus: trespass on a private domain owned and occupied by the owner of the copyright, and, therefore,
Sec. 184.1 Limitations on copyright.-- Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter V, the following protected by law, and infringement of copyright, or piracy, which is a synonymous term in this
acts shall not constitute infringement of copyright: connection, consists in the doing by any person, without the consent of the owner of the copyright,
(a) the recitation or performance of a work, once it has been lawfully made accessible of anything the sole right to do which is conferred by statute on the owner of the copyright. [29]
to the public, if done privately and free of charge or if made strictly for a charitable The respondents claim that the copied portions of the book CET are also found in foreign
or religious institution or society; [Sec. 10(1), P.D. No. 49] books and other grammar books, and that the similarity between her style and that of petitioners
(b) The making of quotations from a published work if they are compatible with fair can not be avoided since they come from the same background and orientation may be
use and only to the extent justified for the purpose, including quotations from true. However, in this jurisdiction under Sec 184 of Republic Act 8293 it is provided that:
newspaper articles and periodicals in the form of press summaries; Provided, that Limitations on Copyright. Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter V, the following shall
the source and the name of the author, if appearing on the work are mentioned; not constitute infringement of copyright:
(Sec. 11 third par. P.D.49) xxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxx (c) The making of quotations from a published work if they are compatible with fair
(e) The inclusion of a work in a publication, broadcast, or other communication to use and only to the extent justified for the purpose, including quotations from
the public, sound recording of film, if such inclusion is made by way of illustration newspaper articles and periodicals in the form of press summaries: Provided,
for teaching purposes and is compatible with fair use: Provided, That the source That the source and the name of the author, if appearing on the work, are
and the name of the author, if appearing in the work is mentioned;[20] mentioned.
In the above quoted provisions, work has reference to literary and artistic creations and this A copy of a piracy is an infringement of the original, and it is no defense that the pirate, in
includes books and other literary, scholarly and scientific works.[21] such cases, did not know whether or not he was infringing any copyright; he at least knew that
A perusal of the records yields several pages of the book DEP that are similar if not identical what he was copying was not his, and he copied at his peril.[30]
with the text of CET. The next question to resolve is to what extent can copying be injurious to the author of the
On page 404 of petitioners Book 1 of College English for Today, the authors wrote: book being copied. Is it enough that there are similarities in some sections of the books or large
Items in dates and addresses: segments of the books are the same?

11
In the case at bar, there is no question that petitioners presented several pages of the books
CET and DEP that more or less had the same contents. It may be correct that the books being
grammar books may contain materials similar as to some technical contents with other grammar
books, such as the segment about the Author Card. However, the numerous pages that the
petitioners presented showing similarity in the style and the manner the books were presented
and the identical examples can not pass as similarities merely because of technical consideration.
The respondents claim that their similarity in style can be attributed to the fact that both of
them were exposed to the APCAS syllabus and their respective academic experience, teaching
approach and methodology are almost identical because they were of the same background.
However, we believe that even if petitioners and respondent Robles were of the same
background in terms of teaching experience and orientation, it is not an excuse for them to be
identical even in examples contained in their books. The similarities in examples and material
contents are so obviously present in this case. How can similar/identical examples not be
considered as a mark of copying?
We consider as an indicia of guilt or wrongdoing the act of respondent Robles of pulling out
from Goodwill bookstores the book DEP upon learning of petitioners complaint while pharisaically
denying petitioners demand. It was further noted that when the book DEP was re-issued as a
revised version, all the pages cited by petitioners to contain portion of their book College English
for Today were eliminated.
In cases of infringement, copying alone is not what is prohibited. The copying must produce
an injurious effect. Here, the injury consists in that respondent Robles lifted from petitioners book
materials that were the result of the latters research work and compilation and misrepresented
them as her own. She circulated the book DEP for commercial use and did not acknowledge
petitioners as her source.
Hence, there is a clear case of appropriation of copyrighted work for her benefit that
respondent Robles committed. Petitioners work as authors is the product of their long and
assiduous research and for another to represent it as her own is injury enough. In copyrighting
books the purpose is to give protection to the intellectual product of an author. This is precisely
what the law on copyright protected, under Section 184.1 (b). Quotations from a published work if
they are compatible with fair use and only to the extent justified by the purpose, including
quotations from newspaper articles and periodicals in the form of press summaries are allowed
provided that the source and the name of the author, if appearing on the work, are mentioned.
In the case at bar, the least that respondent Robles could have done was to acknowledge
petitioners Habana et. al. as the source of the portions of DEP. The final product of an authors toil
is her book. To allow another to copy the book without appropriate acknowledgment is injury
enough.
WHEREFORE, the petition is hereby GRANTED. The decision and resolution of the Court
of Appeals in CA-G. R. CV No. 44053 are SET ASIDE. The case is ordered remanded to the trial
court for further proceedings to receive evidence of the parties to ascertain the damages caused
and sustained by petitioners and to render decision in accordance with the evidence submitted to
it.
SO ORDERED.

