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Matrices

A matrix is a set or
1 2 4  group of numbers
4 − 1 5 arranged in a square
  or rectangular array
3 3 3 enclosed by two
brackets
A matrix is denoted by a bold capital letter and
the elements within the matrix are denoted by
lower case letters (e.g. matrix [A] with elements amn)
𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13
𝑎2𝑛 𝑎2𝑛 𝑎23
𝐀𝒎𝒙𝒏 =
𝑎𝑚1 𝑎𝑚2 𝑎33
𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑎43
m : number of row
n : number of column
mn
TYPES OF MATRICES
1 1  Square matrix

Diagonal matrix
1 0 0

Column matrix
3 7  1 
  1 1 4
Row matrix
0 2 0 
7 − 7 
 
3 0
 
  1 1 6  
 7 6  2 0 0 1
Rectangular matrix 𝑚=𝑛

1 0 0 0 0 0 0  6 0 0 0
1 8 9 0
0
 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 6   6 0 0
0 0 1 0     0 0 6 0
  0 0 0 0 0 3  
0 0 0 1
Null (zero) matrix Triangular matrix
0 0 0 6
Unit or Identity
Scalar matrix
matrix
determinants
Determinant is a scalar
calculated from a square
matrix.
Theorems of Determinants:
• The number of terms in the expansion of a
determinant of order n is n!
• If the corresponding rows & columns of a
determinant are interchanged, the value is
unchanged
• If two columns or rows of a determinant are
interchanged the sign is changed
• If all elements in any column or row of a
determinant are zero, the value of the determinant
is zero
Theorems of Determinants:
• If two columns or rows of a determinant have their
elements identical or proportional, the value of the
determinant is zero
• If each element of a column or row is multiplied by
the same number k, the value of the determinant is
multiplied by k
• If each element of column or row of a determinant
is multiplied by the same number k and added to
the elements of another column or row, the value of
the determinant is unchanged
Rank of a Square Matrix
rank of a matrix is the
highest order of the
matrix with a non-zero
determinant
1. What is the rank of Matrix A?
1 −2 −1 shift: 4: 7(det)
A = −3 3 0 shift: 4: 3(MatA)
2 2 4 𝟎
mode: 6: 1(MatA) : 1(3x3) 𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒌 ≠ 𝟑
rank of a matrix is the
highest order of the
matrix with a non-
zero determinant
1. What is the rank of Matrix A?
1 −2 −1
A = −3 3 0 rank of a matrix is the
2 2 4 highest order of the
matrix with a non-
det = 3 − 6 zero determinant
det = −3 𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒌 = 𝟐
2. Evaluate the determinant of A:
2 3 −4 mode: 6: 1(MatA) : 1(3x3)
A= 3 −1 −2
4 −7 −6
A. -30
B. -10 shift: 4: 7(det)
C. 30 shift: 4: 3(MatA)
D.82
𝟖𝟐
3. Compute the determinant of x:
4 −1 2 3 𝒎𝟏
x= 2 0 2 1
10 3 0 1
8 −2 4 6 𝒎𝟐
A. 0 𝒎𝟏 is proportion 𝒎𝟒
B. 12 If two columns or rows of a
C. 10 determinant have their elements
identical or proportional, the
D.1 value of the determinant is zero
4. Compute the determinant of x:
4 −1 2 3 by: pivotal method
x= 2 0 2 1 choose a11 as the pivot
10 3 0 1
make a11 equal to 1
14 2 4 5
1 2 3
4 1 −
4 4 4
x= 2 0 2 1
10 3 0 1
14 2 4 5
4. Compute the determinant of x:
4 −1 2 3 by: pivotal method
x= 2 0 2 1 choose a11 as the pivot
10 3 0 1
make a11 equal to 1
14 2 4 5
1 2 3
4 1 −
4
MatC (1x3)
4 4
x= 2 0 2 1 −𝟐𝟖
MatB 10 3 0 1 MatA (3x3)
(3x1) 14 2 4 5 4det( MatA− MatBMatC)
3 1 2
5. If A = −2 −1 0 , then, what is the
0 2 −1
cofactor of the first row second column element?
−2 0
Minor a12 (M12) =
0 −1
Cofactor a12 (C12) = signed Minor a12 (M12)
1+2 −2 0
Cofactor a12 (C12) = −1
0 −1
Cofactor a12 (C12) = (−1)(2) −𝟐
6. What is the transposed matrix of
3 1 2
A = −2 −1 0 ?
0 2 −1

