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Work equipment hazards and risk control This chapter covers the following NEBOSH learning objectives: 4. Outline general principles for selection, use and maintenance of work equipment 2. Outline the hazards and controls for hand-held tools 3. Describe the main mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of machinery 4, Explain the main control methods for reducing risks from machinery hazards 9.1. General principles for selection, use and maintenance of work equipment 254 9.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools 262 9.3 Machinery hazards 267 9.4 Main control methods for reducing risks from machinery hazards 271 9.5 Further information 283 9.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 9 284 9.1 General principles for selection, use and maintenance of work equipment 9.1.1 Introduction and types of equipment This chapter covers the scope and main safety and health requirements for the selection, use and mainte- ‘nance of work equipment as covered by UK's Health and. Safety Executive (HSE) Safe Use of Work Equipment L22 and ISO 12001-1:2008 and ISO 12001-2:2003 ‘Safety of ‘machinery, basic concepts, general principles for design It also covers relevant issues in the ILO Code of Practice ‘Ambient Factors in the Workplace 2001. The safe use of hand tools, hand-held power toals and the proper safe- guarding of a small range of machinery used in industry and commerce are included. Any equipment used by an employee at work is gener- ally covered by the term ‘work equipment’. The scope is extremely wide and includes hand tools, power tools, lad ders (Chapter 6), photocopiers, laboratory apparatus, lit- ing equipment (Chapter 8), fork-lit trucks (Chapter 8), and motor vehicles (which are not privately owned ~ Chapter 7). Virtually anything used to do a job of work, including employees’ own equipment, is covered, The uses covered include starting or stopping the equipment, repairing, mod tying, maintaining, servicing, cleaning and transporting, Employers and the self-employed must ensure that work equipment is suitable, maintained, inspected if necessary, provided with aclequate information and instruction and ‘only used by people who have received sufficient training. Many serious accidents at work involve machinery. Hai or clothing can become entangled in moving parts, peo- ple can be struck by moving parts of machinery, parts of the body can be drawn into or trapped in machinery, and parts of the machinery or work tool can be ejected. Many circumstances can increase the risks, including: ‘ot using the right equipment for the task, such ‘as using ladders instead of access towers for an ‘extended task at high level; not fitting adequate controls on machines, or fit- ting the wrong type of controls, so that equipment cannot be stopped quickly and safely, orit starts accidentally; not guarding machines propery, leading to ace! dents caused by entanglement, shearing, crushing, trapping or cutting; not property maintaining guards and other safoty devices; |B not providing the right information, instruction and training; |W_ not fitting roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts on mobile work equigment where there is a tisk of roll over (excluding quad bikes); not maintaining work equipment or doing the regu- lar inspections and thorough examinations; not providing (free) adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) to use, When identifying the risks, think about: @_ the work being done during normal use of the equioment and also during setting-up, maintenance, cleaning and clearing blockages; which workers wil use the equipment, including those who are inexperienced, have changed jabs or those who may have particular difficulties, such as those with language problems or impaired hearing; @ people who may act stupidly or carelessly or make mistakes; guards or safety devices that may be badly designed and difficult to use or are easy to defeat; '@ other features of the equipment which could cause risks, such as vibration, electricity, wet or cold conditions. Consider the following HI Is the equipment suitable for the task? Ae all the necessary safety devices fitted and in working order? 8 Ave there proper instructions for the equipment? Ws the area around the machine safe and level with ‘no obstructions? Has suitable lighting been provided? Has extraction ventilation been provided where required, for example on grinding and woodwarking machinery? BY Has a risk assessment been done to establish a person's competence or training requirements to control particular machinery? This is very important for everyone. Are machine operators trained and do they have enough information, instruction, training? IB Are people adequately supervised? | Aro safely instructions and procedures being used ‘and followed? @ hine operators u: without loose a special PPE? a is oF devices being used properly? a ‘artied out correctly and in a safe a d tools being used and property maintained? 9.1.2 Suitability of work equipment and basic safety standards Standards and sequirements When work equipment is provided it has to supply a ent and its This involves: its inital integrity: @_ the place where it will be used {the purpose for which it will be used. ups of tn many national le law that deal with the provision of work equipment: systems there 0 led the ‘supply’ of regulations is y) Regulations 2008, chinery facturer ery is safe when supplied and is with the appropriate standards. the users of work equip: alled the ‘user’ law work equipment, tts ol roperly m @ primary purpose is to protect people at work (for example, the UK Provision and Use of Work Equip- ment Regulations}. wemploy e top quip- type, ensure that tis correctly used and maintain it in a safe condition. When buying new ment, the ‘user’ has to check that the equipment complies with all the ‘supply’ law that is relevant, The user must check that the machine Is safe before itis used. Most new work equipment, including machinery in par~ ticular,needs to comply with therelevant standards that are applicable to that equiprnent and the temitory into which the ipplied, Throughout the world there are many standards such as CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation) and CENELEC (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique) in Europe, ANSI (A\ can National Standards Institute), ASME (American So ety of Mechanical Engineers), CSA (Canadian Ste Association) and ISO (International Organization for Stand ion), The ILO have also produced a new Code of Under ‘user mento th machine is bei ds the Workplace requires the folowing ‘Measures should be taken, in serra th who design, manufacture, ce ide or transfer machinery, equment or substances (@) satisty themselves, as far. and practicable, that the ‘ment or substance does not ‘ental dangers for the safety and health of those using i correctly; (b) make available: (i) information (instructions on how known hazards are to be avoided. ‘Suppliers of equipment, processes and, a cuss substances, whether manufacturers, import- ers or distributors, should ensure so far as is practicable that the design is such as to eliminate or control the hazards and risks to safety and health from hazardous ambient factors at work. Where suppliers become aware of new informa- tion concerning the hazards and risks presented ‘by equipment, processes and hazardous sub- stances, they should provide, as appropriate updated information and instructions. Designers should ensure, as far as is practica: ble, that the levels of hazardous Cee ‘nised plant and equipment standards. MeuM/2011 in March marking Practice of the Use of Machin which was agreed in January 2012 2012, Within the EU, machinery shot ‘when purchased (Figure 9.1} Ce Figure 9.1a CE mark