12
THIRD DIVISION
Thereafter, negotiations ensued between the parties in an effort to reach a settlement;
however, the negotiations were terminated on April 4, 2002 by ABS-CBN allegedly due to PMSIs
ABS-CBN BROADCASTING G.R. Nos. 175769-70 inability to ensure the prevention of illegal retransmission and further rebroadcast of its signals, as
CORPORATION, well as the adverse effect of the rebroadcasts on the business operations of its regional television
Petitioner, Present: stations.[10]
Ynares-Santiago, J. (Chairperson),
- versus - Austria-Martinez, On May 13, 2002, ABS-CBN filed with the IPO a complaint for Violation of Laws
Chico-Nazario, Involving Property Rights, with Prayer for the Issuance of a Temporary Restraining Order and/or
Nachura, and Writ of Preliminary Injunction, which was docketed as IPV No. 10-2002-0004. It alleged that PMSIs
Leonardo-De Castro,* JJ. unauthorized rebroadcasting of Channels 2 and 23 infringed on its broadcasting rights and
PHILIPPINE MULTI-MEDIA SYSTEM, copyright.
INC., CESAR G. REYES, FRANCIS
CHUA (ANG BIAO), MANUEL F. On July 2, 2002, the Bureau of Legal Affairs (BLA) of the IPO granted ABS-CBNs
ABELLADA, RAUL B. DE MESA, Promulgated: application for a temporary restraining order. On July 12, 2002, PMSI suspended its
AND ALOYSIUS M. COLAYCO, retransmission of Channels 2 and 23 and likewise filed a petition for certiorari with the Court of
Respondents. January 19, 2009 Appeals, which was docketed as CA-G.R. SP No. 71597.

x ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- x Subsequently, PMSI filed with the BLA a Manifestation reiterating that it is subject to the
must-carry rule under Memorandum Circular No. 04-08-88. It also submitted a letter dated
DECISION December 20, 2002 of then NTC Commissioner Armi Jane R. Borje to PMSI stating as follows:

YNARES-SANTIAGO, J.: This refers to your letter dated December 16, 2002 requesting for
regulatory guidance from this Commission in connection with the application
and coverage of NTC Memorandum Circular No. 4-08-88, particularly Section
This petition for review on certiorari[1] assails the July 12, 2006 Decision[2] of the Court of Appeals 6 thereof, on mandatory carriage of television broadcast signals, to the direct-
in CA-G.R. SP Nos. 88092 and 90762, which affirmed the December 20, 2004 Decision of the to-home (DTH) pay television services of Philippine Multi-Media System, Inc.
Director-General of the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) in Appeal No. 10-2004-0002. Also (PMSI).
assailed is the December 11, 2006 Resolution[3] denying the motion for reconsideration.
Petitioner ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation (ABS-CBN) is licensed under the laws Preliminarily, both DTH pay television and cable television services
of the Republic of the Philippines to engage in television and radio broadcasting.[4]It broadcasts are broadcast services, the only difference being the medium of delivering
television programs by wireless means to Metro Manila and nearby provinces, and by satellite to such services (i.e. the former by satellite and the latter by cable). Both can
provincial stations through Channel 2 on Very High Frequency (VHF) and Channel 23 on Ultra carry broadcast signals to the remote areas, thus enriching the lives of the
High Frequency (UHF). The programs aired over Channels 2 and 23 are either produced by ABS- residents thereof through the dissemination of social, economic, educational
CBN or purchased from or licensed by other producers. information and cultural programs.
ABS-CBN also owns regional television stations which pattern their programming in
accordance with perceived demands of the region. Thus, television programs shown in Metro The DTH pay television services of PMSI is equipped to provide
Manila and nearby provinces are not necessarily shown in other provinces. nationwide DTH satellite services. Concededly, PMSIs DTH pay television
services covers very much wider areas in terms of carriage of broadcast
Respondent Philippine Multi-Media System, Inc. (PMSI) is the operator of Dream signals, including areas not reachable by cable television services thereby
Broadcasting System. It delivers digital direct-to-home (DTH) television via satellite to its providing a better medium of dissemination of information to the public.
subscribers all over the Philippines. Herein individual respondents, Cesar G. Reyes, Francis
Chua, Manuel F. Abellada, Raul B. De Mesa, and Aloysius M. Colayco, are members of PMSIs In view of the foregoing and the spirit and intent of NTC
Board of Directors. memorandum Circular No. 4-08-88, particularly section 6 thereof, on
mandatory carriage of television broadcast signals, DTH pay television
PMSI was granted a legislative franchise under Republic Act No. 8630[5] on May 7, 1998 services should be deemed covered by such NTC Memorandum
and was given a Provisional Authority by the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) on Circular.
February 1, 2000 to install, operate and maintain a nationwide DTH satellite service. When it
commenced operations, it offered as part of its program line-up ABS-CBN Channels 2 and 23, For your guidance. (Emphasis added)[11]
NBN, Channel 4, ABC Channel 5, GMA Channel 7, RPN Channel 9, and IBC Channel 13, together
with other paid premium program channels. On August 26, 2003, PMSI filed another Manifestation with the BLA that it received a
letter dated July 24, 2003 from the NTC enjoining strict and immediate compliance with the must-
However, on April 25, 2001,[6] ABS-CBN demanded for PMSI to cease and desist from carry rule under Memorandum Circular No. 04-08-88, to wit:
rebroadcasting Channels 2 and 23. On April 27, 2001,[7] PMSI replied that the rebroadcasting was
in accordance with the authority granted it by NTC and its obligation under NTC Memorandum Dear Mr. Abellada:
Circular No. 4-08-88,[8] Section 6.2 of which requires all cable television system operators
operating in a community within Grade A or B contours to carry the television signals of the Last July 22, 2003, the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC)
authorized television broadcast stations.[9] received a letter dated July 17, 2003 from President/COO Rene Q. Bello of

