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My Oxford English®

Gramàtica
Index
MODULE 1A ................................................................................................................................. 24

UNIT 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 24

TO BE (SINGULAR AFIRMATIVE) .......................................................................................... 24

TO BE (SINGULAR NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE) .......................................................... 25

NUMBERS 1 TO 10 ............................................................................................................... 26

MEETING PEOPLE ................................................................................................................ 27

UNIT 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 28

TO BE (PLURAL AFIRMATIVE, NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE) ........................................ 28

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 29

NUMBERS 11 TO 20 ............................................................................................................. 30

COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES ........................................................................................ 30

GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHER ....................................................................................... 31

UNIT 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 32

AND, BUT AND OR ............................................................................................................... 32

UNIT 4 ...................................................................................................................................... 32

A/AN .................................................................................................................................... 32

NOUN PLURALS ................................................................................................................... 33

NUMBERS 21 TO 99 ............................................................................................................. 34

EATING OUT ........................................................................................................................ 35

UNIT 5 ...................................................................................................................................... 36

TO BE WITH SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS ..................................................................... 36

ADJECTIVES.......................................................................................................................... 37

CELEBRATIONS .................................................................................................................... 38

UNIT 6 ...................................................................................................................................... 39

PREPOSITIONS ..................................................................................................................... 39

UNIT 7 ...................................................................................................................................... 39

THERE IS, THERE ARE (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE) ........................................................ 39

IS THERE …? ARE THERE …? (INTERROGATIVE) ................................................................... 40

GAME SHOW ....................................................................................................................... 41

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UNIT 8 ...................................................................................................................................... 42

HAVE GOT (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE) ......................................................................... 42

HAVE GOT (INTERROGATIVE) .............................................................................................. 43

TALKING ABOUT POSSESION ............................................................................................... 44

UNIT 9 ...................................................................................................................................... 45

ALSO AND TOO .................................................................................................................... 45

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................... 46

THIS, THESE, THAT AND THOSE ........................................................................................... 46

POSSESIVE FORMS............................................................................................................... 47

THE FAMILY ......................................................................................................................... 48

TALKING ABOUT PREFERENCES ........................................................................................... 49

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................... 49

IMPERATIVES ....................................................................................................................... 49

OBJECT PRONOUNS ............................................................................................................. 51

OBJECT PRONOUNS ............................................................................................................. 51

INVESTIGATING ................................................................................................................... 52

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................... 53

ADJECTIVE ORDER ............................................................................................................... 53

UNIT 13 .................................................................................................................................... 53

PRESENT SIMPLE ................................................................................................................. 53

PREPOSITIONS ..................................................................................................................... 55

FROM HOME TO WORK....................................................................................................... 56

UNIT 14 .................................................................................................................................... 57

PRESENT SIMPLE (3RD PERSON) ........................................................................................... 57

FREQUENCY ADVERBS (1).................................................................................................... 58

TELLING THE TIME ............................................................................................................... 59

TALKING ABOUT ROUTINE .................................................................................................. 61

UNIT 15 .................................................................................................................................... 62

PARAGRAPHING .................................................................................................................. 62

UNIT 16 .................................................................................................................................... 62

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PRESENT SIMPLE WITH TIME PREPOSITIONS ...................................................................... 62

WH - QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................. 64

UNIT 17 .................................................................................................................................... 65

TALKING ABOUT LIKES AND DISLIKES (like, love, hate and enjoy) ...................................... 65

THE GERUND (–ing forms) ................................................................................................... 66

SPORTS WITH GO, PLAY AND DO ........................................................................................ 67

TALKING ABOUT FAVOURITE THINGS ................................................................................. 68

UNIT 18 .................................................................................................................................... 69

EITHER … OR ........................................................................................................................ 69

MODULE 1B ................................................................................................................................. 70

UNIT 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 70

CAN (FOR ABILITY) ............................................................................................................... 70

CAN (FOR PERMISSION) ...................................................................................................... 71

TALKING ABOUT WHAT YOU CAN DO ................................................................................. 72

UNIT 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 73

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE..................................................................................................... 73

IMPERATIVES WITH PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT .......................................................... 74

ORDINAL NUMBERS ............................................................................................................ 75

UNIT 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 76

SEQUENCING ....................................................................................................................... 76

UNIT 4 ...................................................................................................................................... 77

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE) .................................................... 77

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (INTERROGATIVE) ......................................................................... 78

DESCRIBING PEOPLE ............................................................................................................ 79

UNIT 5 ...................................................................................................................................... 80

PRESENT SIMPLE OR PRESENT CONTINUOUS? ................................................................... 80

FREQUENCY ADVERBS (2).................................................................................................... 81

DESCRIBE WHAT YOU’RE DOING ......................................................................................... 82

UNIT 6 ...................................................................................................................................... 83

USING CAPITAL LETTERS...................................................................................................... 83

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UNIT 7 ...................................................................................................................................... 84

WOULD LIKE ........................................................................................................................ 84

SOME AND ANY ................................................................................................................... 85

FOOD AND DRINK (1) .......................................................................................................... 86

REQUESTS AND OFFERS ...................................................................................................... 87

UNIT 8 ...................................................................................................................................... 88

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS.......................................................................... 88

MANY, MUCH AND A LOT OF .............................................................................................. 89

QUANTITIES ......................................................................................................................... 90

TALKING ABOUT THINGS ..................................................................................................... 91

UNIT 9 ...................................................................................................................................... 92

HOWEVER, ON THE OTHER HAND AND ALTHOUGH ........................................................... 92

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................... 93

PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS ..................................................... 93

FUTURE TIME EXPRESSIONS ................................................................................................ 94

FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS ................................................................................................... 96

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................... 96

GOING TO FUTURE (PLANS AND INTENTIONS) ................................................................... 96

GOING TO FUTURE (PREDICTIONS) ..................................................................................... 98

GEOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................ 99

PERSONAL PLANS AND PREDICTIONS ............................................................................... 100

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 101

GIVING EXAMPLES ............................................................................................................. 101

UNIT 13 .................................................................................................................................. 101

THE PAST SIMPLE (TO BE).................................................................................................. 101

THERE WAS, THERE WERE, WAS THERE …?, WERE THERE …? .......................................... 103

EXTREME ADJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 104

TALKING ABOUT THE PAST ................................................................................................ 105

UNIT 14 .................................................................................................................................. 106

PAST SIMPLE IRREGULAR VERBS (AFFIRMATIVE) .............................................................. 106

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PAST SIMPLE IRREGULAR VERBS (NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE) ................................ 107

MONEY .............................................................................................................................. 108

EXPRESSIONS WITH HAVE ................................................................................................. 109

TALKING ABOUT RECENT EVENTS ..................................................................................... 110

UNIT 15 .................................................................................................................................. 111

PUNCTUATION .................................................................................................................. 111

UNIT 16 .................................................................................................................................. 112

PAST SIMPLE REGULAR VERBS (AFFIRMATIVE) ................................................................. 112

WH- QUESTIONS WITH THE PAST SIMPLE......................................................................... 113

OFFICE SKILLS .................................................................................................................... 114

DOCUMENTS ..................................................................................................................... 115

TALKING ABOUT WHAT YOU DID AT WORK...................................................................... 116

UNIT 17 .................................................................................................................................. 117

TIME EXPRESSIONS WITH THE PAST SIMPLE..................................................................... 117

VERBS AND THEIR PREPOSITIONS ..................................................................................... 118

PERIODS OF TIME .............................................................................................................. 119

TALKING ABOUT MUSIC .................................................................................................... 120

UNIT 18 .................................................................................................................................. 121

SO, AS A RESULT AND THEREFORE .................................................................................... 121

MODULE 2A ............................................................................................................................... 122

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 122

REQUESTS AND OFFERS .................................................................................................... 122

TOO AND ENOUGH ............................................................................................................ 123

SIZES .................................................................................................................................. 124

GOING SHOPPING ............................................................................................................. 125

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 126

PAST CONTINUOUS ........................................................................................................... 126

PAST SIMPLE OR PAST CONTINUOUS? .............................................................................. 127

CRIME ................................................................................................................................ 128

DESCRIBING AN EVENING ................................................................................................. 129

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PER DIR AMB QUI ÉREM ................................................................................................... 129

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 130

USING ADVERBS ................................................................................................................ 130

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 131

WILL FOR REQUESTS ......................................................................................................... 131

WILL FOR OFFERS, PROMISES AND DECISIONS ................................................................. 132

LOOKING FOR SOMEONE .................................................................................................. 133

UNIT 5 .................................................................................................................................... 134

WILL FOR PREDICTIONS..................................................................................................... 134

MAY, MIGHT AND WILL FOR PREDICTIONS....................................................................... 135

YEARS, DECADES AND CENTURIES .................................................................................... 136

MAKING AN ARRANGEMENT ............................................................................................ 137

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 138

USING QUOTATION MARKS .............................................................................................. 138

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 139

SUGGESTIONS.................................................................................................................... 139

FUTURE TIME CLAUSES ..................................................................................................... 140

DECIDING WHAT TO DO .................................................................................................... 141

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 142

HAVE TO ............................................................................................................................ 142

NEED TO AND MUST ......................................................................................................... 143

PERSONAL FINANCE .......................................................................................................... 144

BANKING............................................................................................................................ 146

TALKING ABOUT NECESSITY .............................................................................................. 147

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 148

USING IMPERATIVES ......................................................................................................... 148

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 148

SHOULD ............................................................................................................................. 148

EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY.............................................................................................. 150

GIVING YOUR OPINION ..................................................................................................... 151

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UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 152

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES (SHORT ADJECTIVES) .............................................. 152

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES (LONG ADJECTIVES) ............................................... 153

TALKING ABOUT YOUR FAMILY ......................................................................................... 154

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 155

STATISTICS ......................................................................................................................... 155

UNIT 13 .................................................................................................................................. 156

PRESENT PERFECT REGULAR VERBS .................................................................................. 156

PRESENT PERFECT IRREGULAR VERBS (1) ......................................................................... 157

PREPARING AND DESCRIBING FOOD................................................................................. 159

COOKING ........................................................................................................................... 159

UNIT 14 .................................................................................................................................. 160

PRESENT PERFECT WITH EVER AND NEVER ...................................................................... 160

PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE? ................................................................................ 162

TALKING ABOUT TRAVEL ................................................................................................... 163

UNIT 15 .................................................................................................................................. 164

IN OTHER WORDS, ON THE WHOLE AND ON THE CONTRARY.......................................... 164

UNIT 16 .................................................................................................................................. 164

PRESENT PERFECT WITH JUST, ALREADY AND YET ........................................................... 164

PRESENT PERFECT IRREGULAR VERBS (2) ......................................................................... 166

ADVERBS OF MANNER ...................................................................................................... 167

UNIT 17 .................................................................................................................................. 168

PRESENT PERFECT WITH FOR AND SINCE ......................................................................... 168

WILL WITH FOR AND UNTIL............................................................................................... 169

BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH .................................................................................... 170

GIVING PERSONAL DETAILS ............................................................................................... 172

UNIT 18 .................................................................................................................................. 173

DURING, WHILE AND AT PRESENT .................................................................................... 173

MODULE 2B ............................................................................................................................... 175

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 175

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INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 1 (SOMEBODY, ANYTHING) ........................................................ 175

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 1 (NOTHING, EVERYBODY) ......................................................... 176

THE INTERNET ................................................................................................................... 177

LARGE NUMBERS............................................................................................................... 178

SOCIALIZING ...................................................................................................................... 179

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 180

SUBJECT AND OBJECT QUESTIONS .................................................................................... 180

INFINITIVES OF PURPOSE .................................................................................................. 181

RELATIONSHIP ................................................................................................................... 182

SPORT ................................................................................................................................ 183

IN A RESTAURANT ............................................................................................................. 184

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 185

BECAUSE AND BECAUSE OF .............................................................................................. 185

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 186

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHICH OR THAT ...................................................... 186

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHO OR THAT ......................................................... 187

FACIAL APPEARANCE ......................................................................................................... 188

BEING A WITNESS .............................................................................................................. 189

unit 5 ..................................................................................................................................... 190

PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE ................................................................................................. 190

PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE........................................................................................................ 191

FABRICS ............................................................................................................................. 192

DESCRIBING POSSESIONS .................................................................................................. 193

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 193

EXPRESSING OPINIONS...................................................................................................... 193

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 194

CONSOLIDATIONS OF PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES...................................................... 194

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ...................................................................................................... 195

JOB INTERVIEW ................................................................................................................. 196

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 197

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CONSOLIDATION OF PAST TENSES .................................................................................... 197

CONSOLIDATION OF THE PRESENT PERFECT .................................................................... 198

GHOST STORIES ................................................................................................................. 200

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 201

USING ADJECTIVES TO WRITE GHOST STORIES ................................................................. 201

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 201

BOTH AND NEITHER, ALL AND NONE, EACH AND ONE ..................................................... 201

FREQUENCY ADVERBS AND EXPRESSIONS ........................................................................ 203

MATHEMATICS .................................................................................................................. 204

TALKING ABOUT ABILITIES ................................................................................................ 205

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 206

WANT (SOMEBODY TO DO SOMETHING) ......................................................................... 206

INFINITIVE PATTERNS ........................................................................................................ 207

JOB TITLES ......................................................................................................................... 208

ASKING FOR HELP AT WORK ............................................................................................. 209

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 210

REPORTING RESULTS OF A SURVEY ................................................................................... 210

UNIT 13 .................................................................................................................................. 211

TELL AND SAY .................................................................................................................... 211

TELL/ASK (SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING) ....................................................................... 212

TALKING TO THE PHONE ................................................................................................... 213

UNIT 14 .................................................................................................................................. 214

MAY AND MIGHT............................................................................................................... 214

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS OF PROBABILITY .................................................................... 215

IN THE COURTROOM ......................................................................................................... 216

TALKING ABOUT FUTURE POSSIBILITIES ........................................................................... 217

UNIT 15 .................................................................................................................................. 218

USING SYNONYMS TO AVOID REPETITION ....................................................................... 218

UNIT 16 .................................................................................................................................. 219

FIRST CONDITIONAL .......................................................................................................... 219

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FUTURE TIME CLAUSES WITH WHEN, BEFORE, AFTER, ETC. ............................................ 220

EXPRESSIONS WITH MAKE ................................................................................................ 221

TALKING ABOUT FUTURE POSSIBILITIES ........................................................................... 222

UNIT 17 .................................................................................................................................. 223

SECOND CONDITIONAL ..................................................................................................... 223

FIRST OR SECOND CONDITIONAL? .................................................................................... 224

LIFE STATES........................................................................................................................ 226

TALKING ABOUT PROBLEMS ............................................................................................. 226

UNIT 18 .................................................................................................................................. 227

WRITING AN INFORMAL LETTER ....................................................................................... 227

MODULE 3A ............................................................................................................................... 229

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 229

QUESTION FORMS ............................................................................................................. 229

QUESTIONS WITH HOW .................................................................................................... 230

UNIVERSITY LIFE ................................................................................................................ 231

DESCRIBING PERSONALITY ................................................................................................ 231

GIVING PERSONAL INFORMATION .................................................................................... 232

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 233

THE GERUND (-ING FORMS) .............................................................................................. 233

ADJECTIVES ENDING IN –ING AND -ED ............................................................................. 234

LITERATURE ....................................................................................................................... 235

LOVE AND MARRIAGE ....................................................................................................... 236

TALKING ABOUT THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS .................................................................... 236

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 237

USING SYNONYMS TO AVOID REPETITION ....................................................................... 237

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 238

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (ASK + IF) .................................................................................... 238

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (ASK + QUESTION WORDS) ........................................................ 239

USING THE PHONE ............................................................................................................ 239

THE SPORTS INDUSTRY...................................................................................................... 240

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MAKING PHONE CALLS ...................................................................................................... 241

UNIT 5 .................................................................................................................................... 242

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS .................................................................................................... 242

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS IN THE PAST ............................................................................... 243

EXPRESSIONS WITH LOOK, SEE AND WATCH .................................................................... 244

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 245

USING REFERENCE WORDS ............................................................................................... 245

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 246

PRESENT CONTINUOUS ..................................................................................................... 246

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS.................................................................... 247

ADJECTIVES WITH PREFIXES .............................................................................................. 248

EXPRESSIONS WITH THE VERB TO BE ................................................................................ 249

ORDERING FOOD AND DRINK ........................................................................................... 249

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 250

USED TO ............................................................................................................................ 250

WOULD .............................................................................................................................. 251

TALKING ABOUT PAST EXPERIENCES................................................................................. 252

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 253

AFTER, LATER AND IN THE END ......................................................................................... 253

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 254

SO, NEITHER, NOR AND TOO ............................................................................................. 254

SO, NEITHER AND NOR ...................................................................................................... 255

MUSIC ................................................................................................................................ 256

PHRASAL VERBS................................................................................................................. 257

TALKING ABOUT THINGS WE LIKE AND OWN ................................................................... 257

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 258

EXPRESSING REASON ........................................................................................................ 258

EXPRESSING CONTRAST .................................................................................................... 259

THE ENVIRONMENT .......................................................................................................... 261

TALKING ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................... 261

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UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 262

COMMON MISTAKES ......................................................................................................... 262

MODULE 3B ............................................................................................................................... 263

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 263

QUESTION TAGS (1) ........................................................................................................... 263

QUESTION TAGS (2) ........................................................................................................... 264

CHECKING INFORMATION ................................................................................................. 265

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 266

CONSOLIDATION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES .............................................. 266

(NOT) AS + ADJECTIVE/ADVERB + AS ................................................................................ 267

DESCRIBING YOUR HOME ................................................................................................. 268

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 269

WRITING A FORMAL LETTER OF COMPLAINT ................................................................... 269

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 270

PASSIVE EXTENSION .......................................................................................................... 270

HAVE SOMETHING DONE .................................................................................................. 271

SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS ............................................................................................. 272

TALKING ABOUT SERVICES ................................................................................................ 273

UNIT 5 .................................................................................................................................... 273

PERMISSION, OBLIGATION AND PROHIBITION (MODAL VERBS) ...................................... 273

PERMISSION, OBLIGATION AND PROHIBITION (PASSIVE VERBS) ..................................... 274

TALKING ABOUT RULES ..................................................................................................... 275

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 276

ADDING INFORMATION .................................................................................................... 276

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 277

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHO, WHICH OR THAT ........................................... 277

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHOSE, WHERE, WHEN OR WHY ........................... 278

NEWSPAPERS .................................................................................................................... 279

TALKING ABOUT THE MEDIA ............................................................................................. 280

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 280

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PAST PERFECT (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE) ................................................................. 280

PAST PERFECT (INTERROGATIVE AND SHORT ANSWERS) ................................................. 281

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES WITH NUMBERS ....................................................................... 283

COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH ....................................................................................................... 283

DESCRIBING WHAT YOU DID YESTERDAY.......................................................................... 284

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 285

STYLES OF WRITING IN NEWSPAPERS ............................................................................... 285

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 286

CONSOLIDATION OF REPORTED SPEECH .......................................................................... 286

REPORTED SPEECH (MODAL VERBS) ................................................................................. 287

NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES ..................................................................................................... 288

HAVING AN ARGUMENT.................................................................................................... 288

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 289

REPORTED QUESTIONS...................................................................................................... 289

REPORTED COMMANDS AND REQUESTS .......................................................................... 290

CV VOCABULARY ............................................................................................................... 291

PEOPLE NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES ........................................................................................ 292

A JOB INTERVIEW .............................................................................................................. 293

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 294

CONTRASTING IDEAS WITH LINKING WORDS ................................................................... 294

MODULE 4A ............................................................................................................................... 295

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 295

CONTINUOUS TENSES ....................................................................................................... 295

FUTURE CONTINUOUS ...................................................................................................... 296

PRICES................................................................................................................................ 297

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 298

SEQUENCE IN THE PAST .................................................................................................... 298

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS ............................................................................................ 299

TALKING ABOUT AN INJURY .............................................................................................. 300

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 301

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NARRATING EVENTS .......................................................................................................... 301

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 302

VERB + THE GERUND (-ING FORM) OR INFINITIVE............................................................ 302

I THINK SO, I HOPE SO, AFRAID SO .................................................................................... 303

EATING OUT ...................................................................................................................... 304

UNIT 5 .................................................................................................................................... 305

BE/GET USED TO; PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND ALWAYS ................................................. 305

CONSOLIDATION OF USED TO AND WOULD ..................................................................... 306

TALKING ABOUT HABITS.................................................................................................... 307

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 308

INTENSIFYING ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES ........................................................................ 308

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 309

ABILITY AND OBLIGATION IN THE FUTURE ....................................................................... 309

ABILITY AND OBLIGATION IN THE PRESENT PERFECT ....................................................... 310

EXPRESSIONS WITH TIME .................................................................................................. 311

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 312

LET, MAKE AND FORCE ...................................................................................................... 312

ADVICE AND PREFERENCE ................................................................................................. 313

CHARITY ............................................................................................................................. 314

HAVING AN OPINION ........................................................................................................ 315

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 316

EXPRESSING PURPOSE....................................................................................................... 316

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 317

CONTINUOUS FORMS IN THE PASSIVE.............................................................................. 317

PASSIVE INFINITIVE ........................................................................................................... 318

TALKING ABOUT ART ......................................................................................................... 319

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 320

CONSOLIDATION OF DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES .......................................................... 320

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES................................................................................... 321

EXPRESSIONS WITH IN ...................................................................................................... 322

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TALKING ABOUT LEISURE ACTIVITIES ................................................................................ 323

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 323

REPORTING WITH A PASSIVE VERB ................................................................................... 323

MODULE 4B ............................................................................................................................... 324

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 324

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE ....................................................................................................... 324

BOTH OF THEM, ALL OF US, SEVERAL OF YOU ETC. .......................................................... 325

AT THE HOSPITAL .............................................................................................................. 326

TALKING ABOUT LOCAL INSTITUTIONS ............................................................................. 327

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 328

MODAL VERBS OF DEDUCTION (PRESENT) ....................................................................... 328

VERBS OF PERCEPTION...................................................................................................... 329

WORLD REGIONS ............................................................................................................... 330

RULERS AND FORMS OF GOVERNMENT ........................................................................... 331

TALKING ABOUT PHOTOS.................................................................................................. 332

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 332

USING SYNONYMS OF THE VERB SAY................................................................................ 332

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 333

CONSOLIDATION OF THE FIRST AND SECOND CONDITIONAL........................................... 333

WISH AND IF ONLY (1) ....................................................................................................... 334

TALKING ABOUT BUSINESS ............................................................................................... 335

EXPRESSIONS WITH GET .................................................................................................... 336

DISCUSSING PROBLEMS .................................................................................................... 336

unit 5 ..................................................................................................................................... 337

CONSOLIDATION OF FUTURE TENSES ............................................................................... 337

FUTURE PEFECT ................................................................................................................. 338

TALKING ABOUT JOURNEYS .............................................................................................. 339

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 340

ADJECTIVES WITH SUFFIXES .............................................................................................. 340

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 341

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MODAL VERBS OF DEDUCTION (CONTINUOUS) ............................................................... 341

MODAL VERBS OF DEDUCTION (PAST) ............................................................................. 342

CRIMINALS AND CRIME ..................................................................................................... 344

TALKING ABOUT LOSING THINGS ...................................................................................... 344

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 345

THIRD CONDITIONAL ......................................................................................................... 345

WISH AND IF ONLY (2) ....................................................................................................... 346

BOOK PUBLISHING ............................................................................................................ 347

EXPRESSIONS WITH OFF .................................................................................................... 348

TALKING ABOUT REGRETS ................................................................................................. 348

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 349

COMMON MISTAKES ......................................................................................................... 349

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 350

REPORTING VERBS + INFINITIVE........................................................................................ 350

REPORTING VERBS + OBJECT + INFINITIVE ........................................................................ 351

SUFFIXES –ful AND –less.................................................................................................... 352

TALKING ABOUT BORROWING THINGS............................................................................. 352

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 353

REPORTING VERBS + GERUND/THAT… ............................................................................. 353

DIRECT SPEECH .................................................................................................................. 354

WAYS OF SPEAKING........................................................................................................... 355

VERB PREFIXES .................................................................................................................. 356

TALKING ABOUT STORIES .................................................................................................. 356

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 357

NARRATIVE TENSES ........................................................................................................... 357

MODULE 5A ............................................................................................................................... 358

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 358

CULTURAL AWARENESS .................................................................................................... 358

DESCRIBING CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIENCES ................................................................... 358

DESCRIBING CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIENCES ................................................................... 359

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REPORTING BACK ON RESEARCH ...................................................................................... 359

REPORTING BACK ON RESEARCH ...................................................................................... 359

TENSES REVIEW ................................................................................................................. 361

TENSES REVIEW ................................................................................................................. 361

TENSES REVIEW ................................................................................................................. 363

INTRODUCING YOURSELF TO A GROUP ............................................................................ 364

INTRODUCING YOURSELF TO A GROUP ............................................................................ 364

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 365

THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION ................................................................................... 365

COMPARING CAREER PATHS AND CHOICES...................................................................... 366

COMPARING CAREER PATHS AND CHOICES...................................................................... 366

MANAGING THE DISCUSSION IN MEETINGS ..................................................................... 367

MANAGING THE DISCUSSION IN MEETINGS ..................................................................... 368

EXPRESSING ATTITUDES TO THE PAST .............................................................................. 369

EXPRESSING ATTITUDES TO THE PAST .............................................................................. 369

GETTING YOUR POINT ACROSS ......................................................................................... 371

GETTING YOUR POINT ACROSS ......................................................................................... 372

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 372

CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION .................................................................................... 372

LEARNING TO AVOID CULTURAL GAFFES .......................................................................... 373

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ................................................................................................... 374

COVERING LETTERS ........................................................................................................... 375

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 375

THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY .................................................................................. 375

DRINKING TEA AND QUEUING .......................................................................................... 376

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS .................................................................................................. 376

UNIT 5 .................................................................................................................................... 377

CHANGE MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................... 377

DISCUSSING WORKING PATTERNS .................................................................................... 378

DISCUSSING WORKING PATTERNS .................................................................................... 378

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GIVING A FORMAL PRESENTATION ................................................................................... 378

GIVING A FORMAL PRESENTATION ................................................................................... 379

SPECULATING ABOUT FUTURE CHANGES ......................................................................... 380

SPECULATING ABOUT FUTURE CHANGES ......................................................................... 381

SHOWING UNDERSTANDING ............................................................................................ 382

SHOWING UNDERSTANDING ............................................................................................ 383

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 383

AN INVESTMENT BANKER ................................................................................................. 383

TALKING ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF RISK ..................................................................... 384

TALKING ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF RISK ..................................................................... 384

TAKING PART IN A TELECONFERENCE ............................................................................... 385

TAKING PART IN A TELECONFERENCE ............................................................................... 385

REFERENCING USING PRONOUNS ..................................................................................... 386

REFERENCING USING PRONOUNS ..................................................................................... 387

REFERENCING USING PRONOUNS ..................................................................................... 387

ESTABLISHING RAPPORT AND SHOWING INTEREST ......................................................... 388

ESTABLISHING RAPPORT AND SHOWING INTEREST ......................................................... 389

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 391

CANDIDATES ...................................................................................................................... 391

SKYPE INTERVIEWS ............................................................................................................ 391

INTERVIEW EXPERIENCES .................................................................................................. 392

CVs ..................................................................................................................................... 394

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 394

NEW YORK CITY ................................................................................................................. 394

LANGUAGE IS THE DRESS OF THOUGHT ........................................................................... 395

AMERICAN ENGLISH .......................................................................................................... 396

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 397

FREELANCE OR EMPLOYED? .............................................................................................. 397

EXPLORING TEAM RELATIONSHIPS ................................................................................... 398

EXPLORING TEAM RELATIONSHIPS ................................................................................... 398

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DEALING WITH CONFLICT.................................................................................................. 398

DEALING WITH CONFLICT.................................................................................................. 399

ADDING EMPHASIS ............................................................................................................ 400

ADDING EMPHASIS ............................................................................................................ 401

ADDING EMPHASIS ............................................................................................................ 401

RESPONDING TO FEEDBACK .............................................................................................. 403

RESPONDING TO FEEDBACK .............................................................................................. 403

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 404

EXPANSION OF A SUPERMARKET ...................................................................................... 404

DISCUSSING FACTORS FOR SUCCESS................................................................................. 405

PROBLEM-SOLVING IN MEETINGS .................................................................................... 406

USING ADVERBS TO QUALIFY ATTITUDES ......................................................................... 407

USING ADVERBS TO QUALIFY ATTITUDES ......................................................................... 408

USING VAGUE LANGUAGE ................................................................................................ 409

USING VAGUE LANGUAGE ................................................................................................ 410

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 411

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES.................................................................................................... 411

STEPS TO SUCCESS ............................................................................................................ 412

SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM GOALS ............................................................................ 412

PROPOSALS........................................................................................................................ 413

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 414

QUEENSTOWN, NEW ZEALAND ........................................................................................ 414

KIWI WORDS UNDER ATTACK ........................................................................................... 415

NEW ZEALAND ENGLISH .................................................................................................... 416

MODULE 5B ............................................................................................................................... 417

UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................... 417

TRAINING ........................................................................................................................... 417

TALKING ABOUT TRAINING AND LEARNING ..................................................................... 417

TALKING ABOUT TRAINING AND LEARNING: CHECK THESE WORDS ................................ 418

COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES ON THE TELEPHONE....................................................... 418

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COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES ON THE TELEPHONE....................................................... 419

PARTICIPLE CLAUSES - THE FUTURE IN THE PAST ............................................................. 420

PARTICIPLE CLAUSES ......................................................................................................... 420

THE FUTURE IN THE PAST .................................................................................................. 421

EXPRESSING DISSATISFACTION ......................................................................................... 422

EXPRESSING DISSATISFACTION ......................................................................................... 423

UNIT 2 .................................................................................................................................... 424

JOB SATISFACTION ............................................................................................................ 424

DISCUSSING EMPLOYER / EMPLOYEE EXPECTATIONS ...................................................... 424

DISCUSSING EMPLOYER / EMPLOYEE EXPECTATIONS ...................................................... 425

GIVING AN IMPROMPTU PRESENTATION ......................................................................... 425

GIVING AN IMPROMPTU PRESENTATION ......................................................................... 426

USING QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................ 427

Using questions ................................................................................................................. 427

USING QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................ 429

DEALING WITH DIFFICULT QUESTIONS ............................................................................. 430

DEALING WITH DIFFICULT QUESTIONS ............................................................................. 430

UNIT 3 .................................................................................................................................... 431

THE LIVES OF OTHERS ....................................................................................................... 431

ARE DYING LANGUAGES WORTH SAVING? ....................................................................... 431

TRADITIONS ....................................................................................................................... 432

REPORTS ............................................................................................................................ 433

UNIT 4 .................................................................................................................................... 434

GEORGE ORWELL .............................................................................................................. 434

NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR ................................................................................................... 435

ORWELLIAN LANGUAGE .................................................................................................... 436

UNIT 5 .................................................................................................................................... 437

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY................................................................................ 437

TALKING ABOUT RESOURCES ............................................................................................ 437

TALKING ABOUT RESOURCES ............................................................................................ 438

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DISCUSSING OPTIONS AND REACHING DECISIONS IN MEETINGS .................................... 439

DISCUSSING OPTIONS AND REACHING DECISIONS IN MEETINGS .................................... 439

USING CONDITIONALS....................................................................................................... 440

USING CONDITIONALS....................................................................................................... 442

DEALING WITH MISUNDERSTANDINGS............................................................................. 443

DEALING WITH MISUNDERSTANDINGS............................................................................. 443

UNIT 6 .................................................................................................................................... 444

LEADERSHIP ....................................................................................................................... 444

TALKING ABOUT LEADERSHIP STYLES ............................................................................... 445

GIVING A BRIEFING ON CHANGE....................................................................................... 446

GIVING A BRIEFING ON CHANGE....................................................................................... 447

DISTANCING AND DEPERSONALIZING USING THE PASSIVE .............................................. 448

DISTANCING AND DEPERSONALIZING USING THE PASSIVE .............................................. 449

DISTANCING AND DEPERSONALIZING USING THE PASSIVE .............................................. 450

EXPRESSING PERSONAL VIEWS ......................................................................................... 451

EXPRESSING PERSONAL VIEWS ......................................................................................... 451

UNIT 7 .................................................................................................................................... 452

GETTING PERSONAL .......................................................................................................... 452

IS 29 THE PERFECT AGE? ................................................................................................... 453

FRIENDS AND ACQUAINTANCES........................................................................................ 454

LETTERS OF AGREEMENT .................................................................................................. 455

UNIT 8 .................................................................................................................................... 455

THE IRISH POTATO FAMINE............................................................................................... 455

WHY DO THE IRISH SPEAK THE WAY THEY DO .................................................................. 456

IRISH ENGLISH ................................................................................................................... 456

UNIT 9 .................................................................................................................................... 457

THE COLLAPSE OF ENRON ................................................................................................. 457

TALKING ABOUT VALUES................................................................................................... 458

TALKING ABOUT VALUES................................................................................................... 458

REACHING AN AGREEMENT .............................................................................................. 459

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REACHING AN AGREEMENT .............................................................................................. 460

USING INVERSION FOR EMPHASIS .................................................................................... 461

USING INVERSION FOR EMPHASIS: READ THE EXPLANATIONS ........................................ 461

UNIT 10 .................................................................................................................................. 463

SELLING.............................................................................................................................. 463

TALKING ABOUT PERSUASION AND INFLUENCE ............................................................... 464

TALKING ABOUT PERSUASION AND INFLUENCE ............................................................... 464

SELLING AN IDEA ............................................................................................................... 465

DISCOURSE MARKERS ....................................................................................................... 466

DISCOURSE MARKERS ....................................................................................................... 467

DISCOURSE MARKERS ....................................................................................................... 468

GIVING AND RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS ................................................................. 469

GIVING AND RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS ................................................................. 469

UNIT 11 .................................................................................................................................. 470

THE NATURAL WORLD....................................................................................................... 470

ECO TOURISM.................................................................................................................... 471

TRAVEL .............................................................................................................................. 472

MAILSHOTS........................................................................................................................ 473

UNIT 12 .................................................................................................................................. 473

GREAT BARRIER REEF ........................................................................................................ 473

THE RISE AND FALL OF AUSTRALIAN SLANG ..................................................................... 474

AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH ....................................................................................................... 475

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MODULE 1A
UNIT 1

TO BE (SINGULAR AFIRMATIVE)

El verb to be (ser / estar) es fa servir per donar informació sobre un mateix i sobre els altres.

I’m Rod Samson. You’re married. He’s Spanish.


Sóc el Rod Samson. Ets casat. És espanyol.

COMPTE! A diferència del que passa en català, en anglès el subjecte mai no s’omet i se situa
sempre abans del verb.

She’s English. Is English.


És anglesa.

Les contraccions del verb to be es fan servir en l’anglès parlat i en textos escrits informals. Les
formes completes tan sols s’utilitzen en textos escrits formals.

Contraccions Formes completes


I’m I am
You’re You are
He’s / She’s / It’s He is / She is / It is

“Tu”, “vostè” / vós”, “vosaltres” i “vostès” / “vós” es tradueixen de la mateixa manera en


anglès: you. La forma verbal també és la mateixa: are.

En anglès, els pronoms he (ell) i she (ella) es fan servir per fer referència a una persona; it’s
s’utilitza per referir-se a un objecte o a una altra cosa.

He’s a cleaner. It’s a good job.


És nejetador. És una bona feina.

COMPTE! Per expressar l’edat en anglès, es fa servir el verb to be, i no to have (tenir).

I’m 27. I have 27.


Tinc 27 anys.

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Mentre que en català es fa servir el verb “tenir” seguit d’un substantiu per expressar unes
sensacions determinades, en anglès s’acostuma a utilitzar to be seguit d’un adjectiu.

You’re cold. You have cold. She’s thirsty. She has thirsty. He’s hungry. He has hungry.
Tens fred. Té set. Té gana.

TO BE (SINGULAR NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE)

To be (singular, forma negativa)

Les frases negatives amb el verb to be es formen afegint-hi not darrere la forma verbal
conjugada; al contrari del que fa el català, que situa el “no” davant el verb.

I’m not Rod Samson. You aren’t married. He isn’t Spanish.


No sóc el Rod Samson. No ets casat. No és espanyol.

Les contraccions del verb to be es fan servir en l’anglès parlat i en textos escrits informals. Les
formes completes s’utilitzen, només, en textos escrits formals. Observa que not es contrau i es
transforma en n’t quan s’afegeix al final de la forma conjugada de to be. L’excepció d’aquesta
regla és la primera persona, I. En aquest cas, es contrau la forma conjugada del verb: I’m not.

Contraccions Formes completes


I’m not I am not
You aren’t You are not
He isn’t / She isn’t / It isn’t He is not / She is not / It is not

To be (singular, forma interrogativa)

Les preguntes amb to be es formen invertint l’ordre del subjecte i del verb.

Am I late? Are you Rod Samson? Is she here for the interview?
Que faig tard? Ets el Rod Samson? És aquí per l’entrevista?

COMPTE! De la mateixa manera que en les formes afirmativa i negativa, en la forma


interrogativa sempre ha de figurar-hi el subjecte.

Is he English? Is English?
Que és anglès?

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En català, es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí” o “no”, però en anglès
s’acostuma a fer servir allò que es diu una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes, I am / No, I’m not). En les
respostes curtes afirmatives, es fan servir les formes completes del verb (p. ex. I am. / You
are.), però en les respostes curtes negatives s’utilitzen les contraccions (p. ex. I’m not / You
aren’t).

Interrogativa Resposta curta


Am I …? Yes, I am / No, I’m not
Are you …? Yes, you are / No, you aren’t
Is he …? / Is she …? / Is it …? Yes, he is / No, she isn’t / Yes, it is

NUMBERS 1 TO 10

one two three four five


u dos tres quatre cinc

six seven eight nine ten


sis set vuit nou deu

El nombre 0

En anglès, hi ha dues paraules per al nombre 0.

nought zero
zero zero

Número de telèfon

Als números de telèfon, el zero se sol pronunciar de la manera següent:

0
zero

Les xifres dels números de telèfon es llegeixen d’una en una.

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MEETING PEOPLE

Les salutacions

Les expressions següents es fan servir per saludar:

Hello. Hi. Good Morning. Good afternoon. Good evening.


Hola. Hola. Bon dia. Bona tarda. Bona tarda / Bon vespre.

Els comiats

Les expressions següents es fan servir per acomidar-se:

Goodbye. Goodnight.
Adéu / A reveure. Bona nit.

De manera semblant com passa en català, en anglès tan sols es fa servir goodnight (bona nit)
com a comiat.

Es poden fer servir les expressions següents per acomiadar-se d’algú que tornarem a veure
aviat:

See you later. See you tomorrow. See you soon.


Fins després. Fins demà. Fins aviat.

Les presentacions

Les expressions següents es fan servir per saber com es diu algú i per presentar-se:

What’s your name? My name’s Rachel Richards. Nice to meet you.


Com et dius? Em dic Rachel Richards. Molt de gust.

Nice to meet you too. How are you? Fine thanks, and you?
El gust és meu. Com va això? / Com anem? Bé, gràcies. I tu?

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UNIT 2

TO BE (PLURAL AFIRMATIVE, NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE)

To be (plural, formes afirmativa i negativa)

El present singular de to be té tres formes: I am, you are i he / she / it is. En canvi, el plural
només en té una (are) per a les tres persones: we are, you are, they are. Recorda que en
l’anglès parlat i en textos escrits informals es fan servir contraccions: ‘re per a les afirmatives i
aren’t per a les negatives. Les formes completes s’utilitzen tan sols en textos escrits formals.

We’re in the flat. You’re students . They’re in Italy.


Som al pis. Sou estudiants. Són a Itàlia.

COMPTE! La segona persona del singular i la del plural són iguals: you are. You es pot traduir
com a “tu”, “vostè” / “vós”. El context, però, sol aclarar si es parla d’una persona o de més
d’una.

We aren’t clever. You aren’t quiet. They aren’t teachers.


No som llestos. No ets tranquil. No són professors.

To be (plural, forma interrogativa)

Les preguntes amb el verb to be es formen invertint l’ordre del subjecte i del verb.

Are you flatmates? Are we on television?


Sou companyes de pis? Que sortim per televisió?

En català es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí’ o “no”; en anglès, però,
s’acostuma a fer servir una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes, we are / No, we aren’t). En les respostes
curtes afirmatives s’utilitzen les formes completes del verb (p. ex. We are / They are); en les
respostes curtes negatives, però, s’usa les contraccions (p. ex. We aren’t / They aren’t).

Interrogativa Resposta curta


Are we …? Yes, we are / No, we aren’t
Are you …? Yes, you are / No, you aren’t
Are they …? Yes, they are / No, they aren’t

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POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

Els possessive adjectives (adjectius possessius) se situen sempre davant el substantiu, i


especifiquen a qui pertany allò que es designa.

My name’s Tom. He’s in his room. This is our first day in the flat.
Em dic Tom. És a la seva habitació. Aquest és el nostre primer dia al pis.

Pronoms personals Adjectius possessius


I My
You Your
He / She / It His / Her / Its
We Our
You Your
They Their

També es poden fer servir per fer referència a la relació entre diferents persones.

Sarah and Claire are my flatmates.


La Sarah i la Claire són les meves companyes de pis.

COMPTE! No s’ha de confondre l’adjectiu possessiu its amb it’s. It’s significa it is o it has.
L’adjectiu possessiu its mai no porta apòstrof.

Colombia is famous for its coffee. Colombia is famous for it’s coffee.
Colòmbia és famosa pel seu cafè.

Els possessive adjectives es fan servir més sovint en anglès que no en català. Per exemple, en
anglès acostumen a utilitzar-los per referir-se a les parts del cos, mentre que en català s’hi fa
servir l’article. L’ús de l’article és menys freqüent en anglès.

He broke his leg. He broke the leg.


Es va trencar la cama.

Quan se sap a qui pertany un objecte, gairebé sempre es fa servir un adjectiu possessiu.

Where’s my book? Where’s the book?


On és el meu llibre?

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NUMBERS 11 TO 20

eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen


onze dotze tretze catorze quinze

sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty


setze disset divuit dinou vint

Observa que els nombres del 13 al 19 acaben en –teen. Per això als joves i als adolescents
compresos entre aquestes edats se’ls anomera teenagers.

teenager teenagers
adolescent adolescents

Observa també com canvia l’ortografia dels nombres si s’hi afegeix –teen.

Three + ten = thirteen (threeteen)


Five + ten = fifteen (fiveteen)

COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES

Spain Spanish Great Britain British


Espanya espanyol la Gran Bretanya britànic/a

China Chinese Brazil Brazilian


la Xina xinès/esa el Brasil brasiler/a

Ireland Irish Mexico Mexican


Irlanda irlandès/esa Mèxic mexicà/ana

Germany German Japan Japanese


Alemanya alemany/a el Japó japonès/esa

Italy Italian Australia Australian


Itàlia italià/ana Austràlia australià/ana

Portugal Portuguese the USA American


Portugal portuguès/esa els Estats Units nord-americà
nord-americana

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COMPTE! En anglès, al contrari que en català, les nacionalitats s’escriuen sempre amb
majúscula.

I’m Brazilian. I’m brazilian.


Sóc brasilier.

GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHER

Per dir d’on som

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar la procedència:

Where are you from? I’m from Oxford. They’re from Madrid.
D’on ets? Sóc d’Oxford. Són de Madrid.

Are you from Ireland? Yes, I am. I’m from Dublin. No, I’m not. I’m from the
United States
Ets d’Irlanda? Sí, sóc de Dublín. No, sóc dels Estats Units.

Per indicar la nostra nacionalitat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar la nacionalitat:

Are you American? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. I’m Spanish
Que ets nord-americà? Sí, ho sóc. No, sóc espanyol.

My mum’s Italian. My friend’s Japanese. They’re Australian.


La meva mare és italiana. El meu amic és japonès. Són australians.

Per expressar opinions

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar opinions:

Fantastic! Cool! Oh, wow!


Fantàstic! Formidable! / Súper! / Magnífic! Apa! / Ostres!

Brilliant! Disgusting! Horrible!


Fantàstic! / Magnífic! Quin fàstic! Quin horror!

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UNIT 3

AND, BUT AND OR

La conjunció “i” equival a and en anglès.

His parents are actors and they’re in the United States.


Els seus pares són actors i s’estan als Estats Units.

Com en català, si dues frases comparteixen el mateix subjecte i el mateix verb, no cal repetir-
los.

You’re tall and you’re intellingent. You’re tall and intelligent.


Ets alta i ets intel·ligent. Ets alta i intel·ligent.

La conjunció “però” equival a but en anglès.

I’m friendly but I’m quiet. He’s noisy but fun.


Sóc simpàtic, però callat . És escandalós, però divertit.

La conjunció “o” equival a or en anglès.

At the weekends I play the piano or I go to classical music concerts.


Els caps de setmana toco el piano o vaig a concerts de música clàssica.

UNIT 4

A/AN

L’article indeterminat es fa servir davant substantius singulars que comencen per consonant.

a car a muffin
un cotxe una magdalena

L’article indeterminat an es fa servir davant substantius singulars que comencen per vocal.

an apple an orange
una poma una taronja

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Els articles indeterminats “un” i “una” equivalen en anglès a a, an o one. En anglès, gairebé mai
no es fa servir one; generalment, s’utilitza a o an. One serveix per recalcar el nombre, per
subratllar que ens referim a una sola cosa, no a dues ni a tres.

One sugar, please.


Una cullerada de sucre, si us plau.

Observa els exemples següents. Les paraules hour i honest comencen per h muda, per això el
primer so que es pronuncia és vocàlic. Per tant, les paraules hour i honest van precedides de
l’indeterminat an.

an hour an honest man


una hora un home honrat

Però hi ha algunes excepcions a aquesta regla. Als exemples següents, tot i que els substantius
comencen per vocal, el primer so que es pronuncia és consonàntic. Aquests mots van
precedits, per tant, de a i no de an.

COMPTE! Quan parlem de professions en anglès, l’article indeterminat a / an se situa sempre


davant la professió. En català, se sol ometre.

I’m a teacher. I’m a cleaner. He’s a doctor. He’s doctor.


Sóc professor. Sóc netejador. És metge.

NOUN PLURALS

El plural dels substantius

El plural de la majoria dels substantius es forma afegint –s al final de la paraula.

hat > hats muffin > muffins flatmate > flatmates


barret > barrets magdalena > magdalenes company/a de pis >
companys/es de pis

Canvis en l’ortografia

El plural dels substantius que acaben en consonant seguida de –y es forma substituint la –y per
–ies al final de la paraula.

university > universities dicctionary > dicctionaries


universitat > universitats diccionari > diccionaris

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Tanmateix, si els substantius acaben en vocal seguida de –y, simplement s’hi afegeix una –s.

day > days guy > guys


dia > dies noi > nois

El plural dels substantius que acaben en –s, –ss, –sh, –ch i –x es forma afegint –es al final de la
paraula.

glass > glasses dish > dishes watch > watches box > boxes
got > gots plat > plats rellotge > rellotges capsa > capses

Quan el plural acaba en –es, la pronúncia de la paraula canvia. La terminació –es es pronuncia
en una síl·laba addicional. Per exemple, bus, paraula d’una sola síl·laba, passa a ser un mot de
dues síl·labes.

bus > buses


autobús > autobusos

Tots els substantius en què el plural es forma afegint-hi –es tenen l’accent sobre la primera
síl·laba.

Plurals irregulars

Els substantius següents tenen el plural irregular:

man > men woman > women child > children person > people
home > homes dona > dones nen > nens persona > persones

NUMBERS 21 TO 99

Els nombres del 20 en endavant es formen fent servir com a base les desenes.

twenty thirty forty fifty sixty


vint trenta quaranta cinquanta seixanta

seventy eighty ninety


setanta vuitanta noranta

A les desenes s’hi afegeixen les unitats, que se separen amb un guió en el llenguatge escrit.

twenty-one forty-two
vint-i-u quaranta-dos

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Quan es parla de preus, es diu el nom de la moneda després de la xifra.

Two euros twenty pounds five dollars


Dos euros vint lliures cinc dòlars

Igual que abans, amb el nom de la moneda principal, el nom de la fraccionària també s’hi
afegeix després de la xifra.

seventy-five euros ninety-nine cents


setanta-cinc euros noranta-nou cèntims

Si el preu inclou la moneda principal i la fraccionària, n’hi ha prou d’esmentar només la


principal.

fifty euros thirty cents fifty euros thirty


cinquanta euros amb trenta cèntims cinquanta euros amb trenta

EATING OUT

En demanar per menjar o per beure

Les expressions següents s’usen en demanar alguna cosa per menjar o per beure:

Can I help you? Yes, a coffee and a fruit juice, please. Are you being served?
Què us ve de gust? Sí, un cafè i un suc de fruita, si us plau. Us atenen?
En què puc servir-vos? Us serveixen?