3 −2 0
𝑇
A = 1 −1 2
2 0 −1
Matrix Operation
➢ Matrix Subtraction
➢ Matrix Multiplication
➢ Matrix Division
Matrix Multiplication
(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)
𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:
(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)
Matrix Multiplication
(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)
𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:
(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)
Matrix Multiplication
(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)
𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:
(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)
Matrix Multiplication
(m x r ) x (r x n) = (m x n)
𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒:
(4 x 2 ) x (2 x 5) = (4 x 5)
2 1 −1 2
8. If A = , and B = then find A + 2B.
−1 3 1 1

MatA MatB
(2x2) (2x2)

0 5
A + 2B = MatA + 2MatB =
1 5
9. Given the matrix equation, solve for x and y.
1 1 x 2
=
3 2 y 0
mode: 5: 1
𝑥 = −4
𝑦=6
4 5 0 1 0 0
10. If A = 6 7 3 and B = 0 1 0 what is AxB?
1 2 3 0 0 1

Unit Matrix
𝐴𝑛𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥 𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑦 𝑏𝑦 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥 𝑖𝑠
𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥 𝑖𝑡𝑠𝑒𝑙𝑓
4 5 0
AxB = 6 7 3
1 2 3
−𝟏
Inverse of a Matrix (𝐀 )
steps:
𝐃: determinant
𝐓: transpose
𝐃: divide the adjoint by the determinant
11. Evaluate the Inverse Matrix A.
cos θ −sin θ
A=
steps: sin θ cos θ
𝐃: determinant
−1 cos θ sin θ
𝐓: transpose A = −sin θ cos θ
𝐃: divide the adjoint by the determinant
12. What is the inverse of the coefficient matrix?
Referring to the following systems of equations:
10x + 3y + 10z =5
8x – 2y + 9z = 5
8x + y – 10z = 5
−1
10 3 10 A−1 = (MatA)
A = 8 −2 9 11 20 47
8 1 −10 806 403 806
−1 76 90 −5
A = −
403 403 403
MatA(3x3) 12 7 −22
403 403 403
7. What is the classical Adjoint of A?
2 3 −4
𝐴= 0 −4 2 MatA(3x3)
1 −1 5
D. T. A. D. = A−1
−1
−18 − 11 − 10
A 14 −4
4 5 −8
13. Find the quotient of A/B if:
1 3 1 2
A= and B =
4 2 1 3
MatA MatB
(2x2) (2x2)
A ✓ −1 −1 𝟎 𝟏
= AB = MatA MatB =
B 𝟏𝟎 −𝟔
14. Determine the eigenvalues of the matrix
5 3
A= .
0 2

5− 𝜆 3
A=
0 2 −𝜆 𝜆 =5&2
det A = (5 − 𝜆)(2 − 𝜆)− 0
0 = (5 − 𝜆)(2 − 𝜆)
Complex numbers
𝒙 + 𝒋𝒚
𝒂 + 𝒃𝒊 rectangular form
𝒓∠𝜽 polar form
𝒓𝒆 𝜽𝒋 exponential form
𝒓𝒄𝒊𝒔 trigonometric form
𝑟(cos 𝜃 + 𝑖 sin 𝜃)
Complex numbers
Absolute value/Modulus (𝒓)
𝐫= 𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐲 𝟐