13
the International Broadcasting Corporation (IBC-Channel 13) complaining MC 04-08-88, specifically your obligation under its mandatory carriage
that your company, Dream Broadcasting System, Inc., has cut-off, without provisions, in addition to your obligations under MC 10-10-
any notice or explanation whatsoever, to air the programs of IBC-13, a free- 2003. (Emphasis added)
to-air television, to the detriment of the public.
Please be guided accordingly.[13]
We were told that, until now, this has been going on.
On December 22, 2003, the BLA rendered a decision[14] finding that PMSI infringed the
Please be advised that as a direct broadcast satellite operator, broadcasting rights and copyright of ABS-CBN and ordering it to permanently cease and desist
operating a direct-to-home (DTH) broadcasting system, with a from rebroadcasting Channels 2 and 23.
provisional authority (PA) from the NTC, your company, along with
cable television operators, are mandated to strictly comply with the On February 6, 2004, PMSI filed an appeal with the Office of the Director-General of
existing policy of NTC on mandatory carriage of television broadcast the IPO which was docketed as Appeal No. 10-2004-0002. On December 23, 2004, it also filed
signals as provided under Memorandum Circular No. 04-08-88, also with the Court of Appeals a Motion to Withdraw Petition; Alternatively, Memorandum of the Petition
known as the Revised Rules and Regulations Governing Cable for Certiorari in CA-G.R. SP No. 71597, which was granted in a resolution dated February 17,
Television System in the Philippines. 2005.

This mandatory coverage provision under Section 6.2 of said On December 20, 2004, the Director-General of the IPO rendered a decision[15] in favor
Memorandum Circular, requires all cable television system operators, of PMSI, the dispositive portion of which states:
operating in a community within the Grade A or B contours to must-
carry the television signals of the authorized television broadcast WHEREFORE, premises considered, the instant appeal is hereby
stations, one of which is IBC-13. Said directive equally applies to your GRANTED. Accordingly, Decision No. 2003-01 dated 22 December 2003 of
company as the circular was issued to give consumers and the public the Director of Bureau of Legal Affairs is hereby REVERSED and SET ASIDE.
a wider access to more sources of news, information, entertainment and
other programs/contents. Let a copy of this Decision be furnished the Director of the Bureau
of Legal Affairs for appropriate action, and the records be returned to her for
This Commission, as the governing agency vested by laws with the proper disposition. The Documentation, Information and Technology Transfer
jurisdiction, supervision and control over all public services, which includes Bureau is also given a copy for library and reference purposes.
direct broadcast satellite operators, and taking into consideration the
paramount interest of the public in general, hereby directs you to immediately SO ORDERED.[16]
restore the signal of IBC-13 in your network programs, pursuant to existing
circulars and regulations of the Commission. Thus, ABS-CBN filed a petition for review with prayer for issuance of a temporary
restraining order and writ of preliminary injunction with the Court of Appeals, which was docketed
For strict compliance. (Emphasis added)[12] as CA-G.R. SP No. 88092.

Meanwhile, on October 10, 2003, the NTC issued Memorandum Circular No. 10-10- On July 18, 2005, the Court of Appeals issued a temporary restraining order. Thereafter,
2003, entitled Implementing Rules and Regulations Governing Community Antenna/Cable ABS-CBN filed a petition for contempt against PMSI for continuing to rebroadcast Channels 2 and
Television (CATV) and Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) Services to Promote Competition in the 23 despite the restraining order. The case was docketed as CA- G.R. SP No. 90762.
Sector. Article 6, Section 8 thereof states:
On November 14, 2005, the Court of Appeals ordered the consolidation of CA-G.R. SP
As a general rule, the reception, distribution and/or transmission by Nos. 88092 and 90762.
any CATV/DBS operator of any television signals without any agreement with
or authorization from program/content providers are prohibited. In the assailed Decision dated July 12, 2006, the Court of Appeals sustained the findings
of the Director-General of the IPO and dismissed both petitions filed by ABS-CBN.[17]
On whether Memorandum Circular No. 10-10-2003 amended Memorandum Circular
No. 04-08-88, the NTC explained to PMSI in a letter dated November 3, 2003 that: ABS-CBNs motion for reconsideration was denied, hence, this petition.