Yes, I am. Thank you. No, I’m not. I’ll have a tuna sandwich, please.
Sí, gràcies. No. Prendré un sandvitx de tonyina, si us plau.

En preguntar quant costa una cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir al moment de pagar:

How much is that? Seven fifty, please. Twelve pounds, please.


Quant és? Set amb cinquanta, si us plau. Dotze lliures, si us plau.

Do you have anything smaller? No. Sorry, I don’t. Keep the change.
No teniu moneda menuda? No, em sap greu . Quedeu-vos el canvi.

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En demanar o donar una cosa

Les expressions següents s’utilitzen en demanar o donar una cosa:

Can I have a tray? There you go. Anything else? No. That’s all, thanks
Em doneu una safata? Vet aquí. Res més? No. Això és tot, gràcies.

Could I have some salt and pepper, please? Are you OK?
Que em podeu donar una mica de sal i de pebre, si us plau? Tot bé? / Necessiteu res?

UNIT 5

TO BE WITH SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS

To be (formes afirmativa i negativa) + substantiu

Per identificar un sol objecte, es fa servir el pronom it seguit de la forma verbal is. Per
identificar dos objectes o més, s’utilitza el pronom they seguit de la forma are.

It’s a sports car. They’re letters.


És un cotxe esportiu. Són cartes.

En anglès, el pronom it designa objectes, situacions o altres coses, però mai persones. En
canvi, they es fa servir per a coses i per a persones.

COMPTE! Recorda que, a diferència del català, en anglès mai no s’omet el subjecte.

It’s a nice present. Is a nice present.


És un regal bonic.

To be (forma interrogativa) + substantiu

Les preguntes amb el verb to be es formen invertint l’ordre del subjecte i del verb.

Is it a birthday card? Are they bills?


És una targeta d’aniversari? Són factures?

COMPTE! Com es fa amb les frases afirmatives i negatives, en les preguntes mai no s’omet el
subjecte.

Is it a birthday card? Is a birthday card?


És una targeta d’aniversari?

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Interrogativa Resposta curta
Is it …? Yes, it is / No, it isn’t
Are they …? Yes, they are / No, they aren’t

Quan es pregunta què és alguna cosa, el pronom interrogatiu what (què) se situa al principi de
la frase, davant el verb to be.

What is it? What are they?


Què és? Què són?

Quan es demana de part de qui ve alguna cosa, es fa servir l’estructura who ... from (de part de
qui … / de qui …).

Who’s it from? It’s from my sister in Scotland.


De part de qui ve? De part de la meva germana, que és a Escòcia.
De qui és?

ADJECTIVES

En anglès, els adjectius sempre se situen davant el substantiu que acompanyen.

It’s a cute cat. They’re long socks.


És un gat molt bufó. Són mitjons llargs.

A diferència del català, l’adjectiu mai no se situa al darrere el substantiu.

It’s an old house. It’s a house old.


És una casa vella.

Una altra posició típica de l’adjectiu en anglès és, com en català, darrere el verb to be.

She’s cute. The students are friendly.


És maca . Els estudiants són simpàtics.

En anglès, l’adjectiu i el substantiu no concorden en nombre, perquè els adjectius no tenen


una forma diferent per al plural.

He’s a nice man. They’re nice men.


És un home agradable. Són homes agradables.

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She’s an intelligent student They’re intelligent students.
És una estudianta intel·ligent. Són estudiantes intel·ligents.

Recorda que l’article indeterminat a es fa servir quan l’adjectiu comença per consonant; si
comença per vocal, però, s’utilitza an.

It’s an old man. He’s an American tourist.


És un home gran. És un turista nord-americà.

Els articles a i an se situen davant els adjectius que acompanyen un substantiu singular, i some
es col·loca davant els adjectius que acompanyen un substantiu plural.

a nice picture some nice pictures a friendly flatmate


un quadre bonic uns quadres bonics una companya de pis simpàtica

some friendly flatmates


unes companyes de pis simpàtiques

CELEBRATIONS

Per felicitar

Les expressions següents es fan servir per felicitar els altres:

Happy birthday! Many happy returns! Happy Easter!


Feliç aniversari! Per molts anys! Bona Setmana Santa!

Merry Christmas! Happy New Year! Happy wedding


anniversary!
Bon Nadal! Bon any! Bon aniversari de noces!

Per donar i agrair regals

Les expressions següents es fan servir per dir que t’agrada un regal:

It’s a very nice pen. They’re lovely chocolates! It’s perfect!


És un bolígraf molt bonic. Aquests bombons són extraordinaris! M’encanta!

It’s fantastic! They’re lovely! This colour’s perfect!


És fantàstic! Són preciosos! M’agrada amb bogeria aquest color!

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UNIT 6

PREPOSITIONS

Quan les preposicions “o” o “en” volen dir “a dins, a l’interior de”, en anglès se sol fer servir in.

Eat a great meal in London. I’m in the Archipielago restaurant in Manchester.


Menja estupendament a Londres. Sóc al restaurant Archipielago, a Manchester.

Les combinacions “des de … fins a” i “de … a” equivalen a from … to en anglès. Es fan servir per
indicar l’horari d’obertura d’un establiment o la durada d’un fet o una acció.

Lunch is from 12 p.m. to 2 p.m. Dinner is from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m.


El dinar se serveix des de les 12 fins a les 14 hores. El sopar se serveix de 18:00 a 22:00.

Per indicar quin dia de la setmana s’esdevé una cosa, se situa davant el dia la preposició on,
que en aquest cas no té traducció al català.

On Saturday and Sunday the restaurant is always busy.


Els dissabtes i els diumenges el restaurant sempre és ple.

On Saturday night the menu at the Archipielago restaurant is unusual.


Els dissabtes a la nit, la carta del restaurant Archipielago és poc corrent.

UNIT 7

THERE IS, THERE ARE (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE)

There is i there are signifiquen “hi ha” en català i es fan servir per parlar de substantius en
singular i en plural, respectivament.

There is, there are (forma afirmativa)

La contracció de there is (there’s) es fa servir amb substantius en singular en l’anglès parlat i en


textos escrits informals.

There’s a coffee machine.


Hi ha una cafetera.

There are es fa servir per parlar de substantius en plural i, a diferència de there is, mai no es
contrau.

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There are five candles. = There’re five candles.
Hi ha cinc espelmes.

COMPTE! Quan s’enumeren diversos substantius singulars, es fa servir there is, no there are.

There is a pen, a folder and a diary on my desk.


There are a pen, a folder and a diary on my desk.

Al meu escriptori hi ha un bolígraf, una carpeta i una agenda.

There is, there are (forma negativa)

La forma negativa de there is i there are es construeix afegint not darrere el verb. Recorda que
not es contrau i es converteix en n’t quan acompanya el verb to be.

There isn’t a hat. There aren’t any apples.


No hi ha un barret. No hi ha pomes.

Some i any

A les frases afirmatives amb there are s’acostuma a fer servir some davant els substantius en
plural. Com que en anglès els substantius no varien de gènere, no s’acostuma a traduir al
català.

There are some pears. There are some doughnuts.


Hi ha (algunes, unes quantes) peres. Hi ha (alguns, uns quants) Dònuts.

A les frases negatives amb there aren’t se sol fer servir any davant els substantius en plural. De
la mateixa manera que some, any no varia de gènere i no s’acostuma a traduir al català.

There aren’t any bowls. There aren’t any ties.


No hi ha bols. No hi ha corbates.

IS THERE …? ARE THERE …? (INTERROGATIVE)

Is there …? (singular, forma negativa)

Quan es pregunta per un substantiu en singular, s’inverteix l’ordre de there is; la forma verbal
is se situa davant la paraula there, que, alhora, va seguida del substantiu en singular.

There is an apron. Is there an apron?


Hi ha un devantal. Hi ha un devantal?

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Are there …? (plural, forma interrogativa)

Quan es pregunta per un substantiu en plural, la forma verbal are també se situa davant there.
Tot seguit, s’hi afegeix el determinant any seguit del substantiu en plural.

Are there any envelopes? Are there any cars?


Hi ha sobres? Hi ha cotxes?

En català, es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí” o “no”, però en anglès se sol
fer servir una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes, there is / No, there isn’t) En les respostes curtes
afirmatives, s’utilitzen les formes completes del verb (p. ex. There is / There are), però en les
respostes curtes negatives es fan servir les contraccions (p. ex. There isn’t / There aren’t).

Is there a muffin? Yes, there is. Is there an orange? No, there isn’t.
Hi ha una magdalena? Sí, n’hi ha una. Hi ha una taronja? No, no n’hi ha.

Are there any folders? Yes, there are. Are there any birthday cards? No, there aren’t.
Hi ha carpetes? Sí, n’hi ha. Hi ha targetes d’aniversari? No, no n’hi ha.

Interrogativa Resposta curta


Is there a / an …? Yes, there is / No, there isn’t
Are there any …? Yes, there are / No, there aren’t

GAME SHOW

Per fer preguntes i respondre-hi

Les expressions següents es fan servir per preguntar sobre les coses que ens envolten:

Is there a DVD? Yes, there is. What about CDs?


Hi ha un DVD? Sí, n’hi ha un. CD? (discos compactes)

No, there aren’t any CDs. Is there anything else? No, there isn’t. That’s all.
No, no hi ha CD (discos compactes). Que hi ha res més? No, no hi ha res més. Això és
tot.

Per felicitar algú

Les expressions següents es fan servir per felicitar algú que ha fet una cosa bé:

Well done! Excellent! Congratulations Good for you!


Molt bé! Excel·lent! Enhorabona! Ben fet!

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You deserve it! I’m really pleased for you!
T’ho has merescut / T’ho has guanyat! Me n’alegro molt per tu!

Per comprovar que s’ha entès

Les expressions següents s’usen per comprovar que s’ha entès una cosa i demandar ajuda si no
s’ha entès:

Do you understand? Yes, I think so. No, I don’t understand.


Entesos? / Ho entens? Sí, em sembla que sí. No, no ho entenc.

Yes. It’s easy! Can you repeat that, please? Can you help me, please?
Sí. És fàcil! Que m’ho pots repetir, si us plau? Que em pots ajudar, si us plau?

UNIT 8

HAVE GOT (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE)

El verb have got es fa servir per parlar de coses que es posseeixen, de mals o malalties que es
pateixen i de relacions personals.

I’ve got a Ferrari. She’s got a headache. The’ve got two children.
Tinc un Ferrari. Té mal de cap. Tenen dos fills.

Have got (forma afirmativa)

Quan have got es fa servir amb la tercera persona del singular (he, she o it), la forma verbal
que s’utilitza és has got. Observa que la contracció de have got i la de has got és ‘s got.

I’ve got a Seat. He’s got a Lamborghini.


Tinc un Seat. Té un Lamborghini.

Observa en els exemples següents que la contracció de has got coincideix amb la tercera
persona del singular del verb to be. El context permet saber de quin verb es tracta en cada cas.

He’s got a Lambonghini. = He has got a Lamborghini.


Té un Lamborghini.

He’s married. = He is married.


És casat.

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Have got (forma negativa)

La forma negativa de have got es construeix afegint not entre have i got. Observa que not es
pot contraure quan acompanya have o has; llavors es converteix en n’t.

We haven’t got a Mercedes. She hasn’t got a Bentley.


No tenim un Mercedes. No té un Bentley.

Afirmativa Negativa
I’ve got I haven’t got
You’ve got You haven’t got
He’s / She’s / It’s got He / She / It hasn’t got
We’ve got We haven’t got
You’ve got You haven’t got
They’ve got They haven’t got

A les frases negatives amb have got, es fa servir any davant els substantius en plural.

He hasn’t got any children.


No té fills.

HAVE GOT (INTERROGATIVE)

Have got (forma interrogativa)

En les preguntes amb el verb have got, el subjecte se situa entre have i got.

Have you got a Ferrari? Have they got a big house?


Tens un Ferrari? Tenen una casa gran?

En les frases interrogatives amb have got, es fa servir any davant els substantius en plural.

Has she got any nice flatmates? Have we got any candles?
Té companys de pis agradables? Tenim espelmes?

Have they got any interesting books?


Que tenen cap llibre intessant?

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Respostes curtes

Les respostes curtes es formen amb el verb have només, sense got. En les respostes curtes
afirmatives, es fa servir la forma completa del verb (p. ex. I have / He has); en les respostes
curtes negatives, però, s’utilitzen les contraccions (p. ex. I haven’t / He hasn’t).

Yes, I have. No, they haven’t.


Sí, en tinc un. No, no en tenen.

How many …?

Per preguntar pel nombre de coses que es tenen, es fa servir l’interrogatiu how many
(quants/es) al començament de la frase, seguit del substantiu que les designa i de la forma
interrogativa del verb have got.

How many pens have we got? How many cars have they got?
Quants bolígrafs tenim? Quants cotxes tenen?

TALKING ABOUT POSSESION

Per expressar pertinença

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar d’allò que es posseeix:

What kind of computer have you got? I’ve got a Mac.


Quina mena d’ordinador tens? Tinc un Mac.

What make is your MP3 player? It’s a Sony What colour is it? It’s silver.
De quina marca és el teu P3? És Sony De quin color és? És gris metàl·lic.

Per indicar la quantitat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar el nombre o la quantitat:

How many seats has it got? It’s got six seats. How many DVDs are there?
Quants seients té / inclou? Inclou / té sis seients. Quants DVD hi ha?

There are ten. How many mirrors have they got? They’ve got three mirrors.
N’hi ha deu. Quants retrovisors tenen? Tenen tres retrovisors.

Per expressar grat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar que ens agrada una cosa:

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That’s nice. That’s fantastic! They’re amazing!
Està bé. És fantàstic! Són sorprenents!

They’re brilliant! Oh! Lucky you!


Són genials! Oh! Quina sort!

UNIT 9

ALSO AND TOO

L’adverbi also es tradueix al català com a “també”. Also sempre se situa davant el verb,
excepte quan acompanya els verbs to be i have got. Amb el verb to be, es col·loca al darrere, i
amb have got, entre have i got.

There is monorail and there are also water taxis on the canal.
Al canal hi ha un monocarril i també hi ha taxis aquàtics.

The Mall of Arabia has also got a spa and two 5-star hotels.
El Mall of Arabia també té un balneari i dos hotels de cinc estrelles.

We also go to the fantastic theatre in the mall.


També anem al fantàstic teatre del centre comercial.

COMPTE! Normalment, also no se situa al principi de la frase i mai no es col·loca al final.

There are also good shops in the mall. They’ve also got a new flat.
També hi ha bones botigues al centre comercial. També tenen un pis nou.

Com also, l’adverbi too es tradueix al català com a “també”. Too sempre se situa al final de la
frase.

There are 1,400 shops and a car park for 11,000 cars too.
Hi ha 1.400 botigues i també un aparcament per a 11.000 cotxes.

There’s a spa and a fantastic theatre too.


Hi ha un balneari i també un teatre fantàstic.

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UNIT 10

THIS, THESE, THAT AND THOSE

Els adjectius demostratius this (aquest/a) i these (aquests/es) fan referència a objectes que hi
ha a prop. This es fa servir davant substantius en singular, i these, davant substantius en plural.

This shirt is nice . These socks are horrible.


Aquesta camisa és maca. Aquests mitjons són horribles.

Els adjectius demostratius that (aquest/a, aquell/a) i those (aquests/es, aquells/es) fan
referència a objectes que hi ha lluny. That es fa servir davant substantius en singular, i those
davant substantius en plural.

That suit is smart. Those shoes are for you.


Aquest vestit és elegant. Aquestes sabates són per a tu.

A banda de la funció adjectiva, els demostratius this, that, these i those poden funcionar com a
pronoms; en aquest cas, el substantiu s’omet. Compara aquests dos exemples:

This dress is big. This is big


Aquest vestit és gran. Això és gran.

Singular Plural
This flat is big These flats are big
This is big These are big
That flat is big Those flats are big
That is big Those are big

Les preguntes amb desmostratius es construeixen col·locant el verb to be davant this, these,
that o those, tant si hi funcionen com a adjectius:

Is this shirt nice?


És maca aquesta camisa?

O com pronoms:

Are those new?


Aquests són nous?

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POSSESIVE FORMS

Whose …?

Per preguntar de qui és una cosa, es fa servir la partícula interrogativa whose (de qui), que se
situa al principi de una frase amb el verb to be. Whose pot anar amb un substantiu, en funció
adjectiva, o tot sol, en funció de pronom.

Whose jacket is this? Whose is this?


De qui és aquesta jaqueta? De qui és això?

Pronoms i adjectius possessius

Els possessius també es fan servir amb el verb to be per preguntar a qui pertany una cosa.
Observa que, a diferència dels adjectius possessius, que sempre acompanyen un substantiu,
els pronoms s’utilitzen tot sols.

Are these yours? Is this your suit?


Aquests són teus? Aquest és el teu vestit?

COMPTE! Amb els pronoms possessius no es fa servir l’article the.

The watch is mine. The watch is the mine.


Aquest rellotge és meu.

‘s possessiu

En anglès, per indicar que un substantiu designa el posseïdor d’una cosa, s’hi afegeix l’apòstrof
seguit de –s (‘s). En català, s’utilitza la preposició “de”.

Adjectius possessius Pronoms possessius


It’s my shirt It’s mine
It’s your shirt It’s yours
It’s his shirt / It’s her shirt It’s his / It’s hers
It’s our shirt It’s ours
It’s their shirt It’s theirs

That’s Victoria’s car. That’s the car of Victoria.


És el cotxe de la Victoria.

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La forma possessiva ‘s es pot utilitzar sense fer referència a allò que es posseeix. Això sol
passar quan es respon a preguntes que comencen per whose.

Whose pen is this? It’s Kevin’s.


De qui és aquest bolígraf? És del Kevin.

THE FAMILY

Familiars directes

mother father mum dad sister brother


mare pare mama papa germana germà

Vida dels casats

husband wife son daughter


marit, home muller, dona fill filla

Per parlar de la família política s’afegeix l’expressió –in-law als noms dels familiars.

father-in-law mother-in-law
sogre sogra

Si dues persones viuen juntes sense casar-se, normalment es refereixen l’un a l’altre com a:

my partner
la meva parella

Altres familiars

Per parlar de la relació familiar entre avis i néts, es fa servir el prefix grand.

grandparents grandchildren grandfather grandmother


avis néts avi àvia

grandson granddaughter uncle aunt


nét néta oncle tia

nephew niece cousin


nebot neboda cosí/ina

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TALKING ABOUT PREFERENCES

Per expressar pertinença

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar pertinença:

Is this jumper yours? No, that isn’t mine. Whose are they?
Que és teu aquest jersei? No, aquest no és meu. De qui són?

They’re Carla’s That isn’t yours. It’s mine These aren’t hers. They’re Mike’s
Són de la Carla Això no és teu. És meu Aquests no són teus. Són del Mike

Per expressar preferències

Les expressions següents s’utilitzen per parlar de les nostres coses preferides:

What’s your favourite colour? My favourite colour is red.


Quin és el teu color preferit? El meu color preferit és el vermell.

What’s your favourite film? My favourite film is The Devil wears Prada.
Quina és la teva pel·lícula preferida? La meva pel·lícula preferida és El diable es vesteix de
Prada.

Per donar una opinió

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar opinions:

They look really really cool! That looks good . Ah, this is nice!
Són força agradables! Fa bona pinta. Que bonic!
Fan molt de goig!

They’re very nice! It’s not bad. It’s horrible!


Són molt bonics ! No està malament. És horrible!

UNIT 11

IMPERATIVES

El mode imperatiu es fa servir per donar ordres, fer suggeriments o animar algú a fer alguna
cosa.

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L’imperatiu (formes afirmativa i negativa)

L’imperatiu té la mateixa forma que l’infinitiu del verb, però sense to. Quan es fa servir
l’imperatiu, el subjecte s’omet. La forma és la mateixa per distingir tant una persona com
diverses.

Come here!
Vine aquí!

L’imperatiu del verb to be sol anar seguit d’un adjectiu.

Be good!
Fes bondat!

Per construir la forma negativa de l’imperatiu, es col·loca don’t davant el verb.

Don’t eat cake!


No et mengis el pastís!

Phrasal verbs

Els phrasal verbs són verbs que canvien de significat quan van seguits de certes partícules
(adverbis o preposicions). Alguns phrasal verbs permeten situar l’objecte entre el verb i la
partícula, o al final. D’altres no permeten separar la partícula del verb, per això l’objecte es
col·loca sempre al final.

Switch off the light! Switch the light off!


Apaga el llum! Apaga el llum!

Let’s …

L’estructura let’s seguida d’un infinitiu es fa servir per fer suggeriments.

Let’s eat! Let’s go to the cinema!


Dinem! Anem al cinema!

COMPTE! L’imperatiu no porta mai subjecte.

Don’t make a noise! You don’t make a noise!


No facis soroll!

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OBJECT PRONOUNS

Els pronoms substitueixen el substantiu quan aquest ja s’ha esmentat abans.

Els pronoms que substitueixen el subjecte se situen davant el verb, i els que substitueixen
l’objecte, al darrere. En els exemples següents, it (objecte) substitueix present, i they
(subjecte), doughnuts.

Here’s your present. Open it! Doughnuts are expensesive but they are nice.
Té el regal. Obre’l! Els Dònuts són cars, però són ben bons.

En anglès, es distingeix entre els pronoms que susbtitueixen el subjecte i els que substitueixen
l’objecte.

COMPTE! Deprés del verb to like (agradar) sempre s’hi afegeix un substantiu o un pronom
objecte.

I like it! I like!


M’agrada!

Pronoms (subjecte) Pronoms (objecte)


I Me
You You
He / She / It Him / Her / It
We Us
You You
They Them

OBJECT PRONOUNS

Màquines i aparells elèctrics

Els phrasal verbs turn on (engegar) i turn off (apagar) se solen fer servir amb els aparells
elèctrics.

En aquests phrasal verbs, l’objecte es pot situar entre el verb i la partícula, o al final.

Turn on the television. Turn off the radio. Turn the photocopier on.
Engega el televisor. Apaga la ràdio. Engega la fotocopiadora.

Turn the printer off. Turn on the computer.

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Apaga la impresora. Engega l’ordinador.

COMPTE! Quan parlem de cotxes, la paraula correcta és engine, no motor.

Turn off the engine. Turn off the motor.


Apaga el motor.

Energia i gas

Els verbs turn on (engegar) i turn off (apagar) també s’utilitzen per referir-se al
subministrament de gas, d’aigua o d’electricitat.

Turn the cooker on. Turn the shower off.


Encén els fogons. Tanca l’aixeta de la dutxa.

COMPTE! Els verbs open (obrir) i close (tancar) mai no es fan servir per referir-se al gas, a
l’aigua o a l’electricitat

Turn on the light. Open the light. Turn off the tap. Close the tap.
Encén el llum. Tanca l’aixeta.

INVESTIGATING

Per indicar lloc o localització

Les expressions següents s’utilitzen per indicar on és alguna cosa o algú:

Where’s the witness? I’m here. He’s here


On és el testimoni? Sóc aquí. És aquí.

She’s over there That’s him mover there. that’s them over there.
És allà. És aquell d’allà. Són aquells d’allà.

Per identificar algú

Les expressions següents es fan servir per confirmar la identitat d’algú:

Is this the man? Yes, that’s him. Is this the woman?


Aquest és l’home? Sí, ho és. Aquesta és la dona?

No, that isn’t her. Are these the children? Yes, that’s them.
No, no és ella. Aquests són els nens? Sí, ho són.

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Per demanar i donar explicacions

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan no s’està segur d’una cosa o no s’ha entès:

Sorry, I don’t know. I don’t think so. I’m not sure.


Em sap greu, no ho sé. Em sembla que no. No n’estic segur.

Pardon? Could you repeat that, please? What else?


Perdoneu? / Dispenseu? Que ho podríeu repetir, si us plau? I què més?

UNIT 12

ADJECTIVE ORDER

En anglès, quan coincideixen seguits diversos adjectius qualificatius o descriptius, s’han de


situar en l’ordre següent: adjectius d’opinió, de grandària, de color, de nacionalitat, de
material. En una mateixa frase no se solen incloure més de tres adjectius; per això,
generalment, totes aquestes categories no es fan servir alhora.

Kate is in a short red cotton skirt.


La Kate porta una faldilla de cotó ben curta i vermella.

He’s a funny tall American engineer.


És un enginyer nord-americà, alt i divertit.

COMPTE! A diferència del català, quan hi ha més d’un adjectiu davant un substantiu, no es
posa and entre aquests.

She’s got nice curly hair. She’s got nice and curly hair.
Té els cabells rinxolats i bonics.

Tanmateix, sí que es col·loca and quan els adjectius acompanyen el verb to be.

She’s tall and slim.


És alta i prima.

UNIT 13

PRESENT SIMPLE

El present simple es fa servir per parlar d’accions habituals.

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Forma afirmativa

En anglès, la forma afirmativa del present simple és igual que l’infinitiu del verb per a totes les
persones, excepte per a la tercera persona del singular.

I work in the centre. We live in the country.


Treballo al centre. Vivim a pagès.

Forma negativa

La forma negativa del present simple es construiex col·locant do not davant el verb principal.
Do not es contrau en l’anglès parlat i en textos escrits informals, i dóna lloc a don’t.

We don’t live in the town centre. I don’t work!


No vivim al centre urbà. Jo no treballo!

Forma interrogativa

A les preguntes, l’auxiliar do se situa al principi de la frase, seguit del subjecte i del verb
principal.

Do you work in the town centre? Do you walk to work?


Treballes al centre? Vas a la feina caminant?

COMPTE! Per formar frases negatives i preguntes en present simple, cal afegir-hi sempre el
verb auxiliar do. En català, es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí”, o “no”, però
en anglès se sol fer servir una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes, I do / No, they don’t).

We don’t walk to work. Do you take the bus?


No anem a la feina caminant. Afages l’autobús?

Yes, I do. No, I don’t.


Sí. No.

Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa


I live I don’t live Do I live …?
You live You don’t live Do you live …?
We live We don’t live Do we live …?
They live They don’t live Do they live …?

COMPTE! Amb el verb to be mai no es fa servir el verb auxiliar do:

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You aren’t German. You don’t be German Are they Canadian? Do they be Canadian?
No ets alemany. Que són canadencs?

PREPOSITIONS

La dificultat principal de les preposicions en anglès és que no sempre són equivalents en


català. Per exemple, la preposició in equival en català a “a” (i de vegades a “en”), però “a” no
sempre equival a in en anglès.

In

La preposició in (a) es fa servir per referir-se a un lloc que té límits físics clars, com ara un país,
una ciudat, un poble o un carrer.

He’s in Italy. They live in London.


És a Itàlia. Viuen a Londres.

We work in Newbridge. I work in OxfordStreet.


Treballem a Newbridge. Treballo a Oxford Street.

La preposició in també s’utilitza per referir-se a un espai tancat o a l’interior d’una cosa.

They’re in the classroom. It’s in the box.


Són a l’aula. És a la capsa.

At

La preposició at (a) es fa servir per referir-se a un lloc abstracte o amb límits físics poc definits.

They’re at home. He’s at work.


Són a casa. És a la feina.

By

La preposició by (amb / en) s’utilitza per fer referència als mitjans de transport.

I travel to work by car. They travel to work by underground.


Vaig a la feina amb cotxe. Van a la feina amb metro.

COMPTE! Observa l’excepció següent:

I go to my office on foot. I go to my office by foot.

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Vaig caminant a l’oficina. / Vaig a peu a l’oficina.

From … to

Quan es descriu un trajecte, es fa servir from (de / des de) per referir-se al punt de partida i to
(a / fins a) per referir-se al de destinació.

I drive my car from my house to the car park.


Condueixo des de casa fins a l’aparcament.

I walk to my office from the bus stop.


Vaig caminant a l’oficina des de la parada de l’autobús.

FROM HOME TO WORK

Per adreçar-se a un desconegut

Les expressions següents es fan servir per adreçar-se a un desconegut:

Excuse me. Can I ask you some questions? Yes, OK.


Disculpeu. / Dispenseu. Que puc fer-vos une preguntes? Sí, és clar.

Yes, of course. No, sorry. I’m in a hurry.


Sí, per descomptat. No, em sap greu. Tinc pressa.

Per dir on es viu

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se al lloc de residència:

Where do you live? I live in a suburb. in the city centre.


On vius? Visc en un barri als afores. al centre urbà.

I live in a cottage in the country. I live in a flat in a city.


Visc en una casa de pagès. Visc en un pis en una ciutat.

Per dir com es va a la feina

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència als mitjans de transport:

How do you travel to work? I travel by train. I go on foot.


Com vas a la feina? Hi vaig amb tren. Hi vaig caminant.

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I drive my car. I take the bus.
Hi vaig amb cotxe. Agafo l’autobús.

UNIT 14

PRESENT SIMPLE (3RD PERSON)

Forma afirmativa

En anglès, la forma afirmativa del present simple és igual que l’infinitiu del verb per a totes les
persones, excepte per a la tercera persona del singular (he / she / it), en què a l’infinitiu s’hi
afegeix una –s al final.

He eats chips. She drinks coffee.


Menja patates fregides. Beu café.

Canvis a l’ortografia

En el present simple, a la tercera persona del singular dels verbs que acaben en –ss, –ch, –sh, –
x i –o, s’hi afegeix –es en lloc de –s.

Go > My bus goes in ten minutes.


Anar > El meu autobús se’n va 6d’aquí a deu minuts.

Els verbs que acaben en consonant seguida de –y canvien a –ies.

Study > She studies English.


Estudiar > Estudia anglès.

Als verbs que acaben en vocal seguida de –y, però, només se’ls hi afeix –s.

Play > He plays football.


Jugar > Juga a futbol.

La tercera persona del singural del present simple d’alguns verbs és irregular.

Have > She has a shower before me.


Tenir / prendre > Es duxa abans que jo.

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Forma negativa

A les frases negatives amb la tercera persona del singular es posa does not davant el verb
principal. Does not es contrau en l’anglès parlat i en textos escrits informals, i dóna lloc a
doens’t.

She doesn’t buy milk. She doesn’t do the washing up.


No compra llet. No renta els plats.

Forma interrogativa

En les preguntes amb la tercera persona del singular, does es col·loca al començament de la
frase, seguit del subjecte i del verb principal.

Does she have toast for breakfast? Does he work in a bank?


Pren torrades per esmorzar? Treballa en un banc?

En català, es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí” o “no”; en anglès, però, se sol
fer servir una resposta curta.

Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t.


Sí. No.

FREQUENCY ADVERBS (1)

Els adverbis always (sempre), usually (normalment) i never (mai) es fan servir per expressar la
freqüència amb què es du a terme una acció.

Frases afirmatives i negatives

A les frases afirmatives, els adverbis de freqüència s’acostumen a situar davant el verb
principal.

They always walk to work. He usually gets up early.


Sempre van caminant a la feina. Normalment es lleva d’hora.

We never do the washing up.


Mai no rentem els plats.

Tanmateix, si el verb principal és to be, els adverbis de freqüència se situen darrere el verb.

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She’s always in the bathroom. I’m never late for work.
Sempre està al lavabo. Mai no arribo tard a la feina.

En anglès, tant a les frases interrogatives com a les negatives, els adverbis de freqüència se
solen situar entre el verb auxiliar i el verb principal.

He doesn’t always have a shower. We don’t usually drink beer.


No sempre es dutxa. Normalment no bevem cervesa.

COMPTE! L’adverbi de freqüència never té implícita la negació, per això mai no es fa servir
amb un verb en forma negativa.

They never buy bread. They don’t never buy bread.


Mai no compren pa.

Frases interrogatives

A les frases interrogatives, els adverbis de freqüència se situen entre el subjecte i el verb
principal.

When do they usually get up? When does she usually have lunch?
A quina hora acostumen a llevar-se? A quina hora acostuma a dinar?

Si el verb principal de la pregunta és to be, els adverbis de freqüència se situen darrere el


subjecte.

Are you always late?


Sempre hi arribes tard?

TELLING THE TIME

L’hora es pot preguntar de dues maneres.

What time is it? What’s the time?


Quina hora és? Quina hora és?

Quan es tracta d’una hora en punt, s’afegeix o’clock a la resposta.

08:00 (eight o’clock)


08:00 (les vuit en punt)

Quan l’hora se situa en els primers trenta minuts, s’expressa així: minuts + past + hora.

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14:25 (twenty-five past two)
14:25 (un quart i mig tocat de tres)

Quan l’hora està compresa en els darrers trenta minuts, es diu de la manera següent: minuts +
to + hora.

15:40 (twenty to four)


15:40 (dos quarts i mig tocat de cuatre)

Observa les excepcions següents:

09:15 (quarter past nine) 11:30 (half past eleven) 16:45 (quarter to five)
09:15 (un quart de deu) 11:30 (dos quarts de dotze) 16:45 (tres quarts de cinc)

Davant l’hora es fa servir it’s.

It’s 10:10 (ten past ten)


Són les 10:10 (És mig quart tocat d’onze)
Quan es parla de l’horari dels mitjans de transport, s’indica l’hora i els minuts exactes.

The train leaves at 06:42 (six forty-two).


El tren surt a les 06:42 (a dos quarts i mig de set).

En anglès oral, s’utilitzen les sigles a.m. i p.m. per indicar si l’hora és del matí o de la tarda /
vespre.

I leave work at 5 p.m. My class starts at 10:30 a.m.


Plego a les cinc (de la tarda) La classe comença a dos quarts d’onze (del matí)

Quan es tracta d’una hora en punt, es diu hundred hours.

22:00 (twenty-two hundred hours)


22:00 (les deu en punt)

Per als primers nou minuts d’un hora, el zero es pronuncia com la o en anglès.

8:05
8:05 (les vuit ben tocades)

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TALKING ABOUT ROUTINE

Per parlar de rutines

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar a quina hora es fa una cosa:

What time do you have breakfast? I have breakfast at eight o’clock.


A quina hora esmorzes? Esmorzo a les vuit.

When do you start work? When do you have lunch?


Quan comences a treballar? Quan dines? / A quina hora dines?
A quina hora comences a treballar?

I have lunch at half past twelve.


Dino a dos quarts d’una.

Per indicar una hora aproximada

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan no se sap o no s’especifica l’hora exacta:

I get up at about seven o’clock. I start work around nine thirty.


Em llevo pels volts de les set. Començo a treballar cap a dos quarts de deu.

I start work around ten o’clock.


Começo a treballar devers les deu.

Per indicar una hora molt exactament es fa servir aquesta expressió:

I finish work at six o’clock on the dot.


Plego tot just a les sis en punt.

Per indicar on es fa els àpats

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar on s’acostuma a fer els àpats:

Do you have breakfast at home? Yes, I do. No, I don’t.


Esmorzes a casa? Sí. No.

I go home for lunch. I have lunch at work. I eat lunch in a restaurant.


Vaig a casa a dinar. Dino a la feina. Dino en un restaurant.

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UNIT 15

PARAGRAPHING

Un article és molt més fàcil de llegir si s’organitza en paràgrafs, de manera que cadascun
contingui frases sobre un mateix tema. Llegeix aquest article i fixa’t enla manera com hi estan
organitzades les idees.

Paragraph 1. Introduction and Carl’s morning routine.

My day doesn’t actually start until midday because that’s when I get up! I don’t get home from
work until 5 a.m., so I sleep all morning. I get up at about midday and then I have breakfast. I
usually have a big breakfast, like sausages or fried eggs.

Paragraph 2. Carl’s afternoon routine.

During the afternoon I do the housework and buy some food. I go to the gym for an hour every
day, and after that I have a shower. At about 5 p.m. I start making my dinner. I always eat a lot
at dinner time and I usually cook Italian or Indian food.

Paragraph 3. Carl’s night routine.

My working day starts at about 7.30 in the evening. I call my taxi company, and they tell me
where to pick up my first passenger. I usually drive until around midnight, drop off my
passengers and stop for a sandwich. Then I pick up my next passenger.

Paragraph 4. Carl’s weekly routine.

I usually work five nights a week which always includes Friday and Saturday nights. I never
work on Sunday nights and I don’t usually work on Monday nights either.

Paragraph 5. Carl’s opinion of his job.

I like my job because I love driving, but it’s quite difficult for me to meet my friends. When
they’re free I’m working, and when I’m free they’re working!

UNIT 16

PRESENT SIMPLE WITH TIME PREPOSITIONS

Present simple i horaris

El present simple és el temps que s’acostuma a fer servir per indicar l’horari d’obertura dels
establiments i els llocs d’interès turístic, els horaris dels mitjans de transport i les hores d’inici i
finalització de les classes, les reunions, etc.

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The post office opens at night o’clock. The flight doesn’t leave until 22:00
L’oficina de correus obre a les nou. El vol no surt fins a les 22:00.

Per dir que un establiment és obert o tancat, es fa servir el present simple del verb to be anb
els adjectius open (obert) o closed (tancat).

The shop is open The restaurants are closed.


La bodiga és oberta. Els restraurants són tancats.

Preposicions de temps

Quan indiquen temps, la preposició at (a) se situa davant les hores i la preposició on, davant
els diez de la semana.

The train leaves at 13:15 The shopping centre doesn’t usually open on Saturday.
El tren surt a les 13:15. El centre comecial no acostuma a obrir els diumenges.

COMPTE! Com en català, llevat d’alguns casos concrets, en anglès no s’usa l’article determinat
the davant els diez de la semana, sinó la preopisició on. Tanmateix, the sí que es fa a servir
davant el mot weekend, acompanyat de la preposició at.

On Sundays. The Sundays At the weekend The weekend


Els diumenges. Els caps de setmana.

La combinació de preposicions from…. to (de…a/des de …fins a ) serveix per especificar els


moments d’inici i de finalització d’una cosa.

It opens from Mondays to Saturday.


Obre de dilluns a dissabte

La preposició until (fins a) indica la finalització d’una cosa i es pot fer servir amb verb en forma
afirmativa o negativa:

I usually work until two o’clock on Fridays.


Els divendres acostumo a treballar fins a les dues.

It doesn’t open until ten o’clock.


No obre fins a les deu.

Quan indica temps, la preposició in (en/d’aquí a) fa referencia al peíode que transcorre fins un
moment en el futur.

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Our flight leaves in five minutes.
Els nostre vol surt d’aquí a cinc minuts.

WH - QUESTIONS

Els interogatius what (què), where (on), what time (a quina hora) when (quan) i how (com)
s’acostumen a situar al principi de la pregunta.

La frase es construeix així: interrogatiu + do /does + subjecte + verb en infinitiu.

What time does the post office open? What time opens the post office?
A quina hora obre l’oficina de correus?

What? (Què?) es fa servir per preguntar coses en general.

What do you eat for breakfast? What does your husband do at the weekend?
Què prens per esmorzar? Què fa el teu marit els caps de semana?

Where? (On?) s’utilitza per preguntar on és algun lloc.

Where do you live? Where does your girlfriend work?


On vius? On treballa la teva xicota?

What time? (A quina hora?) es fa servir per preguntar l’hora a què es fa alguna cosa.

What time do they get up? What time does the coffee shop open?
A quina hora es lleven? A quina hora obre la cafeteria?

When? (Quan?) s’utilitza per preguntar el momento en què s’esdevé una cosa.

When does she start work? When does the train leave?
Quan entra a treballar? Quan surt el tren?

How? (Com?) es fa servir per preguntar la manera com es fa una cosa.

How do you travel to work? How do you spell your name?


Com vas a la feina? Com s’escriu el teu nom?

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UNIT 17

TALKING ABOUT LIKES AND DISLIKES (like, love, hate and enjoy)

Els verbs like (agradar, estimar-se, caure bé), love (estimar, encantar), hate (odiar) i enjoy
(agradar, gaudir de) s’usen per expressar els gustos i les preferències.

Like i love

En traduir els verbs like i love, de vegades canvia el subjecte. Per formar frases negatives i
interrogatives es fa servir l’auxiliar do / does. A les interrogatives, l’ordre de la frase és: do /
does + subjecte + verb principal.

I love my girlfriend. He likes films. She doesn’t love me.


Estimo a la meva xicota. Li agrada el cinema. No m’estima.

I don’t like your mum. Do you love me? Does she like cheese?
No m’agrada la teva mare. M’estimes? Li agrada el formatge?

En anglès, per contestar aquestes preguntes es fan servir les respostes curtes, que, com hem
vist, es formen amb el verb auxiliar do / does.

Yes, I do. No, I don’t. Yes, he does. No, she doesn’t.


Sí. No. Sí. No.

COMPTE! En català, els substantius o pronoms de persona en funció de complement porten la


preposició “a”, per exemple “a la meva germana”. En canvi, en anglès, aquesta preposició no
acostuma a figurar-hi.

My sister doesn’t like beer. To my sister she doesn’t like beer.


A la meva germana no li agrada la cervesa.

Hate i enjoy

Les frases amb els verbs hate i enjoy es construeixen de la mateixa manera que les frases amb
like i love. En traduir-los, també pot canviar el subjecte.

I hate coffee. He enjoys tennis.


Odio el cafè. Li agrada el tenis.

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COMPTE! A les frases amb els verbs like, love i enjoy, el subjecte és la persona, i el
complement, allò que agrada a aquesta persona. En català passa a l’inrevés: el subjecte és allò
que agrada y el complement és la persona. En canvi, amb el verb hate l’estructura de la frase
és la mateixa en totes dues llengües.

She likes chocolate. She loves the shops.


Li agrada la xocolata. Li agraden amb bogeria les botigues.

She enjoys badminton. She hates it.


Li agrada el bàdminton. Ho odia.

THE GERUND (–ing forms)

En anglès, per expressar gustos i preferències amb like, love, hate i enjoy, aquests verbs
acostumen a anar seguits d'un verb en gerundi (la forma verbal acabada en –ing). En català,
aquests verbs van seguits d’infinitiu.

I love travelling. I don’t enjoy getting up on Mondays.


M’encanta viatjar. No m’agrada llevar-me els dilluns.

We hate going to work. What do you like doing on Saturdays?


No ens agrada gens anar a treballar. Què t’agrada fer els dissabtes?
Odiem anar a treballar.

La formació del gerundi

En la majoria dels casos, el gerundi es forma afegint –ing a l’infinitiu.

read > reading eat > eating


llegir > llegint menjar > menjant

Si el verb acaba en consonant-vocal-consonant, quan s’hi afegeix –ing es duplica la consonant


final.

get > getting swim > swimming


aconseguir > aconseguint nedar > nedant

Si el verb acaba en –e, aquesta desapareix en afegir-hi –ing.

drive > driving take > taking


conduir > conduint portar / agafar > portant / agafant

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Si el verb acaba en –ie, aquesta combinació canvia a –y en afegir –ing.

lie > lying die > dying


mentir > mentint morir > morint

COMPTE! Si el verb acaba en –y, en afegir-hi –ing no hi ha canvis.

I love studying. I love studing.


M’encanta estudiar.

SPORTS WITH GO, PLAY AND DO

Esports amb go

El verb go es fa servir amb noms d’esports o amb activitats que acaben en –ing.

go swimming go skiing go fishing


anar a nedar / fer natació anar a esquiar anar a pescar

go ice-skating go running go jogging


anar patinar sobre gel anar a córrer fer fúting

Esports amb play

El verb play es fa servir quan es tracta d’esports de pilota.

play football play basketball play tennis


jugar al futbol jugar a bàsquet jugar a tenis

play hockey play voleyball


jugar a hoquei jugar a voleibol

Esports amb do

El verb do es fa servir amb els esports o les activitats que no pertanyen a cap de les categories
anteriors.

do yoga do judo do athletics do aerobics do karate


fer ioga fer judo fer atletisme fer aeròbic fer karate

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TALKING ABOUT FAVOURITE THINGS

Per indicar gustos

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència als gustos:

What’s your favourite colour? My favourite colour’s purple.


Quin és el teu color preferit? El meu color preferit és el morat.

Who’s your favourite singer? My favourite singer’s Jennifer López.


Quin és el teu cantant preferit? La meva cantant preferida és la Jennifer López.

What’s your favourite film? It’s The Full Monty.


Quina és la teva pel·lícula preferida? És The Full Monty.

Per indicar preferències

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a les preferències:

What do you prefer, the city or the country? I prefer the city.
Què t’estimes més, ciudat o a pagès? M’estimo més ciutat.

Do you prefer playing sport or watching sport? I prefer playing sport.


T’estimes més fer esport o veure’l? M’estimo més fer esport.

I prefer listening to music.


M’estimo més escoltar música.

Per parlar d’activitats preferides

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència a les activitats preferides d’algú:

Do you enjoy dancing? Yes, I love it. Do you like going ice-skating?
T’agrada ballar? Sí, m’agrada amb bogeria. T’agrada anar a patinar sobre gel?

No, I hate it. Do you enjoy doing athletics? Yes, I enjoy it a lot.
No, ho odio. T’agrada fer atletisme? Sí, m’agrada força.
No, no m’agrada gens.

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UNIT 18

EITHER … OR

La construcció either … or (o … o) es fa servir per plantejar dues alternatives. Observa que


either se situa davant la primera opció i or davant la segona. La construcció either … or es pot
utilitzar de diverses maneres.

Amb dos substantius:

You can do either judo or karate in the evenings.


A les tardes, pots fer judo o karate. / A les tardes, o pots fer judo o pots fer karate.

Amb dos verbs o dos predicats:

You can either swim alone or listen to the instructions of our experienced swimming
teachers.
Pots nedar tot sol o seguir les instruccions dels nostres experts monitors de natació.

Amb dos adverbis:

Come either alone or with your team.


Vine tot sol o amb el teu equip.

Amd dos sintagmes adverbials:

After all that exercise relax either in our sauna or in our giant Jacuzzi.
Després de tant exercici, relaxa’t a la sauna o al Jacuzzi gegant.

COMPTE! En català, la paraula either no s’acostuma a traduir.

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MODULE 1B
UNIT 1

CAN (FOR ABILITY)

El verb can (poder, saber) es fa servir per expressar la capacitat de fer una cosa, sigui en una
situació concreta o en general.

Forma afirmativa

La forma afirmativa es construeix amb el verb can seguit del verb principal en infinitiu. Quan es
parla de capacitat, en la majoria dels casos el verb can es tradueix al català per “saber”.

I can swim. He can drive. They can dance.


Sé nedar. Sap conduir. Saben ballar.

Forma negativa

La forma negativa es construeix afegint not al final de can. Observa que not es transforma en
n’t quan s’afegeix a can. Aquesta contracció es fa servir en l’anglès oral i en textos escrits
informals. La forma completa constitueix una sola paraula, cannot (p. ex. I cannot / You cannot
/ We cannot), i s’utilitza només en textos escrits formals.

I can’t run. He can’t cook.


No puc córrer. No sap cuinar.

Forma interrogativa

Per construir preguntes amb can, s’ha d’invertir l’ordre del subjecte i del verb: can se situa
davant el subjecte i, darrere seu, s’hi afegeix l’infinitiu del verb principal.

Can you play the drums? Can he play tennis?


Saps tocar la bateria? Sap jugar a tenis?

COMPTE! Les respostes curtes amb el verb can mai no es formen amb l’auxiliar do / does.

Yes, I can. Yes, I do can. No, he can’t. No, he doesn’t can.


Sí. No.

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COMPTE! Les frases negatives i interrogatives amb el verb can mai no es formen amb l’auxiliar
do / does.

We can’t cycle. We don’t can cycle. Can you sing? Do you can sing?
No sabem anar amb bicicleta. Saps cantar?

CAN (FOR PERMISSION)

Com hem vist, el verb can es fa servir per parlar de capacitat i de destreses; llavors es pot
traduir per “saber”.

I can ride a bike.


Sé anar amb bici.

El verb can també es fa servir per expressar permís.

Can I swim here?


Que puc nedar aquí?

Forma afirmativa

La forma afirmativa del verb can s’utilitza, en aquest cas, per donar permís.

You can go home now. They can dance.


Ara ja te’n pots anar a casa. Pots fer servir el meu cotxe.

COMPTE! El verb can mai no va seguit de la paraula to.

You can sit here. You can to sit here.


Pots seure aquí.

Forma negativa

La forma negativa del verb can es fa servir per prohibir que es faci res o per indicar que és
prohibit.

You can’t leave work early today. You can’t wear jeans to work.
Avui no pots plegar d’hora. No pots venir amb texans a la feina.

Forma interrogativa

La forma interrogativa del verb can es fa servir per demanar permís.

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Can I have a drink, please? Can we have a rest, please?
Que puc beure res, si us plau? Podem descansar, si us plau?

Els interrogatius que comencen per Wh- es poden fer servir al principi de les preguntes amb el
verb can.

When can I go home? Where can I sit?


Quan puc marxar a casa? On puc seure?

Les respostes curtes amb el verb can s’utilitzen per donar o negar permís.

Yes, you can. No, you can’t.


Sí, pots. No, no pots.

TALKING ABOUT WHAT YOU CAN DO

Per parlar de les capacitats

Les expressions següents s’utilitzen quan es parla d’allò que hom sap fer:

Can you sing? Yes, I can. No, I can’t.


Saps cantar? Sí, sí que en sé. No, no en sé.