Amplitude/Argument (θ)
−𝟏
𝒚
θ= 𝒕𝒂𝒏
𝒙
15. Simplify i 29 + i 21 + i. 𝒊 = 1∠90
𝒊 rectangular form 𝒊𝟐𝟗 = 𝟏𝟐𝟗 ∠(𝟗𝟎𝒙𝟐𝟗)
mode: 2(complex) 𝒊 𝟐𝟏 𝟐𝟏
= 𝟏 ∠(𝟗𝟎𝒙𝟐𝟗)
𝒊 shift: 2: 3 29 21
i + i +i
𝑖 +𝑖 + 𝑖 = 3𝑖
15. Simplify i 29 + i 21 + i.
𝒏𝒐𝒕𝒆:
𝑖29 + 𝑖21 + 𝑖
𝟎. 𝟐𝟓 = 𝒊 𝒅𝒊𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒆𝒙𝒑𝒐𝒏𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒃𝒚 𝟒
𝟎. 𝟓 = −𝟏
𝒊 + 𝒊 + 𝒊
𝟎. 𝟕𝟓 = −𝒊
𝐖𝐍 = 𝟏 𝟑𝒊
16. Simplify (3 – i) 2 – 7 (3 – i) + 10
mode: 2(complex) : input

−3+i
17. The complex expression 3 + 4𝑖 is
equivalent to:
A.5 ( cos 53.13 + jsin 53.13) mode: 2(complex)
B. 5 ( cos 33.15 + jsin 33.15) 3 + 4𝑖
C. 5 ( cos 33.15 - jsin 33.15) shift: 2: 3
D.5 ( cos 53.13 - jsin 53.13)
r = 5 θ = 53.13
𝒓𝒄𝒊𝒔: 𝑟(cos 𝜃 + 𝑖 sin 𝜃)
18. What is the simplified expression of the
6+j2.5
complex number ?
3+j4

mode: 2(complex): input

1.12 − 0.66𝑖
j120°
19. If A = 40e , B = 20∠ − 40,
C = 26.46 + j0, solve for A + B + C.
mode: 2(complex): input
40∠120 + 20∠ − 40+
j120°
19. If A = 40e , B = 20∠ − 40,
C = 26.46 + j0, solve for A + B + C.
mode: 2(complex): input
40∠120 + 20∠ − 40+ 26.46
21.78 + 21.285𝑖
shift: 2: 3 𝟑𝟎. 𝟖 ∠ 𝟒𝟓
20. Evaluate j j
20. Evaluate 𝒊𝒊

𝒙 + 𝒋𝒚 𝒓∠𝜽 𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆
π
𝑖
𝒊 = 1∠90 = 1e 2
π π 2
𝒊 = (1e 2 𝑖 )𝑖 = e2 𝑖 2
𝑖 = −1
𝒊 𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑒:
π
𝒊 −
𝒊 =e 2 = 0.2078
𝑗
21. Evaluate −𝑗?
𝑖
21. Evaluate −𝑖 ?

𝒙 + 𝒋𝒚 𝒓∠𝜽 𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆
π
1∠ − 90 − 𝑖
= 1e 2
−𝒊 = 3π
𝑖
1∠270 1e 2
1 3π 1 3π
𝑖 𝑖
(−𝑖) 𝑖 = (1e 2 ) = e2 = 111.317
Trigonometric-hyperbolic
relationship
sin(𝑥 ± 𝑗𝑦) = sin 𝑥 cosh 𝑦 ± jcos 𝑥 sinh 𝑦
cos(𝑥 ± 𝑗𝑦) = cos 𝑥 cosh 𝑦 ∓ 𝑗 sin 𝑥 sinh 𝑦
sin(𝑗𝑦) = 𝑗 sinh 𝑦
cos(𝑗𝑦) = cosh 𝑦
22. Evaluate sin (j0.78).