To address your query on whether or not the provisions of MC 10-10-2003 ABS-CBN contends that PMSIs unauthorized rebroadcasting of Channels 2 and 23 is
would have the effect of amending the provisions of MC 4-08-88 on an infringement of its broadcasting rights and copyright under the Intellectual Property Code (IP
mandatory carriage of television signals, the answer is in the negative. Code);[18]that Memorandum Circular No. 04-08-88 excludes DTH satellite television operators; that
the Court of Appeals interpretation of the must-carry rule violates Section 9 of Article III[19] of the
xxxx Constitution because it allows the taking of property for public use without payment of just
compensation; that the Court of Appeals erred in dismissing the petition for contempt docketed as
The Commission maintains that, MC 4-08-88 remains valid, subsisting and CA-G.R. SP No. 90762 without requiring respondents to file comment.
enforceable.
Respondents, on the other hand, argue that PMSIs rebroadcasting of Channels 2 and
Please be advised, therefore, that as duly licensed direct-to-home satellite 23 is sanctioned by Memorandum Circular No. 04-08-88; that the must-carry rule under the
television service provider authorized by this Commission, your Memorandum Circular is a valid exercise of police power; and that the Court of Appeals correctly
company continues to be bound by the guidelines provided for under dismissed CA-G.R. SP No. 90762 since it found no need to exercise its power of contempt.

14
2. The transmission by satellite for the public reception of sounds
After a careful review of the facts and records of this case, we affirm the findings of the or of images or of representations thereof where the means for
Director-General of the IPO and the Court of Appeals. decrypting are provided to the public by the broadcasting
organization or with its consent.
There is no merit in ABS-CBNs contention that PMSI violated its broadcasters rights
under Section 211 of the IP Code which provides in part: It is under the second category that Appellants DTH satellite
television service must be examined since it is satellite-based. The elements
Chapter XIV of such category are as follows:
BROADCASTING ORGANIZATIONS
1. There is transmission of sounds or images or of representations
Sec. 211. Scope of Right. - Subject to the provisions of Section 212, thereof;
broadcasting organizations shall enjoy the exclusive right to carry out,
authorize or prevent any of the following acts: 2. The transmission is through satellite;

211.1. The rebroadcasting of their broadcasts; 3. The transmission is for public reception; and

xxxx 4. The means for decrypting are provided to the public by the
broadcasting organization or with its consent.
Neither is PMSI guilty of infringement of ABS-CBNs copyright under Section 177 of the
IP Code which states that copyright or economic rights shall consist of the exclusive right to carry It is only the presence of all the above elements can a
out, authorize or prevent the public performance of the work (Section 177.6), and other determination that the DTH is broadcasting and consequently, rebroadcasting
communication to the public of the work (Section 177.7).[20] Appellees signals in violation of Sections 211 and 177 of the IP Code, may
be arrived at.
Section 202.7 of the IP Code defines broadcasting as the transmission by wireless
means for the public reception of sounds or of images or of representations thereof; such Accordingly, this Office is of the view that the transmission
transmission by satellite is also broadcasting where the means for decrypting are provided to the contemplated under Section 202.7 of the IP Code presupposes that the origin
public by the broadcasting organization or with its consent. of the signals is the broadcaster. Hence, a program that is broadcasted is
attributed to the broadcaster. In the same manner, the rebroadcasted
On the other hand, rebroadcasting as defined in Article 3(g) of the International program is attributed to the rebroadcaster.
Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting
Organizations, otherwise known as the 1961 Rome Convention, of which the Republic of In the case at hand, Appellant is not the origin nor does it claim to
the Philippines is a signatory, [21] is the simultaneous broadcasting by one broadcasting be the origin of the programs broadcasted by the Appellee. Appellant did not
organization of the broadcast of another broadcasting organization. make and transmit on its own but merely carried the existing signals of the
Appellee. When Appellants subscribers view Appellees programs in
The Director-General of the IPO correctly found that PMSI is not engaged in Channels 2 and 23, they know that the origin thereof was the Appellee.
rebroadcasting and thus cannot be considered to have infringed ABS-CBNs broadcasting rights
and copyright, thus: Aptly, it is imperative to discern the nature of broadcasting. When
a broadcaster transmits, the signals are scattered or dispersed in the
That the Appellants [herein respondent PMSI] subscribers are able air. Anybody may pick-up these signals. There is no restriction as to its
to view Appellees [herein petitioner ABS-CBN] programs (Channels 2 and 23) number, type or class of recipients. To receive the signals, one is not required
at the same time that the latter is broadcasting the same is undisputed. The to subscribe or to pay any fee. One only has to have a receiver, and in case
question however is, would the Appellant in doing so be considered engaged of television signals, a television set, and to tune-in to the right
in broadcasting. Section 202.7 of the IP Code states that broadcasting means channel/frequency. The definition of broadcasting, wherein it is required that
the transmission is wireless, all the more supports this
the transmission by wireless means for the discussion. Apparently, the undiscriminating dispersal of signals in the air is
public reception of sounds or of images or of possible only through wireless means. The use of wire in transmitting signals,
representations thereof; such transmission by satellite is such as cable television, limits the recipients to those who are
also broadcasting where the means for decrypting are connected. Unlike wireless transmissions, in wire-based transmissions, it is
provided to the public by the broadcasting organization not enough that one wants to be connected and possesses the
or with its consent. equipment. The service provider, such as cable television companies may
choose its subscribers.
Section 202.7 of the IP Code, thus, provides two instances wherein
there is broadcasting, to wit: The only limitation to such dispersal of signals in the air is the
technical capacity of the transmitters and other equipment employed by the
1. The transmission by wireless means for the public reception of broadcaster. While the broadcaster may use a less powerful transmitter to
sounds or of images or of representations thereof; and limit its coverage, this is merely a business strategy or decision and not an
inherent limitation when transmission is through cable.