Can you speak French? No, not very well. No, not really.
Saps parlar francès? No, no gaire bé. No, a dir veritat, no.

Per parlar del que hom té

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a les coses que es posseeixen i al lloc on
són:

Have you got a guitar? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.


Que tens guitarra? Sí. No.

No, not here. Yes, it’s at my parents’ house. Yes, it’s at home.
No, aquí no. Sí, és a casa del meus pares. Sí, és a casa.

Per parlar d’hàbits

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar la freqüència amb què es du a terme una
activitat:

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Do you ever play the piano? Yes, sometimes. No, never.
Toques el piano algun cop? Sí, uns quants cops. No, mai.

Do you ever go to the gym? No, I don’t. No, not now.


Vas al gimnàs algun cop? No. No, ara no.

UNIT 2

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

Per situar un edifici en un carrer, es fa servir la preposició in (a).

The hospital is in North Road. The factory is in Long Street.


L’hospital és a North Road. La fàbrica és a Long Street.

Per situar un edifici en un cantó del carrer, es fa servir la preposició on (en / a).

It’s on the left. It’s on the right.


És a l’esquerra. És a la dreta.

Per situar un edifici de manera més precisa, es poden fer servir preposicions com ara between
(entre), opposite (davant / enfront de) i behind (darrere de).

The bank is between the cinema and the pub.


El banc és entre el cinema i el bar.

The car park is behind the supermarket.


L’aparcament és darrere el supermercat.

The library is opposite the town hall.


La biblioteca és enfront de l’ajuntament.

La paraula near equival en català a “a prop de”.

The hotel is near the airport.


L’hotel és a prop de l’aeroport.

Les preposicions angleses next to (al costat de) i in front of (davant de) estan formades per més
d’una paraula.

The restaurant is next to the bookshop.


El restaurant és al costat de la llibreria.

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The telephone is in front of the post office.
El telèfon és davant l’oficina de correus.

COMPTE! Observa que hi ha preposicions angleses que no equivalen a una preposició concreta
en català, sinó a una expressió o locució amb funció preposicional: a prop de (near), enfront de
(opposite), etc.

The bank is opposite the hospital.


El banc és enfront de l’hospital.

The restaurant is in front of the hotel.


El restaurant és davant l’hotel.

IMPERATIVES WITH PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT

Per donar indicacions en anglès sobre la manera com arribar a un lloc, els verbs que més es fan
servir són go (anar), turn (girar) i take (agafar).

Go

L’imperatiu del verb go es fa servir seguit de preposició o, de vegades, d’adverbi, per indicar la
direcció o el tipus de moviment. La forma imperativa és igual que l’infinitiu del verb i no cal
subjecte.

Go along London Road. Go straight on.


Continua per London Road. Continua recte.

És força habitual que el moviment que en anglès s’expressa amb el verb go seguit de
preposició, en català tan sols demani un verb: go past (passar), go across (creuar), etc.
Go through the park. Go across the bridge.
Travessa el parc . Creua el pont.

Go past the library. Go out of the car park.


Passa la biblioteca. Surt de l’aparcament.

Go into the car park. Go round the roundabout.


Entra a l’aparcament. Fes la volta a la rotonda.

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Turn

L’imperatiu del verb turn es fa servir seguit de left (a l’esquerra) i de right (a la dreta) per donar
indicacions. La forma imperativa és igual que l’infinitiu del verb i no cal subjecte.

Turn left. Turn right.


Gira a l’esquerra. Gira a la dreta.

Aquestes dues expressions també poden anar seguides de la preposició into (a / per) quan es
vol especificar per quin carrer s’ha de girar.

Turn right into Manchester Street. Turn left into School Road.
Gira a la dreta a Manchester Street. Gira a l’esquerra per School Road.

Take

La forma imperativa de take es fa servir per indicar quin carrer o quina sortida cal agafar.

Take the first right. Take the second exit.


Agafa el primer a la dreta. Agafa la segona sortida.

ORDINAL NUMBERS

En anglès, els nombres ordinals es fan servir per indicar l’ordre numèric i les dates. La majoria
es formen afegint –th al final del nombre cardinal. Hi ha excepcions, però:

one > first two > second three > third


u > primer dos > segon tres > tercer

four > fourth five > fifth six > sixth


quatre > quart cinc > cinquè sis > sisè

seven > seventh eight > eighth nine > ninth


set > setè vuit > vuitè nou > novè

ten > tenth eleven > eleventh twelve > twelfth


deu > desè onze > onzè dotze > dotzè

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A partir del nombre vint, les desenes dels ordinals (20, 30, 40, etc.) es formen substituint-hi la
–y final per –ie i afegint-hi –th: thirty > thirtieth.

twentieth fiftieth eightieth


vintè cinquantè vuitantè

Per formar la resta dels nombres ordinals del vint en endavant, s’afegeix a les desenes l’ordinal
corresponent (des de first fins a ninth) separant-lo amb un guió.

twenty-first fifty-second
vint-i-unè cinquanta-dosè

COMPTE! Les dates en anglès sempre s’indiquen amb els nombres ordinals.

It’s the second of May. It’s the two of May.


Som a dos de maig.

UNIT 3

SEQUENCING

Les expressions first (primer de tot / primerament), then (després), after that (tot seguit / a
continuació) i finally (per acabar / finalment) es fan servir per organitzar la informació d’un
text.

First …

First es fa servir per introduir la primera part de la informació.

First take the main road out of the airport towards Bristol for about ten kilometers.
Primer de tot, agafa la carretera principal des de l’aeroport en direcció a Bristol tirant uns deu
quilòmetres.

Then …

Then es fa servir per afegir informació.

Then at the Red Lion pub turn right and go straight on.
Després, al bar Red Lion, gira a la dreta i continua tot dret.

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After that …

After that es fa servir per introduir el punt següent.

After that, when you get to the village of Eagleswood, take the first left and the second right.
Tot seguit, un cop al poble d’Eagleswood, agafa el primer a l’esquerra i el segon a la dreta.

Finally …

Finally serveix per introduir la darrera frase.

Finally the Hotspot Hotel is about two kilometres down the road.
Finalment, l’Hotel Hotspot és a dos quilòmetres, aproximadament, per aquesta carretera.

UNIT 4

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE)

El present continuous es fa servir per parlar d’accions que tenen lloc just al moment en què es
parla.

La forma afirmativa del present continuous es construeix amb el present del verb to be seguit
del gerundi (forma –ing) del verb principal. La construcció anglesa és diferent de la catalana.

I’m walking. He’s listening to music.


Camino. Escolta música.

La forma negativa del present continuous es construeix amb la forma negativa del verb to be
seguit del gerundi (forma –ing) del verb principal.

I’m not walking . He isn’t eating.


Ara no camino. Ara no menja.

Si el verb principal acaba en consonant-vocal-consonant, la consonant final es duplica en


afegir-hi –ing.

run > running swim > swimming


córrer > corrent nedar > nedant

Si el verb principal acaba en –e aquesta desapareix en afegir-hi –ing.

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drive > driving cycle > cycling
conduir > conduint anar amb bici > anant amb bici

Si el verb principal acaba en –ie, canvia a –y en afegir-hi –ing.

lie > lying die > dying


mentir > mentint morir > morint

Forma afirmativa Forma negativa


I’m working I’m not working
You’re working You aren’t working
He’s / She’s / It’s working He / She / It isn’t working
We’re working We aren’t working
They’re working They aren’t working

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (INTERROGATIVE)

La forma interrogativa del present continuous es construeix invertint l’ordre del verb to be i el
subjecte, i afegint-hi després el gerundi (forma –ing) del verb principal. L’estructura és la
següent: present de to be + subjecte + verb principal en forma –ing.

Are you dancing? Is she getting up?


Que balles? Que s’aixeca?

COMPTE! Recorda que, de la mateixa manera que a les frases afirmatives i negatives, el
subjecte mai no s’hi pot ometre.

Is he studying? Is studying?
Que estudia?

En català, es pot respondre les preguntes dient simplement “sí” o “no”; en anglès, però,
s’acostuma a fer servir una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes I am / No I’m not). En les respostes curtes
afirmatives s’utilitzen les formes completes del verb (p. ex. I am / You are), però en les
respostes curtes negatives es fan servir les contraccions (p. ex. I’m not / You aren’t).

Per fer preguntes més específiques es fan servir interrogatius com ara what? (què?) o where?
(on?). Com en català, l’interrogatiu se situa al principi de la pregunta.

Where are you going? What’s he doing?


On vas? Què hi fa?

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Forma interrogativa Resposta curta
Am I working? Yes, I am / No, I’m not
Are you working? Yes, you are / No, you aren’t
Is he working? Yes, he is / No, he isn’t
Is she working? Yes, she is / No, she isn’t
Is it working? Yes, it is / No, it isn’t
Are we working? Yes, we are / No, we aren’t
Are they working? Yes, they are / No, they aren’t

COMPTE! En català, si una pregunta conté un interrogatiu unit a una preposició, aquesta se
situa al principi de la frase davant l’interrogatiu (a on?, amb qui?). En canvi, en anglès, la
preposició es col·loca al final de l’oració.

Who are you going with? With who are you going?
Amb qui vas?

DESCRIBING PEOPLE

Per descriure allò que es veu

Les expressions següents es fan servir per descriure allò que es veu en un moment determinat:

Can you see a man? Can you see a woman?


Que hi veus un home? Hi veus una dona?

Yes, I can. No, I can’t.


Sí. No.

Yes, he’s outside the bank. Yes, she’s in a yellow car.


Sí, és davant el banc. Sí, és dins un cotxe groc.

Per descriure la roba

Les expressions següents es fan servir per descriure com vesteix algú:

What’s he wearing? What’s she wearing?


Què porta posat (ell)? Què porta posat (ella)?

He’s wearing black trousers and a white shirt.


Porta pantalons negres i camisa blanca.

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She’s wearing shorts and a T-shirt.
Porta pantalons curts i samarreta.

Is he wearing a green hat and scarf?


Porta (ell) un barret verd i una bufanda?

Per descriure activitats

Les expressions següents es fan servir per descriure allò que fan els altres:

What’s he doing? What’s she doing?


Què hi fa (ell)? Què hi fa (ella)?

He’s getting into a car. She’s running along the pavement.


Ara puja a un cotxe. Corre per la vorera.

Is he looking at his watch? Is she carrying anything?


Que es mira el rellotge? Que porta res?

UNIT 5

PRESENT SIMPLE OR PRESENT CONTINUOUS?

Present simple

El present simple es fa servir per parlar d’accions habituals i de costums.

I get up at seven o’clock . My brother doesn’t travel to work by train.


Em llevo a les set. El meu germà no va a la feina amb tren.

També s’utilitza per parlar de fets generals.

I drive a red Mercedes. She lives in Madrid.


Condueixo un Mercedes vermell. Viu a Madrid.

I per expressar gustos i preferències.

I love fish. He doesn’t like meat.


M’encanta el peix. No li agrada la carn.

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Amb el present simple es fan servir expressions com ara every day (cada dia), on Saturdays (els
dissabtes) o usually (normalment). Com que aquestes expressions fan referència a accions
habituals, no es poden utilitzar amb el present continuous.

What do you do every day? What are you doing every day?
Què fas cada dia?

Present continuous

El present continuous es fa servir per parlar d’accions que tot just ocorren al moment en què es
parla.

I’m riding my exercise bike. He isn’t playing tennis.


Tot just ara feig exercici amb la bicicleta estàtica. Ara mateix no juga a tenis.

També es fa servir per parlar d’accions que es desenvolupen en un període de temps concret.

I’m reading an excellent book. She’s vising her mother.


Estic llegint un llibre fantàstic. Ha anat a visitar la seva mare.

Amb el present continuous s’utilitzen expressions com today (avui), at the moment (en aquest
moment), right now (ara mateix) o this week (aquesta setmana). Com que aquestes
expressions fan referència a accions que transcorren en un moment o període de temps
concret, no es poden fer servir amb el present simple.

I’m eating my lunch at the moment. I eat lunch at the moment.


Tot just ara dino.

I’m studying English this week. I study English this week.


Aquesta setmana estudio anglès.

FREQUENCY ADVERBS (2)

Els frequency adverbs (adverbs de freqüència) es fan servir amb els verbs en present simple per
expressar la freqüència amb què es du a terme una acció. Els frequency adverbs acostumen a
situar-se entre el subjecte i el verb principal, llevat que es faci servir el verb to be; llavors, es
col·loquen darrere el verb.

He hardly ever has breakfast at home.


Gairebé mai no esmorza a casa.

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I often wake up early at the weekend.
Els caps de setmana em llevo sovint d’hora.

They’re usually late for work.


Acostumen a fer tard a la feina.

Tanmateix, l’adverbi de freqüència sometimes (de vegades, alguns cops) pot anar situat al
principi de la frase, entre el subjecte i el verb, o al final de la frase.

Sometimes I have lunch at home.


De vegades dino a casa.

He sometimes gets dressed in the bathroom.


Alguns cops es vesteix al lavabo.

They go to bed late sometimes.


De vegades se’n van a dormer tard.

Els frequency adverbs també es fan servir per respondre a preguntes sobre la freqüència amb
què es fa alguna cosa.

Do you ever sing in the shower?


Cantes a la dutxa algun cop?

Yes, always. No, never.


Sí, sempre. No, mai.

Yes, usually. No, not usually.


Sí, normalment, sí. No, normalment no.

Yes, sometimes. No, hardly ever.


Sí, de vegades. No, gairebé mai.

DESCRIBE WHAT YOU’RE DOING

En parlar d’allò que es fa ara

Les expressions següents es fan servir per descriure accions que transcorren tot just al
moment en què parlem:

Are you using a computer at the moment? Yes, I am. No, I’m not.
Que fas servir l’ordinador en aquest moment? Sí. No.

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What are you doing right now? I’m studying English.
Què hi fas ara mateix? Tot just estudio anglès.

En parlar d’activitats quotidianes

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a activitats quotidianes:

Do you play computer games every day? Yes, I do. No, I don’t like them.
Jugues amb els videojocs cada dia? Sí. No, no m’agraden.

Do you ever write emails in English? Yes, at work.


Escrius mai correus en anglès? Sí, a la feina.

Per expressar freqüència

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar la freqüència amb què es du a terme una
activitat:

Do you often use a computer at home? Yes, sometimes . No, not usually.
Fas servir l’ordinador sovint a casa? Sí, de vegades. No, normalment, no.

Do you always watch television in the evening? No, hardly ever.


Sempre veus la televisió a les nits? No, gairebé mai.

UNIT 6

USING CAPITAL LETTERS

En anglès, les paraules següents comencen amb majúscula:

Els noms de ciutats, de regions, de províncies i de països

Ajtel Telecommunications in Manchester in England.


L’empresa Ajtel Telecommunications és a Manchester, Anglaterra.

Les nacionalitats i altres gentilicis

I work with American, French and Swedish multinational companies.


Treballo amb multinacionals nord-americanes, franceses i sueques.

Els idiomes

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All the employees speak English.
Tots els empleats parlen anglès.

Els dies de la setmana i els mesos de l’any

The meeting is on Monday the thirteenth of March.


La reunió és dilluns, 13 de març.

Les festivitats

They work at Christmas and New Year.


Treballen per Nadal i Cap d’Any.

UNIT 7

WOULD LIKE

La forma verbal would like es fa servir afirmativament i negativement per demanar


educadament una cosa, i per expressar preferències. En les interrogatives, serveix per fer
oferiments. Està formada pel verb auxiliar would i per l’infinitiu like (agradar, voler). La forma
would like és igual per a totes les persones, i la contracció corresponent és ‘d like.

I’d like two coffees, please. She’d like a sandwich.


Voldria dos cafès, si us plau. Prendrà un sandvitx.

Les preguntes amb would like es formen amb el verb auxiliar would davant el subjecte: would +
subjecte + like.

Would you like some cake?


Que vols pastís?

En català, es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí’ o “no”; en anglès, però,
s’acostuma a fer servir una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes, I would / No, I wouldn’t). En les respostes
curtes afirmatives es fan servir les formes completes del verb (p. ex. I would / They would),
però en les respostes curtes negatives s’utilitzen les contraccions (p. ex. I wouldn’t / They
wouldn’t).

Yes, I would. No, he wouldn’t.


Sí. No.

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COMPTE! No s’ha de confondre Do you like …? (T’agrada …?) amb Would you like …? (Vols …? /
Et vindria de gust …?)

Do you like sparkling water? Would you like some potatoes with your fish?
Que t’agrada l’aigua amb gas? Que voleu patates amb el peix?

Per fer preguntes sobre informació concreta, la forma verbal would like es pot fer servir amb
diversos interrogatius, com ara what o which.

What would you like? Which starter would you like?


Què vols? Quin entrant prendreu?

COMPTE! Observa que en les preguntes, el subjecte sempre se situa entre would i like.

Which dessert would you like?


Què vols per postres?

SOME AND ANY

Some i any es fan servir per fer referència a una quantitat indeterminada d’una cosa i, molts
cops, en català, no es tradueixen. El substantiu que acompanyen pot anar en plural o ser-ne un
dels anomenats “incomptables”: water (aigua), wine (vi). Els substantius incomptables
anglesos designen coses que no es poden comptar i, per tant, no es poden posar en plural. A la
unitat següent veurem més detalladament aquesta mena de substantius.

Some es fa servir a les frases afirmatives, va davant el substantiu i no varia de forma, tant si
aquest substantiu és plural com si és incomptable.

I’d like some chips.


Vull patates fregides.

Any es fa servir en preguntes i en frases negatives. Com some, va davant el substantiu i no


varia de forma.

Have you got any doughnuts? They haven’t got any wine.
Que tens Dònuts? No tenen vi.

COMPTE! Observa que davant els substantius en singular que són comptables (és a dir, que sí
que es poden posar en plural), no es fan servir some o any, sinó els articles indeterminats a o
an.

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Would you like a starter? I’d like a sandwich, please.
Que voldràs un entrant? Vull un sandvitx, si us plau.

Hem dit que en les preguntes cal fer servir any davant el substantiu; tot seguit, però,
expliquem dues excepcions en què cal utilitzar some.

Quan es fa un oferiment, s’ha de fer servir la forma would like:

Would you like some vegetables? Would you like any vegetables?
Que vols verdures?

Quan es demana una cosa:

Can I have some sausages, please? Can I have any sausages, please?
Que em podríeu posar salsitxes, si us plau?

FOOD AND DRINK (1)

Begudes

Hi has dos tipus d’aigua embotellada:

still water sparkling water


aigua sense gas aigua amb gas

I diferents menes de vi, segons el color:

red wine white wine rosé


vi negre vi blanc vi rosat

COMPTE! Quan es demana vi rosat, es diu simplement rosé, i no rosé wine.

A bottle of rosé A bottle of rosé wine


Una ampolla de vi rosat

Menjar

Hi ha diverses maneres de cuinar els aliments:

boiled grilled fried


bullit/ida, cuit/a a la planxa, a la graella fregit/ida

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roasted baked
a l’ast, rostit/ida al fom

Hi ha tres maneres de cuinar la carn:

rare medium well done


poc feta al punt molt feta

REQUESTS AND OFFERS

Per fer oferiments

Les expressions següents es fan servir per oferir una cosa a algú:

Would you like this table? Yes, please.


Que voleu seure en aquesta taula? / Va bé aquesta taula? Sí, si us plau.

Would you like some crisps? No, thanks. I’d like some peanuts.
Que vols patates fregides? No, gràcies. M’estimo més cacauets.

Would you like tea or coffee? I’d like tea, please.


Voleu te o cafè? Vull te, si us plau.

Per demanar en un restaurant

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar en un restaurant:

Which starter would you like? I’d like smoked salmon, please.
Quin entrant prendreu? Voldria salmó fumat, si us plau.

Which main course would you like? Roast chicken, please.


Què voldreu de segon? / Què prendreu de segon plat? Pollastre rostit, si us plau.

And which dessert would you like? I’m not sure.


I què voldreu per postres? No n’estic segur.

Per demanar amb educació

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar coses educadament o per respondre a una
petició:

I’d like a beer, please. Of course. Certainly.

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Voldria una cervesa, si us plau. Per descomptat. Ara mateix.

Have you got any chips? No, I’m very sorry. We haven’t.
Que teniu patates fregides? No, em sep greu. No en tenim.

UNIT 8

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Els substantius en anglès es poden dividir en dos grups: comptables i incomptables.

Substantius comptables

Els substantius comptables són els que designen una cosa que es pot comptar per unitats; per
tant, aquests substantius tenen singular i plural. Un substantiu comptable en singular sempre
porta davant un article (a / an o the), un adjectiu possessiu (my, your, etc.) o un altre
determinant semblant.

I’ve got an apple and three bananas.


Tinc una poma i tres plàtans.

Substantius imcomptables

Els substantius imcomptables són els que designen una cosa que no es pot comptar per
unitats. Aquests substantius no tenen singular ni plural, no varien de forma. Com que no tenen
forma singular, no admeten els articles a / an, però sí que poden portar davant les paraules
some o any.

He’s buying fruit. He’s buying some fruit.


Tot just ara compra fruita. Tot just ara compra fruita.

Some i any

Com hem vist a la unitat anterior, some i any es fan servir amb substantius comptables en
plural i amb substantius imcomptables. Some tan sols s’utilitza en frases afirmatives, i any, en
frases negatives i interrogatives.

I’ve got some apples. There’s some bread in the freezer.


Tinc (unes quantes) pomes. Hi ha pa al congelador.

Have you got any doughnuts? There isn’t any wine.


Que tens Dònuts? No hi ha vi.

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There is / there are

Aquestes dues formes verbals equivalen a la forma verbal catalana “hi ha”. There is es fa servir
amb substantius comptables en singular i amb substantius incomptables. La contracció
corresponent és there’s. There are s’utilitza només amb substantius comptables en plural i no
té contracció.

There’s a tomato in your fridge. There’s some milk on the table.


Hi ha un tomàquet a la nevera. Hi ha llet a la taula.

There are some biscuits in the kitchen.


Hi ha galetes a la cuina.

MANY, MUCH AND A LOT OF

Substantius comptables

Les expressions how many (quants/es), many (molts/es, gaires) i a lot of (molts/es, força, un
munt de) es fan servir amb substantius comptables en plural. How many s’utilitza per fer
preguntes; many, en frases negatives; i a lot of, en frases afirmatives.

How many cars have they got? She hasn’t got many tomatoes.
Quants cotxes tenen? No té gaires tomàquets.

We’ve got a lot of onions.


Tenim moltes cebes.

Substantius imcomptables

Les expressions how much (quant/a), much (molt/a, gaire) i a lot of (molt/a, força, un munt de)
es fan servir amb substantius comptables. How much s’utilitza per fer preguntes; much, en
frases negatives; i a lot of, en frases afirmatives.

How much meat do you eat? There isn’t much tea in the teapot.
Quanta carn menges? No hi ha gaire te a la tetera.

He eats a lot of chocolate.


Menja força xocolata.

COMPTE! Observa que a lot of es fa servir amb substantius comptables i també amb
incomptables, i que much no s’utilitza en frases afirmatives.

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There are a lot of starters. There are much starters.
Hi ha molts entrants.

There’s a lot of wine in the fridge. There’s much wine in the fridge.
Hi ha un munt de vi a la nevera.

Respostes curtes

En les respostes curtes amb many, much i a lot of, el substantiu es pot ometre. En aquest cas, a
lot of es transforma en a lot.

How much food is there? A lot / Not much.


Quant menjar hi ha? Molt / No gaire.

How many apples are there? A lot / Not many.


Quantes pomes hi ha? Força / No gaires.

COMPTE! No s’ha de confondre much i many; many tan sols es fa servir amb substantius
comptables, i much, amb incomptables (en interrogatives i negatives).

How much money have you got? How many money have you got?
Quants diners tens?

There aren’t many people here. There isn’t much people here.
No hi ha gaires persones.

QUANTITIES

Per expressar quantitats d’aliment

Per referir-se a una quantitat d’un aliment, s’acostuma a fer servir l’expressió a piece of (un
tros de). Aquesta expressió és molt útil per als substantius incomptables, perquè no es pot dir
three cheeses, two breads, etc.

a piece of cheese
un tros de formatge

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència al pa i a la xocolata, que en anglès són
substantius incomptables:

a loaf of bread a bar of chocolate


una barra de pa una rajola de xocolata

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Envasos d’aliments i de begudes

a tin of sardines a jar of olives a box of chocolates


una llauna de sardines un pot d’olives una capsa de bombons

a packet of biscuits a tube of tomato paste a can of beer


un paquet de galetes un tub de pasta de tomàquet una llauna de cervesa

a cup of coffee a glass of water


una tassa de cafè un got d’aigua

COMPTE! Per parlar d’un envàs ple s’acostuma a fer servir la fórmula següent: a + nom de
l’envàs + of + nom de l’aliment o de la beguda.

a bottle of wine a jar of jam


una ampolla de vi un pot de melmelada

Tanmateix, si l’envàs és buit, simplement s’inverteix l’ordre de les paraules:

a wine bottle a jam jar


una ampolla de vi (buida) un pot de melmelada (buit)

TALKING ABOUT THINGS

Per expressar quantitats

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar quantitats:

How many glasses are there? Not many. Five or six.


Quants gots hi ha? No gaires. Cinc o sis.

How much wine is there? Not much. About half a bottle.


Quant vi hi ha? No gaire. Mitja ampolla, si fa no fa.

How many bars of chocolate are there? A lot. About twenty!


Quantes rajoles de xocolata hi ha? Una pila. Vint, si fa no fa!

Per preguntar sobre pertinences

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar a algú si té, o no, una cosa:

Is there any paper on your desk? Yes, there is.

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Que tens paper a la taula? Sí.

Are there any packets of biscuits? Yes, there are.


Que hi ha cap paquet de galetes? Sí.

Is there a microwave in your kitchen? No, there isn’t.


Que tens microones a la cuina? No.

Per parlar d’objectes específics

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de les característiques de les coses que té
algú:

Which television have you got? I’ve got a Sony.


Quin televisor tens? Tinc un Sony.

Which computer have you got? I’ve got a ZAC 76.


Quin ordinador tens? Tinc un ZAC 76.

Which car have you got? I’ve got a Ford.


Quin cotxe tens? Tinc un Ford.

UNIT 9

HOWEVER, ON THE OTHER HAND AND ALTHOUGH

However (tanmateix) i on the other hand (d’altra banda) es fan servir per contrastar dues idees
que figuren en dues frases diferents d’un text. Aquests connectors se situen al principi de la
segona frase, i sempre van seguits d’una coma.

People in Italy who eat this diet live to an old age. However, there are other things that help
people have a long life.
Els italians que segueixen aquesta alimentació arriben a una edat avançada. Tanmateix, hi ha
altres factors que ens ajuden a viure més.

People have three meals a day. On the other hand, people don’t have time to cook good
food so they eat a lot of fast food.
La gent fa tres àpats per dia. D’altra banda, no té temps per preparar menjar sa i consumeix
molt menjar ràpid.

Although (malgrat que, encara que) es fa servir per contrastar dues idees diferents que figuren
a la mateixa frase. Es pot situar al principi de l’oració – llavors introdueix la primera idea –, o al

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mig, introduint la segona. Aquestes dues idees que es contrasten a la mateixa frase van
separades per una coma.

Although Japan is a very modern country, a lot of Japanese people don’t drive their cars
when they go to the shops.
Malgrat que el Japó és un país modern, molts japonesos no agafen el cotxe per anar a
comprar.

Japan is a very modern country, although a lot of Japanese people don’t drive their cars
when they go to the shops.
El Japó és un país molt modern, malgrat que molts japonesos no agafen el cotxe per anar a
comprar.

UNIT 10

PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS

El present continuous es fa servir per descruire una acció que transcorre tot just al moment en
què es parla, però també serveix per referir-se a plans i esdeveniments futurs.

I’m watching a DVD at the moment. He’s visiting his parents on Sunday.
Ara mateix miro un DVD. Diumenge visitarà els seus pares.

La forma afirmativa del present continuous es construeix amb el subjecte seguit del present del
verb to be i el verb principal acabat en –ing. La forma negativa es construeix de la mateixa
manera, però amb el present del to be en negatiu.

We’re going to the airport tomorrow.


Demà anirem a l’aeroport.

She isn’t cooking dinner tonight.


Aquesta nit no farà el sopar.

La forma interrogativa es construeix invertint l’ordre del subjecte i del verb to be. La fórmula és
aquesta: verb to be + subjecte + verb principal acabat en –ing.

Are you attending the meeting next week?


Que aniràs a la reunió la setmana vinent?

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Plans i esdeveniments futurs

Com acabem de veure, un ús força freqüent del present continuous és el de fer referència a
esdeveniments i a plans futurs.

I’m watching a film tomorrow. We’re visiting my sister on Friday.


Demà aniré a veure una pel·lícula. Divendres visitarem la meva germana.

COMPTE! Per parlar de plans i d’esdeveniments futurs, en català s’acostuma a fer servir el
futur i, de vegades, el present; en anglès, en canvi, s’utilitza el present continuous.

What are you doing this weekend? What do you do next weekend?
Què faràs aquest cap de setmana? / Què fas aquest cap de setmana?

Verbs que es fan servir habitualment amb el present continuous

Els verbs següents acostumen a fer-se servir en present continuous per parlar de plans i
d’esdeveniments futurs: go (anar), come (venir), meet (quedar), leave (anar-se’n) i have
(tenir/prendre). El verb see (veure) s’utilitza en present continuous per indicar que hem quedat
amb algú.

He’s coming to a party tomorrow. We’re having lunch on Monday.


Vindrà demà a la festa. Dinarem plegats dilluns vinent.

I’m seeing Sally on Tuesday afternoon.


He quedat amb la Sally dimarts a la tarda.

FUTURE TIME EXPRESSIONS

La majoria dels adverbis que expressen futur se situen al final de la frase.

Tomorrow + moment del dia

Tomorrow (demà) es pot fer servir tot sol o seguit de morning (al matí), afternoon (a la tarda),
evening (a la tarda / vespre) o night (a la nit). A diferència del català, aquestes expressions de
futur no porten preposicions ni articles.

I’m seeing my friend tomorrow. Liam isn’t coming tomorrow night.


He quedat amb la meva amiga demà. El Liam no vindrà demà a la nit.

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Next

Next (pròxim, vinent) és un adjectiu que se situa davant el dia, la setmana, el cap de setmana,
el mes o l’any de què es parla.

What are you doing next week?


Què faràs la setmana vinent?

COMPTE! Next no es fa servir per referir-se a una data futura concreta.

We’re meeting our accountant on the thirteenth of March.


We’re meeting our accountant on the next thirteenth of March.
Hem quedat amb el nostre comptable el tretze de març.

On i at

On és la preposició que es fa servir amb els dies de la setmana, i at, amb l’hora.

Are you working on Friday? Elaine’s going at six o’clock.


Que treballaràs divendres? L’Elaine plega a les sis.

COMPTE! L’article determinat the no es fa servir davant els dies de la setmana (com en la
majoria de casos en català) ni de next.

I’m visiting my parents next week. I’m visiting my parents the next week.
La setmana vinent visitaré els meus pares.

This + moment del dia o període de temps

This (aquest/a) es pot fer servir davant morning, afternoon, evening, week (setmana), month
(mes) i year (any) per parlar d’esdeveniments que tindran lloc en aquest moment o període.

Are they arriving this afternoon?


Que arriben aquesta tarda?

COMPTE! A la llista anterior falta night, perquè l’equivalent anglès de l’expressió “aquesta nit”
és l’adverbi tonight, no this night.

We’re seeing Phil tonight. We’re seeing Phil this night.


Aquesta nit hem quedat amb el Phil.

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FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS

Per parlar de plans futurs

Les expressions següents es fan servir per preguntar quins plans té algú i parlar-ne:

What are you doing next weekend?


Què faràs el cap de setmana vinent?

I’m going shopping. We’re playing basketball with friends.


Me n’aniré de compres. Jugarem a bàsquet amb els amics.

Are you doing anything on Sunday? Yes, I am. I’m seeing my old school friends.
Que faràs res diumenge? Sí, he quedat amb els amics d’escola.

Are you going out on Friday evening? No, I’m not. I’m staying in.
Que sortiràs divendres a la nit? No, em quedaré en casa.

What time are you meeting Chris? I’m meeting him at nine o’clock.
A quina hora has quedat amb el Chris? He quedat amb ell a les nou.

I’m not sure.


No n’estic segur.

Per parlar d’activitats quotidianes

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a activitats quotidianes:

Do you usually stay in on Saturdays?


Que acostumes a quedar-te a casa els dissabtes?

Yes, I do. I stay in with my family. No, I don’t. I usually go out.


Sí, em quedo a casa amb la família. No, normalment surto. / No, acostumo a sortir.
What do you do at the weekends? Not much. I relax at home.
Què fas els caps de setmana? No gaire. Em quedo a casa descansant.

UNIT 11

GOING TO FUTURE (PLANS AND INTENTIONS)

Per referir-se a un pla de futur, a una decisió que s’ha pres o a una cosa que es vol fer, es fa
servir l’estructura següent: subjecte + present de to be + going to + infinitiu del verb principal.

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I’m going to buy … He isn’t going to play … Are you going to go …?
Compraré … No jugarà … Que aniràs a …?

Afirmativa i negativa Interrogativa


I’m / I’m not going to Am I going to …?
You’re / You aren’t going to Are you going to …?
He’s / He isn’t going to Is he going to …?
She’s / She isn’t going to Is she going to …?
It’s / It isn’t going to Is it going to…?
We’re / We aren’t going to Are we going to…?
You’re / You aren’t going to Are you going to…?
They’re / They aren’t going to Are they going to …?

COMPTE! Observa que, per fer preguntes amb going to, s’inverteix l’ordre del subjecte i del
verb to be, i l’estructura resta d’aquesta manera: present de to be + subjecte + going to +
infinitiu del verb principal.

Is John going to do his homework? Is going to do John his homework?


Que el John farà els deures? / Que el John ha de fer els deures?

En català, es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí” o “no”; en anglès, però,
s’acostuma a fer servir una resposta curta.

Yes, I am. No, we aren’t.


Sí. No.

Going to o present continuous?

L’estructura to be + going to es fa servir per parlar de plans i d’intencions quan encara no s’han
concretat.

I’m going to visit New York next summer.


Aniré a Nova York l’estiu vinent.

En canvi, el present continuous es fa servir quan els plans ja s’han concretat i són definitius.
Aquest plans, normalment, inclouen altres persones, i ja se sep quan i on tindran lloc.

We’re visiting New York next week. We’ve got our plane tickets.
Anirem a Nova York la setmana vinent. Ja hi tenim els bitllets d’avió.

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GOING TO FUTURE (PREDICTIONS)

Per fer prediccions

L’estructura de futur going to també es fa servir per fer prediccions.

It’s going to be sunny this evening. It isn’t going to snow this weekend.
Aquesta tarda farà sol. Aquest cap de setmana no nevarà.

Is it going to be windy next week?


Que farà vent la setmana vinent?

El temps verbal de futur, que es construeix amb l’auxiliar will + l’infinitiu del verb principal,
també es pot fer servir per pronosticar què passarà. La contracció de will és ‘ll.
He’ll be late!
Farà tard!

La forma negativa del verb auxiliar will es construeix afegint-hi not al darrere (will not). En
l’anglès oral i en textos escrits informals, es fa servir la contracció won’t.

It won’t be ready.
No estarà a punt.

L’estructura going to es fa servir per fer prediccions si al moment en què es parla hi ha indicis
que passarà alguna cosa. Aquest ús de going to per fer prediccions s’acostuma a traduir al
català amb el futur simple.

Look at these black clouds. It’s going to rain.


Guaita aquests núvols negres. Plourà.

Isabel’s pregnant. She’s going to have a baby in September.


La Isabel està embarassada. Tindrà el nen al setembre.

You never study. You aren’t going to pass the exam.


No estudies mai. No aprovaràs l’examen.

COMPTE! El present continuous mai no es fa servir per fer prediccions.

It’s going to rain soon. It’s raining soon.


Plourà aviat.

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GEOGRAPHY

Punts cardinals i regions geogràfiques

Els punts cardinals en anglès són:

north south east west


nord sud est oest

north-west north-east south-west south-east


nord-oest nord-est sud-oest sud-est

L’article determinat the es fa servir amb els punts cardinals per fer referència a les regions
geogràfiques.

He lives in the north.


Viu al nord.

Per parlar de la localització d’un lloc específic en una regió geogràfica, es fan servir les
preposicions in (a) i of (de).

Newcastle is in the north-east. Bristol is in the west of England.


Newcastle és al nord-oest. Bristol és a l’oest d’Anglaterra.

La Gran Bretanya i el Regne Unit

Great Britain (la Gran Bretanya) és un terme geogràfic i polític. Geogràficament, designa l’illa
més gran de les Illes Britàniques. Políticament, designa la unió de tres regions: England
(Anglaterra), Scotland (Escòcia) i Wales (Gal·les).

The United Kingdom (el Regne Unit) està format per Great Britain i Northern Ireland (Irlanda
del Nord).

Tots els ciutadans d’England, Scotland, Wales i Northern Ireland són British (britànics), malgrat
que cadascuna d’aquestes regions també té la seva pròpia nacionalitat.

COMPTE! Recorda que en anglès els adjectius que indiquen nacionalitat s’escriuen amb
majúscula.

I’m not Irish. I’m Welsh.


No sóc irlandès. Sóc gal·lès.

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J. K. Rowling isn’t English. She’s Scottish .
La J. K. Rowling no és anglesa. És escocesa.

PERSONAL PLANS AND PREDICTIONS

Per parlar del temps

Les expressions següents en fan servir per referir-se al temps atmosfèric:

What’s the weather like today? It’s cold . It’s snowing.


Quin temps fa avui? Fa fred. Neva.

Is it raining? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t. It’s cloudy but it’s dry.
Que plou? Sí. Està ennuvolat, però no plou.

Per predir el temps

Les expressions següents en fan servir per pronosticar el temps que farà:

Do you know the weather forecast for tomorrow? Yes, it’s going to be hot and sunny.
Que saps quina és la predicció del temps per demà? Sí, farà sol i calor.

Do you think it’s going to rain tomorrow? Yes, I think so. No, I don’t think so.
Creus que plourà demà? Sí, em sembla que sí. No, no ho crec.

Per parlar de plans

Les expressions següents en fan servir per parlar dels plans o de les intencions que hom té:

What are you going to do tomorrow? I’m going to go skiing.


Què faràs demà? Me n’aniré a esquiar.

Are you going to watch the weather forecast tonight?


Que veuràs el butlletí meteorològic aquest vespre?

Yes, I am. We’re going to go to the beach tomorrow.


Sí. Demà anirem a la platja.

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UNIT 12

GIVING EXAMPLES

For example (per exemple) es fa servir per introduir una informació nova que exemplifica allò
que s’acaba de dir o d’escriure. Sempre ha d’anar seguit d’una coma, i l’exemple en si pot ser
un substantiu o una oració completa.

It says that climate change is bad for the economy. For example, the report says summers
are going to be very hot .
S’hi afirma que el canvi climàtic és perjudicial per l’economia. Per exemple, l’informe diu que
els estius seran més calorosos.

En textos escrits, for example s’acostuma a abreujar fent servir e.g. (p. ex. o per ex.)

Other industries, e.g. agriculture, are going to have problems.


Altres indústries, p. ex. l’agricultura, tindran problemes.

Such as (com ara, com) i like (com ara) només és es fan servir quan l’exemple que s’introdueix
és un o diversos substantius.

Other industries, such as agriculture, are going to have problems.


Altres indústries, com ara l’agricultura, tindran problemes.

Tourists are going to stop going to countries like Spain, Greece and Portugal.
Els turistes deixaran de visitar països com ara Espanya, Grècia i Portugal.

COMPTE! As (com ara, com) no es fa servir per posar exemples.

I enjoy Spanish food such as paella. = I enjoy Spanish food like paella.
I enjoy Spanish food as paella.
M’agrada el menjar espanyol, com ara la paella.

UNIT 13

THE PAST SIMPLE (TO BE)

To be (past simple, formes afirmativa i negativa)

El verb to be en passat (past simple) té dues formes: was i were. Was es fa servir amb les
persones I, he, she, it; amb la resta, s’utilitza were. Les formes negatives són was not i were

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not, però en l’anglès parlat i en textos escrits informals es fan servir les contracciones wasn’t i
weren’t.

I was at home at ten o’clock. We were in the office yesterday.


Era a casa a les deu. Ahir vam estar a l’oficina.

I wasn’t with her. They weren’t here.


No hi era amb ella. No hi van ser. / No hi eren.

COMPTE! Recorda que en anglès el subjecte mai no s’omet.

They were late on Saturday. Were late on Saturday


Dissabte feren tard.

To be (past simple, forma interrogativa)

Les preguntes amb el verb to be en past simple es formen invertint l’ordre del subjecte i del
verb: was o were + subjecte + …?

Was she at home? Were you late?


Que era a casa? Que hi vas fer tard?

Per fer preguntes amb un interrogatiu, p. ex. what o where, se segueix el mateix esquema
anterior, però amb l’interrogatiu al començament de la frase.

What was it? Where were they?


Què era això? On eren?

Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa


I was I wasn’t Was I …?
you were You weren’t Were you …?
He / She / It was He / She / It wasn’t Was he / she / it …?
We were We weren’t Were we …?
You were You weren’t Were you …?
They were They weren’t Were they …?

Recorda que en les respostes curtes afirmatives es fan servir les formes completes del verb (p.
ex. I was / You were), però en les respostes curtes negatives s’utilitzen les contraccions (p. ex. I
wasn’t / You weren’t).

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Were you tired? Yes, I was. Was he happy? No, he wasn’t.
Que estaves cansat? Sí. Que estava content? No.

THERE WAS, THERE WERE, WAS THERE …?, WERE THERE …?

There was i there were signifiquen “hi havia” en català i es fan servir per parlar de substantius
en singular i en plural, respectivament. La forma negativa es construeix afegint-hi not; recorda,
però, que not es contrau quan acompanya el verb to be i dóna lloc, en aquest cas, a there
wasn’t i there weren’t.

There was a newspaper. There were some chairs.


Hi havia un diari . Hi havia unes quantes cadires.

There wasn’t a remote control. There weren’t any goals.


No hi havia comandament a distància. No va haver-hi gols.

COMPTE! Quan s’enumeren diversos substantius en singular, es fa servir there was, no there
were.

There was a newspaper, a mobile phone and a pen in my coat pocket.


There were a newspaper, a mobile pone and a pen in my coat pocket.
A la butxaca de l’abric no portava ni diari, ni telèfon mòbil i ni bolígraf.

COMPTE! Per dir quanta gent hi havia en un grup, en una família, en una empresa, etc. es fa
servir there were, i no we were.

There were nine people in the office. We were nine people in the office.
Hi havia nou persones a l’oficina.

Per fer preguntes, s’ha d’invertir l’ordre de there was o there were i, després, situar-hi el
substantiu, singular o plural, segons pertoqui: was there o were there + substantiu singular o
substantiu plural + …?

Was there a phone on the table? Yes, there was.


Que hi havia un telèfon a la taula? Sí.

Were there any sweets in my bag? No, there weren’t.


Que hi havia / portava caramels a la meva butxaca? No.

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Some i any

A les frases afirmatives amb there were, s’acostuma a fer servir some davant els substantius en
plural. A les negatives i a les interrogatives amb there were, s’utilitza any en comptes de some.
Molts cops, some i any no es tradueixen al català.

There were some pens on the desk.


Hi havia bolígrafs a l’escriptori.

There weren’t any pictures.


No hi havia cap foto / No hi havia fotos.

Were there any photographers at the party?


Que hi havia cap fotògraf a la festa? / Que hi havia fotògraf a la festa?

EXTREME ADJECTIVES

En anglès, s’anomena extreme adjectives, intensificadors, els adjectius que emfatitzen o


intensifiquen una qualitat o una característica.

cold > freezing hot > boiling


fred/a > glaçat/ada, congelat/ada calent > bullent
calorós/osa > xafogós/osa

big > enormous small > tiny


gran / gros > enorme petit/a > diminut

angry > furious surprised > amazed


emprenyat/ada > furiós/osa sorprès/esa > bocabadat/ada

hungry > starving interesting > fascinating


famolenc/a, afamat/ada > mort de gana interessant > fascinant

Very i absolutely

L’adverbi very (molt, força) també serveix per intensificar el significant d’un adjectiu.

It was a very bad meal.


Va ser un dinar força dolent.

Per emfatitzar el significat d’un extreme adjective encara més, es fa servir l’adverbi absolutely.

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I’m absolutely starving!
Em moro de gana!

COMPTE! Very no es pot fer servir amb extreme adjectives. En canvi, absolutely tan sols es fa
servir amb aquests adjectius.

We’re very hungry. We’re absolutely hungry.


Tenim molta gana.

It’s absolutely freezing today. It’s very freezing today.


Avui fa moltíssim fred.

TALKING ABOUT THE PAST

Per parlar del lloc on s’ha estat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se al lloc on ha estat algú:

Where were you last weekend? I was at a friend’s house.


On et vas estar el cap de setmana passat? Vaig estar a casa d’un amic.

Were you at home last night? Yes, I was. No, I was out.
Que eres a casa anit passada? Sí. No, era a fora.

Per dir amb qui érem

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a l’acompanyant d’algú en un moment
determinat:

Who were you with? Were you with anyone?


Amb qui eres? Que eres amb algú?

I was with Mark and Abbie Yes, I was No, I was with my sister
Era amb el Mark i l’Abbie. Sí. No, era amb la meva germana.

Per parlar del temps atmosfèric

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar del temps que fa:

What was the weather like? It was cold


Quin temps hi feia? Hi feia fred.

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Was it hot? Yes, it was boiling
Que hi feia calor? Sí, feia molta xafogor.

Was there a lot of snow? No, there wasn’t


Qui hi havia gaire neu? No.

UNIT 14

PAST SIMPLE IRREGULAR VERBS (AFFIRMATIVE)

El past simple es fa servir per parlar d’accions acabades que s’han esdevingut en el passat. A
diferència del català, la forma del past simple és la mateixa per a totes les persones. El past
simple del verbs regulars anglesos es construeix afegint –ed a l’inifitiu, però n’hi ha molts que
són irregulars.

We went to the pub on Saturday. They had dinner at 11 o’clock.


Dissabte vam anar al bar . Van sopar a les 11.

Molts verbs irregulars no segueixen una fórmula específica per formar el past simple.
Tanmateix, n’hi ha que es poden agrupar en diferents patrons de formació del passat.

Canvis a l’ortografia

El past simple d’alguns verbs irregulars es forma introduint-hi determinats canvis ortogràfics.

Per formar el past simple d’aquests verbs, es canvia la lletra –i per una –o:

win > won ride > rode


guanyar > va guanyar anar (amb) > va anar

write > wrote drive > drove


escriure > va escriure conduir > va conduir

En aquests, es canvia la lletra –i per una –a:

sing > sang give > gave


cantar > va cantar donar > va donar

drink > drank sit > sat


beure > va beure seure > va seure

El past simple d’aquests verbs acaba en –ought:

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buy > bought bring > brought fight > fought
comprar > va comprar portar > va portar lluitar > va lluitar

Els past simple d’alguns verbs irregulars s’escriu igual que l’inifitiu.

put > put cost > cost read > read


posar > va posar costar > va costar llegar > va llegir

COMPTE! Malgrat que l’infinitiu i el past simple del verb read s’escriuen igualment, es
pronuncien de manera diferent.

Verbs irregulars que no segueixen cap patró específic

Molts verbs irregulars no segueixen un patró específic. En aquest cas, no hi ha altre remei que
aprendre el past simple de memòria.

go > went have > had


anar > va anar tenir > va tenir

eat > ate meet > met


menjar > va menjar conèixer > va conèixer

PAST SIMPLE IRREGULAR VERBS (NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE)

Com passa amb el present simple, les frases negatives i les interrogatives en past simple es
construeixen amb el verb auxiliar do. La forma de l’auxiliar do que es fa servir en aquestes
frases en past simple és la del passat: did.

Past simple (forma negativa)

Les frases negatives en past simple es construeixen amb la forma negativa de l’auxiliar did not,
seguida del verb principal en infinitiu. En l’anglès oral i en textos escrits informals es fa servir la
contracció didn’t.

I didn’t bring my computer. We didn’t see John at the cinema.


No he portat l’ordinador . No hem vist el John al cinema.

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Past simple (forma interrogativa)

Les preguntes en past simple es construeixen amb l’auxiliar did seguit del subjecte i del verb
principal en infinitiu. Si la pregunta conté un interrogatiu (p. ex. What? / Where?), aquest se
situa al principi de la frase.

Did you buy a new flat? Did he drink his coffee? When did they go to Paris?
Que t’has comprat un pis nou? Que s’ha begut el cafè? Quan han anat a Paris?

En català, es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí” o “no”; en anglès, però,
s’acostuma a fer servir una resposta curta.

Did you win the game? No, we didn’t.


Que vau guanyar al partit? No.

Did they ride their mopeds? Yes, they did.


Que hi han anat amb els ciclomotors? Sí.

