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COURSE NUMBER

SECTION NUMBER

LAB EXPERIMENT NO. 4

TITLE:

Mechanical Forces of Electrical Origin

OBJECTIVE:

To familiarize the student with mechanical forces that exist in electrical system. The

basic purpose is to investigate the basic principle behind these mechanical forces and by

which electrical process they arise usually

EXPERIMENT STATEMENT AND PURPOSE:

This experiment is based upon mechanical forces that arises due to electrical process.

. The vast majority of devices that produce such mechanical forces involve magnetic energy

storage created by configurations having turns of wire on magnetic iron structures. Devices

such as electromechanical relays, automobile door locking solenoids, and large electrical

scrap metal lifting magnets are examples of such devices. In this experiment, we set up a

magnetic field structure having a movable member known as an armature. Measurements are

then taken of the mechanical force attracting this armature as a function of an electrical

current in winding establishing energy storage in a magnetic field. The key principle is that

a mechanical force attracting the armature is produced if the magnetic field stored energy is

a function of the physical position of this armature.

APPARATUS:

Studs

Armature

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Flux Meter

Power Supply

Resistor

Mounting Base

Poles

PROCEDURE:

1. Set up the system shown in Fig. 3. Note that the studs on Poles 1 and 2 fit into

slots such that the thumbscrews can be used to tighten two of the four junctions

between the four bars. Position the search coil shown in Fig.3 to be as far from the

1100 turn exciting coil as possible in order to sense only the flux in the core φcore.

Now using the variable voltage 0 - 120 Vdc-supply in series with a 171 Ω resistor

and the 11 00-turn coil, measure the coil dc-voltage, and dc-current, thereby

determining the dc-coil resistance Rdc over a suitable range of coil currents. Note

that the coil's rated current is 0.5 A. An ohmmeter can also be used with these

measurements. Placing a 171 Ω resistor in series with the supply provides a finer

current adjustment. Set meters to read DC. The flux meter is not read because it is

DC.

2. With the armature pressed snugly against Poles 1 and 2, find the force f s (in gmf)

required to pull the armature away from the pole faces as a function of the dc-coil

current. (Note: One set up has a scale calibrated in Newtons) A current range of 0

- 0.08 A should correspond to the full spring scale range of 0 - 500 gmf. Be sure

to slowly pull the spring scale to read this force as accurately as possible. Position

the lead such that the armature rolls on the lead as it is pulled away from the core.

Note that the pivot point is at the upper right corner of pole 1. Assuming that fe

acts on the center of the armature, as shown in Fig. 1, measure the lever-arm

length to the pivot point for the force of electrical origin fe , denoted as le , and the

lever arm length to the pivot point for the spring force fs denoted as ls . Then we

can calculate the value of fe as

fe=(ls/le)fs

Prepare a plot of this force fe in Newtons vs. the current squared. The slope of this

plot in N/A2 is proportional to the value of the bracketed term in Eq. (5b).

3. Next we are going to determine the 1100-turn coil inductance as a function of the

air-gap distance between the pole faces and the armature. Turn bars I and 2 in Fig.3

over so that their studs are now upward. Tighten the two thumbscrews so that

the armature is pressed against the rubber stops closing all gaps between the four

bars. Change the supply to the variable 0 -120 Vac source. The 171 Ω resistor in

series with the source is no longer needed with this ac-supply. Change the

voltmeter and ammeter to ac-settings, and activate a real-power (P) wattmeter.

Also set up a "dummy" column in your data table so flux meter readings can be

manually inserted. [The core should be demagnetized before any measurements

are made. This demagnetization can be done by increasing the ac-coil current to

0.5 A (its rated value) and then slowly reducing this current back down to 0 A.]

Now with the air gap between the armature and poles 1 and 2 closed vary the ac-

coil current over a range of currents from 0 - 0.2 A, recording Vrms Irms,P, f,

and φm. Here the frequency meter should read 60 Hz, but in Step 6 this frequency

will be varied. Since the pole faces are not machined flat, assume an air-gap length

x = 0.075 mm with no spacers. Equation (2) can be used to compute the

inductance as follows. Plot the flux- linkages (Nφcoil) vs. the peak ac-current (√2

Irms). Draw a straight line through the origin that best fits your plot. The inductance

is the slope of this line. Equations (3a) and (3b) can also be used to analytically

check this inductance value knowing the cross-sectional area A = 4.84 cm2, the

permeability of the iron core μi = 1123μ0 and the mean path length l = 5 3.5 cm.

Here initially the air gap x = 0.075 mm. Use your values of A,μ and l from

Experiment 2 in place of these values if there is some appreciable difference

for your setup. Finally, Eqs. (4a) and (4b) give a third method for computing the

inductance from voltage, current, and power terminal measurements. Compute

the average value of Rac and Ltotal over your set of measurements. Why is the

value of Rac significantly different than the value of Rdc ?

4. Between Poles 1 and 2 and the armature, insert one 0.012 in. brass spacer. This

represents an air-gap distance x = 0.3048 mm. Repeat the measurements and

calculations of Step 3. Repeat this procedure for two brass spacers (x=0.6096mm)

and three brass spacers (x=0.9144mm). You now have determined the average

inductances Lcore(x) and Ltotal(x) for four values of x. Now prepare a plot of

these inductances (in H) vs. the air-gap x (in m). The slope of these plots at x =

0.075 mm multiplied by a factor of 1/2 is the bracketed term in Eq. (5b). Compare

the magnitude of this value to that obtained from the slope in Step 2.

5. Set up the variable frequency supply shown in Fig. 2 in place of the 60 Hz ac-

supply in Fig. 3 that we have been using in Steps 3 and 4. The flux meter reading

is calibrated for 60 Hz; therefore the peak-flux reading must be multiplied by a

factor of (60/f) to get a correct reading at some other frequency f. Set up a meter

to record rotor speed. Now for frequencies of 45, 30, and 15 Hz, repeat Step 3

with no spacers over the full range of field (excitor) rheostat settings. Three readings

at each frequency are sufficient. Extended sampling must be used in order for

the frequency meter to read for frequencies below 45 Hz. Using the methodology

of Eq. (2), plot the inductance values as a function of frequency. Is the inductance

frequency dependent? Using Eq. (4a), compute the average value of Rac. On a

separate plot show the average value of your computed Rac vs. f including your

60 Hz value and your dc-value plotted at f = 0. Why is the apparent series

resistance frequency dependent? Finally verify the relationship between rotor speed

and generated frequency as given by Eq. (6).

PERTENIENT INFORMATION

The main purpose of this lab is to become familiar with concepts and some important

terms related with mechanical forces arise to due electromagnetic process. The relation of

flux and turns ratio will be developed and the effect of current and voltage on these

mechanical forces will be analyzed. The effect due to stator and armature magnetic field is

discussed. The vast majority of devices that produce such mechanical forces involve

magnetic energy storage created by configurations having turns of wire on magnetic iron

structures.

THEORY APPENDIX:

total = core + leakage (1a)

2. If the current is an ac-current with an rms value then the inductance would be

computed as

Req(x) = 2x/0A + l/iA

Lcore(x) = N2/Req(x)

f = ωr(p/2)/60

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