15
Accordingly, the nature of broadcasting is to scatter the signals in however, the term retransmission seems to be reserved for such
its widest area of coverage as possible. On this score, it may be said that transmissions which are both simultaneous and unaltered.
making public means that accessibility is undiscriminating as long as it [is]
within the range of the transmitter and equipment of the broadcaster. That the 49. The Rome Convention does not grant rights against unauthorized
medium through which the Appellant carries the Appellees signal, that is via cable retransmission. Without such a right, cable operators can
satellite, does not diminish the fact that it operates and functions as a cable retransmit both domestic and foreign over the air broadcasts
television. It remains that the Appellants transmission of signals via its DTH simultaneously to their subscribers without permission from the
satellite television service cannot be considered within the purview of broadcasting organizations or other rightholders and without obligation
broadcasting. x x x to pay remuneration.[25](Emphasis added)

xxxx Thus, while the Rome Convention gives broadcasting organizations the right to
authorize or prohibit the rebroadcasting of its broadcast, however, this protection does not extend
This Office also finds no evidence on record showing that the to cable retransmission. The retransmission of ABS-CBNs signals by PMSI which functions
Appellant has provided decrypting means to the public essentially as a cable television does not therefore constitute rebroadcasting in violation of the
indiscriminately. Considering the nature of this case, which is punitive in fact, formers intellectual property rights under the IP Code.
the burden of proving the existence of the elements constituting the acts
punishable rests on the shoulder of the complainant. It must be emphasized that the law on copyright is not absolute. The IP Code provides
that:
Accordingly, this Office finds that there is no rebroadcasting on the
part of the Appellant of the Appellees programs on Channels 2 and 23, as Sec. 184. Limitations on Copyright. -
defined under the Rome Convention.[22]
184.1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter V, the following
Under the Rome Convention, rebroadcasting is the simultaneous broadcasting by one acts shall not constitute infringement of copyright:
broadcasting organization of the broadcast of another broadcasting organization. The Working
Paper[23] prepared by the Secretariat of the Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights xxxx
defines broadcasting organizations as entities that take the financial and editorial responsibility for (h) The use made of a work by or under the direction or control of
the selection and arrangement of, and investment in, the transmitted content.[24] Evidently, PMSI the Government, by the National Library or by educational, scientific or
would not qualify as a broadcasting organization because it does not have the aforementioned professional institutions where such use is in the public interest and is
responsibilities imposed upon broadcasting organizations, such as ABS-CBN. compatible with fair use;

ABS-CBN creates and transmits its own signals; PMSI merely carries such signals The carriage of ABS-CBNs signals by virtue of the must-carry rule in Memorandum
which the viewers receive in its unaltered form. PMSI does not produce, select, or determine the Circular No. 04-08-88 is under the direction and control of the government though the NTC which
programs to be shown in Channels 2 and 23. Likewise, it does not pass itself off as the origin or is vested with exclusive jurisdiction to supervise, regulate and control telecommunications and
author of such programs. Insofar as Channels 2 and 23 are concerned, PMSI merely retransmits broadcast services/facilities in the Philippines.[26] The imposition of the must-carry rule is within the
the same in accordance with Memorandum Circular 04-08-88. With regard to its premium NTCs power to promulgate rules and regulations, as public safety and interest may require, to
channels, it buys the channels from content providers and transmits on an as-is basis to its encourage a larger and more effective use of communications, radio and television broadcasting
viewers. Clearly, PMSI does not perform the functions of a broadcasting organization; thus, it facilities, and to maintain effective competition among private entities in these activities whenever
cannot be said that it is engaged in rebroadcasting Channels 2 and 23. the Commission finds it reasonably feasible.[27] As correctly observed by the Director-General of
the IPO:
The Director-General of the IPO and the Court of Appeals also correctly found that
PMSIs services are similar to a cable television system because the services it renders fall under Accordingly, the Must-Carry Rule under NTC Circular No. 4-08-88 falls under
cable retransmission, as described in the Working Paper, to wit: the foregoing category of limitations on copyright. This Office agrees with the
Appellant [herein respondent PMSI] that the Must-Carry Rule is in
(G) Cable Retransmission consonance with the principles and objectives underlying Executive Order
No. 436,[28] to wit:
47. When a radio or television program is being broadcast, it can be
retransmitted to new audiences by means of cable or wire. In the early days The Filipino people must be given wider access to more
of cable television, it was mainly used to improve signal reception, particularly sources of news, information, education, sports event
in so-called shadow zones, or to distribute the signals in large buildings or and entertainment programs other than those provided
building complexes. With improvements in technology, cable operators now for by mass media and afforded television programs to
often receive signals from satellites before retransmitting them in an unaltered attain a well informed, well-versed and culturally refined
form to their subscribers through cable. citizenry and enhance their socio-economic growth:

48. In principle, cable retransmission can be either simultaneous with the WHEREAS, cable television (CATV) systems
broadcast over-the-air or delayed (deferred transmission) on the basis of a could support or supplement the services provided by
fixation or a reproduction of a fixation.Furthermore, they might be unaltered television broadcast facilities, local and overseas, as the
or altered, for example through replacement of commercials, etc. In general, national information highway to the countryside.[29]