COMPTE! Les frases negatives i les interrogatives en past simple sempre es construeixen amb
la forma auxiliar did i amb l’infinitiu del verb principal. En aquestes frases, el verb principal es
fa servir en past simple.

I didn’t have dinner with them. I didn’t had dinner with them.
No he sopat amb ells.

Did she go to work? Did she went to work?


Que ha anat a treballar?

MONEY

En anglès, hi ha diferents formes de pagament i mots que designen diners.

cash coin note


diners en efectiu moneda bitllet

credit card debit card currency


targeta de crèdit targeta de dèbit divisa

Aquests objectes serveixen per desar-hi els diners.

purse wallet
portamonedes cartera (de butxaca)

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Les paraules següents fan referència a comprovants de pagament:

bill receipt
factura, compte rebut

Els verbs següents es fan servir per parlar de diners:

cost lend spend


costar prestar gastar

pay borrow
pagar demanar (en préstec)

COMPTE! No s’ha de confondre els verbs borrow i lend.

I want to borrow £9,000 from the bank. I went to lend £9,000 from the bank.
Vull demanar 9.000 lliures al banc.

She always lends me her DVDs. She always borrows me her DVDs.
Sempre em deixa els seus DVD.

EXPRESSIONS WITH HAVE

Les expressions amb el verb have es fan servir sovint per fer referència a menjar i a beguda.

have breakfast have lunch have a drink


esmorzar dinar prendre alguna cosa per beure

have a cup of tea have a coffee have a snack


prendre una tassa de te prendre un cafè fer un mos

El verb have també es fa servir en aquestes expressions.

have a shower have a rest have a party


dutxar-se descansar fer una festa

have a baby have fun have a break


tenir un nen divertir-se fer un descans

have a good time have a nice day


passar-s’ho bé, xalar tenir un bon dia

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COMPTE! Per indicar sensacions i sentiments, i també l’edat, l’alçària i el pes, es fa servir el
verb to be seguit d’un substantiu o d’un adjectiu.

She’s very hungry. She has a lot of hunger.


Té molta gana.

You’re thirty today! Happy birthday! You have thirty today! Happy birthday!
Avui fas trenta anys! Per molts anys!

TALKING ABOUT RECENT EVENTS

Accions passades recents

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència a allò que s’ha fet en un moment
concret del passat:

What did you do last night? I went to the cinema.


Què vas fer anit passada? Vaig anar al cinema.

Did you see any friends yesterday?


Que vas veure cap amic ahir?

Yes, I did. I saw my friends Mark and Chloe. No, I didn’t.


Sí, hi vaig veure els meus amics, el Mark i la Chloe. No.

What did you do yesterday evening?


Què vas fer ahir al vespre?

I met my friends. I met Sally and Phil.


Vaig quedar amb els meus amics. Vaig quedar amb la Sally i el Phil.

Where did you have lunch yesterday?


On vas dinar ahir?

I had lunch at home. We went to a restaurant. I didn’t have lunch yesterday.


Vaig dinar a casa. Vam anar a un restaurant. Ahir no vaig dinar.

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència a accions dutes a terme en el passat:

When did you get up? I got up late.


A quina hora et vas llevar? Em vaig llevar tard.

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What time did she go to work? She went at six o’clock.
A quina hora va anar a treballar? Hi va anar a les sis.

When did you have lunch? I had lunch at two o’clock.


Quan vau dinar? Vaig dinar a les dues.

UNIT 15

PUNCTUATION

Apòstrofs

Els apòstrofs es fan servir per formar contraccions dels verbs i per indicar pertinença amb la
forma possessiva ‘s.

But this wasn’t a group of art lovers.


Però no era un grup d’amants de l’art.

Films don’t really give a true impression of the art thief’s world.
Les pel·lícules no representen com és, realment, el món dels lladres d’art.

Cometes

Les cometes es fan servir per reproduir les paraules exactes d’algú. Darrere el verb que
introdueix la citació sempre es posa una coma, a diferència del català, en què s’utilitzen els dos
punts.

They said, ‘We’re here to check security.’


Van dir: “Venim per comprovar la seguretat”.

Dos punts

En anglès, els dos punts es fan servir per introduir enumeracions o exemples.

Vincenzo Peruggia took a very famous painting from the Louvre art gallery: the Mona Lisa.
El Vincenzo Peruggia es va emportar un quadre molt famós del Museu del Louvre: la Mona
Lisa.

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UNIT 16

PAST SIMPLE REGULAR VERBS (AFFIRMATIVE)

Malgrat que en anglès hi ha bastants verbs irregulars, també n’hi ha molts de regulars. El past
simple dels verbs regulars es forma afegint la terminació –ed a l’inifinitu. La forma és la
mateixa per a totes les persones.

We walked to work on Monday. We waited for him at the office.


Dilluns vam anar caminant a la feina. El vam esperar a l’oficina.

Canvis a l’ortografia

Els verbs acabats en consonant-vocal-consonant dupliquen la consonant final en afegir-hi la


terminació –ed.

stop > stopped plan > planned


aturar, parar > es va aturar, es va parar planejar > va planejar

Als verbs que acaben en –e s’hi afegeix només –d.

live > lived dance > danced


viure > va viure ballar > va ballar

En els verbs que acaben en consonant seguida de –y, la –y canvia a –ied.

study > studied try > tried


estudiar > va estudiar intentar > va intentar

Pronúncia

La terminació –ed del past simple no s’acostuma a pronunciar com una síl·laba independent.

I saved €500 in one month! He repaired the scanner.


He estalviat 500€ en un mes! Va reparar l’escàner.

We worked at the weekend. John helped me with the report.


Vam treballar el cap de setmana. El John em va ajudar a fer l’informe.

Tanmateix, quan l’infinitiu acaba en –t o en –d, la terminació –ed sí que es pronuncia com una
síl·laba independent.

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start > started
començar > va començar

My brother started his new job last year.


El meu germà va començar la feina nova l’any passat.

want > wanted


voler > va voler

Louise wanted some photocopies


La Louise volia unes quantes fotocòpies

WH- QUESTIONS WITH THE PAST SIMPLE

Les preguntes en past simple segueixen aquest esquema: auxiliar did + subjecte + infinitiu del
verb principal. Els interrogatius where (on), who (qui), what (què), which (quin / quins), what
time (a quina hora), when (quan), how (can) i why (per què) sempre se situen al principi de la
pregunta.

When did they arrive? Where did you see Jack?


Quan han arribat? On has vist el Jack?

Where? es fa servir per demanar per llocs.

Where did they live in 2007?


On vivien l’any 2007?

Who? es fa servir per demanar per persones.

Who did she call on her mobile?


A qui ha trucat amb el mòbil?

What? es fa servir per demanar per objectes, accions o situations.

What did you cook last night?


Què vas cuinar ahir al vespre?

Which? es fa servir per demanar per objectes o per altres coses, quan el nombre de respostes
possibles és limitat.

Which car did you buy; the blue one or the red one?
Quin cotxe has comprat, el blau o el vermell?

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What time? es fa servir per preguntar l’hora. When? s’utilitza per fer preguntes generals sobre
el moment en què s’ha fet una cosa.

What time did you leave yesterday? When did you arrive at the office?
A quina hora vas marxar ahir? Quan vas arribar a l’oficina?

How? es fa servir per demanar per la manera com s’ha fet una cosa. Why? s’utilitza per
preguntar la raó per la qual s’ha fet una cosa o la causa per la qual ha passat una cosa.

How did you make the cake? Why did he wait at the school?
Com vas fer el pastís? Per què es va esperar al col·legi?

A diferència del català, quan una pregunta comença per un interrogatiu i conté una preposició,
aquesta s’acostuma a situar al final de la pregunta.

Who did you buy the present for? Where did they go to?
Per a qui has comprat el regal? On van anar?

OFFICE SKILLS

Les paraules i les frases següents estan relacionades amb maneres de comunicar-se en una
oficina. Observa que post i phone són substantius que donen lloc a verbs.

post
un correu (postal) / enviar per correu (postal)

When does the post arrive? I posted the letter yesterday.


Quan arriba el correu? Vaig enviar la carta ahir.

phone
un telèfon / trucar, telefonar

Where’s the phone? I phoned him last week.


On és el telèfon? Li vaig trucar la setmana passada.

deliver
lliurar, repartir

Les paraules següents fan referència a ordinadors i a Internet. Observa que click, search i email
també són substantius que donen lloc a verbs.

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a click / to click a search / to search
un clic / fer clic, fer un clic, clicar una cerca / cercar

an email / to email to connect


un correu electrònic / enviar per correu (electrònic) connectar, connectar-se

to delete to download
suprimir, eliminar baixar, descarregar

Els verbs següents fan referència a diferents tasques que es duen a terme en una oficina:

to print to scan to photocopy


imprimir escanejar fotocopiar

DOCUMENTS

Aquestes paraules fan referència a documents oficials que calen en diferents àmbits: viatges,
feina, família, casa, etc.

Viatges

identity card passport visa


document d’indentitat passaport visat

driving licence travel card


permís de conduir abonament de transport

Feina

work permit contract


permís de treball contracte

CV (curriculum vitae) sick note


currículum certificat de baixa per malaltia

Família i casa

birth certificate marriage certificate


partida de naixement partida de matrimoni

death certificate deeds


certificat de defunció escriptura

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TALKING ABOUT WHAT YOU DID AT WORK

Correus electrònics

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar del correu electrònic:

Did you email anyone yesterday? Yes, I did. I emailed our clients.
Que vas enviar cap correu ahir? Sí, en vaig enviar als nostres clients.

How many junk emails did you receive? I don’t know. About fifty.
Quants correus brossa has rebut? No ho sé. Cinquanta, si fa no fa.

Did you answer them? No, I deleted them.


Els has contestat? No, els he suprimit.

Converses telefòniques

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de converses telefòniques:

Did you phone anyone? Yes, I phoned a lot of people.


Que has trucat a algú? Sí, he trucat a molta gent.

How many phone calls did you make?


Quantes trucades has fet?

Who did you phone? I didn’t receive any phone calls yesterday.
A qui has trucat? Ahir no vaig rebre cap trucada.

Repostes

Les expressions següents es fan servir per respondre a determinades preguntes:

I worked late yesterday .


Ahir vaig treballar fins tard.

How many photocopies did you make?


Quantes fotocòpies vas fer?

I didn’t make any.


No en vaig fer cap.

Did you post any letters yesterday?


Que vas enviar cap carta ahir?

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About fifty.
Cinquanta, si fa no fa.

UNIT 17

TIME EXPRESSIONS WITH THE PAST SIMPLE

A les frases en past simple, els adverbis de temps s’acostumen a situar al final de l’oració.

Yesterday

L’adverbi yesterday (ahir) es pot fer servir tot sol o seguit de morning (al matí), afternoon (a la
tarda) o evening (a la tarda / al vespre).

We visited London yesterday. They went home yesterday morning.


Ahir vam anar a Londres. Van marxar a casa ahir al matí.

COMPTE! Davant el substantiu night (nit) es fa servir l’adjectiu last (passat/ada, darrer/a), no
yesterday.

I emailed you last night. I emailed you yesterday night.


Anit pasada et vaig enviar un correu.

Last

L’adjectiu last (passat/ada, darrer/a) es fa servir per referir-se al dia, a la setmana, al cap de
setmana, al mes o a l’any anteriors a aquest.

Tom played the guitar last week. I didn’t meet them last month.
El Tom va tocar la guitarra la setmana passada. El mes passat no les vaig veure.

COMPTE! A diferència del català, l’article determinat the mai no es fa servir davant last.

Did Anita go to Portugal last week? Did Anita go to Portugal the last week?
Que va anar l’Anita a Portugal la setmana pasada?

Ago

Ago es fa servir amb el past simple per indicar el temps transcorregut des que ha passat una
cosa.

I went to Chicago two years ago.

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Vaig anar a Chicago fa dos anys.

Jack arrived home five minutes ago.


El Jack ha arribat a casa fa cinc minutes.

In, on i at

Les expressions de temps amb les preposicions in (per als mesos, els anys o les èpoques de
l’any), on (els dies de la setmana) i at (les hores) es fan servir de la mateixa manera amb el past
simple que amb altres temps verbals que ja hem vist.

Did you visit India in July? We went to the opera on Saturday evening.
Que vas anar a l’Índia al juliol? Vam anar a l’òpera dissabte al vespre.

Phil went to bed at nine o’clock.


El Phil se’n va anar al llit a les nou.

VERBS AND THEIR PREPOSITIONS

Tant en anglès com en català hi ha verbs que van seguits, generalment, d’una preposició
determinada. Tanmateix, les preposicions que acompanyen aquests verbs acostumen a ser
diferents en cada idioma.

Verbs que van seguits de preposició tant en anglès com en català

Aquests verbs van seguits de preposició en tots dos idiomes. Tanmateix, les preposicions no
són equivalents.

depend on laugh at
dependre de riure’s de

translate into rely on


traduir a confiar en

COMPTE! Amb el verb think (pensar) es fan servir les preposicions of i about. La preposició in
gairebé no s’hi fa servir mai.

She’s thinking about her new boyfriend. She’s thinking in her new boyfriend.
Tot just ara pensa en el seu nou xicot.

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Verbs que van seguits de preposició tan sols en anglès

Aquests verbs van seguits de preposició en anglès, però no en català.

look for look at


cercar mirar

wait for pay for


esperar pagar

COMPTE! Darrere el verb listen (escoltar) es fa servir sempre la preposició to.

I’m listening to a great CD. I’m listening a great CD


Tot just ara escolto un CD boníssim.

Verbs que no van seguits de preposició en anglès

Hi ha verbs que no porten preposició en anglès, però sí que en duen en alguna traducció al
català.

phone finish stop


trucar a acabar de parar de

change enter
canviar de entrar a

PERIODS OF TIME

Períodes i unitats de temps

second minute hour


segon minut hora

day night
dia nit

week weekend month year


setmana cap de setmana mes any

Estacions de l’any

spring summer autumn winter

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primavera estiu tardor hivern

Dècades i grans períodes

decade
dècada

the seventies the eighties the nineties


els setanta els vuitanta els noranta

century millennium
segle mil·lenni

TALKING ABOUT MUSIC

Per parlar d’activitats habituals

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar d’activitats habituals:

When did you last go to a concert? I went last week.


Quan vas anar per darrer cop a un concert? Hi vaig anar la setmana passada.

Do you often go shopping? Yes, I do. Quite often.


Surts de compres sovint? Sí, bastant sovint.

Yes, I do. Quite often. No. I don’t like going shopping.


Sí, bastant sovint. No, no m’agrada sortir de compres.

Per parlar de compres i de diners

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar d’allò que s’ha comprat i del preu:

What did you buy? I bought a Madonna DVD.


Què has comprat? He comprat un DVD de la Madonna.

How much did it cost? Five euros! It was a bargain.


Quant t’ha costat? Cinc euros! Era una ganga.

Did you pay by credit card? No. I paid by cash.


Que has pagat amb targeta de crèdit? No, he pagat en efectiu.

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Per expressar opinions

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar opinions:

Did you enjoy the music? Did you like the concert?
Et va agradar la música? Et va agradar el concert?

Yes, it was very good. It was OK.


Sí, va ser molt bo. Va estar bé. / No va estar malament.

What did you think of the new album? It wasn’t a good CD.
Què t’ha semblat l’àlbum nou? No era un bon CD.

UNIT 18

SO, AS A RESULT AND THEREFORE

So (per això) enllaça dues idees que figuren a la mateixa frase. La segona idea és conseqüència
de la primera. So és menys formal que altres connectors, per això s’acostuma a fer servir en
textos escrits informals i en l’anglès oral.

Their fans are happy so the bands are selling lots of albums and playing in full stadiums.
Els fans estan contents, per això aquests grups tot just ara venen molts àlbums i toquen en
estadis plens a vessar.

As a result (així doncs) acostuma a enllaçar dues idees que figuren en dues frases diferents.
Aquest connector sempre va seguit de coma.

These bands were very popular with teenagers in the nineties, only a decade ago. As a result,
they thought a comeback was a good idea and the band made new records.
Aquests grups eren força populars entre els adolescents dels noranta, fa tan sols una dècada.
Així doncs, van pensar que reaparèixer a l’escena musical era una bona idea i van enregistrar
discos nous.

Therefore (per tant, doncs) enllaça dues idees que figuren en una mateixa frase o en dues
frases diferents. Quan les dues idees figuren a la mateixa frase, therefore acostuma a portar
davant and.

However, they didn’t sell many CDs and therefore they are now making plans for a second
comeback!
Tanmateix, no van vendre gaires discos i, doncs, tot just planegen reaparèixer per segon cop!

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MODULE 2A
UNIT 1

REQUESTS AND OFFERS

Peticions

Per demanar alguna cosa en català, s'acostuma a preguntar-ho amb el verb “poder” o a
afirmar-ho amb un verb en imperatiu. En anglès, l'ús de I‘imperatiu no és gaire cortès, per això
per fer peticions es fa servir la forma interrogativa dels verbs can, could o may. Aquests dos
darrers verbs denoten més cortesia que no can. Observa que, per fer preguntes amb aquests
verbs, no es fa servir I’auxiliar do / does.

Can you give me a bigger size? Could I see a different style?


Que em podríeu donar una talla/ Que puc veure una altre model?
un número més?

COMPTE! May se sol fer servir amb els pronoms I i we per fer peticions.

May I try on another pair? May we come in?


Que me'n puc emprovar un altre parell? Que podem entrar? / Que es pot
entrar

Can I have …?, Could I have …? I May I have …? normalment equivalen a “Que podeu / pots
donar-me ...?” o “Que podríeu / podries donar-me ...?”.

Can I have some sugar?


Que pots donar-me una mica de de sucre?

Could I have some water?


Que podríeu donar-me una mica d’aigua?

May I have a biscuit?


Que podríeu donar-me una galeta?

Les formes verbals want (voler) would like (m'agradaria, voldria, em vindria de gust) també es
fan servir afirmativament per fer peticions. Would like denota més cortesia que no want.

I want to try on that jacket.


Vull emprovar-me aquella jaqueta.

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I'd like to see the coat in the window.
Voldria veure l’abric de l'aparador.

Oferiments

Can i may també es poden fer servir en forma irrterrogativa per oferir alguna cosa a algú.

Can I get you another size? May I help you?


Voleu que us porti una altra talla / un altre número? Que us put ajudar?

Want i would like també s’utilitzen en forma interrogativa per fer oferiments.

Recorda que would like denota més cortesia que no want.

Do you want to see a different style?


Que vols veure un altre model?

Would you like a bigger site?


Que voldríeu emprovar-vos una talla / un número més?

TOO AND ENOUGH

Els adverbis too (massa) i enough (bastant, prou) acompanyen els adjectius per indicar l’excés
o el defecte de la qualitat que aquests expressen.

Too

Com en català, I’adverbi too se situa davant I‘adjectiu.

This shirt is too expensive.


Aquesta camisa és massa cara.

These trousers are too short.


Aquests pantalons són massa curts.

Enough

A diferència del català, l'adverbi enough se situa darrere l'adjectiu.

That jacket isn't warm enough.


Aquesta jaqueta no abriga prou.

Those shoes aren't big enough.

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Aquestes sabates no són prou grans.

En algunes frases amb too o enough pot figurar-hi for darrere l'adjectiu, seguit d'un substantiu
o d'un pronom que fa referència a algú.

That jumper is too small for you. That dress isn't long enough for you.
Aquest jersei et va massa petit Aquest vestit no és prou Ilarg per a tu.

COMPTE! Per dir com Ii van les talles de les peces de roba i els números de calçat a algú,
s’acostuma a fer servir el verb fit. Recorda que a les frases interrogatives i negatives cal
utilitzar els auxiliars do / does.

Does it fit? Do they fit?


Que et va bé? Que et van bé?

Quan Ia talla d’una peça de roba o el número de sabata és l'adequat, es fan servir aquestes
expressions.

It fits. They fit


Em va bé. Em van bé.

En cas contrari, es fan servir les frases negatives.

It doesn't fit. They don't fit.


No em va bé. No em van bé.

SIZES

Els adjectius i les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència a les talles de roba:

small medium large extra small extra large


petita mitjana gran extra petita extra gran

It’s the right size. It’s the wrong size.


És la meva talla. No és la meva talla.

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar una talla:

Have you got this shirt in a small?


Que teniu la talla petita d’aquesta camisa?

I’d like this jacket in a medium.


Vull / Voldria la talla mitjana d’aquesta jaqueta.

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Els adjectius següents es fan servir per descriure com li va, a algú, una peça de roba:

long short baggy tight


llarg/a curt/a ample/a tibat/ada, just/a

GOING SHOPPING

Per demanar una peça de roba

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar peces de roba:

Have you got any cream jackets? I’d like to try on this shirt.
Que teniu cap jaqueta de color crema? Voldria emprovar-me aquesta camisa.

I’m looking for a dress. I’m just looking.


Busco un vestit. Només miro.

I’d like a navy one. I’d like some dark green ones.
El vodria blau fosc. Les vull en verd fosc.

Per referir-se a talles o a números

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a les talles de les peces de roba i als
números de sabata:

What size are you?


Quina talla fas? / Quin número de peu fas?

I’m a size 42. That’s a UK size 12.


Faig la 42. / Faig el 42. Equival a la talla 12 / al número 12 del Regne Unit.

Have you got a size 14? It’s the wrong size.


Que en teniu, de la talla 14? No faig aquesta talla.

Les expressions següents es fan servir per emprovar-se peces de roba:

How is it? It fits perfectly! It’s not big enough for me.
Que et va bé? Em va perfecte! No és prou gran per a mi. / Em va petit.

How are they? They’re too tight for me.


Que et van bé? M’estrenyen massa.

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UNIT 2

PAST CONTINUOUS

El past continuous es fa servir per parlar d’una acció que s’ha desenvolupat en un moment
determinat o durant un període de temps del passat. L’estructura de la frase és semblant a la
del present continuous.

La forma afirmativa del past continuous es construeix amb el subjecte seguit del past simple
del verb to be (was o were) i el verb principal acabat en –ing.

We were cooking. He was singing.


Cuinàvem. Cantava.

La forma negativa del past continuous es construeix amb el subjecte seguit del past simple del
verb to be en forma negativa (wasn’t o weren’t) i el verb principal acabat en –ing.

We weren’t cooking. He wasn’t singing.


No cuinàvem. No cantava.

La forma interrogativa del past continuous es construeix invertint I’ordre del subjecte i de was
o were. El verb principal acabat en –ing se situa darrere el subjecte.

Were we cooking? Was he singing?


Que cuinàvem? Que cantava?

COMPTE! Recorda que, en les preguntes, el subjecte sempre se situa entre was o were i el verb
principal acabat en –ing. En català té més mobilitat.

Was your brother studying? Was studying your brother?


Que estudiava, el teu germà? Que el teu germà estudiava?

En català es pot contestar les preguntes dient simplement “sí” o “no”; en anglès, però,
s’acostuma a fer servir una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes, I was / No, I wasn’t o Yes, you were / No,
you weren’t, ect.).

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Forma afirmativa Forma negativa Forma interrogativa
I was working I wasn’t working Was I working?
You were working You weren’t working Were you working?
He was working He wasn’t working Was he working?
She was working She wasn’t working Was she working?
It was working It wasn’t working Was it working?
We were working We weren’t working Were we working?
They were working They weren’t working Were they working?

PAST SIMPLE OR PAST CONTINUOUS?

Tan el past simple com el past continuous es fan servir en anglès per parlar del passat, però cal
saber quan s’ha d’utilitzar I’un o I’altre.

Past simple

El past simple es fa servir per parlar d’una acció acabada que ha tingut lloc en un moment
concret del passat.

We bougth a new car yerterday.


Ahir vam comprar un cotxe nou.

What time did you call your sister?


A quina hora vas trucar a la teva germana?

Past continuous

El past continuous es fa servir per parlar d’una acció que es desenvolupava en un moment
determinat o durant un període de temps del passat.

At six o’clock yesterday evening, I was taking my dog for a walk.


Ahir a la tarda, a les sis, passejava el gos.

What were you doing at midnight last night?


Què feies ahir a mitjanit?

Past simple i past continuous

El past simple i el past continuous es poden fer servir a la mateixa frase par expressar dues
accions passades diferents. El past continuous fa referència a l’acció que l’ha interromput.
Davant el verb en past continuous es pot utilitzar when (quan) o while (mentre, quan). Davant
el verb en past simple s’acostuma a fer servir when.

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They stole her mobile phone while she was jogging in the park.
Li van robar el mòbil mentre feia fúting al parc.

While we were having a picnic, it started to rain.


Quan fèiem un pícnic, va començar a ploure.

Where were you going when the police arrived?


On anaves quan va arribar la policia?

When the phone rang, I was having a shower.


Quan va trucar per telèfon, em dutxava.

COMPTE! En anglès, normalment, si les dues frases tenen el mateix subjecte, aquest es
repeteix.

He wrote a book while he was living in France. He wrote a book while was living in France.
Va escriure un llibre quan vivia a França.

CRIME

Els substantius següents designen tipus de delinqüents:

thief burglar
lladre (en general) lladre (que entra en un casa o en un local)

shoplifter pickpocket
lladre (que furta en botigues) carterista

vàndal smuggler
brètol/a, vàndal contrabandista

Els substantius següents designen diferents menes de delictes:

theft burglary
robatori (en general) robatori (en una casa o en un local)

shoplifting pickpocketing
furt (en una botiga) robatori de carteres

vandalism smuggling
bretolada, vandalisme contraban

Els substantius següents designen persones i càstigs relacionats amb un delicte:

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suspect criminal
sospitós/osa delinqüent

victim punishment
víctima càstig

prison fine
presó multa

DESCRIBING AN EVENING

Per dir què es feia

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar d’allò que ha passat en un moment del passat:

What were you doing at half past eight yerterday evening?


Què feies ahir a la tarda a dos quarts de nou?

I was watching a film at the cinema.


Mirava una pel·lícula al cinema.

It started at quarter to eight.


Va començar a tres quarts de nou.

I was in my jeans.
Portava texans.

I was at work.
Era la feina.

PER DIR AMB QUI ÉREM

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar amb qui érem en un moment del passat:

Who were you with? I was with my partner.


Amb qui eres? Era amb la meva parella.

Was anyone else with you?


Que hi havia algú més?

Yes, I was with my family. Yes, there were four of us. No, I was on my own.
Sí, era amb la meva família. Sí, n’érem quatre. No, estava tot sol.

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Per dir que no s’ha fet una cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar que no s’ha dut a terme una acció:

No, it wasn’t me. No, I wasn’t.


No, no he estat jo. No.

No. I was at home. No, of course not.


No, era a casa. No, i ara!

No, certainly not. No, absolutely not.


No, és clar que no. No, no cal dir-ho!

UNIT 3

USING ADVERBS

Els adverbis aporten detalls concrets de tota mena d’accions.

Els adverbis suddenly (de sobte) i eventually (finalment) acostumen a situar-se al principi de la
frase i van seguits d’una coma. En canvi, immediately s’acostuma a col·locar al final.

Suddenly, two men ran into the bank carrying handguns.


De sobte, dos homes amb pistoles van entrar corrent al banc.

Eventually, a police dog found him in a cupboard where he was hiding.


Finalment, un gos policia el va trobar amagat en un armari.

The police officer arrested him immediately.


El policia el va detenir immediatament.

Els adverbis fortunately (afortunadament), unfortunately (malauradament) i luckily


(sortosament, per fortuna) indiquen la impressió del parlant sobre allò que ha passat.
Acostumen a situar-se al principi de la frase i van seguits d’una coma.

Fortunately, no one was hurt in the incident.


Afortunadament, no van ferir ningú en I’incident.

Unfortunately, they failed to catch the man’s accomplice.


Malauradament, no van poder atrapar el còmplice de l’individu.

Luckily, there were no customers inside.


Sortosament, no hi havia clients a dins.

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UNIT 4

WILL FOR REQUESTS

El verb auxiliar will es pot fer servir en frases interrogatives per fer peticions.

Per fer peticions amb will

El verb auxiliar will es por fer servir per fer preguntes en què es demana alguna cosa. Se situa
al principi de la frase, seguit del subjecte i de l’infinitiu del verb principal. Per fer peticions en
català, generalment s’utilitza el verb “poder”.

Will you answer the phone?


Si us plau, que pots agafar el telèfon?

Will you make me a sandwich?


Que pots fer-me un sandvitx? / Que em faries un sandvitx?

Please es pot afegir al principi o al final de la frase perquè la petició sigui més educada.

Please, will you answer the phone?


Si us plau, que pots agafar el telèfon?

Will you make me a sandwich, please?


Que em pots fer un sandvitx, si us plau?

COMPTE! En les preguntes amb l’auxiliar will, mai no es fa servir to davant el verb principal.

Will you help me? Will you to hep me?


Que em pots ajudar?

Per contestar afirmativament una petició

En català, per contestar afirmativament una petició es pot dir simplement “sí”; en anglès, però,
s’acostuma a fer servir una resposta curta.
Yes, I will. Of course I will.
Sí. És clar que sí.

Per contestar negativament una petició

Per contestar negativament una petició, s’acostuma a fer servir la forma negativa del verb can.

No, I can’t.

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No, no puc.

COMPTE! Per educació, s’acostuma a afegir el motiu pel qual la resposta és negativa.

Sorry, I can’t. I haven’t got time today.


Em sap greu, no puc. Avui no tinc temps.

WILL FOR OFFERS, PROMISES AND DECISIONS

El verb auxiliar will es pot fer servir en frases afirmatives i negatives per fer oferiments o
promeses, i per expressar intencions o decisions.

Per fer oferiments amb will

La forma afirmativa de will es pot fer servir per oferir-se a fer alguna cosa. En l’anglès parlat i
en textos escrits informals s’utilitza la contracció ‘ll.

I can’t find my phone. I’ll look for it.


No trobo el meu telèfon. Jo el cercaré.

I’m really thirsty. I’ll make some tea.


Tinc molta set. Ara faré una mica de te.

COMPTE! Es pot afegir la preposició for seguida d’un substantiu o d’un pronom per fer
referència a la persona a la qual s’ofereix l’ajut.

I’ll open the door for you. I’ll open you the door.
Ara t’obro la porta.

Per fer promeses o expressar intencions amb will

Les formes afirmativa i negativa de l’auxiliar will es poden fer servir per expressar intencions o
fer promeses.

I’ll give you the money next week.


Et donaré els diners la setmana vinent.

La forma negativa de will es crea afegint-hi not. La contracció de will not és won’t, i es fa servir
en l’anglès oral i en textos escrits informals.

I won’t tell anyone.


No ho diré a ningú.

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Per expressar decisions amb will

Will i won’t es poden fer servir per expressar decisions que es prenen mentre es parla i que es
duran a terme en un futur immediat.

Oh, no! It’s raining. I’ll take an umbrella.


Oh, no! Plou. Agafaré un paraigua.

This cake is horrible! I won’t have any, thanks.


Que n’és de dolent, aquest pastís! No en vull, gràcies.

COMPTE! Recorda que, per parlar de plans i d’intencions, no es fa servir will, sinó l’estructura
to be + going to.

I’m going to visit New York next summer. I’ll visit New Yor next summer.
Aniré a Nova York l’estiu vinent.

LOOKING FOR SOMEONE

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar com ens sentim:

I feel terrible. It’s very hot in here.


Em trobo molt malament. Fa molta xafogor aquí dins.

I’m really cold. I’ve got a bad headache.


Tinc molt fred. Em fa molt mal el cap.

My head hurts. I think I’ve got flu.


Em fa mal el cap. Em sembla que tinc la grip.

Per fer peticions

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar alguna cosa a algú:

Will you get me a glass of water? Will you make me a cup of tea?
Que em pots portar un got d’aigua? Que em fas un te?

Will you phone the doctor?


Que pots trucar a cal metge?

Yes, of course. Of course I will. No, I won’t.


Sí, i tant. Sí, és clar que sí. No.

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Per fer oferiments

Les expressions següents es fan servir per oferir-se a fer alguna cosa:

I’ll open the window. I’ll get you an aspirin. I’ll call the doctor.
Ara obro la finestra. Ara et porto una aspirina. Ara truco a cal metge.

Thank you so much. That’s very kind of you. That’s nice of you.
Moltíssimes gràcies. Gràcies per la teva amabilitat. Ets molt amable.

UNIT 5

WILL FOR PREDICTIONS

Forma afirmativa

L’ estructura will + infinitiu es fa servir per fer referència a un fet que de ben segur que passarà
en el futur. Aquesta estructura equival al futur simple en català, i la forma verbal és la mateixa
per a totes les persones. Com hem vist a la unitat anterior, la contracció de l’auxiliar will és ‘ll.

I’ll be late. He’ll wait for me.


Hi arribaré tard. M’hi esperarà.

We’ll get there al 7:30. They’ll call us tomorrow.


Hi arribarem a les 7:30. Ens trucaran demà.

Forma negativa

L’estructura will + not + infinitiu es fa servir per expressar que és ben segur que una cosa no
passarà en el futur. La forma verbal també és la mateixa per a totes les persones: will not; la
contracció corresponent és won’t .

I won’t be late. He won’t wait for me.


No hi arribaré tard. No m’hi esperarà.

We won’t get there at 7:30. They won’t call us tomorrow.


No hi arribarem a les 7:30. No ens trucaran demà.

COMPTE! Darrere les formes auxiliars will i won’t mai no es fa servir to.

She’ll cook dinner for us. She’ll to cook dinner for us.
Ens prepararà el sopar.

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They won’t cook dinner for us. They won’t cook dinner for us
No ens prepararan el sopar.

Forma interrogativa

Per fer preguntes sobre fets futurs, s’ha d’invertir l’orde del subjecte i del verb auxiliar will. El
subjecte va seguit de l’infinitiu del verb principal, que roman invariable. Aquesta estructura és
la mateixa per a totes les persones.

Will l be late? Will he wait for me?


Hi arribaré tard? M’hi esperarà?

Will we get there at 7:30? Will they call us tomorrow?


Hi arribarem a les 7:30? Ens trucaran demà?

COMPTE! Per fer referència a fets futurs, també es pot fer servir l’estructura to be + going to,
especialment si hi ha indicis clars que es produirà alguna cosa.

Look at those black clouds. It’s going to rain.


Guaita aquests núvols tan negres. Plourà.

Isabel’s pregnant. She’s going to have a baby in September.


La Isabel està embarassada. Tindrà el nen al setembre.

MAY, MIGHT AND WILL FOR PREDICTIONS

Els verbs may i might es fan servir per fer referència a fets o accions que és possible que
s’esdevinguin en el futur, tot i que no se sap del cert. El significat indistintament.

Forma afirmativa

Les formes afirmatives de may i might van seguides del verb principal en infinitiu. En català,
equival a l’estructura “pot ser que” seguida d’una frase en subjuntiu, entre d’altres.

Brad may leave before the end. The theatre might sell food.
Pot ser que el Brad se’n vagi abans del final. Pot ser que venguin menjar al teatre.

Forma negativa

Les frases negatives amb may o might es formen intercalant not entre aquests verbs i el verb
principal en infinitiu. En català, equival a l’estructura “pot ser que” seguida d’una frase
negativa en subjuntiu, entre d’altres.

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Brad may not leave before the end. The theatre might not sell food.
Pot ser que el Brad no se’n vagi abans. Pot ser que no venguin menjar al teatre.

Forma interrogativa

Les preguntes amb may o might per parlar del que pot passar acostumen a anar precedides de
l’estructura Do you think ...?

Doy you think Brad may leave before the end? May Brad leave before the end?
Creus que el Brad potser se n’anirà abans del final?

Do you think the theatre might sell food? Might the theatre sell food?
Creus que potser vendran menjar al teatre?

COMPTE! Recorda que, per referir-se a un fet que ben segur que passarà en el futur, no es fa
servir may ni might, sinó will.

Brad will be hungry during the play. Brad won’t enjoy it.
Al Brad li entrarà gana durant l’obra. Al Brad no li agradarà.

Wil Brad stay until the end? No, he won’t. He’ll be too hungry!
Que es quedarà el Brad fins al final? No, tindrà massa gana!

YEARS, DECADES AND CENTURIES

Per parlar dels anys

En anglès, els anys de quatre xifres s’acostumen a pronunciar en dues parts:

1504 1650 1752 1984 2002 2012 2025

Per parlar de les dècades

En anglès, les dècades s’anomenen amb el plural del nombre cardinal:

the 60s the 1980s


els (anys) seixanta els (anys) vuitanta

Per parlar dels segles

En anglès, els segles s’anomenen amb els nombres ordinals seguits de la paraula century.

the fourteenth century the twentieth century


el segle catorze el segle vint

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El primer any d’un segle

En anglès, el primer any d’un segle s’anomena de la manera següent:

1600 1800 2000

La primera dècada d’un segle

En anglès, la primera dècada d’un segle s’anomena afegint la paraula hundreds a les dues
primeres xifres:

the 1500s the 1900s


la primera dècada del segle setze la primera dècada de segle vint

MAKING AN ARRANGEMENT

Per fer plans

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer plans o proposar-ne:

Would you like to go to the cinema?


Que et vindria de gust anar al cinema? / Que vols que anem al cinema?

How about going out for dinner on Friday?


Què et sembla si sortim a sopar divendres?

Where do you want to meet?


On vols que quedem?

I’ll meet you outside the restaurant.


Ens veiem a la porta del restaurant.

Will we have time for lunch?


Que tindrem temps de dinar?

Per concertar cites

Les expressions següents es fan servir per concertar cites:

What time? I’ll be there al 5:30.


A quina hora? Hi seré a les 5:30.

I might be late. I may be a bit early.

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Pot ser que hi arribi tard. Potser hi arribaré un mica d’hora.

How about 5:45? The concert starts at 7:15.


Què et sembla a les 5:45? El concert comença a les 7:15.

Per expressar conformitat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar que s’hi està d’acord:

Sounds good to me. That’s fine by me. Great!


Em sembla bé. Ho trobo bé. Fantàstic!

Is that OK? Yes, that’s OK for me. See you there.


Ho trobes bé? / Et sembla bé? Sí, ho trobo bé. / Sí, em sembla bé. Ens veiem allà.

UNIT 6

USING QUOTATION MARKS

Cometes

Les cometes es fan servir per citar les paraules exactes d’algú. Les citacions acostumen a anar
acompanyades de frases amb verbs com ara say o tell (dir), i explain (explicar), que poden
situar-se davant la citació va sempre dins les cometes.

Ardwick says, ‘A week at Space World won’t cost more than the price of a family car.’
N’Ardwick diu: “Una setmana a l’Space World no costa més que un cotxe familiar”.

He tells us, ‘Guests will have a private room in one of the 50 capsules surrounding the theme
park.’
Ens diu: “Els hostes tindran una habitació privada en una de les 50 càpsules que hi ha al voltant
del parc temàtic”.

Quan la frase se situa darrere la citació

Aquí la coma se situa al final de la citació, davant el verb. A diferència del català, la coma va
dins les cometes.

‘The great thing about Space World is that you won’t have to go home at the end of the day’,
says designer Billy Ardwick.
“El bo i milior de l’Space World és que no cal tornar a casa quan s’acaba el dia”, diu el
dissenyador Billy Ardwick.

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‘The experience will start as soon as guests leave their rooms,’ explains Ardwick.
“Els hostes començaran l’aventura tan bon punt surtin de les habitacions”, explica n’Ardwick.

UNIT 7

SUGGESTIONS

Per demanar opinió o consell

Per demanar una opinió o un consell a algú amb una pregunta, es fa servir la fórmula shall + I /
we + verb principal en infinitiu. Es pot afegir un interrogatiu al principi de l’oració, davant
l’auxiliar shall.

What shall I do? Where shall we go?


Què faig? On anem?

Per fer suggeriments

Per suggerir o proposar alguna cosa amb un pregunta, es fa servir la fórmula shall + we + verb
principal en infinitiu. Aquesta mena de preguntes no admet interrogatius, per això l’auxiliar
shall sempre se situa al principi de la frase.

Shall we go out? Shall we stay in and watch a film?


Sortim? Ens quedem a casa i mirem una pel·lícula?

Shall també es pot fer servir amb el pronom personal / quan el parlant s’ofereix a fer alguna
cosa.

Shall I make us a coffe? Shall I answer your phone?


Faig cafè per a nosaltres? Vols que t’agafi el telèfon?

Let’s, why don’t i could també serveixen per fer propostes o suggeriments.

L’expressió let’s va seguida de l’infinitiu del verb principal.

Let’s go dancing. Let’s eat out.


Anem a ballar. Sortim a dinar fora.

L’expressió why don’t es fa servir en preguntes i va seguida d’un subjecte i d’un verb en
infinitiu.

Why don’t you have a party? Why don’t we cook a meal?

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Per què no fas una festa? Per què no fem alguna cosa per menjar?

La forma verbal could es fa servir seguida de l’infinitiu del verb principal i sempre té un
subjecte davant.

They could invite all their friends. He could make a lasagne.


Hi podrien convidar tots els amics. Podria fer una lasanya.

Les expressions how about i what about introdueixen preguntes que també serveixen per
suggerir alguna cosa.

How about going to the theatre? What about playing cards?


Vols que anem al teatre? Què et sembla si juguem a cartes?

FUTURE TIME CLAUSES

Quan s’expressa futur amb una oració subordinada que comença per when o if, el verb hi va en
present simple. En canvi, el verb de l’oració principal va en futur (subjecte + will + infinitiu del
verb principal).

When introdueix l’oració subordinada quan se sap amb seguretat que l’acció a què fa
referència el verb tindrà lloc.

I’ll call you when l arrive.


Et trucaré quan hi arribi.

We’ll have dinner when everyone’s here.


Soparem quan hi sigui tothom.

If introdueix l’oració subordinada quan no se sap del cert si l’acció a què fa referència el verb
tindrà lloc o no.

He’ll ask if he doesn’t understand.


Ho preguntarà si no ho entén.

Will you buy some bread if you go to the shops?


Que pots comprar pa si t’arribes a la botiga?

Malgrat que s’inverteixi l’ordre de les oracions principal i subordinada, el significat de la frase
no canvia. No obstant això, si l’oració subordinada figura en primer lloc, ha d’anar separada de
l’oració principal per una coma.

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When I arrive, I’ll call you.
Quan hi arribi, et trucaré.

If he doesn’t understand, he’ll ask.


Si no ho entén, ho preguntarà.

If you go to the shops, will you buy some bread?


Si t’arribes a la botiga, que pots comprar pa?

COMPTE! A les oracions subordinades amb when i if, el verb va en present simple, mai no es fa
servir will.

I’ll write to you when I’m in India. I’ll write to you when I’ll be in India.
T’escriuré quan sigui a l’Índia.

If he passes his driving test, he’ll buy a car. If he’l passe his driving test, he’ll buy a car.
Si aprova l’examen de conduir, es comprarà un cotxe.

DECIDING WHAT TO DO

Per demanar opinió o consell

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar una opinió sobre una cosa que es vol fer:

What shall we do this evening?


Què fem aquesta nit?

Where shall we go? What time shall we meet? Who sall we go with?
On anem? A quina hora quedem? Amb qui hi anem?

Which film shall we see? Where shall we go for dinner?


Quina pel·lícula veiem? On anem a sopar?

Per fer suggeriments

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer suggeriments o propostes:

Let’s go out.
Sortim.

Why don’t we go to the cinema?


Per què no anem al cinema?

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How about seeing that new martial arts film?
Què et sembla si veiem la nova pel·lícula d’arts marcials?

We could have dinner first.


Prodríem sopar abans.

What about going for a meal?


Què et sembla si sortim a dinar fora?

Per acceptar o rebutjar suggeriments

Les expressions següents es fan servir per acceptar o rebutjar suggeriments:

Great, Iet’s do that. OK, that’s fine. Yes, I’d love to.
Fàntastic, fem-ho, doncs. D’acord, em sembla bé. Sí, m’encantaria.

Shall we eat out instead? How about going to a footblal match instead?
Et sembla que dinem fora? I si en comptes d’això anem a un partit de futbol?

UNIT 8

HAVE TO

Forma afirmativa

La forma afirmativa de have to es fa servir per expressar obligació. L’estructura en present


simple és: subjecte + have to / has to + infinitiu del verb principal; i en past simple: subjecte +
had to + infinitiu del verb principal.

I have to work. He has to work.


He de treballar. Ha de treballar.

I had to work yesterday. He had to work yesterday.


Ahir vaig haver de treballar. Ahir va haver de treballar.

Forma negativa

La forma negativa del have to serveix per expressar que no hi ha obligació. Es construeix amb
la forma adient de l’auxiliar do. L’estructura en present simple és: subjecte + don’t I doesn’t +
have to + infinitiu del verb principal; i en past simple: subjecte + don’t + have to + infinitiu del
verb principal.

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I don’t have to work. He doesn’t have to work.
No he de treballar. No ha de treballar.

I didn’t have to work yesterday. He didn’t have to work yesterday.


Ahir no vaig haver de treballar. Ahir no va haver de treballar.

Forma interrogativa

Les preguntes amb have to també es construeixen amb la forma adient de l’auxiliar do.
L’estructura en present simple és: do / does + subjecte + have to + infinitiu del verb principal, i
en past simple: did + subjecte + have to + infinitiu del verb principal.

Do you have to work? Does he have to work?


Has de treballar? Ha de treballar?

Did you have to work yesterday? Did he have to work yesterday?


Que vas haver de treballar ahir? Que va haver de treballar ahir?

COMPTE!

Did you have to wear a uniform at school? You had to wear a uniform at school?
Que havies de portar uniforme a escola?

Respostes curtes

Les respostes curtes es formen amb el subjecte seguit de la contracció adient del verb auxiliar
do, afirmativament o negativament.

Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.


Sí. / No. Sí. / No.

Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. Yes, he did. / No, he didn’t.


Sí. / No. Sí. / No.

NEED TO AND MUST

Need to es fa servir per expressar obligació o necessitat. L’estructura de les frases afirmatives,
de les negatives i de les interrogatives és la mateixa que la de have to.

Forma afirmativa

I need to go to the doctor’s. He needs to buy a new car.


Necessito anar a cal metge. Necessita comprar un cotxe nou.

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I needed to go to the doctor’s. He needed to buy a new car.
Necessitava anar a cal metge. Necessitava comprar un cotxe nou.

Forma negativa

I don’t need to go to the doctor’s. He doesn’t need to buy a new.


No necessito anar a cal metge. No necessita comprar un cotxe nou.

I didn’t need to go to the doctor’s. He didn’t need to buy a new car.


No necessitava anar a cal metge. No necessitava comprar un cotxe nou.

Forma interrogativa

Do you need to go to the doctor’s? Does he need to buy a new car?


Que necessitaves anar a cal metge? Que necessita comprar un cotxe nou?

Did you need to go to the doctor’s? Did he need to buy a new car?
Que necessitaves anar a cal metge? Que necessitava comprar un cotxe nou?

El verb must expressa obligació, com have to, però més rotundament. La forma negativa,
mustn’t, serveix per indicar prohibició. L’estructura de la frase és: subjecte + must / mustn’t +
infinitiu del verb principal.

You must stop smoking. He mustn’t tell anyone.


Has de deixar de fumar. No ha de dir-ho a ningú.

I must go to the hairdresser’s. I mustn’t forget her birthday.


He d’anar a ca la perruquera. No puc oblidar-me del seu aniversari.

Recorda que mustn’t es fa servir per indicar prohibició, i don’t have to i don’t need to, per dir
que no és obligatori o necessari fer alguna cosa.

You mustn’t park here. You don’t need to get up early.


No aparqueu aquí. No cal que et llevis d’hora.

COMPTE! En past simple no es pot fer servir must; s’utilitza had to.

I had to walk home from work yesterday. I must walk home from work yesterday.
Ahir vaig haver d’anar caminant de la feina a casa.

PERSONAL FINANCE

El verb earn equival en català a “guanyar”, referit al sou.

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He earns €30,000 a year.
Guanya 30.000€ I’any.

El verb spend singifica “gastar”, referit al temps i als diners.

She spends a lot of money on food.


Es gasta molts diners en menjar.

El verb save equival a “estalviar”.

We save some money every month.


Estalviem una mica cada mes.

El verb owe significa “deure” (diners).

I owe you €20.


Et dec 20€.

Els verbs buy i sell signifiquen “comprar” i “vendre”.

We buy vegetables at the market.


Comprem verdures a la plaça.

The post office sells stamps.


L’oficina de correus ven segells.

L’expressió cut down significa “reduir”, referit al consum, a les despeses.

He has to cut down on takeaways.


Ha de comprar menys menjar per emportar-se.

El verb pay equival en català a “pagar”.

She paid the waiter.


Va pagar al cambrer.

De vegades, es fa servir la preposició for per fer referència a l’objecte que es paga.

We paid for our TV by credit card.


Vam pagar el televisor amb la targeta de crèdit.

El verb repay equival en català a “tornar”, referit especialment a préstecs bancaris.

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We have to repay the loan.
Hem de tornar el préstec.

