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Mechanical Forces of Electrical Origin
To familiarize the student with mechanical forces that exist in electrical system. The
basic purpose is to investigate the basic principle behind these mechanical forces and by
which electrical process they arise usually
This experiment is based upon mechanical forces that arises due to electrical process.
. The vast majority of devices that produce such mechanical forces involve magnetic energy
storage created by configurations having turns of wire on magnetic iron structures. Devices
such as electromechanical relays, automobile door locking solenoids, and large electrical
scrap metal lifting magnets are examples of such devices. In this experiment, we set up a
magnetic field structure having a movable member known as an armature. Measurements are
then taken of the mechanical force attracting this armature as a function of an electrical
current in winding establishing energy storage in a magnetic field. The key principle is that
a mechanical force attracting the armature is produced if the magnetic field stored energy is
a function of the physical position of this armature.
 Studs
 Armature
 Voltmeter
 Ammeter
 Flux Meter
 Power Supply
 Resistor
 Mounting Base
 Poles

1. Set up the system shown in Fig. 3. Note that the studs on Poles 1 and 2 fit into
slots such that the thumbscrews can be used to tighten two of the four junctions
between the four bars. Position the search coil shown in Fig.3 to be as far from the
1100 turn exciting coil as possible in order to sense only the flux in the core φcore.
Now using the variable voltage 0 - 120 Vdc-supply in series with a 171 Ω resistor
and the 11 00-turn coil, measure the coil dc-voltage, and dc-current, thereby
determining the dc-coil resistance Rdc over a suitable range of coil currents. Note
that the coil's rated current is 0.5 A. An ohmmeter can also be used with these
measurements. Placing a 171 Ω resistor in series with the supply provides a finer
current adjustment. Set meters to read DC. The flux meter is not read because it is

2. With the armature pressed snugly against Poles 1 and 2, find the force f s (in gmf)
required to pull the armature away from the pole faces as a function of the dc-coil
current. (Note: One set up has a scale calibrated in Newtons) A current range of 0
- 0.08 A should correspond to the full spring scale range of 0 - 500 gmf. Be sure
to slowly pull the spring scale to read this force as accurately as possible. Position
the lead such that the armature rolls on the lead as it is pulled away from the core.
Note that the pivot point is at the upper right corner of pole 1. Assuming that fe

acts on the center of the armature, as shown in Fig. 1, measure the lever-arm
length to the pivot point for the force of electrical origin fe , denoted as le , and the
lever arm length to the pivot point for the spring force fs denoted as ls . Then we
can calculate the value of fe as

Prepare a plot of this force fe in Newtons vs. the current squared. The slope of this

plot in N/A2 is proportional to the value of the bracketed term in Eq. (5b).

Determine this slope. (Note: 9.8 x 10-3N = 1gmf ).

3. Next we are going to determine the 1100-turn coil inductance as a function of the
air-gap distance between the pole faces and the armature. Turn bars I and 2 in Fig.3
over so that their studs are now upward. Tighten the two thumbscrews so that
the armature is pressed against the rubber stops closing all gaps between the four
bars. Change the supply to the variable 0 -120 Vac source. The 171 Ω resistor in
series with the source is no longer needed with this ac-supply. Change the
voltmeter and ammeter to ac-settings, and activate a real-power (P) wattmeter.
Also set up a "dummy" column in your data table so flux meter readings can be
manually inserted. [The core should be demagnetized before any measurements
are made. This demagnetization can be done by increasing the ac-coil current to
0.5 A (its rated value) and then slowly reducing this current back down to 0 A.]
Now with the air gap between the armature and poles 1 and 2 closed vary the ac-
coil current over a range of currents from 0 - 0.2 A, recording Vrms Irms,P, f,
and φm. Here the frequency meter should read 60 Hz, but in Step 6 this frequency
will be varied. Since the pole faces are not machined flat, assume an air-gap length
x = 0.075 mm with no spacers. Equation (2) can be used to compute the
inductance as follows. Plot the flux- linkages (Nφcoil) vs. the peak ac-current (√2
Irms). Draw a straight line through the origin that best fits your plot. The inductance
is the slope of this line. Equations (3a) and (3b) can also be used to analytically

check this inductance value knowing the cross-sectional area A = 4.84 cm2, the
permeability of the iron core μi = 1123μ0 and the mean path length l = 5 3.5 cm.
Here initially the air gap x = 0.075 mm. Use your values of A,μ and l from
Experiment 2 in place of these values if there is some appreciable difference
for your setup. Finally, Eqs. (4a) and (4b) give a third method for computing the
inductance from voltage, current, and power terminal measurements. Compute
the average value of Rac and Ltotal over your set of measurements. Why is the
value of Rac significantly different than the value of Rdc ?

4. Between Poles 1 and 2 and the armature, insert one 0.012 in. brass spacer. This
represents an air-gap distance x = 0.3048 mm. Repeat the measurements and
calculations of Step 3. Repeat this procedure for two brass spacers (x=0.6096mm)
and three brass spacers (x=0.9144mm). You now have determined the average
inductances Lcore(x) and Ltotal(x) for four values of x. Now prepare a plot of
these inductances (in H) vs. the air-gap x (in m). The slope of these plots at x =
0.075 mm multiplied by a factor of 1/2 is the bracketed term in Eq. (5b). Compare
the magnitude of this value to that obtained from the slope in Step 2.

5. Set up the variable frequency supply shown in Fig. 2 in place of the 60 Hz ac-
supply in Fig. 3 that we have been using in Steps 3 and 4. The flux meter reading
is calibrated for 60 Hz; therefore the peak-flux reading must be multiplied by a
factor of (60/f) to get a correct reading at some other frequency f. Set up a meter
to record rotor speed. Now for frequencies of 45, 30, and 15 Hz, repeat Step 3
with no spacers over the full range of field (excitor) rheostat settings. Three readings
at each frequency are sufficient. Extended sampling must be used in order for
the frequency meter to read for frequencies below 45 Hz. Using the methodology
of Eq. (2), plot the inductance values as a function of frequency. Is the inductance
frequency dependent? Using Eq. (4a), compute the average value of Rac. On a
separate plot show the average value of your computed Rac vs. f including your
60 Hz value and your dc-value plotted at f = 0. Why is the apparent series
resistance frequency dependent? Finally verify the relationship between rotor speed
and generated frequency as given by Eq. (6).

The main purpose of this lab is to become familiar with concepts and some important
terms related with mechanical forces arise to due electromagnetic process. The relation of
flux and turns ratio will be developed and the effect of current and voltage on these
mechanical forces will be analyzed. The effect due to stator and armature magnetic field is
discussed. The vast majority of devices that produce such mechanical forces involve
magnetic energy storage created by configurations having turns of wire on magnetic iron

1. The total flux produced by the coil is given by

total = core + leakage (1a)

2. If the current is an ac-current with an rms value then the inductance would be
computed as

Lcore(x) = Ncore /( 2 Irms) (2)

3. A second method of determining the inductance Lcore(x) is available by first

Computing the reluctance of the magnetic circuit as

Req(x) = 2x/0A + l/iA

4. Inductance Lcore is given by

Lcore(x) = N2/Req(x)

5. The generated stator winding frequency f (in Hz) is given by

f = ωr(p/2)/60