16
The Court of Appeals likewise correctly observed that: until the present case was brought, such provisions had not been thought of
as taking property without just compensation. Art. XII, 11 of the Constitution
[T]he very intent and spirit of the NTC Circular will prevent a situation whereby authorizes the amendment of franchises for the common good. What better
station owners and a few networks would have unfettered power to make time measure can be conceived for the common good than one for free air time
available only to the highest bidders, to communicate only their own views on for the benefit not only of candidates but even more of the public, particularly
public issues, people, and to permit on the air only those with whom they the voters, so that they will be fully informed of the issues in an election? [I]t
agreed contrary to the state policy that the (franchise) grantee like the is the right of the viewers and listeners, not the right of the broadcasters,
petitioner, private respondent and other TV station owners, shall provide at which is paramount.
all times sound and balanced programming and assist in the functions of
public information and education. Nor indeed can there be any constitutional objection to the
requirement that broadcast stations give free air time. Even in the United
This is for the first time that we have a structure that works to accomplish States, there are responsible scholars who believe that government controls
explicit state policy goals.[30] on broadcast media can constitutionally be instituted to ensure diversity of
views and attention to public affairs to further the system of free
Indeed, intellectual property protection is merely a means towards the end of making expression. For this purpose, broadcast stations may be required to give free
society benefit from the creation of its men and women of talent and genius. This is the essence air time to candidates in an election. Thus, Professor Cass R. Sunstein of the
of intellectual property laws, and it explains why certain products of ingenuity that are concealed University of Chicago Law School, in urging reforms in regulations affecting
from the public are outside the pale of protection afforded by the law. It also explains why the the broadcast industry, writes:
author or the creator enjoys no more rights than are consistent with public welfare. [31]
xxxx
Further, as correctly observed by the Court of Appeals, the must-carry rule as well as
the legislative franchises granted to both ABS-CBN and PMSI are in consonance with state In truth, radio and television broadcasting companies, which are
policies enshrined in the Constitution, specifically Sections 9, [32] 17,[33] and 24[34] of Article II on the given franchises, do not own the airwaves and frequencies through which
Declaration of Principles and State Policies.[35] they transmit broadcast signals and images.They are merely given the
temporary privilege of using them. Since a franchise is a mere privilege, the
ABS-CBN was granted a legislative franchise under Republic Act No. 7966, Section 1 exercise of the privilege may reasonably be burdened with the performance
of which authorizes it to construct, operate and maintain, for commercial purposes and in the by the grantee of some form of public service. x x x[37]
public interest, television and radio broadcasting in and throughout the Philippines x x x. Section
4 thereof mandates that it shall provide adequate public service time to enable the government, There is likewise no merit to ABS-CBNs claim that PMSIs carriage of its signals is for a
through the said broadcasting stations, to reach the population on important public issues; provide commercial purpose; that its being the countrys top broadcasting company, the availability of its
at all times sound and balanced programming; promote public participation such as in community signals allegedly enhances PMSIs attractiveness to potential customers; [38] or that the
programming; assist in the functions of public information and education x x x. unauthorized carriage of its signals by PMSI has created competition between its Metro Manila
and regional stations.
PMSI was likewise granted a legislative franchise under Republic Act No. 8630, Section
4 of which similarly states that it shall provide adequate public service time to enable the ABS-CBN presented no substantial evidence to prove that PMSI carried its signals for
government, through the said broadcasting stations, to reach the population on important public profit; or that such carriage adversely affected the business operations of its regional
issues; provide at all times sound and balanced programming; promote public participation such stations. Except for the testimonies of its witnesses,[39] no studies, statistical data or information
as in community programming; assist in the functions of public information and education x x have been submitted in evidence.
x. Section 5, paragraph 2 of the same law provides that the radio spectrum is a finite resource that
is a part of the national patrimony and the use thereof is a privilege conferred upon the grantee by Administrative charges cannot be based on mere speculation or conjecture. The
the State and may be withdrawn anytime, after due process. complainant has the burden of proving by substantial evidence the allegations in the
complaint.[40] Mere allegation is not evidence, and is not equivalent to proof.[41]
In Telecom. & Broadcast Attys. of the Phils., Inc. v. COMELEC,[36] the Court held that a
franchise is a mere privilege which may be reasonably burdened with some form of public Anyone in the country who owns a television set and antenna can receive ABS-CBNs
service. Thus: signals for free. Other broadcasting organizations with free-to-air signals such as GMA-7, RPN-9,
ABC-5, and IBC-13 can likewise be accessed for free. No payment is required to view the said
All broadcasting, whether by radio or by television stations, is licensed by the channels[42] because these broadcasting networks do not generate revenue from subscription
government. Airwave frequencies have to be allocated as there are more from their viewers but from airtime revenue from contracts with commercial advertisers and
individuals who want to broadcast than there are frequencies to assign. A producers, as well as from direct sales.
franchise is thus a privilege subject, among other things, to amendment by
Congress in accordance with the constitutional provision that any such In contrast, cable and DTH television earn revenues from viewer subscription. In the
franchise or right granted . . . shall be subject to amendment, alteration or case of PMSI, it offers its customers premium paid channels from content providers like Star
repeal by the Congress when the common good so requires. Movies, Star World, Jack TV, and AXN, among others, thus allowing its customers to go beyond
the limits of Free TV and Cable TV.[43] It does not advertise itself as a local channel carrier because
xxxx these local channels can be viewed with or without DTH television.