BANKING

Els dos tipus de comptes bancaris més comuns en anglès són current account i savings
account.

current account savings account


compte corrent compte d’estalvi

Per fer referència als diners que s’ingressen en un compte bancari es fa servir la paraula
deposit, i per referir-se als diners que se’n treuen, withdrawal.

deposit withdrawal
ingrés reintegrament

Els diners es poden treure d’un cash machine si es disposa del PIN number.

cash machine PIN number


caixer automàtic PIN, clau secreta

Els diners percebuts com a salari o per inversions es diu income.

income
ingressos

Un banc pot concedir un loan per comprar un cotxe o una mortgage per comprar una casa.

Ioan mortgage
préstec, crèdit hipoteca

Quan es demana un préstec al banc, cal pagar interest.

interest
interès, interessos

El document que lliura el banc a un client amb informació sobre els moviments del seu compte
s’anomena statement.

statement
extracte (del compte)

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Els diners que es deuen a un banc o a una altra entitat s’anomenen debt.

debt
deute

TALKING ABOUT NECESSITY

Per indicar obligació

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar obligació:

Do you have to wear a uniform at work? Yes, I do. No, I need to wear a suit and tie.
Que has de portar uniforme a la fenia? Sí. No, hi he de portar vestit i corbata.

Can you wear jeans at work? Yes, I can.


Que pots portar texans a la feina? Sí.

Per indicar obligació en passat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a obligacions del passat:

Did you have to wear a uniform at school? No, I didn’t.


Que havies de portar uniforme a escola? No.

Could you wear jeans to school? No, I couldn’t.


Que podies portar texans a I’escola? No.

No, I had to wear a uniform.


No, havia de portar uniforme.

Per expressar necessitats

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència a necessitats:

Do you need to speak French for your job? Yes, I need it a lot.
Que has de parlar francès a la teva feina? Sí, I’hi faig servir força.

No, I don’t. I might need it in the future.


No. Potser m’hi caldrà en el futur.

Sometimes I need to speak Italian.


Alguns cops hi he de parlar en italià.

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UNIT 9

USING IMPERATIVES

L’imperatiu es fa servir per donar ordres, fer suggeriments o animar algú a fer alguna cosa. Els
fullets informatius acostumen a estar escrits en imperatiu.

Forma afirmativa

La forma afirmativa de l’imperatiu és igual que la de I’infinitiu del verb, però sense to. Quan es
fa servir I’imperatiu, el subjecte s’omet i la forma és la mateixa per adreçar-se tant a una
persona com a unes quantes.

Keep your credit card in a safe place.


Deseu la vostra targeta de crèdit en un lloc segur.

Cut up your old credit card with a pair of scissors.


Talleu la vostra targeta antiga amb unes tisores.

Forma negativa

Per construir la forma negativa de I’imperatiu, es posa don’t davant el verb.

Don’t give anyone your personal details or credit card number over the phone.
No doneu a ningú les vostres dades personals ni el número de la vostra targeta de crèdit per
telèfon.

Don’t leave your credit card in your jacket pocket.


No us deixeu la targeta de crèdit a la butxaca de la jaqueta.

UNIT 10

SHOULD

Forma afirmativa

La forma verbal should es fa servir en frases afirmatives per fer recomanacions i donar
consells. L’estructura és: subjecte + should + infinitiu del verb principal. La forma és la mateixa
per a totes les persones. En català, equival a l’estructura “hauria de fer alguna cosa”.

You should buy a new car. He should look for a new job.
Hauries de comprar-te un cotxe nou. Hauria de cercar una altra feina.

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COMPTE! Observa que entre should i el verb principal mai no es posa to.

We should put some money into a savings account.


We should to put some Money into a savings account.
Hauríem de ficar diners en un compte d’estalvi.

Forma negativa

La forma negativa should not es fa servir per desaconsellar alguna cosa. La contracció de
should not és shouldn’t i l’estructura de la frase és: subjecte + shouldn’t + infinitiu del verb
principal. La forma és la mateixa per a totes les persones.

You shouldn’t buy a new car. You shouldn’t look for a new job.
No hauries de comprar-te un cotxe nou. No hauria de cercar una altra reina.

Forma interrogativa

Les preguntes amb should es fan servir per demanar consell o opinió, i es construeixen d’acord
amb aquesta fórmula: should + subjecte + infinitiu del verb principal. La forma és la mateixa
per a totes les persones. De vegades, també es pot utilitzar l’estructura Do you think davant la
frase amb should.

Should I buy a new car? Should he look for a new job?


M’hauria de comprar un cotxe nou? Hauria de cercar una altra feina?

Do you think I should buy a new car?


Creus que hauria de comprar-me un cotxe nou?

Respostes curtes

Les respostes curtes es formen amb el subjecte seguit de should o de shouldn’t.

Yes, I should. / No, I shouldn’t.


Sí. / No.

COMPTE! No s’ha de confondre should i must. Amb should es fa una recomanació, només; amb
must, però, es dóna una ordre o s’indica una obligació.

I’ve got a headache. You should go home.


Em fa mal el cap. Hauries d’anar-te’n a casa.

I’ve always got a terrible cough. You must stop smoking.


Sempre tinc tos de gos. Has de deixar de fumar.

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EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY

A few i a little

A few (uns quants, unes quantes) i a little (una mica de) són dues expressions que es fan servir
davant substantius per expressar una “petita quantitat”. Es diferencien perquè a few es fa
servir amb substantius comptables en plural, i a little, amb sustantius incomptables.

There are a few apples. There’s a little water.


Hi ha unes quantes pomes. Hi ha una mica d’aigua.

Per donar una resposta curta a una pregunta sobre quantitat es pot ometre el substantiu.

How many apples are there? A few. How much water is there? A little.
Quantes pomes hi ha? Poques. Quanta aigua hi ha? Poca.

COMPTE! Only es fa servir davant a few / a little per emfatitzar que la quantitat d’alguna cosa
és ben escassa. Per tant, té un matís negatiu.

There are only a few apples. There’s only a little water.


Només hi ha unes quantes pomes. Només hi ha una mica d’aigua.

There are only a few. There’s only a little.


Només n’hi ha unes quantes. Només n’hi ha una mica.

Enough

Enough es fa servir per indicar si hi ha prou quantitat d’alguna cosa. Es fa servir davant
substantius comptables en plural, i també de substantius incomptables.

There are enough potatoes. There’s enough wine.


Hi ha prou patates. Hi ha prou vi.

There aren’t enough bananas. There isn’t enough food.


No hi ha prou plàtans. No hi ha prou menjar.

COMPTE! Tingues en compte que enough funciona com a adjectiu quan se situa davant un
substantiu, però també pot anar darrere un adjectiu; llavors fa funció d’adverbi de quantitat.

I haven’t got enough money. I haven’t got Money enough.


No tinc prou diners.

This coat isn’t big enough. This coat isn’tenough big.

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Aquest abric no és prou gran.

Too many i too much

Too many i too much (massa) es fan servir davant substantius per expressar “excés”. Too many
va davant els substantius comptables en plural, i too much, davant els substantius
incomptables.

There are too many cars. There’s too much pollution.


Hi ha massa cotxes. Hi ha massa contaminació.

GIVING YOUR OPINION

Per demanar i donar consell

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar consell i per donar-ne:

What should we do?


Que hauríem de fer?

You should eat more fruit and vegetables. They shouldn’t use any pesticide.
Hauries de menjar més fruita i verdura. No hi haurien de fer servir cap pesticida.

Yes, we should. No, we shouldn’t.


Sí, ho hauríem de fer. No, no ho hauríem de fer.

Per expressar conformitat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar conformitat:

I agree with you. I completely agree with you.


Hi estic d’acord. Hi estic totalment d’acord.

That’s a good idea. I think you’re right.


És una bona idea. Em sembla que tens raó.

Absolutely. I couldn’t agree more.


Per descomptat. No hi podria estar més d’acord.

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Per expressar desacord

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar desacord:

I don’t agree with you. I don’t think that’s such a good idea.
No hi estic d’acord. No em sembla una bona idea.

I don’t think you’re right. Absolutely not.


Em sembla que no tens raó. És clar que no.

Certainly not. I’m not sure about that.


No, i ara. No n’estic segur.

UNIT 11

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES (SHORT ADJECTIVES)

Els comparative adjectives (adjectius comparatius) i els superlative adjectives (adjectius


superlatius) es fan servir per comparar substantius.

En anglès es consideren short adjectives (adjectius curts) els adjectius d’una síl·laba, com ara
big; els adjectius de dues síl·labes acabats en –y, com ara happy, i alguns adjectius de dues
síl·labes que no acaben en –y, com ara quiet.

Adjectius curts en grau comparatiu

El grau comparatiu dels adjectius curts es forma afegint-hi la terminació –er big > bigger
(vegeu més endavant Ortografia). A les frases comparatives, l’adjectiu va seguit de la paraula
than (que). L’estructura “comparatiu en –er + than” equival en català a “més + adjectiu + que”.

The Nile is longer than the Amazon. Everest is higher than K2.
El Nil és més llarg que l’Amazones. L’Everest és més alt que el K2.

Adjectius curts en grau superlatiu

El grau superlatiu dels adjectius curts es forma afegint-hi la terminació –est i posant l’article
determinat the davant l’adjectiu: big > the biggest. En català, equival a l’estructura “el / la +
més + adjectiu”.

The Nile is the longest river. Everest is the highest mountain.


El Nil és riu més llarg. L’Everest és la muntaya més alta.

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Ortografia

Quan es forma el comparatiu o el superlatiu d’un adjectiu curt acabat en –e, només s’hi afegeix
–r o –st, p. ex. large > larger > largest.

Russia is larger than Canada. Russia is the largest country.


Rússia és més gran que el Canadà. Rússia és el país més gran.

Quan es forma el comparatiu o el superlatiu d’un adjectiu curt acabat en consonant-vocal-


consonant, s’acostuma a duplicar la consonant final.

The Pacific is bigger than the Atlantic. The Pacific is the biggest ocean.
El Pacífic és més gran que l’Atlàntic. El Pacífic és l’oceà més gran.

Quan es forma el comparatiu o el superlatiu d’un adjectiu curt acabat en –y, aquesta es
converteix en –i en afegir-hi –er o –est, p. ex. healthy > healthier > healthiest.

Fruit salad is healthier than ice cream.


La macedònia de fruites és més sana que el gelat.

Fruit salad is the healthiest dessert.


La macedònia de fruites són les postres més sanes.

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES (LONG ADJECTIVES)

En anglès es consideren long adjectives (adjectius llargs) els adjectius que tenen tres síl·labes, o
més, i uns quants adjectius de dues síl·labes:

dangerous expensive comfortable beautiful


perillós/osa car/a còmode/a bonic/a

tiring boring careful useful


cansat/ada avorrit/ida curós/osa útil

Adjectius llargs en grau comparatiu

El grau comparatiu dels adjectius llargs es forma amb l’estructura “more + adjectiu + than”,
que equival en català a “més + adjectiu + que”, o amb l’estructura “less + adjectiu + than”, que
equival a “menys + adjectiu + que”.

Waterskiing is more exciting than swimming.


L’esquí aquàtic és més emocionant que la natació.

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Swimming is less exciting than waterskiing.
La natació és menys emocionant que l’esquí aquàtic.

Adjectius llargs en grau superlatiu

El grau superlatiu dels adjectius llargs es forma afegint the most (el més ... / la més ...) o the
least (el menys ... / la menys ...) davant l’adjectiu.

Parascending is the most exciting sport.


El parascending és l’esport més emocionant.

Cricket is the least exciting sport.


El criquet és l’esport menys emocionant.

Adjectius irregulars

Les formes comparatives i les superlatives d’alguns adjectius, com ara good o bad, són
irregulars i cal memoritzar-les: good > better > best; bad > worse > worst.

Fridays are better than Mondays. Saturdays are the best.


Els divendres són millors que els dilluns. Els dissabtes són el millors dia.

COMPTE! Amb aquests comparatius no es fa servir more.

Summer is better than winter. Summer is more better than winter.


L’estiu és millor que l’hivern.

TALKING ABOUT YOUR FAMILY

Per descriure familiars

Les expressions següents es fan servir per descriure els membres de la família:

My grandmother’s 85. I’ve got two brothers and a sister.


La meva àvia té 85 anys. Tinc dos germans i una germana.

My mum’s really kind. My sister’s very clever.


La meva mare és molt bona. La meva germana és molt llesta.

My dad’s quite intelligent. My cousin’s very tall.


El meu pare és bastant intel·ligent. El meu cosí és foça alt.

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Per comparar familiars

Les expressions següents es fan servir per comparar els membres de la família:

My niece is the most beautiful person in my family.


La meva neboda és la més maca de tota la família.

Who’s the tallest person in your family?


Qui és el més alt de la teva família?

Is your brother older than you?


Que el teu germà és més gran que tu?

Who’s the worst cook in your family?


Qui és que cuina pitjor a la teva família?

Per indicar que saps alguna cosa

Les expressions següents s’utilitzen per indicar que no se sap la resposta a una pregunta o no
s’està segur d’una cosa:

I really don’t know. I couldn’t tell you.


De debò, que no ho sé. No t’ho sabria dir.

I’ve no idea. I’m sorry, I don’t know.


No en tinc la més petita idea. Em sap greu, no ho sé.

I really haven’t a clue. I’m not really sure.


Ni idea. No n’estic gaire segur.

UNIT 12

STATISTICS

Per fer referència a estadístiques, s’acostuma a fer servir percentages (percentatges) i fractions
(fraccions). Observa que a diferència del català, mai no s’afegeix l’article davant el
percentatge.

Now about 25% of household waste is recycled in Italy.


Ara a Itàlia es recicla, aproximadament, el 25% de les deixalles.

More than half of all household waste is recycled.


Més de la meitat de les deixalles es recicla.

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Altres fraccions habituals són:

a third two thirds a quarter


un terç dos terços un quart

three quarters a fifth four fifths


tres quarts un cinquè quatre cinquenes parts

Per expressar estadístiques també es fa servir la construcció out of (de cada).

Nine out of ten people use the recycling bins.


Nou de cada deu persones fan servir els contenidors de reciclatge.

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer referència a estadístiques aproximades:

less than a quarter about 25%


menys d’un quart al voltant del 25%

more than half nearly four out of five


més de la meitat més de la meitat

over 80%
més del 80%

UNIT 13

PRESENT PERFECT REGULAR VERBS

El present perfect es fa servir per referir-se a allò que s’ha fet, o no, sense especificar quan. Es
construeix amb el verb auxiliar to have (haver), seguit del participi del verb principal.

Participis regulars

El participi (past participle) dels verbs regulars es forma afegint –ed a l’infinitiu, com passa amb
el past simple.

Present perfect (formes afirmativa, negativa i interrogativa)

L’estructura de la forma afirmativa és: subjecte + have / has + participi del verb principal. En
l’anglès parlat i en textos escrits informals, have i has es contrauen amb el subjecte i donen
lloc a les contraccions ‘ve i ‘s.

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We’ve added the oil. She has started the report.
Hi hem afegit l’oli. Ha començat l’informe.

L’estructura de la forma negativa del present perfect és: subjecte + haven’t / hasn’t + participi
del verb principal.

I haven’t added the onions. He hasn’t cooked the steaks.


No hi he afegit les cebes. No ha fet els bistecs.

La interrogativa es construeix invertint l’ordre del subjecte i de l’auxiliar have.

La fórmula és: have / has + subjecte + participi del verb principal.

Have you finished the rice? Has she opened the tin of tuna?
T’has acabat l’arròs? Que ha obert la llauna de tonyina?

En català, s’acostuma a respondre a aquestes preguntes dient “sí” o “no”; en anglès, però, es
fa servir una resposta curta (p. ex. Yes, I have / No, I haven’t).

COMPTE! Les contraccions de la tercera persona del singular dels verbs to be i to have són
iguals: ‘s. El context indica de quin verb es tracta.

He’s finished his work. = He has finished his work.

She’s in Dublin this week. = She is in Dublin this week.

Forma afirmativa Forma negativa Forma interrogativa


I’ve called I haven’t called Have I called?
You’ve called You haven’t called Have you called?
He’s / She’s/ It’s called He / She / It hasn’t called Has he / she / it called?
We’ve called We haven’t called Have we called?
You’ve called You haven’t called Have you called?
They’ve called They haven’t called Have they called

PRESENT PERFECT IRREGULAR VERBS (1)

Com ja sabem, el present perfect es forma amb el verb auxiliar have i el participi del verb
principal, que en el cas dels verbs regulars es forma amb la terminació –ed. Els irregulars no
segueixen una regla de formació específica i cal memoritzar-los. No obstant això, n’hi ha que
formen grups que segueixen patrons comuns.

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De vegades, l’infinitiu, el past simple i el participi són diferents.

do > did > done eat > ate > eaten


fer > va fer > fet menjar > va menjar > menjat

see > saw > seen steal > stole > stolen
veure > va veure > vist robar > va robar > robat

D’altres, el past simple i el participi són iguals, però l’infinitiu és diferent.

buy > bought > bought have > had > had
comprar > va comprar > comprat tenir > va tenir > tingut

sped > spent > spent win > won > won
gastar > va gastar > gastat guanyar > va guanyar > guanyat

D’altres, l’infinitiu, el past simple i el participi són iguals.

put > put > put cut > cut > cut
posar > va posar > posat tallar > va tallar > tallat

hit > hit > hit read > read > read
copejar > va copejar > copejat llegir > va llegir > llegit

COMPTE! El participi de read (llegir) s’escriu igual, però es pronuncia diferent.

És difícil saber si un verb és regular o irregular. Per això, consulta el diccionari al menú d’Extres.

Gone i been

Gone, el participi del verb to go (anar), es fa servir en present perfect per indicar que algú se
n’ha anat a un altre lloc i no hi ha tornat encara.

Where’s Tim? He’s gone to the dentist’s.


On és el Tim? Se n’ha anat a cal dentista.

Been, el participi del verb to be (ser / estar), es fa servir en present perfect per indicar que algú
ha estat en un altre lloc però ja n’ha tornat.

You’re brown. Where have you been? I’ve been on holiday in Turkey.
Estàs morena. On has estat? He estat de vacances a Turquia.

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PREPARING AND DESCRIBING FOOD

Per preparar menjar

Els verbs següents es fan servir per descriure maneres de preparar els aliments abans de
cuinar-los:

chop grate mix peel slice


tallar, picar, trinxar ratllar barrejar pelar tallar, trinxar

Els verbs següents es fan servir per descriure accions que es duen a terme durant la preparació
i la cocció dels aliments:

add stir drain pour serve


afegir remenar escórrer abocar (un líquid) servir

Per descriure menjar

El verb taste equival en català a “tastar” o a “fer gust de”, segons el context.

Could you taste this?


Que pots tastar això?

This curry tastes spicy.


Aquest curry fa gust de picant.

Es pot indicar com és el menjar o la beguda amb el verb to be + adjectiu.

This coffee is hot.


Aquest cafè és calent.

Tasty és un adjectiu derivat del verb taste. Equival a “bo/na”.

My mum’s cakes are very tasty!


Els pastissos de la meva mare són boníssims!

COOKING

Per seguir una recepta

Les expressions següents es fan servir a les instruccions de les receptes:

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First put some olive oil in the pan. Next add some salt.
Primer de tot, aboqueu oli d’oliva a la paella. Després, afegiu-hi la sal.

Then chop the onions. After that, stir the sauce.


En acabat, piqueu les cebes. Tot seguit, remeneu la salsa.

Finally, serve the dish with vegetables.


Per acabar, serviu el plat acompanyat de verdures.

Per cuinar en companyia

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan algú cuina amb una altra persona:

Are you going to help me with this paella?


Que m’ajudaràs amb la paella?

Yes, I’m ready. I’ll try.


Sí, estic a punt. Ho intentaré.

Have you added the parsley? Yes, I have.


Hi has afegit el julivert? Sí.

Per referir-se al menjar

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de menjar:

Is it OK? Yes, it’s delicious.


Que és bo? Sí, és deliciós.

No, it’s horrible. OK, let’s try it.


No, és ben dolent. D’acord, tastem-ho.

Is it hot enough? It tastes very nice.


Que és prou picant/calent? Fa molt bon gust.

UNIT 14

PRESENT PERFECT WITH EVER AND NEVER

Ever (algun cop) i never (mai) es fan servir amb el present perfect per indicar que ha passat, o
no, alguna cosa, en un moment determinat del passat.

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Ever

Ever es fa servir en preguntes en present perfect per saber si s’ha fet alguna cosa algun cop.
Ever se situa entre el subjecte i el participi del verb.

Have you ever eaten Japanese food?


Que has menjat mai menjar japonès?

Has he ever seen the Taj Mahal?


Que ha vist algun cop el Taj Mahal?

Ever es pot fer servir en frases afirmatives en present perfect amb l’expressio It’s the first time
... (És el primer cop que ...). En aquestes frases, ever se situa entre el verb to have i el participi
del verb principal. En aquest cas, la frase en català va en present i ever no es tradueix.

It’s the first time they’ve ever been to Mexico.


És el primer cop que se’n van a Mèxic.

It’s the first time I’ve ever visited Italy.


És el primer cop que vaig a Itàlia.

COMPTE! Recorda que les frases que comencen amb l’expressió It’s the first time ... sempre
tenen el verb en present perfect, no en present simple.

It’s the first time she’s travelled alone. It’s the first time she travela alone.
És el primer cop que viatja tota sola.

Never

Never es fa servir en frases afirmatives en present perfect per fer referència a accions o fets
que mai no han tingut lloc. Never se situa davant el participi.

We’ve never lived in London. He’s never been to the United States.
Mai no hem viscut a Londres. No se n’ha anat mai als Estats Units.

COMPTE! En català, “mai” es por fer servir en una frase afirmativa o en una de negativa, però
pot canviar el sentit i per això en les negatives se sol afegir l’adverbi “no”. Never, però, porta
implícita la negació i per això sempre va amb el verb en forma afirmativa.

Harry has never been to Scotland. Harry han’t never been to Scotland.
El Harry mai no ha anat a Escòcia.

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PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE?

El present perfect es fa servir per fer referència a un fet o a una acció que ha passat en un
moment indeterminat del passat.

Sam has been to Dublin. We’ve visited Paris.


El Sam ha estat a Dublín. Hem visitat París.

El past simple, en canvi, es fa servir per referir-se a un fet o a una acció que ha passat en un
moment concret del passat. Per això, es fan servir adverbis o expressions de temps que
especifiquen aquest moment; per exemple: yesterday (ahir), ago (fa ...), last night (anit
passada) o in 2005 (el 2005); tots acompanyen el verb en past simple.

Sam went to Dublin last month. We went to Paris in 2005.


El Sam se’n va anar a Dublín el mes passat. Vam anar a París el 2005.

COMPTE! El present perfect mai no es fa servir amb aquesta mena d’adverbis o expressions.

We went to Lisbon last year. We’re been to Lisbon last year


Vam anar a Lisboa l’any passat.

You spent a week there in 1999. You’ve spent a week there in 1999.
Hi vas passar una setmana el 1999.

El present perfect fa referència a accions o a fets passats en termes generals, i el past simple
especifica quan han passat exactament, és a dir, els situa en el temps.

I’ve been to Venice. Oh, really? When did you go? I went three years ago.
He estat a Venècia. Ah, sí? Quan hi has anat? Hi vaig anar fa tres anys.

Have you ever lived in another country?


Que has viscut mai en una altre país?

Yes, I have. I lived in Germany in 2002.


Sí, vaig viure a Alemanya l’any 2002.

COMPTE! El present perfect mai no es fa servir en preguntes que comencen amb when o what
time, perquè aquests interrogatius serveixen per demanar pel moment exacte en què ha
passat una cosa. Per tant, amb aquesta mena de preguntes sempre es fa servir el past simple.

When did you visit Bangkok? When have you visited Bangkok?
Quan vas visitar Bangkok?

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What time did you arrive in Milan? Whast time have you arrived in Milant?
A quina hora vas arribar a Milà?

TALKING ABOUT TRAVEL

Per dir on ha estat algú

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar dels llocs que algú ha anat a veure:

Have you ever been to Paris?


Que has estat mai a París?

Sure, lots of times. No, never.


És clar, molts cops. No, mai.

Which part of the United States have you been to? I’ve never been to the United States.
A quina part dels Estats Units has estat? Mai no he estat als Estats Units.

Per parlar d’experiències

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de les experiències viscudes:

Have you seen Big Ben in London? Yes, I have. It’s very nice.
Que has vist el Big Ben de Londres? Sí, és molt maco.

Have you ever stayed at the Ritz?


Que t’has allotjat mai al Ritz?

Have you ever eaten Chinese food? No, I’ve never eaten Chinese food.
Que has menjat algun cop menjar xinès? No, mai no he tastat el menjar xinès.

Per dir d’on és algú

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar del lloc de naixement o de procedència:

I’m from Bilbao. I’m from a town in the north of Scotland.


Sóc de Bilbao. Sóc d’una ciutat del nord d’Escòcia.

Which part of France are you from?


De quina part de França ets?

I’m from the south. I’m from a small village near Paris.
Sóc del sud. Sóc d’un poblet a prop de París.

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UNIT 15

IN OTHER WORDS, ON THE WHOLE AND ON THE CONTRARY

Les expressions in other wods, on the whole i on the contrary es fan servir per realcionar idees
en un text, i acostumen a anar situades al principi de la frase.

In other words (és a dir) es fa servir quan el parlant vol explicar el que acaba de dir utilitzant
unes altres paraules.

Don’t take things from the country’s natural environment. In other words, things like plants,
shells and coral should stay where you see them.
No ens hem d’emportar coses que formen part de l’entorn natural del país; és a dir, les
plantes, les conquilles i el coral han de romandre allà on són.

In the whole (en general) es fa servir per introduir una afirmació general o indicar un fet
habitual, però sense entrar-hi en detalls.

On the whole, tourists leave a lot of money in China.


En general, els turistes deixen molts diners a la Xina.

On the contrary (al contrari, per contra) serveix per introduir una idea oposada a la que s’acaba
d’exposar.

But have they reduced tourism? On the contrary, the Egyptian Tourist Authority wants
tourists to visit Egypt because tourism employs thousands of local people.
Però, que ha minvat el turisme? Al contrari, la Secretaria de Turisme egípcia vol que els turistes
vinguin a Egipte, perquè el turisme dóna feina a millers d’egipcis.

UNIT 16

PRESENT PERFECT WITH JUST, ALREADY AND YET

Els adverbis just, already (ja) i yet (encara, ja) es fan servir en present perfect per donar més
informació sobre el moment en què ha passat una cosa. Aquests adverbis no s’usen amb el
past simple, perquè no es refereixen a un moment específic.

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Just

L’adverbi just es fa servir amb el present perfect, generalment en oracions afirmatives, per
indicar que un fet o una acció acaben de produir-se. Just se situa entre el verb auxiliar have i el
participi. En català no s’acostuma a traduir, perquè fem servir l’estructura “tot just + acabar”.

He’s just finished the book. They’ve just been for a coffe break.
Tot just ha acabat de llegir el llibre. Tot just s’acaben d’aturar per prendre cafè.

I’ve just come back from holiday.


Tot just acabo d’arribar de vacances.

COMPTE! Recorda que just mai no es fa servir amb el past simple per indicar que tot just
s’acaba de fer alguna cosa.

I’ve just posted the letters. I just posted the letters.


Tot just acabo d’enviar les cartes.

Already

L’adverbi already (ja) es fa servir per indicar que un fet o una acció han tingut lloc abans del
que s’esperava. Acostuma a figurar en oracions afirmatives situat entre el verb auxiliar have i
el participi del verb. De vegades, already es pot posar al final de l’oració, sobretot en l’anglès
oral.

We’ve already seen that film. Shes’s gone home already.


Ja hem vist aquesta pel·lícula. Ja ha marxat a casa.

Yet

L’adverbi yet (encara, ja ) es fa servir per indicar que alguna cosa que ha de tenir lloc encara no
ha passat. Yet s’utilitza en oracions negatives i interrogatives, i sempre se situa al final de
l’oració. En les negatives equival a “encara” i en les interrogatives, a “ja”.

We haven’t finished the report yet. She hasn’t called me yet.


Encara no hem acabat l’informe. Encara no m’ha trucat.

Has she had a coffee yet? Have you done the labels yet?
Que ja s’ha pres un cafè? Que ja has fet les etiquetes?

COMPTE! Yet no se sol situar entre have i el participi del verb.

I haven’t been to the hospital yet. I haven’t yet been to the hospital.

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Encara no he estat a l’hospital.

PRESENT PERFECT IRREGULAR VERBS (2)

Els verbs irregulars no seguiexen una regla específica per formar el participi, per això cal
memoritzar-los. No obstant això, n’hi ha que es poden classificar en grups que segueixen
patrons comuns.

Canvis ortogràfics

Quan la darrera síl·laba de l’infinitiu del verb conté la vocal “i”, en el past simple aquesta vocal
esdevé una “a”, i en el participi, una “u”.

drink > drank > drunk ring > rang > rung
beure > va beure > begut trucar > va trucar > trucat

sing > sang > sung swim > swam > swum
canta > va cantar > cantat nedar > va nedar > nedat

El participi dels verbs següents es forma amb la terminació –en:

break > broke > broken drive > drove > driven
trencar > va trencar > trencat conduir > va conduir > conduït

Forget > forgot > forgotten take > took > taken
Oblidar > va oblidar > oblidat prendre > va prendre > pres

Verbs que tenen una forma irregular i una altra de regular

Alguns verbs en anglès tenen dos conjugacions possibles, una de regular i una altra d’irregular.
Totes dues es poden fer servir indistintament.

burn > burned / burnt > burned / burnt


cremar > va cremar > cremat

dream > dreamed / dreamt > dreamed / dreamt


somiar > va somiar > somiat

Passa el mateix amb els verbs learn (aprendre), smell (olorar) i spell (lletrejar).

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COMPTE! De vegades és fàcil confondre formes verbals que s’escriven o es pronuncien
igualment. Per exemple, no s’ha de confondre found (va trobar / trobat) amb found (fundar).
Observa que to found i to live són verbs regulars.

fall > fell > fallen feel > felt > felt
caure > va caure > caigut sentir > van sentir > sentit

find > found > found found > founded > founded
trobar > va trobar > trobat fundar > va fundar > fundat

leave > left > left live > lived > lived
marxar > va marxar > marxat viure > va viure > viscut

ADVERBS OF MANNER

En anglès, hi ha molts adverbis que es formen afegint la terminació –ly (–ment) a l’adjectiu.

bad > badly quick > quickly


dolent/a > malament ràpid/a > ràpidament

quiet > quietly slow > slowly


silenciós/osa > silenciosament lent/a > lentament

Si l’adjectiu acaba en –y, aquesta terminació se substitueix per –ly.

angry >angrily easy > easily


enutjós/osa, emprenyat/ada > fàcil > fàcilment
enutjosament

happy > happily


feliç > feliçment

COMPTE! Els adjectius acabats en –ly com friendly (amable), lonely (sol/a), lovely
(encantador/a) i lively (animat/ada), no tenen adverbi en –ly. En aquests casos es fa servir
l’estructura adverbial in a + adjectiu + way.

He is talking in a lively way. He is talking livelily.


Parla animadament.

Hi ha adverbis, com ara fast, amb la forma igual que l’adjectiu. En el cas de l’adverbi well (bé
de salut), però, l’adverbi significa “fer alguna cosa bé”.

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That’s a very fast car. He ran fast and won the race.
Aquest cotxe és molt ràpid. Va córrer ràpidament i va guanyar la cursa.

He’s a hard worker. My boss works very hard.


És força treballador. El meu cap treballa molt.

I’m very well thanks, and you? The team played really well.
Va bé, gràcies, i tu? L’equip va jugar força bé.

COMPTE! L’adverbi hardly no significa “de valent”, sinó “amb prou feines”.

I’ve hardly slept all night. I’ve alept hardly all night.
Amb prou feines he dormit aquesta nit.

UNIT 17

PRESENT PERFECT WITH FOR AND SINCE

El present perfect es pot fer servir per parlar de fets o d’accions que han començat en el passat
i que continuen en el present.

We’ve lived in this house for ten years. He’s worked here since 2005.
Vivim en aquesta casa des de fa deu anys. Treballa aquí desde el 2005.

COMPTE! A diferència del català, el present simple mai no es fa servir per parlar d’un fet o
d’una acció que ha começat en el passat i que continua en el present.

I’ve known Sarah since I was a child. I know Sarah since I was a child.
Conec la Sarah des que era petita.

How long ...?

How long ...? es fa servir amb un verb en present perfect per preguntar quant temps fa que
passa un fet o una acció.

How long have they had satnav? How long has she been in Russia?
Quant temps fa que tenen GPS? Quant temps fa que és a Rússia?

COMPTE! La paraula time mai no es fa servir en preguntes amb How long ...?

How long have you had your car? How long time have you had you car?
Quant temps fa que tens el cotxe?

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For

For es fa servir amb un verb en present perfect per indicar la durada d’un fet o d’una acció que
ha començat en el passat i que continua en el present. En aquest cas, equivalen en català a
“des de fa”.

She’s known Harry for three months.


Coneix el Harry des de fa tres mesos.

I’ve lived in Paris for two years and I love it.


Visc a París desde de fa dos anys i m’hi encanta.

For també es pot fer servir amb un verb en past simple per fer referència a la durada d’un fet o
d’una acció que s’ha acabat. En aquest cas, equival en català a “durant” i, molts cops, ni tan
sols es tradueix.

I lived in Paris for two years. Now I live in London.


Vaig viure a París (durant) dos anys. Ara visc a Londres.

Since

Since es fa servir amb un verb en present perfect per indicar el moment exacte del passat en
què ha começat un fet o una acció que continua en el present. Equival en català a “des de”.

They’ve been in Pisa since Monday. I liked football since I was 12.
Són a Pisa desde de dilluns. M’agrada el futbol des que tenia 12 anys.

WILL WITH FOR AND UNTIL

How long will ...?

How long es fa servir en oracions interrogatives amb el verb auxiliar will per demanar per la
durada d’alguna cosa que passarà en el futur.

How long will you stay in Lisbon?


Quat temps seràs a Lisboa?

How long will they be at the gym?


Quant temps seran al gimnàs?

COMPTE! How long mai no es fa servir amb verb en present simple per a aquesta mena de
preguntes.

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How long will you stay in Sweden? How long do you stay in Sweden?
Quant temps romandreu a Suècia?

Igual que passa amb How long + present perfect + ...?, a les respostes a How long + will + ...?
també es fan servir preposicions que indiquen la durada del fet o de l’acció, o el moment en
què s’acaba.

For

La preposició for (durant) es fa servir amb un verb en futur per indicar la durada d’un fet o
d’una acció que s’esdevindrà.

Lily will live in Sydney for two years. We’ll rent the car for three days.
La Lily viurà a Sydney (durant) dos anys. Llogarem el cotxe tres dies.

COMPTE! For mai no es fa servir en aquest sentit amb verbs en present simple.

We’ll stay in Sweden for a month. We stay in Sweden for a month.


Romandrem un mes a Suècia.

Until

La preposició until (fins) es fa servir amb un verb en futur per indicar el moment en què
acabarà un fet o una acció.

Nathan will be on holiday until Friday.


El Nathan estarà de vacances fins divendres.

They’ll need the computer until tomorrow.


Necessitaran l’ordinador fins demà.

BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

Entre l’anglès britànic i l’americà hi ha unes quantes diferències.

Transport

Gran Bretanya Estats Units

gear stick sitck shift


palanca del cavi de marxes

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boot trunk
maleter

motoway freeway
autopista

Menjar

Gran Bretanya Estats Units

biscuit cookie
galeta

chips fries
patates fregides (de fregidora)

Edificis

Gran Bretanya Estats Units

flat apartament
pis

lift elevator
ascensor

toilet bathroom
lavabo

Roba

Gran Bretanya Estats Units

vest undershirt
samarreta (de roba interior)

trousers pants
pantalons

Educació

Gran Bretanya Estats Units

secondary school high school


institut de secundària

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term semester
trimestre

Temps

Gran Bretanya Estats Units

autum fall
tardor

holiday vacation
vacances

GIVING PERSONAL DETAILS

Per parlar de dades personals

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar dades personals i per donar-ne:

Can I just check some infomation?


Em deixeu comprovar unes dades?

Yes, of course.
Sí, és clar.

What’s you date of birth?


Quina és la vostra data de naixement?

What’s your address?


Quina és la vostra adreça?

What’s your credit card number?


Quin és el número de la vostra targeta de crèdit?

What’s the expiry date?


Quan caduca?

Per parlar de durada

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar la durada d’un fet o d’una acció:

How long have you lived in Paris?


Quant temps fa que vius a París?

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How long have you had this car?
Quant temps fa que tens aquest cotxe?

I’ve lived there for many years.


Fa molts anys que hi visc.

I’ve been a UK resident all my life.


Sempre he viscut al Regne Unit.

I’ve had it since I was a child.


El tinc des que era petita.

I’ve worked here since 2006.


Treballo aquí des de I’any 2006.

Per expressar durada en el futur

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de la durada d’un fet o d’una acció en el futur:

How long will you need the room?


Quant temps necessiteu l’habitació?

We’ll need it for two days.


La necessitarem dos dies.

So you’ll need it until Monday?


Llavors, la necessiteu fins dilluns?

I’ll need it for a while.


La necessitaré una estona / una temporada.

How long will you be in London?


Quant temps seràs a Londres?

UNIT 18

DURING, WHILE AND AT PRESENT

La preposició during (a, durant) introdueix el període de temps en què un fet o una acció tenen
lloc. During sempre va seguit d’un sintagma nominal.

Perhaps you’re reading this during your lunch break.


Potser ho llegiràs a l’hora de dinar.

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COMPTE! During no es fa servir per indicar què dura un fet o una acció (per fer això utilitzem la
preposició for), sinó per parlar del període en què té lloc.

We’ve been on holiday for three weeks. We’ve been on holiday during three weeks.
Hem fet vacances (durant) tres setmanes.

While (mentre, quan) uneix dues frases completes en què les accions es produeixen alhora.

While I was working as an accountant, I was spending more and more time on a computer.
Quan treballava com a comptable, cada cop passava més temps davant l’ordinador.

L’adverbi at present (actualment, ara) introdueix un fet o una acció que passen en el present.
At present és una mica més formal que at the moment (en aquest moment) i s’acostuma a
situar al principi de la frase.

At present 26% of British workers work over 48 hours a week.


Actualment, el 26% dels treballadors britànics treballen més de 48 hores per setmana.

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MODULE 2B
UNIT 1

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 1 (SOMEBODY, ANYTHING)

Els pronoms indefinits que comencen per some i any designen persones o coses la identitat de
les quals es desconeix o no es vol especificar. Segueixen les mateixes regles que some i any.
Somebody (algú), something (alguna cosa) i somewhere (en algun lloc) s'acostumen a fer servir
en frases afirmatives.

Somebody took my bag. They live somewhere in Scotland.


Algú m'ha agafat la bossa de mà. Viuen en algun lloc d'Escocia.

They bought something on the Internet for her birthday.


Pel seu aniversari li van cormprar una cosa per Internet.

Somebody, something i somewhere també es fan servir en preguntes per fer oferiments i
peticions.

Would you like something to drink? Can we go somewhere to eat?


Que vols res per beure? Que podem anar a menjar res a algun lloc?

Anybody (algú, ningú), anything (alguna cosa, res) i anywhere (enlloc) es fan servir en frases
negatives i interrogatives.

Has anybody ever been to an auction? We haven't got anything to eat.


Que algú ha estat mai en cap subhasta? No tenim res per menjar.

Are you going anywhere in the summer?


Que vas enlloc aquest estiu?

COMPTE! Observa que, quan anything té sentit negatiu i significa “res” va amb el verb en
forma negativa. En canvi, com veurem a la pantalla 7 d'aquesta secció, nothing (res) mai no es
fa servir amb el verb en negativa.

I didn't see anything. I didn’t see nothing.


No vaig veure res.

Somebody/someone i anybody/anyone

Somebody i someone tenen el mateix significat (algú). Anybody i anyone (“ningú” en negatives i
“algú” en interrogatives) també són sinònims.

Somebody has lost this book. Someone has lost this book.
Algú ha perdut aquest llibre. Algú ha perdut aquest llibre.

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La graella següent resumeix quins pronoms indefinits es fan servir, segons la forma del verb:
afirmativa (a l'esquerra), i negativa i interrogativa (a la dreta).

+ - and ?
People Someone / Sombeody Anybody / Anyone
Things Something Anything
Things Somewhere Anywhere

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 1 (NOTHING, EVERYBODY)

Nobody (ningú), nothing (res) i nowhere (enlloc) són pronoms indefinits negatius. A diferència
dels pronoms anybody, anything i anywhere, es fan servir en frases amb el verb en forma
afirmativa. Aquests pronoms també es poden utilitzar tot sols per respondre a preguntes.

Nobody bought my book. There's nothing in the fridge.


Ningú no va comprar el meu llibre. No hi ha res a la nevera.

Where are you going? Nowhere.


On vas? Enlloc.

COMPTE! Nobody, nothing i nowhere mai no van amb el verb en forma negativa.

I don't know anything about the Internet. I dont know nothing about the Internet.
No sé res d'Intemet.

He didn't know anybody at the party. He didnt know nobody at the party.

Els pronoms indefinits everybody (tots, tothom), everything (tot) i everywhere (arreu, a tot
arreu) serveixen per designar un tot o el total dels components d'un grup. Quan funcionen
com a subjecte de l’oració, el verb va en tercera persona del singular, com si es tractés dels
pronoms he, she, it.

Everybody uses the Internet. Everything was very expensive.


Tothom fa servir Internet. Tot era molt car.

Everywhere is full. There aren't any hotel rooms.


A tot arreu és complet. No hi ha habitacions a cap hotel.

COMPTE! Quan hom vol fer servir el pronom indefinit “tot” per referir-se a objectes, en anglès
s'utilitza everything, i no all.

Everything at the auction was really cheap. All at the auction was really cheap.
Tot allò que hi havia a la subhasta era molt barat.

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Nobody / no one i everybody / everyone

Nobody i no one tenen el mateix significat (ningú). Everybody i everyone (tots, tothom) també
són sinònims.

Everybody sent me emails. Everyone sent me emails.


Tothom em va enviar correus. Tothom em va enviar correus.

THE INTERNET

Noms relacionats amb Intemet

Els substantius següents fan referència a elements habituals a Internet. Observa que la paraula
blog també es pot fer servir com a verb:

website home page blog


lloc web pàgina inicial bloguejar (escriure en un blog)

Verbs relacionats amb Intemet

Els verbs següents descriuen accions relacionades amb Internet. Observa que la paraula email
és tant un verb com un substantiu:

surf the net


navegar per Internet

click /click on
fer clic / fer un clic (en, sobre), clicar

double click
fer doble clic, fer un doble clic (en, sobre)

download
baixar, descarregar (d’Internet)

email
enviar un correu electrònic; correu electrònic

Seguretat a Intemet

Les paraules següents fan referència a la seguretat a Internet:

log in
iniciar la sessió, connectar-se, entrar

username
(nom d’) usuari

password

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contrasenya

Adreces d’Internet

En l'anglès oral, el símbol de l'arrova (@) es pronuncia at. “Punt com” es diu dot com.

My email address is petereyourema.


La meva adreça de correu electrònic és peter@youremarl.com.

LARGE NUMBERS

A o one?

En anglès es pot dir a hundred, a thousand, a million, o one hundred, one thousand, one
million. En l'anglès oral, però, és més habitual fer servir la forma amb l'article a.

lt cost one hundred pounds.


Va costar cent lliures.

You can win a million euros!


Pots guanyar un milió d’euros!

Quan es fa servir and?

A diferència del català, davant les desenes sempre es fa servir and.

three hundred and fifteen


tres-cents quinze

five million, sixty thousand and ten


cinc milions seixanta mil deu

Singular o plural?

Hundred, thousand i million es fan servir en singular quan van precedits d’una xifra.

two hundred and fifty people Two hundreds and fifty people
dues-centes cinquanta persones

Quan hundred, thousand i million no van precedits d'una xifra, es fan servir en plural.

hundreds of people
centenars de persones

COMPTE! A diferència del català, quan hundred, thousand i million van precedits d’una xifra,
mai no els segueix la preposició of.

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Milers i centenes

Les xifres entre 1100 i 1900 es poden expressar de dues maneres. La segona només
s’acostuma a fer servir per als nombres rodons i és més informal.

one thousand, one hundred/eleven hundred


mil cent

one thousand, five hundred/fifteen hundred


mil cinc-cents

COMPTE! Per separar els milers, en anglès es fa servir una coma en lloc d'un punt. P. ex. mil
cent: 1,100 (no 1.100).

SOCIALIZING

Per convidar algú a sortir

Les expressions següents es fan servir per convidar algú a sortir:

What are you doing tonight?


Què fas aquesta nit?

Are you doing anything tonight?


Que faràs res aquesta nit?

Are you going anywhere this weekend?


Vas enlloc aquest cap de setmana?

Shall we go out somewhere?


Sortim enlloc?

Let's go somewhere for dinner.


Sortim a sopar a algun lloc.

Why don't we go to the theatre?


Per què no anem al teatre?

Per acceptar i rebutjar plans

Les expressions següents es fan servir per acceptar o rebutjar un pla o una proposta:

OK, where shall we go?


D'acord, on anem?

No, I'm not doing anything tomorrow.


No, no faré res demà.

Everywhere's busy on a Saturday.


Els dissabtes és ple de gent a tot arreu.

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I'm afraid I'm busy tonight.
Em sembla que estaré ocupada aquesta nit.

Sorry, I can't. I've got other plans.


Em sap greu, no puc.

Per parlar de plans

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de plans:

I'm doing something with my family.


Faré alguna cosa amb la família.

Yes, we're going to the mountains.


Sí, marxem a muntanya.

I'm going to the theatre.


Me’n vaig al teatre.

We're visiting friends.


Visitarem uns amics.

I'm having a quiet weekend at home.


Passaré el cap de setmana tranquil·lament a casa.

I don't have any plans.


No tinc plans.

UNIT 2

SUBJECT AND OBJECT QUESTIONS

Object questions

Quan en una pregunta hi ha un interrogatiu que funciona com a objecte, es fa servir aquesta
estructura: interrogatiu + verb auxiliar + subjecte + infinitiu del verb principal. Aquestes
oracions sempre necessiten un verb auxiliar. En els exemples següents, what i which (què)
funcionen com a objectes del verb:

What do they want? They want pizzas.


Què volen? Volen pizzes.

Which car did you buy? I bought a Mini.


Quin cotxe t’has comprat? M’he comprat un Mini.

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Subject questions

Quan en una pregunta el subjecte és un interrogatiu, es fa servir aquesta estructura:


interrogatiu + verb + complements. En aquestes oracions no cal verb auxiliar. En els exemples
següents, who i what funcionen com a subjecte dels verbs respectius:

Who wants a cola? Steve wants a cola.


Qui vol cola? L'Steve vol cola.

What caused the accident?


Què va provocar l'accident?

The rain caused the accident.


La pluja va provocar l'accident.

What, Which, Who o How many?

What (què), Which (què, quin/a, quins/es), Who (qui) i How many (quants/es) són els
interrogatius que s'acostumen a fer servir més com a subjecte o part del subjecte d’una
pregunta. De vegades which i what es poden utilitzar indistintament, però, en general, which
s'usa per demanar per un nombre limitat de coses o quan hi ha dues o tres opcions per triar.
What s'empra per fer preguntes genèriques amb respostes que poden ser molt variades.

Which pizza is better - the pepperoni or the Margherita?


Quina pizza és més bona, la de pepperoni o la margarida?

What happened last night? Which happened last night?


Què va passar anit passada?

Who went to the restaurant?


Qui va anar al restaurant?

How many people came to the party?


Quanta gent va anar a la festa?

COMPTE! Recorda que, quan el subjecte d'una pregunta és interrogatiu, no s'acostuma a fer
servir els auxiliars do / does / did.

Who stayed at the hotel? Whi did stay at the hotel?


Qui es va quedar a l'hotel?

INFINITIVES OF PURPOSE

Els infinitives of purpose (infinitius que expressen finalitat o intenció) es fan servir per indicar el
motiu o la finalitat amb què algú fa alguna coca. Es formen amb el verb en infinitiu precedit de
la preposició to.

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We went to the restaurant to have lunch.
Vam anar a dinar al restaurant.

She left home early to catch the plane.


Va sortir de casa d'hora per agafar l'avió.

They travelled by bus to save money.


Van viatjar amb autobús per estalviar diners.

Aquests infinitius s'acostumen a fer servir per respondre a preguntes amb why.

Why did Jack go to the hospital? To see his sister.


Per què va anar a l'hospital, el Jack? Per veure la seva germana.

Why did you go shopping? To buy a suit.


Per què te'n vas anar de compres? Perquè volia un vestit.

Why did you move house? To be nearer my parents.


Per què et vas canviar de casa? Per ser més a prop dels meus pares.

COMPTE! La preposició for mai no es fa servir davant els infinitives of purpose.

