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Gurbani Grammar

Key
Jap Ji Sahib Class: Lesson 2

Rochester Hills Gurdwara 2014


Ajmel Singh
Learning Gurbani
Pronunciation & Meanings

Major Hurdles:
• Understanding Gurbani Grammar: “ u”, “ i ”, “mukqw”
• Mispronouncing words
• Misconceived word meanings
Key Grammar Rules

The Lagan Matran are uniquely used in


Gurbani
- Gurbani use of “ u”, “ i ” and “Mukta” with the last
letter of words drastically differ from Punjabi
- use of “ u”, “ i ” extensive- especially the “ i ”
- Creates difficulties in understanding meanings and
pronouncing words
Significance of Lagan Matran
lgWmwqRW dI mh~qqw

“gurbwxI AMdir AweIAW lgWmwqRW dI AgwD nyq Anuswr Ajyhy gurmiq


AsUlW b~Dy (set) inXmW AMdir SoBnIk, moqIAW vWgUM jVIAW hoeIAW hn,
ik iehnW qoN ibnW iksy BI gurvwk pMgqI dw Bwv bxdw hI nhIN[ ADUrw
hI rihMdw hY[ pUrw hMdw hI nhIN[”…

“ ivl~Kxqw meI vwDw ieh hY, ik iehnW lgWmwqRW AMdir inXmq hoey
gurbwxI dw Bwv ieko hI rihMdw hY ”…

rxDIr isMG
Most Helpful Grammar Rules

The major difference between Punjabi and Gurbani is in


Grammar. Gurbani uses “ u” , “ i ” with last letters
(consonants) of words :
• Nouns
• Pronouns
• Adjectives
• Verbs etc.

“ u” , “ i ” or “Mukta” last letters create specific meanings


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ u” Nouns

“ u” for Nouns with the last letter of words

• Singular Masculine (Identity): nwnku, pRBu, rwhu, guru, swDu,


sMqu, mnu, pMfqu, inMdku

hukmI hukmu clwey rwhu ] 2


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ u” Removed “Mukta” Nouns

“ u” Removed when
1. Plural: rwh, sMq (sMqn), swD

ilv Dwqu doie rwh hY hukmI kwr kmwie ] 87


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ u” Removed “Mukta” Nouns

“ u” Removed when
1. Plural: rwh, sMq (sMqn), swD
2. Singular feminine: dyh, cwl, Kyh

gwvY ko swij kry qnu Kyh] 2


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ u” Removed “Mukta” Nouns

“ u” Removed when
1. Plural: rwh, sMq (sMqn), swD
2. Singular feminine: dyh, cwl, Kyh
3. With Prepositions (explicit/implicit): dw, dy, dI, kw, ky, kI

gur pRswid ]1 Implicit

miq ivic rqn jvwhr mwixk jy iek gur kI isK suxI ]2 Explicit
Most Helpful Grammar Rules

“ u” Removed “Mukta” Nouns

“ u” Removed when
1. Plural: rwh, sMq (sMqn), swD
2. Singular feminine: dyh, cwl, Kyh
3. With Prepositions (explicit/implicit): dw, dy, dI, kw, ky, kI
4. Vocative: nwnk, pRB, mn

nwnk Bgqw sdw ivgwsu ] 2


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ u” Removed “Mukta” Nouns

“ u” Removed when
1. Plural: rwh, sMq (sMqn), swD
2. Singular feminine: dyh, cwl, Kyh
3. With Prepositions (explicit/implicit): dw, dy, dI, kw, ky, kI
4. Vocative: nwnk, pRB, mn
5. Compound words- 1st word: rwm nwmu

rwm nwmu hir kIriq gwie kir cwnxu mgu dyKwieAw ] 1424
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Pronouns

Pronouns follow mostly the same rules as


nouns
iehuu (singular masculine), ieh (singular feminine) , ieih (Plural)

nw iehu bUfw nw iehu bwlw ]869 (singular masculine)


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Pronouns (Continued)

Pronouns follow mostly the same rules as nouns


iehuu (singular masculine), ieh (singular feminine), ieih (Plural)

nw iehu bUfw nw iehu bwlw ]869 (singular masculine)