Indeed, provisions for COMELEC Time have been made by Relevantly, PMSIs carriage of Channels 2 and 23 is material in arriving at the ratings
amendment of the franchises of radio and television broadcast stations and, and audience share of ABS-CBN and its programs. These ratings help commercial advertisers

17
and producers decide whether to buy airtime from the network. Thus, the must-carry rule is Moreover, the factual findings of the Court of Appeals are conclusive on the parties and
actually advantageous to the broadcasting networks because it provides them with increased are not reviewable by the Supreme Court. They carry even more weight when the Court of Appeals
viewership which attracts commercial advertisers and producers. affirms the factual findings of a lower fact-finding body,[48] as in the instant case.

On the other hand, the carriage of free-to-air signals imposes a burden to cable and There is likewise no merit to ABS-CBNs contention that the Memorandum Circular
DTH television providers such as PMSI. PMSI uses none of ABS-CBNs resources or equipment excludes from its coverage DTH television services such as those provided by PMSI.Section 6.2
and carries the signals and shoulders the costs without any recourse of charging. [44] Moreover, of the Memorandum Circular requires all cable television system operators operating in a
such carriage of signals takes up channel space which can otherwise be utilized for other premium community within Grade A or B contours to carry the television signals of the authorized television
paid channels. broadcast stations.[49] The rationale behind its issuance can be found in the whereas clauses
which state:
There is no merit to ABS-CBNs argument that PMSIs carriage of Channels 2 and 23
resulted in competition between its Metro Manila and regional stations. ABS-CBN is free to decide Whereas, Cable Television Systems or Community Antenna
to pattern its regional programming in accordance with perceived demands of the region; however, Television (CATV) have shown their ability to offer additional programming
it cannot impose this kind of programming on the regional viewers who are also entitled to the and to carry much improved broadcast signals in the remote areas, thereby
free-to-air channels. It must be emphasized that, as a national broadcasting organization, one of enriching the lives of the rest of the population through the dissemination of
ABS-CBNs responsibilities is to scatter its signals to the widest area of coverage as possible. That social, economic, educational information and cultural programs;
it should limit its signal reach for the sole purpose of gaining profit for its regional stations
undermines public interest and deprives the viewers of their right to access to information. Whereas, the national government supports the promotes the
orderly growth of the Cable Television industry within the framework of a
Indeed, television is a business; however, the welfare of the people must not be regulated fee enterprise, which is a hallmark of a democratic society;
sacrificed in the pursuit of profit. The right of the viewers and listeners to the most diverse choice
of programs available is paramount.[45] The Director-General correctly observed, thus: Whereas, public interest so requires that monopolies in commercial
mass media shall be regulated or prohibited, hence, to achieve the same, the
The Must-Carry Rule favors both broadcasting organizations and cable TV industry is made part of the broadcast media;
the public. It prevents cable television companies from excluding
broadcasting organization especially in those places not reached by Whereas, pursuant to Act 3846 as amended and Executive Order
signal. Also, the rule prevents cable television companies from depriving 205 granting the National Telecommunications Commission the authority to
viewers in far-flung areas the enjoyment of programs available to city set down rules and regulations in order to protect the public and promote the
viewers. In fact, this Office finds the rule more burdensome on the part of the general welfare, the National Telecommunications Commission hereby
cable television companies. The latter carries the television signals and promulgates the following rules and regulations on Cable Television Systems;
shoulders the costs without any recourse of charging. On the other hand, the
signals that are carried by cable television companies are dispersed and The policy of the Memorandum Circular is to carry improved signals in remote areas for
scattered by the television stations and anybody with a television set is free the good of the general public and to promote dissemination of information. In line with this policy,
to pick them up. it is clear that DTH television should be deemed covered by the Memorandum
Circular. Notwithstanding the different technologies employed, both DTH and cable television
With its enormous resources and vaunted technological capabilities, have the ability to carry improved signals and promote dissemination of information because they
Appellees [herein petitioner ABS-CBN] broadcast signals can reach almost operate and function in the same way.
every corner of the archipelago. That in spite of such capacity, it chooses to
maintain regional stations, is a business decision. That the Must-Carry Rule In its December 20, 2002 letter,[50] the NTC explained that both DTH and cable television
adversely affects the profitability of maintaining such regional stations since services are of a similar nature, the only difference being the medium of delivering such
there will be competition between them and its Metro Manila station is services. They can carry broadcast signals to the remote areas and possess the capability to
speculative and an attempt to extrapolate the effects of the rule. As discussed enrich the lives of the residents thereof through the dissemination of social, economic, educational
above, Appellants DTH satellite television services is of limited information and cultural programs. Consequently, while the Memorandum Circular refers to cable
subscription. There was not even a showing on part of the Appellee the television, it should be understood as to include DTH television which provides essentially the
number of Appellants subscribers in one region as compared to non- same services.
subscribing television owners. In any event, if this Office is to engage in
conjecture, such competition between the regional stations and the Metro In Eastern Telecommunications Philippines, Inc. v. International Communication
Manila station will benefit the public as such competition will most likely result Corporation,[51] we held:
in the production of better television programs.[46]
The NTC, being the government agency entrusted with the
All told, we find that the Court of Appeals correctly upheld the decision of the IPO regulation of activities coming under its special and technical forte, and
Director-General that PMSI did not infringe on ABS-CBNs intellectual property rights under the IP possessing the necessary rule-making power to implement its objectives, is
Code. The findings of facts of administrative bodies charged with their specific field of expertise, in the best position to interpret its own rules, regulations and guidelines. The
are afforded great weight by the courts, and in the absence of substantial showing that such Court has consistently yielded and accorded great respect to the
findings are made from an erroneous estimation of the evidence presented, they are conclusive, interpretation by administrative agencies of their own rules unless there is an
and in the interest of stability of the governmental structure, should not be disturbed.[47] error of law, abuse of power, lack of jurisdiction or grave abuse of discretion
clearly conflicting with the letter and spirit of the law. [52]