sin(𝑗𝑦) = 𝑗 sinh 𝑦
sin(𝑗0.78) = 𝑗 sinh 0.78
sin(𝑗0.78) = 0.86j
Roots of Complex Numbers
1 θ + 𝑘(360)
𝑍= rn∠
n
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒:
𝑘 = 0, 1, 2, 3, … . 𝑛 − 1
n = no. of roots
23. Determine the cube roots of 8∠120°.
r θ
23. Determine the cube roots of 8∠120°.
n=3 r θ
1 120 + 0(360)
𝑍1 =83 ∠
3
2∠40°
1 120 + 1(360)
𝑍2 = 83 ∠
3 2∠160°
1 120 + 2(360)
𝑍3 = 83 ∠
3 2∠280°
24. Find the principal 5 th (5 (cos 150 + j sin 150)).
r=5 θ = 150
24. Find the principal 5 th (5 (cos 150 + j sin 150)).
r=5 θ = 150 n = 5 𝑍1 =?

1 θ+ 𝑘(360)
𝑍= rn∠
n
1 150 + 0(360)
𝑍1 = 55 ∠
5 𝟏. 𝟑𝟖 ∠ 𝟑𝟎°
NATURAL LOGARITHM OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

ln(x + jy) = ln(𝒓∠𝜽) = 𝜽𝒋

ln(𝒓𝒆 ) = ln(𝒓𝒄𝒊𝒔)
𝜽𝒋
ln(𝒓𝒆 ) = ln(𝒓) 𝜽𝒋
+ ln(𝒆 )
ln(x + jy) = ln(𝒓) + 𝜽𝒋
for r & 𝛉 mode: rad
Pol(x, y)
25. Evaluate ln (3 +j4).

ln(x + jy) = ln(𝒓) + 𝜽𝒋

for r & 𝛉 mode: rad
Pol(3 , 4 ) 1.609 + 0.927 i
r = 5 θ = 0.927
ln(3 + j4) = ln(5) + 0.927j
26. Evaluate ln (-5)
ln(x + jy) = ln(𝒓) + 𝜽𝒋
for r & 𝛉 mode: rad
Pol(−5 , 0 ) 1.609 + 𝜋𝑖
r = 5 θ = 3.141592
ln(−5) = ln(5) + 3.141592j
Fourier Series
𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 + jsin𝜽)
+ −𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 − jsin𝜽)
𝜽𝒋 −𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆 + 𝒓𝒆 = 𝟐𝒓(cos𝜽)
𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 + jsin𝜽)
− −𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆 = 𝒓(cos𝜽 − jsin𝜽)
𝜽𝒋 −𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆 − 𝒓𝒆 = 𝟐𝒓(sin𝜽)
27. One term of a Fourier Series in
cosine form is 10 cos40πt. Write it in
exponential form.
j40πt
A.5e
j40πt −j40πt
B.5e + 5e
−j40πt
C.10e
j40πt
D.10e
27. One term of a Fourier Series in
cosine form is 10 cos40πt. Write it in
exponential form.
𝟐𝒓(cos𝜽) = 𝜽𝒋 −𝜽𝒋
A.5e j40πt 𝒓𝒆 + 𝒓𝒆
B.5e j40πt
+ 5e −j40πt r = 5 𝜃 = 40𝜋𝑡
−j40πt
C.10e
j40πt
D.10e
28. Evaluate the terms of a Fourier
j10πt −j10πt
Series 2e + 2e @ t=1.
A.2 cos 10π 𝜽𝒋
𝒓𝒆 + 𝒓𝒆 −𝜽𝒋
= 𝟐𝒓(cos𝜽)
B.2 sin 10π
C.4 cos 10π r = 2 𝜃 = 10𝜋𝑡
D.4 sin 10π 2ej10πt −j10πt
+ 2e = 4(cos10𝜋𝑡)
@t=1