We stopped to have dinner. We stopped for to have dinner


Ens vam aturar per sopar.

In order to i so as to

Les expressions in order to i so as to (a fi de, per) es fan servir sovint davant els infinitives of
purpose per expressar finalitat. Totes dues signifiquen el mateix i s’utilitzen, sobretot, en
l’anglès formal.

We went to Paris in order to visit the Louvre.


Vam anar a París per veure el Louvre.

Sara moved to London so as to get a better job.


La Sara es va mudar a Londres per aconseguir una feina millor.

The company was restructured in order to increase profits.


L'empresa es va reestructurar a fi d’augmentar els beneficis.

I did a language course so as to improve my French.


Vaig fer un curs d’idiomes per millorar el meu francès.

RELATIONSHIP

La majoria d'aquestes expressions es refereixen a relacions amoroses, tot i que n'hi ha unes
quantes que es poden fer servir per a les relacions familiars o d'amistat.

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Al començament d’una relació

meet someone be attracted to someone


conèixer algú sentir-se atret/a per algú

get on well with someone go out with someone


avenir-se amb algú sortir amb algú

Durant Ia relació

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de relacions estables:

live together get engaged


viure plegats prometre's

get married marry someone


casar-se casar-se amb algú

go on honeymoon
fer el viatge de noces

COMPTE! La preposició with no es fa servir amb el verb marry.

Harry married Jane last month. Harry married with Jane last month.
El Harry es va casar amb Ia Jane el mes passat.

Al final d’una relació

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a una relació amb problemes o al final
d'una relació:

argue with someone break up with someone


discutir amb algú rompre amb algú

leave someone get divorced


deixar / abandonar algú divorciar-se

SPORT

Per parlar de competicions

Aquestes paraules designen diferents competicions esportives.

the League the Cup


la Lliga la Copa

a Formula 1 race a tennis championship


una cursa de Fórmula 1 un campionat de tenis

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a golf tournament the final
un torneig de golf la final

a match
un partit

Quan es guanya o es perd

Aquests verbs serveixen per parlar del resultat final en una competició esportiva.

win lose draw


guanyar perdre empatar

Per parlar de resultats

En anglès, quan un jugador o un equip no marca cap punt, es fan servir diferents termes per a
cada esport. En tenis, s'utilitza la paraula love (zero), i en futbol, nil (zero). La paraula zero no
s’acostuma a emprar en aquests contextos.

Forty-love! It’s going to be game, set and match to Nadal!


Quaranta a zero! Serà joc, set i partit per a en Nadal!

Two-nil to Spain! Will they win the World Cup?


Dos-zero per a Espanya! Guanyarà la selecció el mundial?

IN A RESTAURANT

En entrar a un restaurant

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan hom entra en un restaurant:

A table for four, please. We don't have a reservation.


Taula per a quatre, si us plau. No tenim reserva.

I have a table reserved for two. Is this one OK?


He reservat taula per a dos. Va bé aquesta?

Yes, it's fine, thanks. Could we sit near the window?


Sí, aquesta va bé, gràcies. Que podríem seure a prop de la finestra?

Per demanar en un restaurant

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar en un restaurant:

Are you ready to order? Not yet. I'm waiting for a friend.
Ja sabeu què voleu demanar? Encara no. Espero un amic.

Can we have a few more minutes? Can I get you a drink while you're waiting?
Que podem pensar-ho una mica més? Us porto res per beure mentre espereu?

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Yes, please. I'll have a glass of water.
Sí, si us plau. Vull un got d’aigua.

Quan el menjar arriba a taula

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan el cambrer serveix el menjar:

Sorry, who ordered the fruit juice? I did. Thank you.


Dispenseu, qui ha demanat suc de fruites? Jo. Gràcies.

Who wanted a sandwich? That's for her. Thanks.


Qui volia un sandvitx? És per a ella. Gràcies.

We asked for red, not white, wine. Can I bring you anything else?
Hem demanat vi negre, no blanc. Que voldreu res més?

UNIT 3

BECAUSE AND BECAUSE OF

La conjunció because (perquè, com que) es fa servir per introduir una oració subordinada de
causa. Aquesta subordinada pot anar davant l’oració principal o al darrere. Quan se situa al
davant, se separa de l’oració principal amb una coma.

Because not everybody is honest in their profiles, there are sometimes problems.
Com que no tothom diu la veritat al seu perfil, de vegades sorgeixen problemes.

I changed jobs because I wanted a higher salary.


Vaig canviar de feina perquè volia tenir un sou millor.

L’expressió because of (per, a causa de) serveix per introduir la causa per la qual s'ha
esdevingut una cosa. Sempre va seguida d'un substantiu o d'un pronom objecte, i pot anar al
principi de la frase o al final. Quan se situa al principi, el sintagma que forma se separa de la
resta de frase amb una coma.

I left my previous job because of the salary.


Vaig deixar la feina anterior pel sou.

Because of social changes, people don't have time to meet.


A causa dels canvis socials, la gent no té temps per trobar parella.

COMPTE! Because of mai no va seguit d'una oració, ni es fa servir amb els pronoms de subjecte
(I, he, we, etc.).

We didn't play because it was raining. We didn’t play because of it was raining.
No vam jugar perquè plovia.

Because of them, we lost the match. Because of they, we lost.


Vam perdre el partit per culpa d’ells.

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UNIT 4

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHICH OR THAT

Defining relative clauses

Una defining relative clause és una oració subordinada que va introduïda per un pronom
relatiu (that, which, who, etc.) i que aporta informació essencial o especifica sobre allò a què
es fa referència.

Sandra works for a company that sells mobile phones.


La Sandra treballa per a una empresa que ven telèfons mòbils.

En l'exemple anterior, la relative clause “that sells mobile phones” especifica per a quina mena
d'empresa treballa la Sandra. Les defining relative clauses s'utilitzen per unir en una mateixa
frase dues oracions curtes. El substantiu o pronom de la primera oració se substitueix en la
segona per that, which, etc., per no repetir-lo.

These are the sunglasses. They are very fashionable.


Aquestes són les ulleres de sol. Són molt modernes.

These are the sunglasses which are very fashionable.


Aquestes són les ulleres de sol que són molt modernes.

COMPTE! A les relative clauses, el substantiu o el pronom de l’oració principal sempre se


substitueix per which o that, mai no es repeteix darrere seu.

They work for the company which wants to build a new shopping centre.
They work for the company with it wants to build a new shopping centre.
Treballen per a l'empresa que vol construir un centre comercial nou.

Which i that

Els pronoms relatius which i that es fan servir a les defining relative clauses per introduir
informació essencial sobre animals o coses. That pot substituir which i a l’inrevés, però that
s'utilitza molt més en l'anglès oral.

A gorilla is an animal which lives in the African forests.


El goril·la és un animal que viu a les selves africanes.

A les relative clauses, per substituir-hi pronoms indefinits, com ara something, anything i
everything, s'acostuma a fer servir that, no which.

I've got everything that was in the car. I’ve got everthing which was in the car.
Tinc tot el que hi havia al cotxe.

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COMPTE! What mai no es fa servir per introduir una relative clause que fa referència a un
substantiu o a un pronom.

A computer is a machine that has transformed our way of working.


A computer is a Machine what has transformed our way of working.
L'ordinador és una màquina que ha transformat la nostra manera de treballar.

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHO OR THAT

Les relative clauses amb who o that també es fan servir per unir dues oracions curtes en una
mateixa frase. El substantiu o el pronom de la primera oració se substitueix a la segona per
who o that.

That's the man. He lives in the flat next to mine.


Aquest és l'home. Viu al pis del costat.

That's the man who lives in the flat next to mine.


Aquest és l'home que viu al pis del costat.

This is my friend. She lives in London.


Aquesta és l’amiga. Viu a Londres.

This is my friend that lives in London.


Aquesta és l’amiga que viu a Londres.

COMPTE! A les relative clauses, el substantiu o el pronom de l'oració principal sempre se


substitueix per who o that, mai no es repeteix al darrere.

She's the woman who works in the new hospital.


She’s the woman who she Works in the new hospital.
És la dona que treballa a l'hospital nou.

That's the boy that won the competition.


That’s the boy that he won the competition.
Aquest és el noi que va guanyar la competició.

Who i that

Els pronoms relatius who i that introdueixen defining relative clauses que es fan servir per
descriure persones, perquè aporten informació essencial o específica sobre aquestes. That pot
substituir-hi who i a l’inrevés, però that es fa servir molt més en l’anglès oral.

A chef is a person who works in a restaurant.


Un xef és una persona que treballa en un restaurant.

A chef is a person that works in a restaurant.


Un xef és una persona que treballa en un restaurant.

That's the girl that my brother goes out with.

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Aquesta és la noia amb qui surt el meu germà.

That's the girl who my brother goes out with.


Aquesta és la noia amb qui surt el meu germà.

FACIAL APPEARANCE

Per descriure la pell

Els adjectius dark i fair es fan servir per referir-se al color de la pell.

He's dark skinned.


Té la pell fosca. / És morè.

She's got fair skin.


Té la pell clara. / És de pell blanca.

Borrissol

Els substantius següents es fan servir per referir-se als tipus de borrissol:

beard
barba

moustache
bigoti

He's got a beard and moustache.


Té barba i bigoti.

Per descriure el color dels cabells

Els adjectius següents es fan servir per descriure el color dels cabells:

fair dark dark grey


rossos bruns, foscos grisos, cendrosos

blonde black light brown


rossos negres castanys clars

brown
castanys

He's fair haired.


És ros.

She's got blonde hair.


Té els cabells rossos. / És rossa.

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Per descriure el tipus de cabells

Els adjectius següents es fan servir per descriure els tipus de cabells:

bald short long


calb curts Ilargs

curly wavy straight


arrissats ondulats llisos

He's quite bald.


És bastant calb.

She's got short curly blonde hair.


Té els cabells rossos, curts i arrissats.

BEING A WITNESS

Per confirmar una cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir per confirmar allò que es diu:

You saw a man with a briefcase.


Has vist un home amb un maletí.

Is that right? Yes, that's right.


Correcte? / Oi? Sí, correcte.

No, that's not correct. No, that's not true. No, that's not right.
No, no és cert. No, no és veritat. No, no és així.

Per descriure algú

Les expressions següents es fan servir per descriure una persona:

She was wearing a black coat. No, he was about thirty.


Portava un abric negre. No, devia tenir trenta anys.

He had short dark hair. He was tall and athletic.


Tenia els cabells curts i foscos. Era alt i atlètic.

They were fair skinned. He had a black beard.


Tenien la pell clara. / Eren de pell clara. Tenia la barba negra.

Per descriure una escena

Les expressions següents es fan servir per descriure una escena:

They were in an Audi. They were carrying a suitcase.


Eren en un Audi. Portaven una maleta.

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It was sunny. No, they didn't rob a bank.
Feia sol. No, no van robar un banc.

They robbed a post office.


Van robar en una oficina de correus.

She was the one who did it.


És ella qui ho va fer.

UNIT 5

PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE

La veu passiva en present simple es construeix amb la forma adient del verb to be en present i
el participi del verb principal. Aquesta forma es fa servir per emfasitzar la persona o l’objecte
sobre els quals recau l’acció, o quan no es coneix la persona o l’objecte que du a terme l’acció
o no es considera important. En aquest exemple, es vol ressaltar les sabates i el fet que són
fetes a la Xina, però no qui les ha confeccionades.

These shoes are made in China.


Aquestes sabates són fetes a la Xina.

La passiva, molt més freqüent en anglès que no en català, s'acostuma a traduir amb una frase
impersonal, generalment amb un verb pronominal.

Our office is cleaned every day. Cheese isn't sold in this shop.
La nostra oficina es neteja cada dia. En aquesta botiga no es ven formatge.

La veu passiva es fa servir també per parlar de les coses en general.

First, the paper is put in this machine.


Primer de tot, es posa el paper en aquesta màquina.

Oranges are grown in Valencia.


Les taronges es conreen a València.

La veu passiva en present simple s'acostuma a fer servir en contextos formals com ara
informes d'empresa o anuncis publicitaris.

The marketing department is managed by Anna Shilton.


El departament de màrqueting està dirigit per l'Anna Shilton.

Passengers are advised to look after their bags.


Recomanem als passatgers que vigilin el seu equipatge.

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By

En anglès, quan en una frase en passiva es fa referència a la persona o a l’objecte que du a


terme a l’acció, s’hi afegeix la preposició by seguida d'un substantiu o d'un pronom. En aquest
cas, la frase en català acostuma a ser activa.

Is the programme presented by Robbie Ryman?


Que el programa el presenta el Robbie Ryman?

Footballers are paid too much by the clubs.


Els clubs paguen massa als futbolistes.

COMPTE! Per indicar qui du a terme l'acció del verb, mai no es fa servir la preposició for, sinó
by.

The ‘Pillars of the Earth’ was written by Ken Follett.


The Pillars of the Earth' was written for Ken Follet.
Els pilars de la Terra va ser escrita pel Ken Follett.

PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE

La veu passiva en past simple es construeix amb la forma adient del verb to be en past simple i
el participi del verb principal. Com hem vist, es fa servir per emfatitzar la persona o l'objecte
sobre els quals recau l’acció, i s’utilitza més sovint en anglès que no en català. En català,
gairebé sempre equival a una frase amb un verb pronominal o en veu activa.

He was promoted to Director of Finance yesterday.


Ahir el van ascendir a director financer.

We were sent to a different hotel.


Ens van enviar a un hotel diferent.

La veu passiva en past simple es fa servir, sobretot, per parlar d'esdeveniments històrics,
d'invencions, etc.

The first BBC radio programme was made in 1922.


El primer programa de ràdio de la BBC es va fer el 1922.

Was Oliver Twist written by Charles Dickens?


L'Oliver Twist va ser escrit pel Charles Dickens?

Las Meninas was painted by Velázquez.


Velázquez va pintar Las Meninas.

To be born

To be born és una estructura anglesa en veu passiva que equival al verb “néixer” en català.
Aquesta estructura es pot fer servir en present simple i, també, en past simple. Observa que en

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anglès aquesta estructura demana una frase en veu passiva, mentre que l'equivalent en català
és una frase convencional en veu activa.

Fewer children are born in Europe these days.


Actualment neixen menys nens a Europa.

Cervantes and Shakespeare were born in the sixteenth century.


Cervantes i Shakespeare van néixer al segle XVI.

I was born on the first of December, 1974.


Vaig néixer l'1 de desembre de 1974.

COMPTE! Be born, tant si s'especifica la data o el lloc de naixement com si no es fa, mai no es
fa servir en veu activa.

My dad was born in London. My dad born in London.


El meu pare va néixer a Londres.

FABRICS

Teixits de fibra vegetal

Els teixits següents provenen de les plantes:

cotton denim corduroy linen


cotó teixit texà pana lli

Teixits i materials animals

Els teixits següents provenen de les animals:

silk wool fur


seda llana pell, pèl

leather velvet
pell, cuir vellut

Teixits sintètics

Els teixits següents provenen de les sintètica:

nylon polyester acrylic


niló polièster acrílic

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DESCRIBING POSSESIONS

Per dir de què està feta una cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir per dir amb quin material s'ha fet una cosa:

Is your coat made of linen? No, it's made of cotton.


Que el teu abric és de lli? No, és de cotó.

I like your suit. What's it made of? It's made of leather.


M'agrada el teu vestit. De què està fet? És de cuir.

What are your shoes made of? They're made of leather.


Amb què s'han fet les teves sabates? Són de pell.

Per dir on s'ha fet alguna cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar del lloc on s'han fabricat els objectes:

Was your TV made in Japan? No, it wasn't. It was made in Britain.


Que el teu televisor és fabricat al Japó? No. És fabricat a la Gran Bretanya.

Are you wearing anything that was made in China?


Que portes res fabricat a la Xina?

Where were they made? Do you know? They were made in South Korea.
On s'han fet? Ho saps? S'han fet a Corea del Sud.

Per dir que ens agrada alguna cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir per dir que ens agrada alguna cosa:

I like your coat That's a really nice jacket.


M'agrada el teu abric. Aquesta jaqueta és molt maca.

I really like that computer. I love your handbag.


M'agrada molt aquell ordinador. M'encanta la teva bossa de mà.

It's very stylish. What a great car!


Té força estil. És un cotxe fantàstic!

UNIT 6

EXPRESSING OPINIONS

I think, I don't think, Personally, In my opinion i As far as I'm concerned són expressions que es
fan servir per donar una opinió. Normalment, se situen al principi de la frase. El verb think

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(pensar, semblar, creure) s'utilitza força per expressar un parer i acostuma a anar seguit de la
paraula that per introduir l'opinió, tot i que no és imprescindible.

I think that everyone should learn a foreign language.


Penso que tothom hauria d'aprendre una Ilengua estrangera.

I don't think she's plain.


No em sembla poc agraciada.

COMPTE! Quan s'indica un parer, el verb think mai no es fa servir en present continuous. Si el
parlant pensa que no passarà una cosa, el verb que hi figura en forma negativa és think, i no el
verb de la frase principal, que roman en forma afirmativa.

I think they're going to win the game. I’m thinking they’re going to win the game.
Em sembla que guanyaran el partit.

I don't think it will snow. I think it won’t snow.


No crec que nevi.

Personally, In my opinion i As far as I'm concerned es fan servir per recalcar que el parlant
expressa la seva opinió personal. Personally acostuma a acompanyar el verb think. Totes
aquestes expressions van separades de la frase principal per una coma.

Personally, I don't think we'll ever stop reading books made of paper!
Personalment, no crec que deixem de llegir mai llibres en paper.

In my opinion, you drive too fast.


A parer meu, condueixes massa de pressa.

As far as I'm concerned, changes have to be made.


Segons el meu punt de vista, cal fer-hi canvis.

UNIT 7

CONSOLIDATIONS OF PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES

Present simple

El present simple es fa servir per parlar d'accions habituals, de fets generals, de gustos i de
preferències. En tercera persona del singular (he, she, it), al verb s'hi afegeix la terminació –s.
En preguntes i en frases negatives, porta do o does.

I work in a hospital. He speaks French. She likes jogging.


Treballo en un hospital. Parla francès. Li agrada el fúting.

I don't work in a hospital. Does he speak French?


No treballo en un hospital. Que parla francès?

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Present continuous

El present continuous es fa servir per parlar d'accions que passen tot just al moment en què es
parla o en un període concret.

I'm working in a hospital this week. She's driving home right now.
Aquesta setmana treballo en un hospital. Ara mateix condueix cap a casa.

El present continuous també es fa servir per parlar de plans concrets.

I'm working late tonight. She's driving to the beach later.


Aquesta nit treballaré fins tard. Després se n’anirà a la platja amb cotxe.

Going to futur

L'estructura to be + going to + infinitiu es fa servir per parlar de plans, de decisions que s'han
pres o d'allò que es vol fer.

I'm going to buy a car next month. She's going to get married in May.

El mes vinent em compraré un cotxe. Es casarà al maig.

També es fa servir per fer prediccions quan, al moment en què es parla, s'observen indicis que
passarà alguna cosa.

He's driving too fast. He's going to crash.


Condueix massa de pressa. S’estavellarà.

Will futur

L'estructura will + infinitiu es fa servir per fer referència a una decisió que es pren justament
quan es parla.

The phone is ringing. I'll answer it. It's raining. I'll take an umbrella.
Sona el telèfon. Jo contestaré. Plou. Agafaré el paraigua.

També s'utilitza per fer prediccions sobre alguna cosa que es pensa que passarà de ben segur.

I'm sure he'll call me tonight. I know they'll be hungry later.


De segur que em trucarà aquesta nit. Sé que, en acabat, tindran gana.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

Com en català, els pronoms reflexius es fan servir en anglès quan el subjecte i I'objecte directe
d'una frase són la mateixa persona.

I hurt myself. She cut herself. They burnt themselves.


He pres mal. S'ha tallat. S’han cremat.

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A diferència del català, en anglès els pronoms reflexius no s'acostumen a fer servir quan el
subjecte i l'objecte directe són diferents.

I hurt my leg. She cut her finger. They burnt their hands.
He pres mal a la cama. S'ha tallat el dit. S’han cremat les mans.

Pronoms (subjecte) Pronoms reflexius


I Myself
you Yourself
He / She / It Himself / Herself / Itself
We Ourselves
You Yourselves
They Themselves

Observa el canvi de significat d'aquest parell de frases:

John poured Anna a cup of coffee. John poured himself a cup of coffee.
El John ha servit a l'Anna una tassa de cafè. El John s'ha servit una tassa de cafè.

He hurt his little brother. He hurt himself.


Ha fet mal al seu germà petit. Ha pres mal.

Els pronoms reflexius també es fan servir per recalcar qui fa l’acció, i el fet que es fa sense cap
intervenció aliena. En aquest cas, s'anomenen emphatic pronouns (pronoms emfàtics).

He repaired his bike himself. They built their house themselves.


S'ha arreglat la bici tot sol. S'han construït la casa ells mateixos.

COMPTE! Com en català, el verb enjoy pot ser reflexiu en anglès.


I enjoyed myself. I enjoyed.
M'ho he passat bé. / He gaudit molt.

COMPTE! Hi ha molts verbs que són reflexius en català, però no en anglès.

She had a shower and got dressed. He shaves every morning.


Es va dutxar i es va vestir. S'afaita cada matí.

Did you get up late? Please sit down.


Que t'has llevat tard? Asseu-te, si us plau. / Seu, si us plau.

JOB INTERVIEW

Per presentar-se

Les expressions següents es fan servir per presentar-se en una entrevista:

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Hello, I'm Paul. Good morning. I'm Justin Hodgson.
Hola, sóc el Paul. Sóc el Justin Hodgson.

Pleased to meet you. Good to meet you too.


Molt de gust. El gust és meu.

I've got an interview with Angela Mills at ten o'clock.


Tinc una entrevista a les deu amb l'Angela Mills.

Per parlar d'un mateix

Les expressions següents es fan servir durant una entrevista:

Tell me about yourself. I come from Canada.


Parleu-me de vós. / Parli’m de vostè. Sóc del Canadà.

I'm originally from Ireland. I've got a diploma in Business Studies.


Sóc irlandès. Sóc Ilicenciat en Empresarials.

I'm a secretary. I've got a degree in Economics.


Sóc secretari. Sóc llicenciada en Econòmiques.

Per parlar de la feina anterior

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar de la feina anterior:

What did you do in your last job? I worked from Monday to Friday.
Que fèieu a la vostra feina anterior? Treballava de dilluns a divendres.

I didn't work at weekends. I worked in an office.


No treballava els caps de setmana. Treballava en una oficina.

I looked after the accounts. I travelled a lot.


Hi portava la comptabilitat. Viatjava molt.

UNIT 8

CONSOLIDATION OF PAST TENSES

Past simple
El past simple es fa servir per parlar d'accions o de fets acabats que han passat en un moment
concret del passat.

I bought a new jacket yesterday. He went out last night.


Ahir em vaig comprar una jaqueta nova. Anit passada va sortir.

COMPTE! Per formar preguntes i frases negatives en past simple, cal fer servir l'auxiliar did. Les
frases en past simple acostumen a incloure una expressió que especifica quan ha ocorregut I’
acció (on Sunday, last night, etc.).

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I didn't have breakfast this morning. I no have breakfast this morning.
Aquest matí no he esmorzat.

Did Sam play golf last weekend? Sam played golf last weekend?
Que el Sam va jugar a golf el cap de setmana passat?

Past continuous

El past continuous es fa servir per parlar d'accions o de fets que s'han desenvolupat en un
moment determinat o durant un període de temps del passat. El moment d'inici i d'acabament
de l’acció no es coneix o no és important.

We were walking in the country. He was taking photos.


Passejàvem pel camp. Feia fotos.

Expressions de temps

For es fa servir amb el past simple i amb el past continuous per indicar el període de temps que
ha durat l’acció. En aquests casos no s'acostuma a traduir.

He lived in London for four years. I was staying with friends for a week.
Ha viscut quatre anys a Londres. He estat una setmana amb uns amics.

During (durant) es fa servir amb el past simple i amb el past continuous per indicar el període
en què s'ha produït l’acció.

I woke up twice during the night. We weren't listening during the class.
M'he despertat dos cops durant la nit. No ateníem durant la classe.

When (quan) es fa servir quan en una mateixa frase coincideixen dues accions passades
diferents. Si són consecutives, els dos verbs van en past simple. Si una té lloc mentre passa
l'altra o la interromp, el verb de l'acció més curta va en past simple, i el de la més llarga, en
past continuous.

He ran when he saw her. I cried when he was leaving.


Va arrencar a córrer quan la va veure. Vaig plorar quan se n'anava.

While (quan, mentre) només es pot fer servir amb verbs en past continuous.

We saw a ghost while we were staying at that hotel.


Vam veure un fantasma quan ens vam allotjar en aquell hotel.

CONSOLIDATION OF THE PRESENT PERFECT

El present perfect es fa servir per parlar d'accions o de fets que s'han esdevingut en el passat,
però que continuen tenint relació amb el present.

I've broken my leg. She hasn't passed her exams.

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M'he trencat la cama. No ha aprovat els exàmens.

Ever (algun cop) i never (mai) es fan servir en frases en present perfect per referir-se a una cosa
que pot haver-hi succeït algun cop en un moment indeterminat del passat o que no ha passat
mai.

Have you ever ridden a camel? I've never been abroad.


Que has anat amb camell algun cop? No he estat mai a l'estranger.

Les preposicions for (des de fa) i since (des de) es fan servir amb verbs en present perfect per
indicar que una acció que ha començat en el passat continua en el present. For introdueix un
període de temps determinat i since indica el moment en què ha començat la acció.

I've had my car for six months. I've known her for ages.
Tinc el cotxe des de fa sis mesos. La conec des de fa anys.

She's lived here since May.


Viu aquí des del maig.

COMPTE! En anglès mai no es fa servir el present simple per parlar d'accions o de fets que han
començat en el passat i continuen en el present.

I've been in Spain since June. I am in Spain since June.


Sóc a Espanya des del juny.

She's had the same job for a year. She has the same job for a year.
Fa un any que és a la mateixa feina.

Just es fa servir amb el present perfect per indicar que l’acció acaba de produir-se. Already (ja)
es fa servir en frases afirmatives per indicar que alguna cosa ha tingut lloc abans del que
s'esperava. Yet (encara, ja) s'utilitza en frases negatives per indicar que l’acció encara no ha
tingut lloc, i en frases interrogatives, per demanar si ja s'ha acabat l’acció.

I've just arrived home. She's already left. Have you had lunch yet?
Tot just acabo d'arribar a casa. Ja ha marxat. Que ja has dinat?

COMPTE! Amb adverbis com ara yesterday, ago, etc. i en preguntes amb when o what time, es
fa servir sempre el past simple; el present perfect, mai.

I went to London yesterday. I’ve been to London yesterday.


Ahir vaig anar a Londres.

I lived in France two years ago. I’ve lived in France two years ago.
Vaig viure a França fa dos anys.

When did you visit Paris? When have you visited Paris?
Quan vas visitar París?

What time did you arrive in Rome? When have you visited Rome?
A quina hora vas arribar a Roma?

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GHOST STORIES

Aquests personatges acostumen a sortir a les històries de fantasmes:

ghost spirit witch monster werewolf


fantasma esperit bruixa monstre home llop

L'adjectiu haunted (encantat/ada) es fa servir per fer referència a un lloc habitat per
fantasmes.

haunted a haunted house


encantat/ada una casa encantada

Als fantasmes se’ls acostuma a atribuir accions com ara knock i frighten.

knock frighten
picar (a Ia porta ...) espantar

The ghost knocked on the window.


El fantasma va trucar a la finestra.

The monster frightened her.


El monstre Ia va espantar.

I les seves víctimes acostumen a reaccionar amb accions com shout i scream.

scream shout
xisclar cridar

He shouted for help.


Va cridar auxili.

She screamed with fright.


Va xisclar espaordida.

Altres accions habituals de les víctimes de les històries de fantasmes són shake i hide.

shake hide
tremolar amagar

She shook with fright when she saw the ghost.


Quan va veure el fantasma, va tremolar espantada.

They hid from the ghost in a cupboard.


Es van amagar en un armari fugint del fantasma.

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UNIT 9

USING ADJECTIVES TO WRITE GHOST STORIES

Els adjectius scared, frightened i afraid (espantat/ada) es fan servir per descriure sensacions de
por.

I'm scared. He was frightened. They're afraid.


Estic espantat. Estava espantat. Tenen por.

Els adjectius terrified (esfereït/ïda) i petrified (mort/a de por) es fan servir per descriure
sensacions de por més intenses.

We're terrified. She was petrified.


Estem esfereïts. Estava morta de por.

Els adjectius scary (aterridor/a), frightening (esgarrifós/osa, sinistre/a) i spooky


(esborronador/a, horripilant) es fan servir per descriure persones o coses que fan por.

a scary journey a frightening old man a spooky place


un viatge aterridor un vell sinistre un lloc esborronador

Els adjectius dark (fosc/a), gloomy (gris/a, lúgubre) i dimly-lit (poc il·luminat/ada) es poden
utilitzar per descriure l'ambient d'un lloc que fa por.

a dark room a gloomy corner a dimly-lit corredor


una habitació fosca un racó lúgubre un corredor poc il·luminat

UNIT 10

BOTH AND NEITHER, ALL AND NONE, EACH AND ONE

Both i neither

Both (tots/es dos/dues) i neither (cap) es fan servir per referir-se a dues persones o coses. Both
s'utilitza amb el substantiu i el verb en plural, i neither, amb el substantiu i el verb en singular.
La forma del verb és afirmativa en tots dos casos.

Both contestants are good at maths.


Tots dos concursants són bons en matemàtiques.

Neither contestant is bad at spelling.


Cap dels concursants no té dificultat per a l'ortografia.

Both of i neither of es fan servir amb un pronom (us, you, them) o amb un substantiu plural
precedit d'un determinant (my parents, the boys, etc.). En frases amb neither of el verb sempre
va en afirmatiu.

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Both of you are good at maths.
Tots dos sou bons en matemàtiques.

Neither of my parents is at home.


Cap dels meus pares no és a casa.

all, no i none

All (tots/es) i no (cap) es fan servir per referir-se a diverses persones o coses. All va amb
substantius en plural, i no, amb substantius en singular.

All contestants are nervous.


Tots els concursants estan nerviosos.

No contestant has seen the cards.


Cap concursant no ha vist les targetes.

All of i none of es fan servir amb un pronom (us, you, them) o amb un substantiu precedit d'un
determinant (my family, the answers, etc.). Observa que el verb pot anar-hi en singular o en
plural.

All of my family is at the wedding.


Tota la meva família és al casament.

None of the answers are right.


Cap de les respostes no és correcta.

COMPTE! La preposició of, situada entre all i el determinant, s'hi acostuma a ometre.

All the contestants are nervous.


Tots els concursants estan nerviosos.

Each i one

Each (cada) es fa servir amb el substantiu i el verb en singular per designar cadascun dels
elements d'un grup, i one (un/a), per designar-ne un de sol.

Each contestant answered three questions.


Cada concursant ha contestat tres preguntes.

One contestant is a pilot.


Un concursant és pilot.

Each of i one of es fan servir amb un pronom (us, you, them) o amb un substantiu precedit d'un
determinant (your books, the numbers, etc.). El verb va sempre en singular.

I listened to each of his questions.


He escoltat cadascuna de les seves preguntes.

He missed out one of the numbers.


S'ha deixat una de les xifres.

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FREQUENCY ADVERBS AND EXPRESSIONS

Els adverbis always (sempre), usually (normalment), often (sovint), sometimes (de vegades),
hardly ever (gairebe mai) i never (mai) es fan servir per indicar amb quina freqüència té lloc un
fet o una acció.

A les frases afirmatives, els adverbis de freqüència acostumen a anar situats davant el verb
principal; quan aquest verb és to be, però, se situen al darrere.

We never work together.


Mai no treballem plegats.

I'm hardly ever ready at 9 o'clock.


Gairebé mai no estic a punt a les 9.

A les frases negatives, els adverbis de freqüència acostumen a anar situats entre el verb
auxiliar i el verb principal.

We didn't often go out.


No sortíem sovint. / No acostumàvem a sortir.

En les preguntes, els adverbis de freqüència acostumen a anar darrere el subjecte, entre el
verb auxiliar i el verb principal. En preguntes amb el verb to be, l’adverbi de freqüència sempre
se situa darrere el subjecte.

Does he usually fly to Germany?


Acostuma a volar a Alemanya?

Have you always been a pilot?


Sempre has estat pilot?

En general, sometimes se situa al principi de la frase.

Sometimes we fly to Canada.


De vegades, volem al Canadà.

Les expressions de freqüència solen anar al final de la frase. Les expressions següents es fan
servir per indicar quants cops passa una cosa en un període determinat. Observa que només
once (un cop) i twice (dos cops) tenen formes irregulars:

once a week twice a month three times a year


un cop per setmana dos cops per mes tres cops l'any

Les expressions all the time (contínuament, sempre), most of the time (gairebé sempre) i some
of the time (de vegades) indiquen una freqüència aproximada.

I speak English all the time at work. I'm late some of the time.
Parlo anglès a la feina contínuament. De vegades faig tard.

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Les preguntes que indiquen freqüència es formulen de la manera següent:

How often do you go abroad? Do you ever travel by train?


Amb quina freqüència vas a l'estranger? Que viatges mai amb tren?

How often did you go running? Have you ever missed your flight?
Cada quant temps anaves a córrer? Que has perdut mai cap vol?

MATHEMATICS

Els verbs següents es fan servir per referir-se a operations matemàtiques:

subtract divide
restar dividir

Tanmateix, en l'anglès oral es fan servir les paraules següents:

plus (+) > 15 plus 18 > 15 and 88 minus (-) > 60 minus 12
més > 15 més 18 > 15 i 88 menys > 60 menys 12

times (x) > 7 times 12 divided by (/) > 90 divided by 6


per > 7 per 12 entre > 90 entre 6

Per indicar el resultat d'una operació es pot fer servir la paraula equals (fan, igual a) o el verb
to be:

15 plus 13 equals 28 60 minus 12 is 48


15 més 13 fan 28 60 menys 12 és igual a 48

En anglès es fa servir un punt, en comptes d'una coma, per separar els decimals. En l'anglès
oral, cada xifra decimal es pronuncia individualment.

10.5: ten point five 3.142: three point one four two

Si el nombre és inferior a la unitat, el 0 es pronuncia nought.

0.5: nought point five 0.25: nought point two five

Les fractions més habituals en anglès són half (mig) i quarter (quart).

1/2 (a half) 1/4 (a quarter) 3/4 (three quarters)

La resta tenen la mateixa forma que els nombres ordinals.

1/3 (a third) 1/5 (a fifth) 1/8 (an eighth)

Si el numerador és més gran que la unitat, el denominador va en plural.

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2/3 (two thirds) 3/5 (three fifths) 7/8 (seven eighths)

TALKING ABOUT ABILITIES

Per parlar d'aptituds

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar si algú té facilitat per a fer alguna cosa o no:

Are you good at maths?


Tens facilitat per a les matemàtiques?

Well, I'm not bad.


Bé, hi tinc bastanta facilitat.

I'm good at sports.


Tinc facilitat per als esports.

I'm not very good at languages.


No tinc gaire facilitat per als idiomes.

I'm not bad at history.


No sóc gens dolent en historia.

I'm terrible at geography.


No en sé un borrall, de geografia.

Per parlar de freqüència

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar freqüència:

Do you ever use English at work?


Que fas servir l'anglès a la feina algun cop?

Yes, I do.
Sí.

Yes, sometimes.
Sí, alguns cops.

No, hardly ever.


No, gairebé mai.

I never use computers in my job.


Mai no faig servir l'ordinador a la feina.

I don't often use English in my job.


No acostumo a fer servir l'anglès a la feina.

Per fer operacions matemàtiques

Les expressions següents es fan servir per fer preguntes i donar respostes en matemàtiques:

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What's 1/4 of 10%?
Quant és un quart d'un 10%?

What's 5 x 24?
Quant fa 5 x 24?

What's 30 / 6?
Quant fa 30 entre 6?

What's 47 + 22?
Quant és 47 més 22?

107 - 58 = 49 107 - 58 = 49
It's 49. És 49. / Fa 49.

UNIT 11

WANT (SOMEBODY TO DO SOMETHING)

Want + substantiu

El verb want seguit d'un substantiu es fa servir per indicar que es vol alguna cosa.

I want a car. She doesn’t want a salad.


Vull un cotxe. No vol una amanida.

Want + infinitiu

L'estructura want + infinitiu es fa servir per indicar que es vol fer alguna cosa.

I want to drive. She doesn't want to have lunch.


Vull conduir. No vol dinar.

COMPTE! Observa que la paraula to sempre ha d'acompanyar l'infinitiu.

He wants to leave work early. He wants leavework early.


Vol plegar abans de la feina.

Want + persona + infinitiu

Aquesta estructura es fa servir quan volem que algú faci alguna cosa. Darrere want va el nom
de la persona o el pronom objecte corresponent.

Anna wants Mike to make her a salad. Do you want me to drive?


L'Anna vol que el Mike li faci una amanida. Que vols que condueixi jo?

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Pronoms (subjecte) Pronoms (objecte)
I My
You You
He / She / It Him / Her / it
We us
You you
They them

INFINITIVE PATTERNS

Infinitius de finalitat

Els verbs en infinitiu precedits de la preposició to es fan servir per expressar la finalitat o el
motiu pel qual es fa alguna cosa. En anglès es coneixen com a infinitives of purpose i equivalen
en català als infinitius de les orations subordinades de finalitat.

He's made an appointment to see the doctor.


Ha demanat cita per anar a cal metge.

They'll call you to tell you the results.


Et trucaran per comunicar-te els resultats.

She drives home to save time.


Se'n va a casa amb cotxe per guanyar temps.

I'm going to France to learn French.


Marxo a França per aprendre frances.

We went to their house to look after their children.


Vam anar a casa seva per tenir cura dels nens.

COMPTE! For (per / per a) mai no es fa servir en anglès per expressar finaIitat.

We went to the town centre to buy some clothes.


We went to the town centre to buy some clothes.
Vam anar al centre per comprar roba.

Adjectiu + infinitiu

En anglès hi ha uns adjectius determinats que poden anar seguits d’un infinitiu.

I'm glad to hear your news. He's difficult to understand.


M’alegro de sentir les notícies que portes. És difícil d'entendre.

També es pot fer servir I'estructura too + adjectiu + infinitiu.

I'm too tired to go out. They're too excited to sleep.


Estic massa cansada per sortir. Estan massa alterats per poder dormir.

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Pronom indefinit + infinitiu

Sovint es fa servir l'infinitiu darrere els pronoms indefinits, com ara something, anything, etc.

She wants something to eat. We didn't have anything to do.


Vol alguna cosa per menjar. No teníem res a fer.

The old lady has nobody to talk to. They asked everyone to come.
La vella no té amb qui parlar. Van demanar a tothom que vingués.

COMPTE! Observa que a les frases negatives es fa servir anything en comptes de nothing.

We didn't have anything to drink. We didn't have nothing to drink.


No teníem res per beure.

JOB TITLES

El consell d'administració

Aquestes persones s'encarreguen de dirigir una empresa:

chief executive officer (CEO) managing director (MD)


director/a general director/ora general

director chairperson
director/a president/a

chairman shareholder
president accionista

La gestió o administració

Aquestes persones gestionen una empresa:

head of department
cap de departament

The es pot ometre davant head quan s'especifica un departament:

He's the head of the mrketing department.


És el cap del departament de màrqueting.

She's the head of the logistics department.


És la cap del departament de logística.

financial director manager


director/a financer/a gerent

Els empleats

Aquestes persones són els treballadors d'una empresa:

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staff personal assistant (PA)
personal, empleats secretari/ària de direcció

secretary salesperson
secretari/ària dependent/a

salesman saleswoman
agent de vendes, comercial agent de vendes, comercial

ASKING FOR HELP AT WORK

Per interrompre algú

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan volem intentar parlar amb algú que està enfeinat:

Sorry to interrupt.
Em sap greu interrompre.

Have you got a lot to do?


Que tens gaire feina?

Yes, I have.
Sí.

No, I haven't got a lot to do.


No, no tinc gaire feina.

Have you got a minute?


Que tens un minut?

Yes, what do you want?


Sí, què vols?

Per indicar què volem

Les expressions següents es fan servir per expressar què volem:

I want to get something.


Vull anar a buscar alguna cosa.

What do you want to get?


Què vols anar a buscar?

I want to go to the bank.


Vull anar al banc.

Can you answer the phone for me?


Que pots atendre el telèfon?

I'd like you to stay at my desk.


Voldria que et quedessis a la meva taula.

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I want you to take any messages.
Vull que atenguis els missatges.

Per prestar ajut a algú

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan algú demana ajut:

Yes, that's fine.


Sí, tant se val.

Yes, of course.
Sí, per descomptat.

Yes, how long for?


Sí, durant quant temps?

Yes, no problem.
Sí, no hi ha cap problema.

I can't help you right now.


Ara mateix no et puc ajudar.

Sorry, I'm busy.


Em sap greu, tinc feina.

UNIT 12

REPORTING RESULTS OF A SURVEY

Quan es fa referència als resultats d'una enquesta, es poden fer generalitzacions utilitzant les
expressions the majority (la majoria) i the minority (la minoria). Com també pot ser en català,
aquestes expressions van seguides d'un verb en plural.

The majority say that pay is the most important consideration.


La majoria afirmen que el sou és el factor més important.
The minority say they are very happy in the job they're in.
Una minoria afirmen que estan molt contents amb la seva feina actual.

Les expressions most people (gairebé tots), some people (uns quants, algunes persones) i few
people (uns quants, poques persones) es fan servir igualment per expressar resultats, i també
van seguides d'un verb en plural.

Most people also say they won't move while they're enjoying the job they're in.
Gairebé tots diuen que no canviaran de feina mentre continuïn contents amb la que tenen.

Some people maintain that working hours influence their decision.


Uns quants sostenen que l’horari laboral influeix en la decisió.

Few people experience job satisfaction at work.

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Poques persones estan satisfetes laboralment a la seva feina.

UNIT 13

TELL AND SAY

Els verbs tell i say es fan servir per indicar-li, a algú, què ha de dir a una altra persona. Tot i que
els dos verbs es poden traduir al català com a “dir”, en anglès es fan servir de manera diferent.

Tell

El verb tell va seguit d'un objecte indirecte (un substantiu o un object pronoun) i d'una frase
amb that (que), que funciona com a objecte directe i indica què s'ha de dir a la persona. La
paraula that s'hi pot ometre.

Tell his mother that he's OK. Tell his parents we've found him.
Digues a la seva mare que està bé. Digues als seus pares que l'hem trobat.

Tell her that he's OK. Tell them we've found him.
Digues-li que està bé. Digues-los que l'hem trobat.

El verb tell també es fa servir en certes expressions, com ara tell a story (explicar una història),
tell lies (dir mentides) i tell the truth (dir la veritat).

She tells stories about the past. Oscar's always telling lies.
Explica histories del passat. L'Oscar sempre diu mentides.

Adele never tells the truth.


L'Adele mai no diu la veritat.

Say

A diferència de tell, el verb say mai no va seguit d'un objecte indirecte, sinó d'una frase amb
that que funciona com a objecte directe i que indica què cal dir. En aquest cas, that també s'hi
pot ometre.

Say that there's a man on the roof. Say the man is dangerous.
Digues que hi ha un home a la teulada. Digues que l'home és perillós.

COMPTE! Observa que say mai no va seguit directament d’un objecte indirecte, però pot
portar-lo al final de la frase precedit de la preposició to, com s'indica en els exemples que hi ha
al final d'aquestes explicacions.

Tell them we need some help. Say them we need some help.
Digues-los que necessitem ajut.

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El verb say també es fa servir en certes expressions, com ara say hello (dir hola), say goodbye
(dir adéu) i say sorry (demanar perdó).

Say hello to the police officer. Say goodbye to the doctor.


Digues hola a l'agent de policia. Digues adéu al metge.

Say sorry to your friend.


Dernana perdó a la teva amiga.

TELL/ASK (SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING)

L'estructura tell + substantiu o pronoun object + infinitiu es fa servir per dir-li, a algú, que faci
alguna cosa.

Tell Sam to be careful. We told them to hurry up.


Digues al Sam que vagi amb compte. Els vam dir que s'afanyessin.

L'estructura ask + substantiu o pronoun object + infinitiu es fa servir per demanar a algú que
faci alguna cosa.

Ask Matt to call me. We asked them to wait for us.


Digues al Matt que em telefoni. Els van demanar que ens esperessin.

They asked me to book a table.


Em van demanar que reservés taula.

COMPTE! Observa que, en català, la frase que comença per “que” té el verb en subjuntiu,
mentre que en anglès sempre s'hi fa servir l'infinitiu.

Tell him to put his hands in the air. Tell him that he puts his hands in the air.
Digues-li que aixequi les mans.

I asked Sally to send me an email. I asked that Sally sends me an email.


Vaig demanar a la Sally que m'enviés un correu.

Per donar ordres o indications en forma negativa, s'ha de col·locar la paraula not davant
l'infinitiu del verb principal.

Tell him not to shoot. They told us not to wait.


Digues-li que no dispari. Ens van dir que no ens hi esperéssim.

We told Hannah not to tell Mike.


Vam dir a la Hannah que no ho expliqués al Mike.

Ask him not to talk so loudly. They asked us not to make a noise.
Digues-li que no parli tan alt. Ens van demanar que no féssim soroll.

I asked Lucy not to finish the report.


Vaig demanar a la Lucy que no acabés l'informe.

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COMPTE! Observa que per donar ordres o indications en forma negativa, mai no es fa servir
didn't, sinó not + infinitiu.

She told me not to go into the building. She told me that I didn’t go into the building.
Em va dir que no entrés a l'edifici.

She asked him not to be late. She asked that he wasn’t late.
Li va demanar que no fes tard.

TALKING TO THE PHONE

En començar una conversa

Les expressions següents es fan servir al començament d'una conversa telefònica:

Good morning. Hannah Phillips speaking.


Bon dia, sóc Ia Hannah Phillips.

Hello, this is Susan Hardwick.


Hola, sóc la Susan Hardwick.

Hi, it's Anna.


Hola, sóc l'Anna.

Hello. Could I speak to Mike, please?


Hola, que podria parlar amb el Mike, si us plau?

Hi. Is Chris there, please?


Hola. Que hi és, el Chris, si us plau?

Hello, is that Sarah?


Hola, que ets Ia Sarah?

Per indicar que algú no hi és

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan algú no pot atendre el telèfon:

He isn't here at the moment.


No hi és ara mateix.

I'm afraid she's in a meeting.


Em sembla que és en una reunió.

Would you like to leave a message?


Que voleu deixar cap missatge?

Can I take your name and phone number, please?


Em dieu el vostre nom i el vostre número de telèfon, si us plau?

Could you ask him to call Jenny on 0871 789 3642, please?
Que podríeu dir-li que truqui a Ia Jenny al 0871 789 3642, si us plau?

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Problemes de comunicació

Les expressions següents es fan servir quan hi ha problemes amb el telèfon:

Could you say that again, please?


Que m'ho pots repetir, si us plau?

Could you speak a bit more slowly, please?


Que podríeu parlar una mica més a poc a poc, si us plau?

I think we were cut off.


Em sembla que s'ha tallat.

I'm afraid I can't hear you.


Em sembla que no et sento.

Sorry. You're breaking up.


Em sap greu, et sento entretallada.

I'll try again later.


Ho tornaré a provar més tard.

UNIT 14

MAY AND MIGHT

May i might

L’estructura may i might + infinitiu es fa servir per fer predictions sobre un fet que pensem que
pot passar, tot i que no ho sabem del cert.

Tom may speak to a police officer. Sarah might meet a pilot.


Potser el Tom parlarà amb un policia. Potser la Sarah coneixerà un pilot.

I may go to Paris next August. She might study accountancy.


Potser aniré a París a l'agost. Potser estudiarà comptabilitat.

COMPTE! A les frases amb may o might mai no es fa servir to davant infinitiu.

We may drive to the city centre or we might go by bus.


We may to drive to the city centre or we might to go by bus.
Potser anirem al centre amb cotxe o potser hi anirem amb autobús.

L’estructura may not / might not + infinitiu es fa servir per fer predictions sobre un fet que
pensem que no s’esdevindrà.

She might not arrive on time. He may not go on holiday this year.
Potser no hi arribarà a temps. Potser no faré vacances aquest any.

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COMPTE! Observa que may not mai no es contreu. Might not es pot contreure en mightn't
però aquesta forma no es fa servir sovint avui dia.

I might not get married next year. I mightn’t get married next year.
Potser no em casaré l’any vinent.

I may not move to London. I mayn’t move to London.


Potser no em mudaré a Londres.

Will / going to

L'estructura will + infinitiu es pot fer servir per fer predictions, quan és ben segur que passarà
alguna cosa.

She'll meet a man in a uniform. They won't be ready on time.


Coneixerà un home amb uniforme. No estaran a punt a l’hora.