18
With regard to the issue of the constitutionality of the must-carry rule, the Court finds reinstate CA-G.R. No. 90762 and order respondents to show cause why they should not be held
that its resolution is not necessary in the disposition of the instant case. One of the essential in contempt.
requisites for a successful judicial inquiry into constitutional questions is that the resolution of the
constitutional question must be necessary in deciding the case.[53] In Spouses Mirasol v. Court of It bears stressing that the proceedings for punishment of indirect contempt are criminal
Appeals,[54] we held: in nature. The modes of procedure and rules of evidence adopted in contempt proceedings are
similar in nature to those used in criminal prosecutions. [63] While it may be argued that the Court
As a rule, the courts will not resolve the constitutionality of a law, if of Appeals should have ordered respondents to comment, the issue has been rendered moot in
the controversy can be settled on other grounds. The policy of the courts is light of our ruling on the merits. To order respondents to comment and have the Court of Appeals
to avoid ruling on constitutional questions and to presume that the acts of the conduct a hearing on the contempt charge when the main case has already been disposed of in
political departments are valid, absent a clear and unmistakable showing to favor of PMSI would be circuitous. Where the issues have become moot, there is no justiciable
the contrary. To doubt is to sustain. This presumption is based on the doctrine controversy, thereby rendering the resolution of the same of no practical use or value.[64]
of separation of powers. This means that the measure had first been carefully
studied by the legislative and executive departments and found to be in WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED. The July 12, 2006 Decision of the Court of
accord with the Constitution before it was finally enacted and approved.[55] Appeals in CA-G.R. SP Nos. 88092 and 90762, sustaining the findings of the Director-General of
the Intellectual Property Office and dismissing the petitions filed by ABS-CBN Broadcasting
The instant case was instituted for violation of the IP Code and infringement of ABS- Corporation, and the December 11, 2006 Resolution denying the motion for reconsideration,
CBNs broadcasting rights and copyright, which can be resolved without going into the are AFFIRMED.
constitutionality of Memorandum Circular No. 04-08-88. As held by the Court of Appeals, the only
relevance of the circular in this case is whether or not compliance therewith should be considered SO ORDERED.
manifestation of lack of intent to commit infringement, and if it is, whether such lack of intent is a
valid defense against the complaint of petitioner.[56]

The records show that petitioner assailed the constitutionality of Memorandum Circular
No. 04-08-88 by way of a collateral attack before the Court of Appeals. In Philippine National
Bank v. Palma,[57] we ruled that for reasons of public policy, the constitutionality of a law cannot
be collaterally attacked. A law is deemed valid unless declared null and void by a competent court;
more so when the issue has not been duly pleaded in the trial court.[58]

As a general rule, the question of constitutionality must be raised at the earliest


opportunity so that if not raised in the pleadings, ordinarily it may not be raised in the trial, and if
not raised in the trial court, it will not be considered on appeal. [59] In Philippine Veterans Bank v.
Court of Appeals,[60] we held:

We decline to rule on the issue of constitutionality as all the


requisites for the exercise of judicial review are not present
herein. Specifically, the question of constitutionality will not be passed
upon by the Court unless, at the first opportunity, it is properly raised
and presented in an appropriate case, adequately argued, and is
necessary to a determination of the case, particularly where the issue
of constitutionality is the very lis mota presented. x x x[61]

Finally, we find that the dismissal of the petition for contempt filed by ABS-CBN is in
order.

Indirect contempt may either be initiated (1) motu proprio by the court by issuing an
order or any other formal charge requiring the respondent to show cause why he should not be
punished for contempt or (2) by the filing of a verified petition, complying with the requirements for
filing initiatory pleadings.[62]

ABS-CBN filed a verified petition before the Court of Appeals, which was docketed CA
G.R. SP No. 90762, for PMSIs alleged disobedience to the Resolution and Temporary Restraining
Order, both dated July 18, 2005, issued in CA-G.R. SP No. 88092. However, after the cases were
consolidated, the Court of Appeals did not require PMSI to comment on the petition for contempt. It
ruled on the merits of CA-G.R. SP No. 88092 and ordered the dismissal of both petitions.

ABS-CBN argues that the Court of Appeals erred in dismissing the petition for contempt
without having ordered respondents to comment on the same. Consequently, it would have us

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