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About Range limits

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You are on page 1of 7

James Eagle

Text: Search & Detection, 4th Ed., Alan R. Washburn Rev: November 5, 2012

l(x) = P (detecting a target when the searcher’s track relative to the target

is infinitely long in both directions and with CPA x to the target) (1)

searcher track

x target

1

1

-R 0 R 0

Cookie-Cutter Sensor Inverse Cube Law Sensor

1

1

0 -R m 0 Rm

Radar with Severe Sea Return Triangular Sensor

1

For an inverse cube law sensor, we have seen that

−2kAh

l(x) = 1 − exp ,

V (h2 + x2 )

where V here is the searcher’s speed relative to a stationary target.

Note that l(x) is neither a PDF nor a CDF. It’s rather a plot of Pd verses lateral range

(CPA) for straight-line tracks. Also note that l(x) is an aggregate measure of detection

performance in that it is immaterial where on the track the detection occurs. For l(x),

detections prior to CPA count the same as detections afterwards.

Example: A search of an area is conducted by four parallel sweeps with track spacing S,

as shown in Figure 3.

S S

1 2 3 4

Assume a lateral range curve of l(·) and a stationary target at a distance of x from the

left-hand border of the search area. Then assuming tracks of infinite length, Pd is l(x − S)

for sweep 1, l(x − 2S) for sweep 2, l(x − 3S) for sweep 3, and l(x − 4S) for sweep 4. Now

assuming independence from sweep to sweep, the Pd for all four sweeps is

4

Y

Pd (x) = 1 − (1 − l(x − iS)) .

i=1

2

l(x) = 1 − e−K/x ,

4

Y

exp −K/(x − iS)2

Pd (x) = 1 −

i=1

2

4

!

X

2

= 1 − exp −K/(x − iS) .

i=1

In Washburn [2002][Sec. 2.4], the proof is sketched out that for an inverse cube law search

for a uniformly distributed target in a large area,

p

Pd = 2Φ π/2(W/S) − 1, (2)

p

where W = 8πkAh/V is the sweep width (discussed in the next section) of an inverse cube

law sensor. This is an interesting result because it shows that inverse cube law searches are

better than random, but not as good as exhaustive. (See Washburn [2002][p. 2-4].)

Example: An aircraft with speed 200 kt and altitude of 1 nm searches with a track spacing

of 10 nm for a ground target of area .01 nm2 . For a target uniformly distributed over the

search area and an assumed k of 50,000 hr−1 , what is Pd after one sweep of the area?

p p

W = 8πkAh/V = 8π(50, 000)(.01)(1)/200 = 7.927 nm

p

Pd = 2Φ π/2(W/S) − 1

p

= 2Φ π/2(7.927/10) − 1

= .6795

Note that this model assumes one complete sweep of the search area, and does not require

specifying the search area size.

W = l(x)dx. (3)

−∞

The units of W are distance. Sweep width is one of the standard measures of sensor

performance.

Note that if all the area under lateral range curve l(x) was placed in a rectangle 1 probability

unit high, the width of the rectangle would be W .

Examples:

3

1

l(x)

1, x ∈ [−R, R]

l(x) =

0, otherwise

So, W = 2R.

2. Inverse cube law sensor.

2

l(x) = 1 − e−K/x , for K = 2kAh/V.

So,

Z ∞

2

W = 2 1 − e−K/x dx

√0

= 2 πK.

√ 2

(Use z = K/x, integrate by parts with u = 1 − e−z and dv = dz/z 2 , and

R∞ 2 √

the Gaussian integral 0 e−x dx = π/2.)

p

= 8πkAh/V .

1 − |x|/Rm , x ∈ [−Rm , Rm ]

l(x) =

0, otherwise

So,

Z Rm

W = 2 (1 − (x/Rm )) dx

0

= 2(Rm /2)

= Rm .

4

5.2.1 An Interpretation of Sweep Width W

Referring to Figure 5, assume a sensor with maximum detection range Rm and lateral

range curve l(x). Target CPAs are uniformly distributed over lateral ranges −L/2 to L/2,

where L/2 > Rm .

targets

W

l(x)

Z L/2

Pd = P (detection | lateral range = x) (density function for x) dx

x=−L/2

Z L/2

= l(x)(1/L)dx

x=−L/2

Z L/2

= (1/L) l(x)dx

x=−L/2

= W/L.

1. Pd is constant for all l(x) with the same W (i.e., area under the l(x) curve).

2. In particular, l(x) can be replaced with a cookie-cutter sensor with detection range

W/2 and the same Pd will result.

So when the target’s lateral range is uniformly distributed, a sensor with lateral range

curve l(x) can be equivalently replaced with a cookie-cutter sensor with detection range

W/2. Note, however, that if the lateral ranges are not uniform, this substitution is not

valid. Referring to Figure 5, if all targets had CPAs of either L/2 or −L/2, then Pd would

be 0.

Figure 6 illustrates how to compute the sweep width of an acoustic convergence zone

sensor.

5

Calculating the Sweep Width of a CZ Sensor

p1 = P{det| tgt crosses 1st CZ twice}

p2 = P{det| tgt crosses 2nd CZ twice}

Ri = distance to i th CZ, i = 1,2

R0 R1 R2

l2 = p2

Lateral l0 l1 = 1 - (1-p1)(1-p2)

Range l0 = 1 - (1-p0)(1-p1)(1-p2)

Curve

l1 W = 2[(l0 R0) + l1(R1-R0) + l2(R2-R1)]

l2

R0 R1 R2

Example values:

R0 = 1 nm p0 = .85 l0 = .9435

R1 = 35 nm p1= .5 ⇒ l1 = .625

R2 = 70 nm p2 = .25 l2 = .25

W= 2(30.94) = 61.88 nm

6

References

S. Christian Albright. VBA for Modelers. Thomson-Brooks/Cole, 2nd edition, 2007.

Analysis. Naval Institute Press, 3rd edition, 1999.

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