L'estructura going to + infinitiu també es pot fer servir per fer predictions sobre un fet quan, al
moment en què es parla, hi ha prou indicis per saber que passarà.

I can see the postman. He's going to knock on our door.


Veig el carter. De segur que trucarà a la porta.

Look at those men. They're going to rob the bank.


Fixa't en aquells homes. De segur que robaran el banc.

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS OF PROBABILITY

Adjectius

sure i certain
Els adjectius sure i certain (segur/a) tenen el mateix significat. Tots dos poden anar seguits
d'una frase amb that (que) en què s'expressi el fet del qual estem segurs o no.

I’m sure that you'll meet a stranger. I'm not certain they'll get married.
Estic segur que coneixeràs algú. No estic segur que es casin.

possible, impossible, likely i unlikely


Els adjectius possible (possible), impossible (impossible), likely (probable) i unlikely (poc
probable) es fan servir amb it's per formar frases que indiquen el grau de probabilitat que passi
res. Observa que aquests adjectius també poden anar seguits d'una frase amb that.

It's possible I'll win the quiz. It's unlikely that she'll go to London.
És possible que guanyi el concurs. És poc probable que vagi a Londres.

COMPTE! En aquests casos cal fer servir likely / unlikely, i no probable / improbable.

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It's unlikely that it'll rain tomorrow. It's improbable that it'll rain tomorrow.
És poc probable que plogui demà.

Adverbis

definitely, probably i possibly


Els adverbis definitely (de segur), probably (probablement) i possibly (possiblement) es fan
servir per indicar el grau de probabilitat que passi alguna cosa. A les frases afirmatives se
situen entre l'auxiliar will i l'infinitiu del verb principal.

She'll definitely go on a long journey.


De segur que farà un viatge llarg.

You'll probably meet a police officer.


Probablement coneixeràs un policia.

A les frases negatives aquests adverbis se situen entre el subjecte i l'auxiliar won’t.

We certainly won't have seven children.


De segur que no tindrem set fills.

He possibly won't move to a different town.


Possiblement no es mudarà a una altra ciutat.

COMPTE! Observa que probably es fa servir amb I'auxiliar will. L'estructura it’s probable that ...
gairebé mai no s'utilitza en anglès.

I'll probably change my job. It’s probable that I’ll change my job.
Probablement canviaré de feina.

IN THE COURTROOM

Als tribunals

Aquestes persones poden ser presents en un tribunal:

judge jury barrister witness


jutge/jutgessa jurat advocat testimoni

The judge sent the man to prison.


El jutge va enviar l'home a la presó.

There are twelve people on a jury.


En un jurat hi ha dotze persones.

The barrister defended his client.


L'advocat va defensar el seu client.

Two witnesses saw it happen.


Dos testimonis van veure que havia passat.

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En un procediment judicial

Aquestes paraules designen diferents aspectes del procediment judicial:

verdict (guilty/not guilty) statement hearing


veredicte (culpable/innocent) declaració vista

The jury's verdict was 'guilty'.


El veredicte del jurat va ser “culpable”.

They found him not guilty.


El van declarar innocent.

I gave my statement to the police.


Vaig prestar declaració a la policia.

The hearing is at one o'clock.


La vista serà a la una en punt.

Càstigs i penes

Aquestes paraules descriuen diferents càstigs i penes:

speeding ticket fine prison sentence community service


multa per excés de velocitat multa pena de presó serveis a la comunitat

He was given a €50 fine for dropping litter.


Li van imposar una multa de 50€ per haver Ilençat deixalles al carrer.

He received a ten-year prison sentence.


El van condemnar a deu anys de presó.

TALKING ABOUT FUTURE POSSIBILITIES

Per demanar pel futur

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar per fets futurs:

Are you going to visit North America next year?


Que aniràs a l'Amèrica del Nord l'any vinent?

What do you think might happen next month?


Què penses que passarà el mes vinent?

What do you think you'll do next summer?


Què penses que faràs l’estiu que ve?

Do you think you'll meet anyone interesting?


Creus que coneixeràs algú interessant?

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Per fer prediccions

Les expressions següents es fan servir per referir-se a allò que pot passar:

I might get a different job.


Potser aconseguiré una altra feina.

I'm probably going to learn more English.


Probablement aprendré més anglès.

I may go abroad.
Estic per anar-me'n a l'estranger.

I'll probably visit Britain next year.


Probablement marxaré a la Gran Bretanya l’any vinent.

I'm definitely not going to get married.


De segur que no em casaré.

Per parlar de possibilitats futures

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar el grau de probabilitat que passi res:

It's possible.
És possible.

It might happen.
Pot passar. / Podria passar.

It's impossible.
És impossible.

It definitely won't happen.


De segur que no passarà.

I'm not sure.


No n'estic segura.

I don't want to know.


No ho vull saber.

UNIT 15

USING SYNONYMS TO AVOID REPETITION

Els adjectius great (gran, fantàstic/a, magnífic/a), fantastic (fantàstic/a), wonderful


(meravellós/osa), excellent (excel·lent), marvellous (d’allò més bé) i brilliant (magnífic/a,
boníssim/a) són sinònims, o intensificadors, de good (bo/bona).

It's a great opportunity. His results were excellent.

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És una gran oportunitat. Els seus resultats van ser excel·lents.

It will be a fantastic week. She had a marvellous time.


Serà una setmana fantàstica. S'ho va passar d’allò més bé.

The weather will be wonderful. We got some brilliant news.


Farà un temps meravellós. Ens van donar molt bones notícies.

Els adjectius poor (dolent/a), awful (horrible), terrible (fatal, terrible), horrible (horrible),
disastrous (desastrós/osa) i appalling (horrible, espantós/osa) són sinònims, o intensificadors,
de bad (dolent/a).

You'll make a poor decision. He saw a horrible accident.


Prendràs una decisió dolenta. Va veure un accident horrible.

It will be an awful week. We had a disastrous weekend.


Serà una setmana horrorosa. Vam passar un cap de setmana desastrós.

She'll have a terrible time. The weather was appalling.


Ho passarà fatal. Va fer un temps espantós.

UNIT 16

FIRST CONDITIONAL

El first conditional (condicional amb if + present simple) es fa servir per referir-se a un fet que
passarà en el futur si es compleix una condició determinada.

If I have time, I'll cook dinner. If it rains, I'll watch a DVD.


Si tinc temps, prepararé el sopar. Si plou, miraré un DVD.

Les frases en first conditional tenen dues parts: la primera expressa la condició i comença per if
(si): If it rains. La segona expressa l'acció principal: I’ll watch a DVD, que només tindrà lloc si es
compleix la condició expressada a la primera part.

Formes afirmativa i negativa

La part que expressa la condició té el verb en present simple. La part que expressa l'acció
principal té el verb en futur (will / won't + infinitiu).

If I set my alarm, I'll wake up on time.


Si poso el despertador, em despertaré a temps.

If it isn't cold, I'll run to work.


Si no fa fred, aniré a la feina corrent.

If he gets up late, he won't wash up.


Si es Ileva tard, no rentarà els plats.

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If I don't set my alarm, I'll oversleep.
Si no poso el despertador, n’adormiré.

COMPTE! Will mai no es fa servir a la part de la frase que expressa la condició.

If l see her tomorrow, I'll tell her. If l’ll see her tomorrow, I'll tell her.
Si la veig demà, li ho diré.

Com en català, l’ordre de les dues parts de la frase es pot invertir sense que n'afecti el
significat. Quan la part que expressa l’acció principal va en primer lloc, però, la coma que
separa totes dues parts s'omet.

I'll do it tomorrow if I have time. = If I have time, I'll do it tomorrow.


Ho faré demà si tinc temps. = Si tinc temps, ho faré demà.

I'll oversleep if I don't set my alarm. = If l don't set my alarm, I'll oversleep.
M'adormiré si no connecto l’alarma del despertador. = Si no poso el despertador, m'adormiré.

Forma interrogativa

Les preguntes en first conditional segueixen aquesta estructura: interrogatiu + will / won’t +
subjecte + infinitiu. La part amb if + present simple sol anar al final.

What will you do if you pass your driving test?


Què faràs si aproves l'examen de conduir?

COMPTE! Observa que en les preguntes, will sempre se situa davant el subjecte.

What will he do if he can't go? What he will do if he can't go?


Que farà si no hi pot anar?

FUTURE TIME CLAUSES WITH WHEN, BEFORE, AFTER, ETC.

When, before, after i as soon as

When (quan), before (abans de), after (després de) i as soon as (així que, tan bon punt) es
poden fer servir per unir dues frases i indicar en quin ordre té lloc cada acció. Aquestes
expressions introdueixen una frase temporal de futur que especifica quan tindrà lloc l’acció
principal; el verb acostuma a anar en present simple. En canvi, la frase de l’acció principal
acostuma a portar el verb en futur (will + infinitiu).

She'll clean the kitchen after she cooks the dinner.


Netejarà la cuina després de fer el sopar.

He'll get changed when he gets home.


Es canviarà quan arribi / arribarà a casa.

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L'ordre de les dues parts de la frase as pot invertir sense que n'afecti el significat. Observa que,
quan la frase temporal de futur se situa al principi, va separada de la principal amb una coma.

Before I eat, I'll wash my hands.


Abans de menjar, em rentaré les mans.

I'll wash my hands before I eat.


Em rentaré les mans abans de menjar.

As soon as I arrive, I'll tell her.


Aixi que arribi / arribarà, li ho diré.

I'll tell her as soon as I arrive.


Li ho diré així que arribi / arribarà.

COMPTE! Will mai no es fa servir en frases temporals de futur.

She'll make some lunch when she's hungry.


She'll make some lunch when she'll be hungry.
Es prepararà alguna cosa per menjar quan tingui / tindrà gana.

Frases temporals de futur amb may, might i can

Els verbs may, might i can es poden fer servir en comptes de will a la frase de l’acció principal
per expressar que aquesta acció pot tenir lloc o no.

I may go out after I leave work.


Potser sortiré quan plegui / plegaré.

When he gets up, he might watch TV.


Quan es Ilevi / es Ilevarà, potser mirarà la televisió.

They can eat as soon as they're ready.


Podran menjar així que estaran / estiguín a punt.

COMPTE! A les frases temporals de futur, el verb es pot fer servir no solament en present
simple, sinò també en present continuous o en present perfect.

She'll clean the house when the children are playing in the park.
Netejarà la casa quan els nens siguin al parc jugant.

After we've had dinner, we might go to the cinema.


Havent sopat, potser anirem al cinema.

EXPRESSIONS WITH MAKE

El verb make (fer) s'acostuma a fer servir en expressions que signifiquen crear o preparar
alguna cosa.

make a dress make the dinner make a sandwich make the bed

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fer un vestit fer el sopar fer un sandvitx fer el llit

El verb make també es fa servir en expressions que signifiquen fer que existeixi una cosa o que
s'hi produeixi.

make an appointment make an excuse make a noise


concertar una cita inventar una excusa fer soroll

make a mistake make a mess make a reservation


cometre un error regirar-ho tot fer una reserva

El verb make es fa servir, de vegades, en expressions relatives al temps i als diners.

make money make time


fer diners treure temps

TALKING ABOUT FUTURE POSSIBILITIES

Per parlar d'accions futures

Les expressions següents es fan servir per parlar d'allò que es pensa fer:

Will you set an alarm this evening?


Connectaràs I'alarma del despertador aquesta nit?

Will you have breakfast in the morning?


Que esmorzaràs al matí?

Yes, I will.
Sí.

No, I won't.
No.

I will if I remember.
Si me'n recordo, sí.

I will if I have time.


Ho faré si tindré temps.

Per dir quan es farà una cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir per especificar quan es farà una cosa:

I'll get up as soon as it rings.


Em Ilevare així que soni / sonarà.

I'll go to bed when I'm tired.


Em ficaré al llit quan estigui cansada.

When I get home, I'll have a shower.

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Quan arribaré a casa, em dutxaré.

I'll wash up after I have dinner.


Rentaré els plats després de sopar.

Before I leave the house, I'll tidy up.


Abans de sortir de casa, endreçaré.

As soon as I land, I'll call you.


Tan bon punt aterri / aterraré, et trucaré.

Per dir què es farà si passa una cosa

Les expressions següents es fan servir per dir què ocorrerà si passa una cosa:

What will happen if you're late for work?


Quà passarà si fas tard a la feina?

What will you do if you don't wake up?


Què faràs si no et despertes?

If it doesn't ring, I'll be late for work.


Si no sona, faré tard a la feina.

I'll take a taxi if my car doesn't start.


Agafaré un taxi si el meu cotxe no s'engega.

My boss won't be angry if I explain.


El meu cap no s'emprenyarà si li ho explico.

UNIT 17

SECOND CONDITIONAL

El second conditional (condicional amb if + past simple) es fa servir per fer referència a una
situació imaginària o hipotètica.

If I had a car, I'd drive to work every day.


Si tingués cotxe, aniria a la feina amb cotxe cada dia.

Les frases en second conditional tenen dues parts: la primera expressa la situació imaginària i
comença per if (si): If I had a car. La segona expressa l’acció principal: l'd drive to work every
day.

Formes afirmativa i negativa

La part que expressa la situació imaginària té el verb en past simple. La de l'acció principal
porta el condicional simple (would / wouldn't + infinitiu).

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If I won, I'd be excited. If she moved house, I wouldn't be happy.
Si guanyés, estaria entusiasmada. Si es mudés, jo no estaria content.

Com en català, l'ordre de les dues parts de la frase es pot invertir sense que n'afecti el
significat. Quan la part que expressa l’acció principal se situa en primer lloc, però, la coma que
separa totes dues parts s’omet.

I’d have a tea if we had some milk. If we had some milk, I’d have a tea.
Em prendria un te si tinguéssim llet. Si tinguéssim llet, em prendria un te.

En aquestes frases, quan if va seguit del verb to be, es poden fer servir les formes verbals was
o were amb els pronoms I, he i she.

If I were rich, I'd live in a palace. = If l was rich, I'd live in a palace.
Si fos ric, viuria en un palau.

If he were six, he'd go to school. = If he was six, he'd go to school.


Si tingués sis anys, aniria a escola.

COMPTE! Observa que a la frase If I were you mai no es fa servir la forma was.

If I were you, I'd leave your husband. If I was you, I'd leave your husband.
Si jo fos de tu, deixaria el teu marit.

Forma interrogativa

Les preguntes en second conditional segueixen aquesta estructura: interrogatiu + would /


wouldn't + subjecte + infinitiu. La part amb if + past simple sol anar al final.

What would you do if a dog bit you? What would you do if you were here?
Què faries si un gos et mossegués? Què faries si fossis aquí?

COMPTE! Observa que a les preguntes would se situa davant el subjecte.

What would he do if he had a car? What he would do if he had a car?


Que faria si tingués cotxe?

FIRST OR SECOND CONDITIONAL?

Diferència de significat

El first conditional es fa servir per fer referència a un fet que tindrà lloc en el futur si es
compleix una condició determinada; per tant, indica una possibilitat real present o futura.

If her son is depressed, she'll take him to the doctor.


Si el seu fill està deprimit, el portarà a cal metge.

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El second conditional es fa servir per fer referència a una situació imaginària o hipotètica; per
tant, expressa una cosa que, tot i que al parlant li agradaria que passés (o no), és bastant
improbable.

They wouldn't have rows if she wore different clothes.


No discutirien si ella es vestís d'una altra manera.

Diferència a l'estructura verbal

A les frases en first conditional, la part que indica la condició (if) té el verb en present simple, i
la que indica l’acció principal el té futur (won't + infinitiu).

If Charles remembers, he'll meet us at the cinema.


If Charles will remember, he'll meet us at the cinema.
Si el Charles se'n recorda, quedarà amb nosaltres al cinema.

A les frases en second conditional, la part que indica la condició (if) té el verb en past simple, i
la que indica l’acció principal el té condicional (would I wouldn't + infinitiu).

If the dog was his, he'd give it away.


If the dog would be his, he'd give it away.
Si el gos fos seu, el donaria a algú.

El second conditional també es pot fer servir per donar consells.

If I were you, I'd look for a job. If I were you, I wouldn't eat that.
Jo si fos de tu, em buscaria feina. Jo si fos de tu, no em menjaria això.

Recorda que a la frase If I were you mai no es fa servir Ia forma was.

If I were you, I'd buy a new car. If I was you, I'd buy a new car
Si jo fos de tu, em compraria un cotxe nou.

First conditional o second conditional?

Observa la diferència de significat d'aquestes dues frases: el first conditional es fa servir per
expressar una possibilitat real, i el second conditional, per expressar una situació imaginària o
hipotètica.

If I ran every day, I'd feel healthier. If I ran every day, I'd feel healthier.
Si corro cada dia, em sentirè més bé. Si corregués cada dia, em sentiria més bé.

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LIFE STATES

Per parlar de l'estat civil

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar l'estat civil:

single engaged married


solter/a promès/esa casat/ada

separated divorced widowed


separat/ada divorciat/ada vidu/vídua

They are engaged. He’s married.


Són promesos. És casat.

They are separated. She’s divorced. He’s widowed.


Són separats. És divorciada. És vidu.

Per parlar de I'edat

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar l’edat:

young middle-aged elderly


jove/petit/a de mitjana edat gran, vell/a

They’re very young. My mother’s middle-aged. He’s elderly.


Són molt joves. La meva mare és de mitjana edat. És gran.

Per parlar de la situació laboral

Les expressions següents es fan servir per indicar la situació laboral:

employed unemployed retired


empleat/ada, en actiu aturat/ada, a l’atur jubilat/ada

I’m employed.
Tinc feina. / Estic en actiu.

I’ve been unemployed for a month.


Fa un mes que sóc a l’atur.

He’s been retired since January.


Des del gener que és jubilat.

TALKING ABOUT PROBLEMS

Per demanar un consell

Les expressions següents es fan servir per demanar consell a algú:

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What should I do? I don't know what to do.
Què he de fer? Què hi faig? No sé què fer.

I need some advice. I'm really worried about my son.


Necessito consell. Estic molt preocupada pel meu fill.

I'm having some problems. It's about my wife's dog.


Ara mateix tinc problemes. Es tracta del gos de la meva dona.

Per donar un consell

Les expressions següents es fan servir per aconsellar algú:

If I were you, I'd take an aspirin. If I were you, I'd leave him.
Jo si fos de tu, em prendria una aspirina. Jo si fos de tu, el deixaria.

I'd call the police if I were you. You should cancel your cards.
Si jo fos de tu, trucaria a la policia. Hauries d'anul·lar les targetes.

You shouldn't have a double whisky. Why don't you talk to a friend?
No hauries de beure’t un whisky doble. Per què no en parles amb un amic?

Per acceptar o rebutjar un consell

Les expressions següents es fan servir per acceptar o rebutjar un consell:

OK, I will. I'll take your advice.


D'acord, faré això. Seguiré el teu consell.

Thanks for the advice. I'd rather not do that.


Gràcies pel consell. M'estimo més no fer-ho.

I won't do that. I don't think that's such a good idea.


No faré això. Em sembla que no és una idea gaire bona.

UNIT 18

WRITING AN INFORMAL LETTER

Adreces

En anglès, l'adreça s'acostuma a escriure al cantó superior dret de la pàgina. Observa que el
número de l'habitatge sempre va situat davant el nom del carrer.

60 Buckingham Road Buckingham Road 60 5 Halifax Street 5 Halifax Street

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Dates

La data s'acostuma a escriure a sota l'adreça, al cantó dret de la pàgina. Observa que la xifra
corresponent al dia s'expressa amb un nombre seguit de −st, −nd, −rd o −th (aquestes lletres
són les dues darreres del nombre ordinal corresponent).

first > 1st second > 2nd third > 3rd fourth > 4th
primer segon tercer quart

1st January, 2009 26th August, 2015


1 de gener de 2009 26 d'agost de 2015

Començar una carta informal

Les cartes informals comencen amb la paraula Dear (Estimat/ada) seguida del nom del
destinatari. Observa que la salutació va seguida de coma, com en català. En general, en una
carta informal no s'inclouen els cognoms del destinatari.

Dear Hannah, Dear Hannah: Dear Matt, Dear Matt Smith,


Estimada Hannah, Estimat Matt,

Acabar una carta informal

Les paraules love, best wishes i from es fan servir com a comiat en una carta informal. En
anglès, mai no es fan servir expressions com ara kisses (petons). Observa que la frase de
comiat va seguida de coma, com en català.

Lots of love, Mum Love from, Lucy Best wishes, Steve From, Dad
Amb amor, la mama Petons, Lucy Salutacions, Steve El papa

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MODULE 3A
UNIT 1

QUESTION FORMS

Word order

Questions are usually made by changing the word order of the sentence. The auxiliary verb
comes before the subject. The main verb comes after the subject.

Are they working now? Were you using the printer?

Has she had a coffee break? Will you phone the office?

Can I borrow your pen? Could we leave early?

Questions with do / does / did

We place do / does before the subject to make questions in the present simple.

We place did before the subject to make questions in the past simple.

In both cases, the main verb comes after the subject:

Do / Does / Did + subject + main verb …?

Does he like his manager? Do they live in Madrid?

Did she find a job? Did they finish their work?

Note! In questions in the past simple, remember to use the main verb in the infinitive and
never in the past simple form.

Did Ben walk to the office? Did Ben walked to the office?

Question words

In questions that start with a question word, we normally use an auxiliary verb before the
subject. Again, the main verb is placed after the subject:

question word + auxiliary verb + subject + main verb …?

Why are they leaving? Who were you talking to?

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How much have you spent? When will he call?

Which computer can I use? What could we do today?

Where does she live? How did they travel to work?

QUESTIONS WITH HOW

We combine how with other words to ask questions about frequency, duration, quantity and
distance, and to ask for descriptions.

Frequency

How often do you play golf?

Duration

How long have you worked here?

Note! How long is not followed by the word time.

How long have you lived there? How long time have you lived there?

Quantity

How much cheese have we got? How many tomatoes do we need?

Distance

How far is your house from the university?

Note! How long is not used to talk about distance. We use how far.

How far is Madrid from Granada? How long is Madrid from Granada?

Asking for descriptions

How old is your grandmother? How wide is the river?

How high is Mount Kilimanjaro? How big is your new flat?

How tall is the Empire State Building?

Note! Tall is usually used to talk about people and buildings. High is usually used to talk about
mountains.

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How tall are you? How high are you?

UNIVERSITY LIFE

University teaching

undergraduate graduate

postgraduate student

lecturer tutor professor

lecture tutorial seminar

term year

The academic year has three terms

I’m in my final year at university

Academic activities

degree research

dissertation exam

She’s got a degree in law

I’m doing research into pollution

I’m writing a dissertation

He’s taking an exam next week

Degrees

BA (Bachelor of Arts) BSc (Bachelor of Science)

MA (Master of Arts) MSc (Master of Science)

MBA (Master of Business Administration) PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

DESCRIBING PERSONALITY

The following adjectives can be used to talk positively about someone’s personality:

generous nice reliable sociable She’s really sociable

hard-working honest sensible sensitive He’s very honest

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Note! Sensitive can be used to talk positively or negatively about someone’s personality.

She’s very sensitive and caring Don’t get upset. You’re too sensitive!

The following adjectives can be used to talk negatively about someone’s personality:

moody selfish stubborn unfriendly

What’s the matter? You’re so moody these days!

lazy nervous nosy tense

Don’t be nosy! It’s none of our business

GIVING PERSONAL INFORMATION

To talk about personal information

How old are you?

I’m 33

How tall are you?

About one metre eighty

Are you married?

No I’m single

To talk about our journey to work

How long does it take you?

About half an hour

How far do you travel?

Not far. About two kilometres

How do you get to work?

By bus

To talk about our home

What time do you get home?

About six o’clock

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Where do you live?

I live in the suburbs

How long have you lived there?

About eight years.

UNIT 2

THE GERUND (-ING FORMS)

The gerund (the –ing form of a verb) is used after certain verbs, after prepositions and as the
subject of a sentence.

The gerund after verbs

The gerund is often used after verbs expressing likes and dislikes:

She likes reading romantic fiction I love listening to music

We enjoyed visiting the museum He prefers swimming in the sea

They hate watching horror films I can’t stand flying

The gerund is also used after some other verbs:

avoid consider finish

give up imagine practice

The gerund is often used after the verb go to talk about activities such as sport and recreation:

They’re going sailing tomorrow We went sightseeing in Tokyo

The gerund after prepositions

The gerund is used after prepositions:

Wash your hand before eating She’s talking about writing a book

Note! The infinitive is not used after prepositions:

After visiting Karen, we went for a drink After to visit Karen, we went for a drink

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The gerund as the subject of a sentece

The gerund is often used as the subject of a sentence, especially to talk about an activity in
general:

Smoking is bad for your health Dancing is good fun

ADJECTIVES ENDING IN –ING AND -ED

Many adjectives in English end in –ing or –ed:

Adjectives ending in –ing

Adjectives ending in –ing are used to talk about people or things which cause a person to feel
something:

This film is very interesting Mike’s really boring

The novel was surprising Harry’s job is very tiring

Adjectives ending in –ed

Adjectives ending in –ed are used to say how a person feels about something or someone:

I’m very interested in this film I’m bored of Mike and his jokes

She was surprised by the novel Harry’s very tired after work

There are lots of pairs of adjectives ending in –ing or –ed:

annoying/annoyed disappointing/disappointed

embarrassing/embarrassed exciting/excited

exhausting/exhausted frightening/frightened

satisfying/satisfied shocking/shocked

We were disappointed with the play The play was disappointing

The fans were excited The match was exciting

The storm was frightening We were frightened by the storm

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LITERATURE

Types of writers

author novelist

playwright poet

Stephen King is my favourite author

Types of literature

play poem

novel short story

All his novels are best-sellers

Non-fiction

autobiography biography

Have you read her autobiography?

Fiction

crime fiction historical fiction

mystery romance

adventure story horror story

She loves reading horror stories

Parts of a book and types of books

front cover back cover

contents index

chapter

blurb

paperback hardback

I read a chapter last night

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LOVE AND MARRIAGE

The following nouns refer to the people in a relationship:

partner couple husband wife

They make a perfect couple

The following nouns refer to the different stages of a relationship:

engagement marriage honeymoon divorce

Their marriage lasted ten years but ended in divorce

The following adjectives describe positive attributes of people in a relationship:

affectionate devoted loving romantic

He’s a devoted father and a loving husband

The following verbs refer to different things that happen in a relationship:

cry hug kiss love She hugged him and said she loved him

make up propose quarrel row

They quarrel a lot and they always make up

TALKING ABOUT THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS

To start and finish a conversation

Is it OK if I ask you some questions?

Do you mind if I ask you a few questions?

No, I don’t mind

Thank you very much for your answers

You’re welcome

To talk about preferences

What kind of books are you interested in?

I’m interested in historical fiction

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Do you ever read plays?

Do you prefer autobiographies or biographies?

I prefer biographies

To talk about feelings

Do his novels frighten you?

No, they don’t frighten me

Were you shocked by the end of the novel?

Do you enjoy reading poems?

Yes, I love poems

UNIT 3

USING SYNONYMS TO AVOID REPETITION

The adjectives depressed, disappointed and upset can be used instead of unhappy:

depressed disappointed unhappy upset

So were his readers disappointed?

The adjectives annoyed, cross and furious can be used instead of angry:

angry annoyed cross furious

Was the real writer angry?

The adjectives attractive, gorgeous and pretty can be used instead of beautiful. Beautiful and
pretty are usually used to refer to women, not men:

attractive beautiful gorgeous pretty

It’s a story about five gorgeous young models

The adjectives popular, renowned and well known can be used instead of famous:

famous popular renowned well known

The popular American author V C Andrews died in 1986

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UNIT 4

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (ASK + IF)

Word order

Embedded questions with ask + object + if are used to ask someone to get information.
Normally, we change the word order of the sentence to make questions. In embedded
questions, the word order of the sentence does not change:

ask + object + if + subject + verb

Are they happy in Paris? Ask them if they’re happy in Paris

Is she going to live in Italy? Ask her if she’s going to live in Italy

Has he got a car? Ask him if he’s got a car

Has she phoned Mike? Ask her if she’s phoned Mike

Will they help us? Ask them if they’ll help us

Can he speak Italian? Ask him if he can speak Italian?

Questions with do / does / did

To make normal questions, we use do / does before the subject in the present simple and did
in the past simple. The infinitive of the main verb comes after the subject. In embedded
questions, do / does / did is not used. The word order is the same as for affirmative sentences:

Do they work on Saturdays? Ask them if they work on Saturdays


Ask them if do they work on Saturdays

Does she like swimming? Ask her if she likes swimming

Did he live in London? Ask him if he lived in London

Whether can be used instead of if:

Has he got any food? Ask him whteher he’s got any food

Does she know Lisa? Ask her whether she knows Lisa

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EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (ASK + QUESTION WORDS)

Word order

Embedded questions with ask + object + question word are also used to ask someone to get
information. As for embedded questions with if, in embedded questions with question words,
the word order of the sentence does not change:

ask + object + question word + subject + verb

Where is he from? Ask him where he’s from

When are they going? Ask them when they’re going

What has she got in that bag? Ask her what she’s got in that bag

How many cakes has he had? Ask him how many cakes he’s had

Who will they see later? Ask them who they’ll see later

Questions with do / does / did

As for embedded questions with ask + if, in embedded questions with ask + a question word,
we do not use do / does / did:

When do they leave for Peru? Ask them when they leave for Peru
Ask them when do they leave for Peru

Which colour does she prefer? Ask her which colour she prefers

How much do they charge? Ask them how much they charge

What kind of food does he like? Ask him what kind of food he likes

What time did she arrive? Ask her what time she arrived

USING THE PHONE

Verbs

call answer

phone ring

leave a message take a message

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text charge

I’ll phone you tomorrow

Can I take a message?

Nouns and expressions

battery reception

landline mobile

hands-free phone wrong number

It’s engaged It’s ringing

Sorry, I’ve got the wrong number

I called earlier but it was engaged

Phrasal verbs

call back hold on

break up top up

put someone on

put someone through

Could you call back later?

I’ll put you through

THE SPORTS INDUSTRY

People

agent captain

chairman/woman coach

manager player

Our club has got a new manager

She’s the best player in the team

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Business

bonus commission

deal prize money

sign a contract transfer

The deal was worth over €100,000

He’s just signed a two-year contract

Revenue

advertising corporate clients

financial banking income

sponsors ticket sales

These seats are for corporate clients

Ticket sales are down this season

MAKING PHONE CALLS

To start a phone call

Hello. Ann Sinclair speaking

Hello. This is Mary Barton

Who’s calling, please?

How can I help you?

Is Bob there, please? It’s Jo

Is that Chatford Computers?

To ask for information

I’m phoning for information about my flight

Could I have the dialing code for Italy, please?

Could you email me, please?

I’m phoning to ask about the price

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I’m calling about my reservation

Dealing with requests

Could you hold on for a moment, please?

Can I have your name, please?

The departure time has changed

I’ll email you now

Shall I text you when it arrives?

UNIT 5

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS

Embedded questions with question words

Can you tell me, Could you tell me, Do you know and Have you any idea are used with question
words to ask for information. In embedded questions, the subject comes before the verb, as in
an affirmative sentence:

Can you tell me / Could you tell me / Do you know / Have you any idea + question word +
subject + verb …?

Where are they from? Can you tell me where they’re from?

When is she leaving? Could you tell me when she’s leaving?

Why has he got two cars? Do you know why he’s got two cars?

What has she bought? Have you any idea what she’s bought?

Who will they meet? Could you tell me who they’ll meet?

How much can he pay? Do you know how much he can pay?

Note! Remember in embedded questions, we don’t use do / does / did.

What does she want? Do you know what she wants?

Who did he see? Can you tell me who he saw?

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Embedded questions with if or whether

Again, the subject comes before the verb, as in an affirmative statement. Whether can be used
instead of if:

Can you tell me / Could you tell me / Do you know / Have you any idea + if / whether + subject
+ verb …?

Has he got a meeting? Can you tell me if he’s got a meeting?

Is she OK? Could you tell me whether she’s OK?

Do they need help? Do you know whether they need help?

Does he work here? Could you tell me if he works here?

Did she phone earlier? Have you any idea if she phoned earlier?

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS IN THE PAST

In embedded questions with question words in the past, the past simple or past continuous
can be used after the question word. The subject comes before the verb, as in an affirmative
sentence:

Did + subject + infinitive + question word + subject + verb in the past simple / past continuous
…?

Where did she go? Did you see where she went?

When did he leave? Did he say when he left?

Why did they phone? Did they tell you why they phoned?

How much did it cost? Did she say how much it cost?

What were they saying? Did you hear what they were saying?

Who was he texting? Did he tell you who he was texting?

In embedded questions in the past with if or whether, the past simple or past continuous can
be used. Again, the subject comes before the verb, as in an affirmative sentence:

Did + subject + infinitive + if / whether + subject + verb in the past simple / past continuous …?

Was it his van? Did he say if it was his van?

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Were they late? Did they say whether they were late?

Was he wearing a coat? Did you see if he was wearing a coat?

Were they seeing clients? Did they say if they were seeing clients?

Did they finish the project? Did you hear if they finished the project?

Did she catch the train? Did you see whether she caught the train?

EXPRESSIONS WITH LOOK, SEE AND WATCH

Expressions with look

look forward to

I’m looking forward to Christmas

look like

She looks like her mother

look nice

You look nice in that shirt

just looking

‘Can I help you?’, ‘I’m just looking’

Expressions with see

see someone

I saw my friends last night

see you

See you tomorrow!

I don’t see why not

‘Can we go?’, ‘I don’t see why not’

let’s see

‘How much is it?’, ‘Let’s see… €3.80’

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Expressions with watch

watch out

Watch out! You nearly crashed!

watch someone carefully

Watch him carefully!

watch the time

I need to watch the time today

watch TV

We watched TV all evening

UNIT 6

USING REFERENCE WORDS

Reference words are used to refer back to something that has already been mentioned and to
avoid repetition.

They and them refer to people or things. It refers to a things, action, situation or idea:

Some professionals take painkillers so they can continue to play while they’re injured

(they = some professionals)

There are teams named after the companies which have invested money in them

(them = the teams)

Their performance is crucial. And some athletes even resort to drugs in order to improve it

(it = their performance)

People sometimes sat that the most important thing in sport is not to win, but to take part.
But is it really true?

(it = the idea that the most important thing in sport is to take part)

That can refer back to something that has just been mentioned, especially in expressions such
as that’s why and that’s where:

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Winning is everything. And that’s why some professionals sacrifice so much to be the world
number one

(that = the fact that winning is everything)

UNIT 7

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

The present perfect continuous can be used to talk about an action that started in the past and
continues in the present or has just stopped.

Present perfect continuous (affirmative and negative)

The present perfect continuous is formed using this structure:

subject + has(n’t) / have(n’t) + past participle of to be (been) + -ing form

He’s been learning to drive for six weeks

It’s been snowing for hours

She hasn’t been studying much recently

We’ve been playing chess since two o’clock

They haven’t been waiting long

Present perfect continuous (interrogative)

Questions in the present perfect continuous are formed using this structure: question word +
has / have + subject + past participle of to be (been) + -ing form …?

How long has he been looking for a job?

Has she been working much recently?

What have you been doing?

Has it been raining long?

Note! Some verbs such as have (to express possession), know, like, understand and want are
not usually used in the continuous form:

How long has Mary had her car? I’ve known him for years

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How long has Mary been having her car? I’ve been knowing him for years

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS

The present perfect continuous can be used to say how long an action has been continuing for.
The action started in the past and continues in the present or has just stopped:

They’ve been watching this film since eight o’clock

He’s been learning French for two years

She’s been eating cake all day

The present perfect simple can be used to say how many times we have done something, how
many things we have done or how much we have done of something:

They’ve watched this DVD three times

He’s learnt ten new verbs this week

How much cake has she eaten?

The present perfect continuous can be used to emphasize the process of an action, especially
when it has continued for some time:

I’ve been reading ‘War and Peace’ for ages. It’s very long!

He’s been cleaning the kitchen this morning. He’s exhausted

She’s been writing the report all day. She’s really busy

The present perfect simple can be used to say whether or not an action has been completed,
with less emphasis on the process of the action. It is often used with the time adverbs already,
just, still and yet:

I’ve already phoned the office

I’ve just finshed the last page!

He still hasn’t cleaned the bathroom

She hasn’t written the email yet

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ADJECTIVES WITH PREFIXES

un-

Un- is the most common prefix used to form an opposite:

unemployed unfriendly unhappy

She was unhappy about the news

in-

The prefix in- is used before many adjectives to form their opposites:

incorrect inefficient insensitive

Two of his answers are incorrect

dis-

The prefix dis- is also used before many adjectives to form their opposites:

dishonest disloyal dissatisfied

He was very dissatisfied with it

il-

Adjectives beginning with the letter l often have the prefix il-:

illegal illegible illogical

Her handwriting is illegible

im-

Adjectives beginning with the letters m or p often have the prefix im-:

immature impatient impolite

Some people are very impatient

ir-

Adjectives beginning with the letter r often have the prefix ir-:

irrational irrelevant irresponsible

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Speeding is irresponsible

EXPRESSIONS WITH THE VERB TO BE

be apart I hate it when we’re apart

be around He’ll be around all morning

be away She’s away on a business trip

be back He’ll be back in the office later

be behind I’m behind so I’m working late

be in We were in all night watching TV

be off It’s late. We’ve got to be off

be on The TV and the CD player are on

be out I’m sorry. He’s out at the moment

be over Call me when the meeting is over

be together They were together for ten years

be up She was up at five this morning

ORDERING FOOD AND DRINK

To talk about waiting to be served

Have you been waiting long?

I’ve been waiting for a long time

I’ve been waiting for about twenty minutes

What time did you get here?

I got here at eight fifteen

I haven’t seen the menu yet

To order food and drink

I’m so sorry. Would you like a drink while you’re waiting?

I’ve already had one

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Can I get you some olives?

I’ll get you a menu. I won’t be long

Are you ready to order?

To get someone’s attention

Excuse me!

I’m in a bit of a hurry

Could you take my order, please?

I’ll be with you in just a moment

I won’t be long

I’m just coming

UNIT 8

USED TO

Used to + infinitive is used to talk about things that happened regularly in the past but no
longer happen, and about past states and situations that no longer exist.

Used to + infinitive is only used to talk about the past. It has no present form.

Used to (affirmative)

All subjects take the same form: subject + used to + infinitive

We used to play cricket together when we were children

She used to live in Madrid but now she lives in Barcelona

Note! Used to + infinitive is not used to talk about things that happen regularly in the present.
The present simple is used instead, sometimes with usually:

I usually go to the theatre about once a month

I use to go to the theatre about once a month

Used to (negative)

All subjects take the same form: subject + didn’t use to + infinitive

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He didn’t use to smoke but now he smokes twenty cigarettes a day

They didn’t use to have a car but now they’ve got a Ferrari

Used to (interrogative)

All subjects take the same form: Did + subject + use to + infinitive …?

Did they use to work here? Did you use to be a teacher?

Note! When used to + infinitive is used in negative or interrogative sentences, the final letter –
d is not used:

He didn’t use to watch much TV Did she use to drive to work?

He didn’t used to watch much TV Did she used to drive to work?

WOULD

Would is used to talk about repeated actions and routines that happened regularly in the past
but no longer happen:

subject + would + infinitive

When they lived in Paris they would meet for lunch every week

The children would swim in the sea every summer

Would + infinitive is not used to talk about past states and situations that no longer exist. We
use used to instead:

She used to smoke but now she’s given up

She would smoke but now she’s given up

He used to be a sergeant but now he’s an inspector

He would be a sergeant but now he’s an inspector

Would + infinitive can be used to talk about someone’s routine during a certain period in the
past:

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When we were children we’d visit our grandparents at the seaside every summer. We’d get
up late every morning and then we’d all eat breakfast together. In the afternoon we’d go to
the beach and play games. It was fantastic!

In Victorian times, whole families would go to work in the same factory. The hours were long
and they would work about ten hours a day. They would have Sundays off, but they would
work on Saturdays

Note! Would + infinitive is not used to say how often something happened. The past simple is
used instead:

We went skiing three times last year We would go skiing three times last year

TALKING ABOUT PAST EXPERIENCES

To talk about routines at home

When you were young did you help at home?

Yes, I did. I’d do the washing up

Did you use to get up late at the weekends?

No, I didn’t. I used to work on Saturdays

To talk about routines at school

Where did you go to school?

I went to school in Dublin

What did you use to do after school?

We used to play basketball

Did you have a bicycle?

Yes. I’d cycle to school every day

To talk about routines on holiday

Where did you go on holiday?

We’d go to Spain every summer

We stayed with my uncle and aunt

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Did you use to go to the beach?

We went every day. We had a great time!

UNIT 9

AFTER, LATER AND IN THE END

After

After shows that one event follows another in time, place or order. It is usually followed by a
noun or the –ing form of a verb:

After the execution, people said they could see her ghost

After visiting the Garden Tower, I went to the White Tower

Later

Later refers to an event which takes place after the time being talked about. It can be used at
the beginning or end of a sentence, or in the middle:

Later, other monarchs added more walls and towers

He escaped using a rope a few months later

In the end

In the end refers to an event which finally happens after a long period of time, or after a series
of events or discussions. It suggests the event happens after a period of change or uncertainty.
It can be used on its own, at the beginning or end of a sentence, or in the middle:

He spent thirteen years in the Tower but in the end he was released

In the end he decided to let the ravens stay

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UNIT 10

SO, NEITHER, NOR AND TOO

So and neither / nor

So and neither / nor can be used before be, have and other auxiliary verbs like can and should
to mean ‘also’. Be, have or the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject in this case.

so / neither / nor + be, have, can, should, etc + I

So is used after an affirmative sentence. Neither / nor is used after a negative sentence.
Neither and nor have the same meaning:

‘I’m from London’, ‘So am I’ ‘I’ve got two sisters’, ‘So have I’

‘I can come to the meeting’, ‘So can I’ ‘I should leave soon’, ‘So should I’

‘I wasn’t very hungry’, ‘Neither was I’ ‘I hadn’t finished’, ‘Nor had I’

‘I can’t swim’, ‘Neither can I’ ‘I shouldn’t smoke’, ‘Nor should I’

Note! When neither / nor is used, the verb that follows is always in the affirmative form:

‘I haven’t got any money’, ‘Neither have I’

I haven’t got any money, Neither haven’t I

Do / did

If the verb is not be or have and an auxiliary verb is not used before the main verb, do is used
after so / neither / nor in the present simple. Did is used in the past simple.

so / neither / nor + do / did + I

‘I want to go on holiday’, ‘So do I’ ‘I don’t like cheese’, ‘Nor do I’

‘I watched TV last night’, ‘So did I’ ‘I didn’t see him’, ‘Neither did I’

Too and neither

Too and neither are used in informal short answers after the pronoun me: Me too, Me neither.

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Too is used after an affirmative sentence. Neither is used after a negative sentence:

‘I’ve got three children’, ‘Me too’ ‘I can’t speak Italian’, ‘Me neither’

‘I love going to the beach’, ‘Me too’ ‘I didn’t enjoy the film’, ‘Me neither’

‘I don’t work on Saturdays’, ‘Me neither’

I don’t work on Saturdays, Me nor

SO, NEITHER AND NOR

So and neither / nor can also be used before be, have and other auxiliary verbs like can with
other subjects: so / neither / nor + be, have, can, should, etc + subject

The verb used after so and neither / nor must agree with the subject which follows:

They haven’t got time. Nor has he You’re British and so is she

She wasn’t happy. Neither were we We hadn’t eaten. Nor had they

I’ve been to France and so have you David can’t come. Neither can Joe

Again, if be, have or an auxiliary verb is not used before the main verb, do / does is used after
so / neither / nor in the present simple. Did is used in the past simple: so / neither / nor + do /
does / did + subject

She likes tennis and so do you They don’t read much. Nor does he

He went to Paris in 2002. So did we

I didn’t go out and neither did they

Possessive pronouns

So and neither / nor can also be used before be, have and other auxiliary verbs like can with
possessive pronouns: so / neither / nor + be, have, can, should, etc + mine / yours / his / hers /
hers / ours / theirs

The verb used before the possessive pronoun must agree with the subject at the beginning of
the sentence:

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Her parents are German and so are mine

Our office hasn’t got a coffee machine. Nor has theirs

Their children can’t swim and neither can ours

Again, if be, have or an auxiliary verb is not used before the main verb, do / does / did is used
after so / neither / nor:

so / neither / nor + do / does / did + mine / yours / his / hers / ours / theirs

My friends don’t like skiing and neither do yours

Your garden looks beautiful in the summer. So does his

His grandmother didn’t work after she got married. Nor did hers

MUSIC

Types of music

classical music heavy metal opera pop music rock music

Her favourite opera is Aida

I can’t stand pop music

Performers

band / group choir duo orchestra solo artist

I think U2 is the best band of all time

He sings in the church choir

Other people

Audience composer conductor producer songwriter

The audience loved the performance

Songwriters write music and lyrics

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PHRASAL VERBS

ask someone out fall out with someone look someone up

split up with someone stand someone up

They split up last Christmas

She stood him up

come round drop in get together

join in meet up

I’ll come round about seven o’clock

Let’s meet up at the weekend

break down calm down cheer up

get over someone /something talk something over

She broke down in tears

He was angry but he’s calmed down

TALKING ABOUT THINGS WE LIKE AND OWN

To talk about things we like

I love emailing my friends

So do I

I like looking at online dating sites

Me too

I’m not really interested in opera

Nor am I

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To talk about things we do regularly

I’m always on the Internet

So am I

I look at a lot of music websites

So does my sister

I never go to pop concerts

Neither do I

To talk about things we own

My mobile phone is very important to me

So is mine

I’ve got broadband at home

So have I

I must buy a laptop So must I

UNIT 11

EXPRESSING REASON

Because, as and since are used to explain the reason or cause for something. The conjuction
because is used before a subject and a verb. It is used when the reason is the most important
part of the sentence. It can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. When it is
used at the beginning of a sentence, the two parts of the sentence are separated by a comma.

Because + subject + verb, + subject + verb

subject + verb + because + subject + verb

Because I’m worried about climate change, I recycle my rubbish

She didn’t go to the party because she had a headache

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He can’t come because he’s working

Note! Because of is used before a noun or an object pronoun:

Because of + noun / object pronoun, + subject + verb

subject + verb + because of + noun / object pronoun

Because of the rain, we didn’t play tennis

He got the job because of her

The conjuctions as and since are similar to because. They are used when the reason is obvious,
or when it is less important than the rest of the sentence. They are also used before a subject
and a verb. They can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. When they are
used at the beginning of a sentence, the two parts of the sentence are separated by a comma:

As / Since + subject + verb, + subject + verb

subject + verb + as / since + subject + verb

As the planet is our home, we should look after it

I’m wearing two jumpers as it’s very cold

Since you didn’t reply, we’ve cancelled our subscription

You’ll have to speak to the manager since you were late

As and since are not used in short answers. Because and because of are used instead:

‘Why are you running?’, ‘Because I’m in a hurry’

‘Why are you running?’, ‘As I’m in a hurry’

‘Why was the match cancelled?’, ‘Because it was snowing’

‘Why was the match cancelled?’, ‘Since it was snowing’

EXPRESSING CONTRAST

Although, though, even though, in spite of and despite are used to express contrast.

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Although and though have the same meaning. They can be used at the beginning of a sentence
or clause that has a verb:

Although / Though + subject + verb, subject + verb

subject + verb, + although / though + subject + verb

Though is more common in spoken English than in written English:

Although he studied hard, he didn’t pass the exam

Though I don’t really like fruit, I eat it every day

He was wearing a coat, although the sun was shining

She loved the film, though she’d never heard of the actors

Even though is used in the same way as although and though but it is used to give greater
emphasis to the contrast:

Even though he’s rich, he hates spending money

She didn’t get the job, even though she was well qualified

In spite of and despite are followed by a noun, pronoun and –ing form. They are not followed
directly by a sentence or clause that has a verb. They can be used at the beginning or in the
middle of a sentence. When they are used at the beginning of a sentence, the two parts of the
sentence are separated by a comma:

In spite of / Despite + noun / pronoun / -ing form, + subject + verb

subject + verb + in spite of / despite + noun / pronoun / -ing form

I went to work on Monday in spite of being unwell

We saw most of the past despite arriving late

They played badly. In spite of that, they won the match

Despite the bad weather, we went camping

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THE ENVIRONMENT

The environment

climate change endangered species global warming

the greenhouse effect ice cap the ozone layer

The ice cap is melting

Issues

carbon dioxide fossil fuels greenhouse gases

harmful emissions pollution rising sea levels

Pollution is increasing

Solutions

carbon offsetting conservation hydroelectricity

recycling solar energy wind power

Recycling is good for the planet

TALKING ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT

To ask for and give reasons

Why should we use less energy?

Because of global warming

Why do you use low-energy light bulbs?

Why are polar bears in danger?

Because the ice cap is melting

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To talk about being green

Do you leave the lights on when you aren’t in the room?

Do you travel a lot by air?