Cl nwigin isau myrI tUtin hoeI ] guir kihAw ieh JUTI DohI] 1347(singular feminine)
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Pronouns (Continued)

Pronouns follow mostly the same rules as nouns


iehuu (singular masculine), ieh (singular feminine), ieih (Plural)

nw iehu bUfw nw iehu bwlw ]869 (singular masculine)


Cl nwigin isau myrI tUtin hoeI ] guir kihAw ieh JUTI DohI] 1347(singular feminine)
kyiqAw dUK BUK sd mwr ] eyih BI dwiq qyrI dwqwr ]25] 5 (Plural)
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ i ” Prepositions (Identity)

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih, etc.
– Why? For Distinction: ivcu ivcolw , AMdruihrdw, sMguswQ, mhmhInw

miq ivic rqn jvwhr mwixk jy iek gur kI isK suxI ]2


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ i ” Prepositions (Identity)

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih, etc.
– Why? For Distinction: ivcu , AMdruihrdw, sMguswQ, mhmhInw
ivcolw

miq ivic rqn jvwhr mwixk jy iek gur kI isK suxI ]2 (Preposition)

ivcuivcolw n koeI kir skY iks QY rovih roj ] 135 (Noun)


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ u” and “ i” (Preposition Example)

iBsqu njIik rwKu rihmwnw ]

Identify preposition & punctuate


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ u” and “ i” (Preposition Example)

iBsqu, njIik rwKu, rihmwnw]


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Feminine Nouns (Identity)

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
–Why? For Distinction: kwmxutUxw, kwmxtUxy, qruxjvwnI

miq ivic rqn jvwhr mwixk jy iek gur kI isK suxI ] 2


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Masculine Nouns (Case)

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity)
1. Nominative ‘ny’: nwniknwnk ny, prmysirprmySr ny, guirgurU ny

prmysir idqw bMnw ] 627


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Masculine Nouns (Case)

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity)
1. Nominative ‘ny’: nwniknwnk ny, prmysirprmySr ny, guirgurU ny
2. Instrumental (nwl, rwhIN, duAwrw): sbidSbd rwhIN

jb lg sbid n BydIAY ikau sohY gurduAwir ] 19


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Masculine Nouns (Case)

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity)
1. Nominative ‘ny’: nwniknwnk ny, prmysirprmySr ny, guirgurU ny
2. Instrumental (nwl, rwhIN, duAwrw): sbidSbd rwhIN
3. Ablative (qoN, pwsoN, koloN): EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN

EAMkwir bRhmw auqpiq ] 929


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Masculine Nouns (Case)

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity)
1. Nominative ‘ny’: nwniknwnk ny, prmysirprmySr ny, guirgurU ny
2. Instrumental (nwl, rwhIN, duAwrw): sbidSbd rwhIN
3. Ablative (qoN, pwsoN, koloN): EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN
4. Locative (iv~c, AMdr, auqy): GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c

Bugiq igAwnu dieAw BMfwrix Git Git vwjih nwd ]6


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Past Perfect Participles

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity):nwniknwnk ny, sbidSbd rwhIN
EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN, GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c
4. Past Perfect Participle: swijswj ky (Add ‘ky ‘after a verb)

gwvY ko swij kry qnu Kyh]2


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Definitive Numbers

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity):nwniknwnk ny, sbidSbd rwhIN
EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN, GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c
4. Past Perfect Participle: swijswj ky (Add ‘ky ‘after a verb)
5. Definitive Numbers: qIin3, cwir4, pMic5, ATsiT68
- Why? For Distinction: cwr suMdr/sohxIAW , pMc phMcy hoe/y gurmuK

- Some Don’t For Distiction: lK , liK ; 100000 vyK/jwx ky

Kt6, Kitkmw ky

mqI mrxu ivswirAw KusI kIqI idn cwir ]15 (Number)


Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Definitive Numbers

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity):nwniknwnk ny, sbidSbd rwhIN
EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN, GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c
4. Past Perfect Participle: swijswj ky (Add ‘ky ‘after a verb)
5. Definitive Numbers: qIin3, cwir4, pMic5, ATsiT68
- Why? For Distinction: cwr suMdr/sohxIAW , pMc phMcy hoe/y gurmuK

- Some Don’t For Distiction: lK , liK ; 100000 vyK/jwx ky

Kt6, Kitkmw ky

mqI mrxu ivswirAw KusI kIqI idn cwir ]15 (Number)


gwvY ko gux vifAweIAw cwr ]2 (Beautiful)
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Indefinite Plural Pronouns

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity):nwniknwnk ny, sbidSbd rwhIN
EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN, GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c
4. Past Perfect Participle: swijswj ky (Add ‘ky ‘after a verb)
5. Definitive Numbers: qIin3, cwir4, pMic5, ATsiT68
6. Indefinite Plural Adjectives: siBswry, hoirhor, Avirhor/dUjy, ieikkeI
- Use Depends on Gender and Number:
sBuSingular masculine, sBSingular feminine, siBPlural both genders
hukmY AMdir sBu ko bwhir hukm n koie ]1 sBu (Singular masculine)
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Indefinite Plural Pronouns
“ i ” with the last letter of words
1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity):nwniknwnk ny, sbidSbd rwhIN
EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN, GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c
4. Past Perfect Participle: swijswj ky (Add ‘ky ‘after a verb)
5. Definitive Numbers: qIin3, cwir4, pMic5, ATsiT68
6. Indefinite Plural Adjectives: siBswry, hoirhor, Avirhor/dUjy, ieikkeI
- Use Depends on Gender and Number:
sBuSingular masculine, sBSingular feminine, siBPlural both genders
hukmY AMdir sBu ko bwhir hukm n koie ]1 (Singular masculine)
Awip nwQu nwQI sB jw kI iriD isiD Avrw swd ]6 (Singular feminine)
e
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Indefinite Plural Pronouns
“ i ” with the last letter of words
1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity):nwniknwnk ny, sbidSbd rwhIN
EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN, GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c
4. Past Perfect Participle: swijswj ky (Add ‘ky ‘after a verb)
5. Definitive Numbers: qIin3, cwir4, pMic5, ATsiT68
6. Indefinite Plural Adjectives: siBswry, hoirhor, Avirhor/dUjy, ieikkeI
- Use Depends on Gender and Number:
sBuSingular masculine, sBSingular feminine, siBPlural both genders
hukmY AMdir sBu ko bwhir hukmu n koie ]1 (Singular masculine)
Awip nwQu nwQI sB jw kI iriD isiD Avrw swd ]6 (Singular feminine)
siB gux qyry mY nwhI koie ]4 (Plural both genders)
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
“ i ” Use

“ i ” with the last letter of words


1. Prepositions (Identity): ivic, AMdir, sMig, nwil, mih,
2. Feminine (Identity): kwmix, qruix, suriq, miq, jugiq
3. Masculine Noun Case (Identity):nwniknwnk ny, sbidSbd rwhIN
EAMkwirEAMkwr qoN, GitsrIr/ihrdy iv~c
4. Past Perfect Participle: swijswj ky (Add ‘ky ‘after a verb)
5. Definitive Numbers: qIin3, cwir4, pMic5, ATsiT68
6. Indefinite Plural Adjectives: siBswry, hoirhor, Avirhor/dUjy, ieikkeI
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Adjectives

Adjectives follow the same rules as their


accompanying nouns or pronouns
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Adjectives (Exercise)

kvx su vylw vKqu kvx kvx iQiq kvx vwru ]


kvx is ruqI mwhu kvx ijqu hoAw Awkwru ]

Correct adjective “kvx” all places by adding


appropriate Lag
Most Helpful Grammar Rules
Adjectives (Exercise)

kvxu su vylw, vKqu kvxu, kvx iQiq, kvxu vwru ]


kvix is ruqI, mwhu kvxu, ijqu hoAw Awkwru ]

kvxu (with singular masculine), kvx (with singular feminine)

kvix(with plural)