No, not very much

Do you recycle your rubbish?

Most of it, but not plastic

To give and accept advice

You could use a bicycle for short journeys

Yes, I’d like to

You should recycle your rubbish

I know I should

Why don’t you go by train instead of flying?

UNIT 12

COMMON MISTAKES

Commonly misspelled words

Some English words have double consonants:

accommodation address coffee colleague

different necessary recommend shopping

We’ve also got a secondary carbon footprint from our shopping habits

False friends

Some English words look like words in other languages but have a different meaning. These are
called false friends:

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actually advertise attend eventually

pretend sensible success topic

Companies can advertise themselves as environmentally friendly

When police officers attend a crime scene, there are specially trained officers who look for
fingerprints

MODULE 3B
UNIT 1

QUESTION TAGS (1)

A question tag is a mini question at the end of a sentence which we use to check information
and ask for agreement.

Question tags always contain an auxiliary verb followed by a pronoun. When the verb in the
sentence is affirmative, the verb in the question tag is normally negative

You were at home, weren’t you? They walked to work, didn’t they?

Question tags with the verb to be

When the verb in the main sentence is an affirmative form of the verb to be, we use the
corresponding negative form in the question tag.

The question tag of an affirmative verb in the present and past continuous is formed in the
same way

She’s French, isn’t she? You were married, weren’t you?

He’s studying medicine, isn’t he? They were working, weren’t they?

NOTE! The negative question tag for I is irregular

I’m late, aren’t I? I’m late, am not I?

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Question tags with the auxiliary verb do

When the verb in the main sentence is an affirmative form of the present or past simple, we
use don’t/doesn’t or didn’t in the question tag.

You drink coffee, don’t you? She lives near here, doesn’t she?

He broke his leg, didn’t he? They won the match, didn’t they?

Question tags with the auxiliary verb have

When the verb in the main sentence is an affirmative form of the present perfect, we use
haven’t/hasn’t in the question tag.

She’s left home, hasn’t she? You’ve been to London, haven’t you?

Question tags with modal verbs

When the verb in the sentence is an affirmative modal verb (e.g. will, must), we use the
negative of the modal verb in the question tag.

She’ll pass, won’t she? They can swim, can’t they?

He should win, shouldn’t he? We must go now, mustn’t we?

QUESTION TAGS (2)

An affirmative question tag is used to check information or ask for agreement when the verb in
the sentence is negative.

You weren’t at home, were you? They didn’t walk to work, did they?

Question tags with to be

When the verb in the main sentence contains a negative form of the verb to be, we use the
corresponding affirmative form in the question tag.

She isn’t French, is she? They weren’t working, were they?

Note! The negative question tag for I is irregular

I’m late, aren’t I? I’m not late, are I?

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Question tags with the auxiliary verb do

When the verb in the main sentence is a negative form of the present or the past simple, we
use do/does or did in the question tag.

You don’t drink coffee, do you? She doesn’t live here, does she?

They didn’t win the match, did they?

Question tags with the auxiliary verb have

When the verb in the main sentence is a negative form of the present perfect, we use have /
has in the question tag.

She hasn’t left home, has she? You haven’t been to London, have you?

Question tags with modal verbs

When the verb in the sentence is a negative form of a modal verb (e.g. won’t, mustn’t), we use
the affirmative of the modal verb in the question tag.

She won’t pass, will she? They can’t swim, can they?

Note! The question tag for let’s is shall we? In this case, both the question tag and the main
sentence are affirmative.

Let’s have lunch, shall we? Let’s go home, shall we?

CHECKING INFORMATION

Asking for confirmation

It isn’t a very nice day, is it? You didn’t phone yesterday, did you?

You understand my questions, don’t you? She’s got a new car, hasn’t she?

We were very nervous, weren’t we? I’m going to be late, aren’t I?

Expressing certainty

We use the following expressions to say we are sure about something:

I’m sure it won’t I’m certain I’m absolutely positive

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Of course I did Definitely I’m convinced

Reassurance

We use the following expressions to reassure someone who is worried:

Stop worrying It’ll be fine Don’t fuss

Relax I’m sure it’ll be alright Calm down

UNIT 2

CONSOLIDATION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

Comparative adjectives and superlatives adjectives ares used for comparing.

The comparative is used to compare two things.

The superlative is used to express extremes in groups og things.

Short adjectives

Short adjectives are adjectives of one syllable, and adjectives of two syllables ending in –y. To
form the comparative, -er is added to the adjective. Than is used after the adjective:

Adjective + -er + than

The final –y of two-syllable adjectives changes to –i.

My boyfriend is older than me Is French easier than German?

To form the superlative, the is used before the adjective and –est is added to the end:

The + adjective + -est

The final –y of two-syllable adjectives changes to –i.

My grandfather is the oldest Which is the easiest language?

Note! With adjectives ending in consonant-vowel-consonant, we usually double the final


consonant before adding –er or –est.

My house is bigger than yours. My house is biger than yours

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Long adjectives

Long adjectives are usually adjectives of three or more syllables.

To form the comparative, more or less is sed before the adjective. Than is used after the
adjective:

More/less + adjective + than

Running is more difficult than jogging Is it less difficult than skiing?

To form the superlative, the most or the least is used before the adjective:

The most/the least + adjective

Formula 1 is the most expensive sport What is the least dangerous?

Note! Some two-syllable adjectives are ‘long’ and some are ‘short’. For example, boring and
often are ‘long’ while quiet and narrow are ‘short’.

Are westerns more boring than action films? She’s quieter than him

Are westerns boringer than action films? She’s more quiet than him

Irregular adjectives

Some adjectives (e.g. good and bad) are irregular in the comparative and superlative

Good > better > the best Bad > worse > the worst

(NOT) AS + ADJECTIVE/ADVERB + AS

(not) as + adjective + as

The construction as + adjective + as is used to emphasize that two things are the same.

My car is as big as yours Is Sue as fit as Tom?

The construction not as + adjective + as is used to emphasize that two things are different.

The word not usually forms a contraction with the predecing verb (usually be).

Not as + adjective + as can have the same meaning as a comparative sentence. For example,
you aren’t as tall as me means that the speaker is taller than the listener.

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You aren’t as tall as me = I’m taller than you = You’re shorter than me

Note! We never use the comparative or superlative form of an adjective with as… as.

I’m not as young as you I’m not as younger as you

We never than in the construction as… as

Oslo isn’t as expensive as Tokyo Oslo isn’t as expensive than Tokyo

(not) as + adverb + as

The construction as + adverb + as is used to say that two actions are the same in some aspect.

I drive as carefully as my mother Does he speak as slowly as her?

The construction not as + adjective + as is used to say that two actions are different in some
aspect.

The word not usually joins the preceding auxiliary verb to form a contraction.

Not as + adjective + as has the same meaning as a comparative sentence

He can’t run as fast as her = She runs faster than him

Note! Remember that the adverb of the adjective good is well

Jack plays as well as Nick. Jack plays as good as Nick

DESCRIBING YOUR HOME

Comparaisons

We use the following expressions to compare our house to another house:

It isn’t as big as yours It’s less expensive than yours

It’s more comfortable than yours It’s more modern than mine

It isn’t as attractive as yours It’s better than mine

Praise

We use the following expressions to say that we like a house or room:

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It’s really lovely! It’s huge, isn’t it? I think it’s beautiful

It’s gorgeous That looks great I really like it

Problems

We use the following expressions to be more critical about a house:

It’s a bit small We need something bigger It isn’t big enough

There isn’t enough room Yours is better We need more space

UNIT 3

WRITING A FORMAL LETTER OF COMPLAINT

We always start formal letters in English with Dear.

If we know the name of the person we are writing to, we use their title Mr, Mrs or Ms with
their surname, and finish with Yours sincerily.

If we do not know the name of the person we are writing to, we star with Dear Sir or Madam
and finish with Yours faithfully.

Dear Mr Kelly, Yours sincerily, Dear Sir or Madam, Yours faithfully

Style

We use a more formal style to write a formal letter. We do not use contractions.

I was not satisfied with the meal

If I do not hear from you in the next 14 days, I will inform the Consumer Association.

Paragraphs

In the first paragraph, we explain why we are writing. In the following paragraphs, we give
more details about the problem and in the final paragraph, we say what we expect the reader
to do.

I am writing to complain about the meal I had at your restaurant

My tomato soup was cold when it arrived

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I would be grateful if you would send me a refund for the whole amount.

UNIT 4

PASSIVE EXTENSION

We use the passive to emphasize the object or person affected by the action, or when it is not
important who, or we do not know who performs the action.

The passive is used frequently in English.

Pasta is eaten all over the world Kimonos are worn in Japan

To change the tense of the passive, we use a different tense of the verb to be

Present simple passive

Is(n’t) / are(n’t) + past participle

The room is cleaned every day How many books are printed a year?

Past simple passive

Was(n’t) / were(n’t) + past participle

The criminal was arrested When were the trees planted?

Present perfect passive

Have(n’t) / has(n’t) been + past participle

The party has been cancelled The bed hasn’t been made yet

Future simple passive

Will / won’t be + past participle

The car will be fixed on Saturday. The players won’t be chosen today.

Modal verbs in the passive

Modal verb + be + past participle

Drugs should be banned Details can be found on the website

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Note! We use by, not for, before the agent (the person who did the action)

The picture was painted by Picasso The picture was painted for Picasso

HAVE SOMETHING DONE

Have something done is used when we arrange for someone else to do something for us.

The structure is as follows:

Have / has + object + past participle

The form of have changes according to the tense

I have my hair cut every month She’s having her eyes tested

Note! We never put the past participle before the object.

They had their house painted last year They had painted their house last year

The negative of have something done is formed by making have negative.

I didn’t have my hair cut last week She hasn’t had her eyes tested

We ask questions by using the interrogative of have.

Have you had your hair cut? Where did you have your eyes tested?

Note! Remember to use an auxiliary verb in a question with have something done if necessary.

Where do you have your car repaired? Where have you your car repaired?

Get something done

Get something done has the same meaning and construction as have something done, but is
more informal. It is usually used in spoken English.

I’m going to get my hair cut She got her shower replaced last week

Note! Sometimes have something done has a different meaning. We can use it when
something unpleasant happens to somebody. Get something done is not used in this way.

They had their house burgled. He’s had his passport stolen

She had her car clamped She got her car clamped

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SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS

Separable phrasal verbs are verbs with two words (a verb and a particle) which often appear
together, but which can also be separated by an object.

When the object is a noun or a name, it can be placed between the verb and the particle or
after the complete phrasal verb.

He dropped off his sister at work He dropped his sister off at work

Note! When the object is a pronoun, it must be placed between the verb and the particle.

He dropped her off at work He dropped off her at work

Good behavior

The following phrasal verbs refer to helpful or kind actions:

Back someone up Bring someone up

(give support to someone) (care for someone until they are an adult)

Put someone up Pay someone back

(give temporary accommodation to someone) (return money to someone)

Pick someone up Drop someone off

(collect someone in a car) (leave someone at their destination)

Bad behavior

The following phrasal verbs refer to unkind or dishonest actions:

Rip someone off Tell someone off

(cheat someone financially) (reprimand)

Let someone down Beat someone up

(fail to support someone) (injure someone by hitting and kicking them)

Take someone in Knock someone over

(cheat someone) (collide with someone so that the fall)

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TALKING ABOUT SERVICES

Home / car maintenance

We’re having the living room painted The windows need cleaning

He had a new kitchen installed I had my car repaired last week

She’s just had it serviced He’s having new tyres fitted

Personal care and appearance

I’ve just been to the hairdresser’s She’s had her hair dyed

He’s had his hair cut I had my eyes tested last year

She’s had her legs waxed He’s had his beard shaved off

Complaining

I’m not very happy with this I’m afraid I’m not satisfied

It isn’t working properly It still doesn’t work

I need you to take another look I’ve brought this back

UNIT 5

PERMISSION, OBLIGATION AND PROHIBITION (MODAL VERBS)

Permission

The modal verbs can, could and may are used to ask for permission.

Can I use your car? Could I read your book? May I open the window?

Can and may are used in statements to give permission

You can leave when you’ve finished You may use my phone

Can and can’t are used in rules or laws which give or do not give permission to do something

You can vote when you’re 18 You can’t drive if you’re 16

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Obligation

must and have to are used to say that it is necessary todo something.

I must go now, because it’s late I have to go now, because it’s late

Must and have to often have the same meaning. However, they can also have slightly different
meanings. Must suggests the speaker thinks something is necessary, whereas have to suggests
an obligation imposed by someone else.

To talk about an obligation in the past, we always use had to, not must.

I must go to the dentist I have to work late tonight

I had to go to the dentist yesterday I had to work late last night

Should / ought to and shouldn’t / ought not to are used to give advice. Should is more common
than ought to.

You should see a doctor You ought not to smoke

Prohibition

Mustn’t is used to say that something is prohibited.

You mustn’t drive after drinking alcohol.

Note! Don’t have to is used to say that something is not necessary.

You don’t have to drive. There’s a bus. You mustn’t drive. There’s a bus

PERMISSION, OBLIGATION AND PROHIBITION (PASSIVE VERBS)

Permission

Be allowed to is a passive verb form which is often used with the infinitive of another verb to
talk about what is permitted.

I’m allowed to leave work early Are you allowed to have a day off?

Be permitted (to) is a passive verb form which is used in formal (often written) notices to state
what is or is not permitted.

Smoking is permitted in the allocated areas Mobile phones are not permitted in the exam

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Obligation

Be supposed to and be meant to are passive verb forms which are used with the infinitive of
another verb to talk about an obligation.

I’m supposed to be on time I’m meant to be on time

I’m not supposed to be late He isn’t meant to be late

What time are you supposed to start work? What time are you meant to start work?

Prohibition

Be prohibited (to) and be forbidden (to) are passive verb forms which are used in formal (often
written) notices to stay what people are prohibited from doing.

Ball games are prohibited. Taking photographs is forbidden.

Passive verbs in the past

Passive verbs can be used in the past simple by changing the form of the verb to be

I was allowed to leave early They were supposed to finish today

Were you meant to tell the manager?

TALKING ABOUT RULES

Things you are allowed to do

You’re allowed to drive at 120 km per hour

You’re only allowed one drink

You can only go at 30 km per hour

You can smoke in the area reserved for smokers

Mobile phones are permitted

Things you aren’t allowed to do

Smoking is not permitted in offices

You aren’t supposed to break the speed limit

Lighting fires is prohibited

You can’t drink and drive

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You aren’t allowed to touch the paintings

Breaking the rules

Do people break the speed limit?

Do people ever drive faster?

Yes, they do, but they aren’t supposed to

No, they don’t. They usually keep to the rules

Yes, all the time

UNIT 6

ADDING INFORMATION

Too, also and as well

The most common expressions used to add information are too, also and as well.

Too and as well are always placed at the end of a clause or sentence.

Also is placed before the main verb, but after the verb be or a modal verb like must, can or
should. Remember that also never goes at the end of a sentence

Make sure you turn the heater off too, whenever you leave the house.

Think about installing a smoke alarm as well

You should also cover plug sockets

Furthermore, in addition

Furthermore and in addition are more formal expressions used to add information.

They are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence or clause, followed by a comma.

Furthermore, they should be kept in a cupboard

In addition, you should use a bathmat on the bathroom floor to stop people slipping.

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UNIT 7

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHO, WHICH OR THAT

A defining relative clause is a part of a sentence which begins with the relative pronouns who,
which or that, and provides essential information to define exactly which person, object or
animal we are talking about.

Tha’s the woman who bought my old car

Jack lives in a village which is famous for its wine

That’s the dog that bit my sister

Who and that

the relative pronouns who and that are used in defining relatinve clauses to introduce
essential information about people.

That can substitute who and vice versa. That is more common in spoken English.

He’s the man who lives on the first floor

He’s the man that lives on the first floor

Which and that

The relative pronouns which or that are used in defining relative clauses to introduce essential
information about objects and animals.

That can substitute which and vice versa. That is more common in spoken English.

That’s the cat which sleeps in our garden

That’s the cat that sleeps in our garden

Omissions of the relative pronoun

The relative pronouns who, which and that can act as the subject or the object of the relative
clause.

When the relative pronouns who, which or that are the object of the relative clause, they can
be omitted.

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In the first example below, she is the subject of the relative clause and the relative pronoun
that (which refers to the dress) is the object. It can be omitted, as shown in the second
example.

This is the dress that she bought This is the dress she bought

In the example below, that is the subject of the relative clause. It cannot be omitted.

This is the dress that was in the sale This is the dress was in the sale

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHOSE, WHERE, WHEN OR WHY

Whose, where, when and why can also be used to introduce defining relative clauses:

Whose

The relative pronoun whose substitutes a possessive adjective (her, his, their, etc) in a defining
clause. It is always followed by a noun.

Whose cannot be omitted from relative clauses.

She’s my neighbour. Her son is a footballer

She’s my neighbour whose son is a footballer

She’s my neighbour son is a footballer

Whose usually refers to people, but it can sometimes refer to other nouns.

This is the country whose population is growing the fastest

Where

Where is used in relative clauses to refer to a place. Where often substitutes the word there.

It cannot be omitted.

The restaurant was very expensive. We had lunch there.

The restaurant where we had lunch yesterday was very expensive.

The restaurant we had lunch was very expensive.

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When

When is used in relative clauses to refer to a particular time, day, year, etc.

When can also be substituted by that and can be omitted.

My sister left home one day. It was the longest day of the year

The day (when) my sister left home was the longest day of the year

Why

Why is used in relative clauses to give the reason for something.

Why can be substituted by that and can also be omitted.

I didn’t go to work. I was ill.

The reason (why) I didn’t go to work was that I was ill.

NEWSPAPERS

A news story is called an article. Newspaper articles always have a title, or a headline.

Article Headline

The most important news appears on the front page. The editorial, in the middle of a
newspaper, expresses the editor’s opinions on key issues.

Front page Editorial

The news can be divided into local news, home news and world news.

Local news Home news World news

You can also find the following in a newspaper: a feature, a review, a gossip column, the
weather, the crossword and the TV guide.

Feature Review Gossip column

Weather Crossword TV guide

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TALKING ABOUT THE MEDIA

Describing newspapers and TV news

There are five main national newspapers It’s a daily newspaper

It’s a right-wing newspaper It’s a tabloid

Do you ever watch the six o’clock news?

Saying how you access the news

I read the news on the internet I read a free newspaper on the train

I often listen to the news on the radio I only have time to glance at the headlines

I never read the tabloids

Giving your opinion about the media

It’s the magazine I enjoy most It’s more objective

I like the style It’s a load of rubbish

It’s very biased It prints mostly gossip

UNIT 8

PAST PERFECT (AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE)

The past perfect shows that one past action or event happened before another.

In the example below, the past perfect (the film had started) shows that the film started
before the past simple action (we arrived)

When we arrived at the cinema, the film had started

Note! When one short action immediately follows another, we use the past simple for both,
not the past perfect.

When the phone rang, we jumped. When the phone had rung, we jumped.

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The affirmative of the past perfect is formed with the past simple of the auxiliary verb have
(had) and the past participle of the main verb: had is contracted to -‘d in spoken English and
informal writing.

Subject + had (‘d) + past participle

I didn’t sleep very well because I’d eaten too much

The negative form of the past perfect is formed with the negative of had (had not) and the
past participle of the main verb.

Had not is contracted to hadn’t in spoken English and informal writing.

Subject + had not (hadn’t) + past participle

We were nervous about the exam because we hadn’t revised.

The adverb just is used after had to indicate that something had happened immediately before
the second action or event.

The adverb yet is used at the end of a negative past perfect clause or question to say that
although something was expected to happen, it had not happened up to that moment.

I’d just got home when the phone rang

He was still asleep because his alarm hadn’t gone off yet.

Affirmative Negative
I’d finished I hadn’t finished
You’d finished You hadn’t finished
He’d / she’d / it had finished He / she / it hadn’t finished
We’d finished We hadn’t finished
You’d finished You hadn’t finished
They’d finished They hadn’t finished

PAST PERFECT (INTERROGATIVE AND SHORT ANSWERS)

Interrogative

We use the past perfect in questions asking if one past action or event happened before
another.

Questions are formed by placing the auxiliary verb had before the subject and the past
participle of the main verb:

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Had + subject + past participle…?

Had the train left before you got to the station?

Often, only one past action is mentioned in the question. The past action which happened
afterwards is implicit, as in the first example below.

Had he paid for the ticket? Had he paid for the ticket before he arrived?

The adverbs already, yet and before are often used in past perfect questions.

Already is placed before the past participle or at the end of the sentence:

Had + subject + already + past participle…?

Had + subject + past participle + already?

Yet and before are placed at the end of the sentence:

Had + subject + past participle + yet/before?

Had she already gone to bed? Had they been on honeymoon yet?

Had you watched a tennis championship before?

Note! The past participle is never placed before the subject in a past perfect question.

Had they been on holiday? Had been they on holiday?

Short answers

Note that full forms (e.g. you had) are used in affirmative short answers, but contractions (e.g.
you hadn’t) are used in negative short answers.

“Had you met him before?’ ‘Yes, I had.” “Had she passed?’ ‘No, she hadn’t”

Interrogative Short asnwer


Had I finished? Yes, I had / No, I hadn’t
Had you finished? Yes, you had / No, you hadn’t
Had she / he / it finished? Yes, he had / No he hadn’t
Had we finished? Yes, we had / No, we hadn’t
Had you finished? Yes, you had / No, you hadn’t
Had they finished? Yes, they had / No, they hadn’t

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COMPOUND ADJECTIVES WITH NUMBERS

A compound adjective is an adjective composed of more than one word. The words are often
joined by a hyphen to show that they form one adjective.

Some compound adjectives contain numbers. A hyphen is placed after the number, and the
noun is always singular.

Time

The words minute, hour, day, week, month and year are used in compound adjectives related
to time.

Let’s take a 10-minute break It’s a 22-hour flight to Australia

He works a 6-day week

Note that two hyphens are used in compound adjectives describing age.

They’ve got a 9-month-old baby.

Measurements

The words centimetre, metre, kilometre, gram and litre are used with numbers to form
compound adjectives related to measurements.

I need a 30-centimetre ruler It’s got a 10-metre wall

We went on a 15-kilometre walk I bought a 450-gram packet

Please buy a 5-litre container

Buildings

The words storey and bedroom can be used with numbers to form compound adjectives
related to the height and size of buildings.

They live in a 3-bedroom house I work in a 4-storey building

COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH

The words kid (child), guy (man), mate (friend) and yob (aggressive young person) are
colloquial terms for people.

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He’s got a 5-year-old kid She really likes that guy

I’m going with my mate My mum was mugged by a yob

The words telly (television), bike (bicycle), loo (toilet) and wellies (rubber boots) are colloquial
terms for objects.

Let’s watch telly I’m going to ride my bike

She’s gone to the loo He’s wearing his wellies

The words booze (alcohol), veg (vegetable), cuppa (cup of tea) and bangers (sausages) are
terms for food and drink.

We’ve got loads of booze He doesn’t eat enough fruit and veg

We stopped for a cuppa We’ve got bangers for tea

The words grand (thousand pounds), quid (pound), fiver (five pounds) and tenner (ten pounds)
are terms for money.

His car is worth 20 grand! This jacket cost me 50 quid

Can you lend me a fiver? It costs a tenner to get in

DESCRIBING WHAT YOU DID YESTERDAY

Saying where you were

Where were you at 11 p.m.?

I was in my car I was visiting my granny

I was having a drink with some friends We were in town

We were having dinner

Saying what you had done

Had you had your dinner by 9 o’clock? Had you been out earlier in the day?

I’d been to the gym I’d left work late

We’d gone for a sandwich We’d had a few drinks in the pub

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Saying when you did it

How long had you been there? What time did you come home?

I’d been there for half an hour Around three quarters of an hour

Between nine and half past From six to eight

UNIT 9

STYLES OF WRITING IN NEWSPAPERS

Formal

Articles in serious newspapers have a more objective and formal style. This includes:

 Longer and more complex sentences

 The use of passive constructions

 The use of more formal vocabulary

Nine members of Britain’s largest forgery gang were given prison sentences today.

Terence Brady, who had led the operation, was sentenced to seven years in prison

Formal words:

Grandmother Confiscate Question

Encounter Premises In circulation

Informal

Articles in tabloids have a more sensationalist and colloquial style. This includes:

 Shorter and simpler sentences

 Fewer passive constructions

 The use of more colloquial vocabulary

Nine people in a forgery gang have gone to jail

Mastermind Terry Brady got seven years

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UNIT 10

CONSOLIDATION OF REPORTED SPEECH

When we report something someone said, we are usually talking about the past, so verbs
usually change to a past tense in reported speech.

Pronouns and possessive adjectives may also change in reported speech. In the example
below, my changes to his.

Joe said, ‘My dog is very ill’ Joe said that his dog was very ill

Present simple > past simple

Susan said ‘I don’t eat meat’ Susan said that she didn’t eat meat

Present continuous > past continuous

Tom said ‘ I’m going running’ Tom said that he was going running

Present perfect > past perfect

Jack said ‘ I’ve caught a fish’ Jack said that he had caught a fish

Past simple > past perfect

Kim said ‘I didn’t have lunch’ Kim said that she hadn’t had lunch

The verbs say and tell are often used in reported speech. Tell is only used when we say who is
being spoken to.

Jill said that her parents were out Jill told me that her parents were out

Note! That is often used in reported statements but it can be omitted.

She told me that she’d pass She told me she’d pass

Time expressions are also changed in reported speech.

Direct speech > Reported speech

Today > Yesterday

Yesterday > The day before / the previous day

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Tomorrow > The next day / the following day

Last year > The previous year / the year before

Next week > The following week

A month ago > A month before

Kate said, ‘I called him yesterday’ Kate said that she had called him the day before

REPORTED SPEECH (MODAL VERBS)

Some modal verbs change when they are transformed from direct to reported speech. The
most common are will, can, may, have to and must.

Will (‘ll) > would (‘d)

Mark said, ‘I will call you’ Mark said that he would call me

Can > could

Daisy said, ‘I can make a cake’ Daisy said she could make a cake

May > might

Dan told Gina, ‘I may stay at home’ Dan told Gina he might stay at home

Have to > had to

They said, ‘We have to leave’ They said they had to leave

Must usually changes to had to in reported speech. It can stay the same in some instances, but
had to is always correct.

He said, ‘I must be there by nine’ He said he had to be there by nine

Some modal verbs do not usually change when they are transformed from direct to reported
speech. The most common are would, could, might, should and ought to

Kerry said, ‘I would like a rest’ Kerry said she would like a rest

My brother said, ‘I couldn’t breathe’ My brother said he couldn’t breathe

John said, ‘I might go abroad’ John said he might go abroad

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They said, ‘You should study more’ They said I should study more

She said ‘You ought to apologize’ She said I ought to apologize

NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES

In English, we can form new words by adding prefixes and suffixes to verbs. The suffixes –
ment, -ation and –ion are used to change a verb into a noun

Nouns ending in –ment

Some nouns are formed from a verb + the suffix –ment

Argue > Argument Develop > Development

Advertise > Advertisement Excite > Excitement

Nouns ending in –ation

Some nouns are formed from a verb + the suffix –ation. Note that in some cases the final –e of
the verb is omitted.

Inform > Information Pronounce > Pronunciation (note spelling change)

Imagine > Imagination Organize > Organization

Prepare > Preparation

Nouns ending in –ion

Some nouns are formed from a verb + the suffix –ion.

Discuss > Discussion Act > Action

Connect > Connection Protect > Protection

Interrupt > Interruption

HAVING AN ARGUMENT

Complaining about other people

She’s always using my milk He spends ages in the bathroom

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She said I never did the washing up She should do more cleaning

You always leave the kitchen in a mess

Expressing frustration

I can’t stand it! I don’t care! I’m fed up with her!

How dare you! This is ridiculous! Neither do you!

Apologizing and accepting apologies

I’m really sorry I didn’t mean it It’s my fault

I apologize for what I said Don’t worry It doesn’t matter

UNIT 11

REPORTED QUESTIONS

The past simple of the verb ask can be used to report a question.

Asked can be followed by an object pronoun or a noun. Question marks are not used when we
report questions.

‘What time is it?’ She asked me what time it was

‘Are you hungry?’ He asked her if she was hungry

When we report a question, the tense of the verb moves back in time, as in reported speech.

The word order also changes so the new verb goes after the subject, not before it.

For example, is it becomes it was in the reported question.

Look back at unit 10 to revise tense changes if necessary.

Ask + question words

When the direct question contains a question word (what, when, where, who, which, how,
etc), this is repeated in the reported question:

Subject +asked + (object pronoun / noun) + question word + subject + verb

‘What did you see?’ She asked me what I had seen

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‘Where are you going?’ He asked me where I was going

Note! In reported questions, the auxiliary verb do / does and did are not used.

‘Where do you work?’ He asked me where I worked

He asked me where do I work

Ask + if / whether

When the direct question does not contain a question word (what, where, etc), and could be
answerd with just ‘yes’ or ‘no’, the words if or whether are used in the reported question:

Subject + asked + (object pronoun / noun) + if / whether + subject + verb

‘Do you like your job?’ She asked me if I like my job

‘Are you married?’ He asked me whether I was married

Note! Pronouns and time expressions also change when we report a question.

‘Have you been out today?’ She asked me if I had been out that day

She asked me if you had been out today

REPORTED COMMANDS AND REQUESTS

Reported commands

The past simple of the verb tell can be used to report a command.

Told is always followed by an object pronoun (for example me, her), the word to and the
infinitive of another verb:

Subject + told + object pronoun / noun + to infinitive

‘Hurry up!’ She told me to hurry up

‘Come to my office’ She told him to come to her office

We make a negative reported command by placing the word not before to:

Subject + told + object pronoun / noun + not + to infinitive

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Don’t be late He told them not to be late

Note! In English: an infinitive is used to report commands

He told her to go home He told her that she went home

Reported requests

The past simple of the verb ask can be used to report a request.

Asked if followed by an object pronoun, the word to and the infinite of another verb:

Subject + asked + object pronoun / noun + to infinitive

‘Can you call me later, please?’ He asked me to call him later

‘Could you pick me up at 11?’ She asked him to pick her up at 11

We make a negative reported request by placing the word not before to:

Subject + asked + object pronoun / noun + not + to infinitive

Please don’t leave the light on He asked me not to leave the light on

Note! We do not use an auxiliary verb to report negative commands and requests.

She told me not to take any money She asked him to not smoke

She told me don’t take any money She asked that he didn’t amoke

CV VOCABULARY

The main sections in a typical CV used in the UK are as follows:

Personal details

Apart from your name and surname, we also include:

Date of birth Nationality

Address Contact phone number

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Personal statement

A short overview of your skills and personal qualities. For example:

Dynamic and focused, with a good track record in leading a team

Education

Information about your secondary and university education. You might have a degree or a
diploma in a particular subject. You may also have done particular courses relevant to the
workplace.

Qualifications: BSc 2:1 in Biology Courses: Effective presentations

Work experience

A list of previous jobs, starting with the most recent

Skills

Your skills that are relevant to the job. This section can also include languages.

IT skills Full driving licence

French (basic) English (fluent)

There can also be a section headed interests to list hobbies

References

A CV can finish with the names and addresses of two referees, although we often just say:

References available on request

PEOPLE NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES

In English, many nouns for people are formed by adding the suffixes –ant, -or and –er to the
verb.

Nouns ending in –ant

Note that nowadays, account is usually used as a noun. We say that an accountant does the
accounting / accounts

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Apply > Applicant (Account) > Accountant

Assist > Assistant

Nouns ending in –or

Supervise > Supervisor Investigate > Investigator

Instruct > Instructor

Nouns ending in –er

Lead > Leader Manage > Manager

Perform > Performer

Nouns with two forms

Some verbs create two nouns ending in –er and –ee

The suffix –er in this context indicates the person or organization that is doing the action.

The suffix –ee indicates the person who is affected by the action.

Train > Trainer > Trainee Interview > Interviewer > Interviewee

Employ > Employer > Employee

A JOB INTERVIEW

Questions and answers

How long have you been in your current job? I’ve been in this job for ten years

Why do you want to leave? I’d like more responsibility

What do you like doing in your spare time?

I enjoy playing tennis and socializing with friends

What sort of things are you good at? I’m good at organizing people

What aren’t you good at? I’m not very good at typing

Where would you like to be in five years’ time? I’d like to be managing a team

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What qualifications do you have? I’ve got a degree in marketing

Can you speak any languages? Yes, I can. I speak fluent English

Do you like meeting people? Yes, I really enjoy meeting people

UNIT 12

CONTRASTING IDEAS WITH LINKING WORDS

Nevertheless is used to contrast two ideas in two separate sentences. Nevertheless usually
starts the second sentence, followed by a comma.

They had a big argument. Nevertheless, they stayed best friends

Whereas contrasts two ideas in the same sentence. When whereas comes before the second
idea in the sentence, it is always preceded by a comma.

A woman feels hurt, whereas a man tends not to feel so bad

Despite and in spite of are used to introduce an idea which contrasts with another idea in the
same sentence. They go either at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

Despite and in spite of can be used with a noun, a gerund or before the fact that.

A man will go out for lunch with someone despite having had an argument with them

In spite of their differences, the disagreement is forgotten much sooner

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MODULE 4A
UNIT 1

CONTINUOUS TENSES

Continuous tenses are used to talk about actions which are temporary, incomplete or in
progress at a particular time.

They are made using this structure:

correct form of the verb to be + -ing form

Present continuous

The present continuous is used to talk about an action which is in progress at, or around, the
moment of speaking.

I'm working at the moment. They're staying in a hotel this week.

Note! The present continuous is not used to talk about something that is permanent, complete
or a habit. The present simple is used instead.

It usually snows in winter. It’s usually snowing in winter.

Past continuous

The past continuous is used to talk about an action that was in progress at or around, a certain
time in the past.

I was shopping yesterday morning. What was he doing at ten o'clock?

The past continuous is often used in sentences with the past simple. The past continuous
describes the longer action that was in progress when the shorter action happened.

It was raining when I woke up. I saw Tom while I was shopping.

Note! The past continuous is not used to talk about finished actions in the past. The past
simple is used instead.

They left and went home. They were leaving and were going home.

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Present perfect continuous

The present perfect continuous is used to talk about an action that started in the past and is
still in progress in the present or has just stopped. The present perfect continuous emphasizes
the duration of an action.

She's been talking all evening. We've been studying for two hours.

Note! The present perfect continuous is not used when a number or quantity is mentioned in
the sentence. The present perfect simple is used instead.

I've done six levels of 'My English' I've been doing six levels of 'My English'.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

The future continuous is used to describe an action that will be in progress at a certain time in
the future.

Affirmative and negative form

The future continuous is formed using this structure:

will (not) + be + -ing form

This structure is the same for every person. The contracted forms of will and will not are ‘ll and
won't

I'll be sleeping at midnight. She won't be working on Thursday.

We'll be skiing next week. They won't be playing later.

Interrogative form

Questions in the future continuous are formed using this structure: Will + subject + be + -ing
form ... ?

Will you be cooking tonight? Will he be coming on Friday?

In English, a short answer is usually used, e.g. Yes, I will, No, he won’t.

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may, might and could

May, might and could are used instead of will in the future continuous when we are not sure
what action will be in progress at a particular time in the future. They are used to say that
perhaps something will be happening in the future.

It may be raining tomorrow.

I might be going away next week.

Sara could be starting a new job next month.

Note! To talk about an action that will definitely be in progress in the future you use will, not
may, might or could.

this time + future time expression

This time followed by a future time expression is frequently used with the future continuous.

This time tomorrow night I'll be dancing in a club.

We may be lying on the beach this time next week.

I won't be working this time next year.

PRICES

The following words and expressions are used to talk about price reductions:

discount

I got it at a discount.

on (special) offer

It’s been reduced.

There's 10% off.

It's in the sale.

The following expressions are used to say what we think about prices:

That's cheap

What a bargain!

That's expensive.

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What a rip off!

You've been ripped off!

It cost a bomb!

The following words and expressions describe the value of things:

dirt cheap

extortionate

priceless

a priceless painting

to be worth a fortune

worthless

UNIT 2

SEQUENCE IN THE PAST

Time conjunctions

The time conjunctions when, as soon as, before and after are used to talk about two actions in
one sentence. They show that one action happened after another.

When he'd eaten, he went out.

The play had started before I arrived.

After I'd visited Madrid, I went to Salamanca.

The past perfect is often used to talk about the earlier action. The past perfect emphasizes that
the first action is completely separate from the second action, and that the first action was
completed before the second started.

She sat down when she'd reached the top of the hill.

However, when one action happens as a result of the other, the past simple is used for both
actions.

She smiled when she saw the view.

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The time conjunctions can come at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. Note that a
comma is used to separate the two actions when the conjunction is at the beginning of the
sentence.

After he'd eaten, he left. He left after he'd eaten.

After and as soon as are used to introduce the first action.

After I'd read the email, I wrote a reply. I felt better as soon as I'd eaten.

Before is used to introduce the second action.

She'd prepared dinner before we arrived.

When can be used to introduce the first or second action.

When he'd taken the money, he ran away.

The train had gone when we got to the station.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The past perfect continuous is used to describe an action that had been in progress for some
time in the past before something else happened. The past perfect continuous emphasizes the
duration of an action.

Affirmative and negative form

The past perfect continuous is formed using this structure:

had (not) been + -ing form

This structure is the same for every person.

The contracted forms of had been and had not been are ‘d been and hadn't been.

I'd been living in Brazil for six years before I got married.

They hadn't been playing for long when it started to rain.

Interrogative form

Questions in the past perfect continuous are formed using this structure:

Had + subject + been + -ing form ... ?

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Had he been smoking for a long time when he gave up?

In English, a short answer is usually used, e.g. Yes, he had, No, I hadnt

The past perfect continuous (had been doing) is the past form of the present perfect
continuous (have been doing). The present perfect continuous describes actions that are in
progress up to the present. The past perfect continuous describes actions that had been in
progress up to a time in the past and which have finished.

They're really tired. They've been working hard.

They were really tired. They'd been working hard.

Note! The past perfect continuous is not used to talk about complete actions in the recent
past. The past perfect simple is used in these cases.

She was upset because she'd failed her exam.

She was upset because she'd been failing her exam.

We didn't feel well after we'd eaten three pizzas.

We didn't feel well after we'd been eaten three pizzas

TALKING ABOUT AN INJURY

To talk about injuries

What happened to your foot?

I hurt myself.

How did you do that?

It's a long story!

Did you have to go to hospital?

Yes, I did.

To sequence events

When did you go to hospital?

I went as soon as I'd hurt myself.

Did you have to wait long?

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For about three hours.

What did you do then?

After I'd seen a doctor, I went home.

To sympathize with someone

Poor you!

Did it hurt much?

What had you been doing?

I'd been cooking

Oh, dear!

I hope it gets better soon.

UNIT 3

NARRATING EVENTS

We can use the following structures to write complex sentences when narrating events:

just about to ... when

We use these together in a sentence to say that an intended action did not happen because
something else happened.

I was just about to do an interview with someone when there was a problem with the phone
and we were cut off.

while

This is used with the past continuous to talk about two actions that were in progress at the
same time.

While radio listeners were eagerly awaiting news from the courtroom, Block was playing
records to entertain them.

It wasn't until ... that I realized ...

This is used to add drama to a sentence.

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It wasn't until Savile started using two turntables in 1947 that he realized he could play
continuous music for the people on the dance floor.

UNIT 4

VERB + THE GERUND (-ING FORM) OR INFINITIVE

The gerund (-ing form) or infinitive is used after certain verbs with a difference in meaning

Forget doing / forget to do

We use forget + the gerund when we forget something after doing it.

We use forget + infinitive when we forget something that we have to do before doing it.

Have you forgotten meeting Emma last summer?

He forgot to buy fish for dinner last night.

Remember doing / remember to do

We use remember + the gerund when we remember something after doing it.

We use remember + infinitive when we remember something that we have to do before doing
it.

I remember visiting the Louvre in Paris.

Remember to phone Mike tomorrow.

Regret doing / regret to do

We use regret + the gerund when we are sorry for doing something in the past.

We use regret + infinitive when we are sorry that we have to do something.

I regretted telling him what happened at the party.

We regret to tell you that you haven't got the job.

Stop doing / stop to do

We use stop + the gerund to mean ‘no longer do something’.

We use stop + infinitive to explain why we stop doing something.

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She stopped smoking last year. They stopped to rest.

Go on doing / go on to do

We use go on + the gerund to mean 'continue to do something’.

We use go on + infinitive to mean 'change from one activity to another’.

The teacher told them to be quiet, but they went on chatting.

After leaving university, she went on to work for a charity.

I THINK SO, I HOPE SO, AFRAID SO

Affirmative responses

We use so after I think, I hope and I'm afraid to make affirmative short answers. This way, we
avoid repeating information in the question.

'Are they coming?' ‘I think so' (= I think they're coming.)

'Is the concert free?' 'I hope so.'

'Are we late?' I'm afraid so.'

We can use so after I expect, I imagine and I suppose in the same way.

'Have you got enough money?' 'I expect so.'

'Is he Chinese?' 'I imagine so.'

'Are you ready?' 'I suppose so.'

Note! We must always include so in the short answer

'Can you fix my computer?' 'I think so.'

'Can you fix my computer?' 'I think.'

Negative responses

We always use not after I hope and I'm afraid to make negative short answers. However, we
usually use don't ... so with think (not / think not).

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Are you working this weekend?' 'I hope not.'

'Is it sunny today?' 'I'm afraid not.'

'Did Sophie enjoy her date with Kevin?' 'I don't think so.'

We can use either not or don't ... so to make negative short answers with I expect, I imagine
and I suppose.

'Has the film finished?' ‘I expect not.' /'I don't expect so.'

'Are they going to get married?' ‘I imagine not.' / ‘I don't imagine so.'

'Can he afford to go skiing?' 'I suppose not.' / 'I don't suppose so.'

EATING OUT

Food and drink

We use the followings expressions to say what we want to eat and drink at a restaurant:

What would you like to eat?

I think I’ll go for the steak.

What would you like to drink?

I’ll just have a glass of red wine?

Is there chicken on the menu?

I hope so.

Asking for things

We use the following expressions to make and reply to requests:

Is that mustard?

No, I don’t think so.

Do you mind pouring me some water?

Not at all. There you go.

Would you mind sitting over there?

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Yes, I would, actually.

Apologizing

We use the following expressions to make and accept apologies:

I'm sorry. I've knocked over your drink.

Never mind

Oh, no! I’ve forgotten my wallet.

It’s OK. Don’t worry.

Can you pay the bill?

I’m afraid not.

UNIT 5

BE/GET USED TO; PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND ALWAYS

be used to

We use this structure to talk about actions that we are or are not accustomed to doing:

subject + (not) be used to + gerund (-ing form)

She's used to working at night.

I'm not used to exercising.

We use this structure to talk about something that we are or are not accustomed to:

subject + (not) be used to + noun

We're used to life in the country.

He isn't used to Chinese food.

Questions with be used to are formed using this structure:

to be + subject + used to + gerund / noun ...?

Is she used to riding a horse?

Are you used to the heat?

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Note! In be used to, the word used does not change.

They aren't used to the food. They aren't use to the food.

get used to

To talk about the process of becoming accustomed to something new, we use this structure:

subject + get used to + gerund / noun

We're getting used to driving.

I'm getting used to your accent.

When it is difficult or impossible to become accustomed to something, we use this structure:

subject + can’t get used to + gerund / noun

We can't get used to living here.

I can't get used to the language.

Note! When we use a verb after be I get used to, it must be in the -ing form.

I'm used to speaking English. I'm used to speak English.

Present continuous with always

Always is used with the present continuous to say that something happens too often. It is
often used in this way to talk about annoying habits. Notice the position of always before the
main verb ending in -ing:

subject + be + always + -ing form

I'm always forgetting things.

They're always making silly jokes.

CONSOLIDATION OF USED TO AND WOULD

used to

Used to + infinitive is used to talk about things that happened regularly in the past but no
longer happen now. It also refers to past states and situations that no longer exist. Used to +
infinitive is only used to talk about the past. It has no present form. Remember that in negative
or interrogative sentences, we omit the final -d in used.

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He used to work in Madrid.

They didn't use to go jogging.

Did she use to work for the same company as you?

Note! Do not confuse used to + infinitive with be used to + gerund I noun. We use used to +
infinitive to talk about past habits that no longer exist. We use be used to + gerund / noun to
talk about something we are accustomed to.

I used to live in London. (= I lived in London in the past.)

I'm used to living in London. (= I'm accustomed to living in London.)

would

Would + infinitive is used to talk about repeated habits and routines that happened regularly in
the past but no longer happen. The contracted form of would is ‘d

We'd play football every day when we were at school.

My grandmother would make delicious cakes for us.

Note! Would + infinitive is not used to talk about continuous states in the past or situations
which no longer exist. We use used to instead.

When I used to live in New York, I used to work in Manhattan.

When I would live in New York, I would work in Manhattan.

Would + infinitive can be used to talk about someone's routine during a certain period.

We'd go on fantastic camping holidays when we were kids. It'd take Dad ages to put up the
tent and, although we wanted to help, we'd make things even more difficult for him!

TALKING ABOUT HABITS

Talking about annoying habits

I'm always forgetting the rules.

I know. They're hard to remember.

He's always playing table football.

Yes, it's really annoying!

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You're always talking on your mobile!

I'm sorry.

Talking about things we're used to

Do you play table football a lot?

Yes, I do.

Every day, if I can.

Are you used to playing football?

No, I'm not used to playing it.

No, I can't get used to the rules.

Talking about past habits

Did you use to play draughts?

No, I always used to play chess.

What games would you play then?

I would play cards every night.

Didn't you use to play chess?

Yes, I did. But I didn't like it.

UNIT 6

INTENSIFYING ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES

Gradable and extreme adjectives

Some adjectives are gradable. They describe a quality that exists in different degrees (e.g. you
can be more or less angry). Other adjectives are not gradable because they describe an
extreme (e.g. you cannot be more or less furious). Here are some pairs of gradable and
extreme adjectives:

angry > furious funny > hilarious

interesting > fascinating surprised > amazed

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Adverbs with gradable adjectives

The adverbs very, terribly and extremely are normally used to intensify gradable adjectives.

You're feeling terribly excited about going on the date.

This isn't the moment to be very funny or extremely interesting.

Adverbs with extreme adjectives

The adverbs absolutely, completely and utterly are usually used to emphasize extreme
adjectives.

You're absolutely desperate to make a good impression.


... attempts at trying to be utterly fascinating.

UNIT 7

ABILITY AND OBLIGATION IN THE FUTURE

Ability in the future

The modal verb can is used to talk about the ability to do something in the present.

She can speak fluent English. You can see the town from here.

The verb can does not have an infinitive. To say that someone will have the ability to do
something in the future, we use will be able to (not will can).

The structure is the same for every person:

subject + will (not) + be able to + infinitive

The contracted forms of will and will not are ‘ll and won’t

I’ll be able to help you later. We won't be able to take the car.

They'll be able to walk there. He won't be able to meet us.

Questions with will be able to are formed by placing the subject between will and be able to:

Will + subject + be able to + infinitive ... ?

Will Mark be able to come? When will you be able to visit?

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Obligation in the future

The modal verb must is used to talk about obligation in the present.

I must study more for my exams. You must stop smoking.

Like can, must does not have an infinitive. We use will have to (not will must) to express the
idea of obligation in the future. The structure is the same for every person:

subject + will (not) + have to + infinitive

The contracted forms of will and will not are ‘ll and won't.

You'll have to get up early on Sunday. I won't have to take any money.

We’ll have to tell them. We won't have to cook.

Questions with will have to are formed by placing the subject between will and have to:

Will + subject + have to + infinitive?

Will we have to go to the meeting? What will we have to wear?

ABILITY AND OBLIGATION IN THE PRESENT PERFECT

Ability in the present perfect

As you know, the verb can expresses ability and it does not have an infinitive. Neither does it
have a past participle. To form the present perfect (have / has + past participle), we use been
able to:

subject + have / has + been able to + infinitive

The contracted forms of have and has are ‘ve and ‘s.

I’ve been able to read the book. She's been able to ski for years.

The negative of have / has been able to is have not / has not been able to:

subject + have / has + not been able to + infinitive

The contracted forms of have not and has not are haven't and hasn't.

We haven't been able to see her. He hasn't been able to phone.

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Questions with have been able to are formed by placing the subject between have (or has) and
been able to:

Have / Has + subject + been able to + infinitive?

Have you been able to sleep? Where has she been able to go?

Obligation in the present perfect

Like can, must does not have a participle. When we talk about obligation in the present
perfect, we use the past participle had to:

subject + have / has + had to + infinitive

The contracted forms of have and has are 've and 's.

We've had to phone the police. He's had to leave the company.

The negative form of this structure is have / has not had to followed by the infinitive:

subject + have / has + not + had to + infinitive

The contracted forms of have not and has not are haven’t and hasn't.

We haven't had to call the engineer She hasn't had to buy a new car.

Questions with have had to are formed by placing the subject between have and had to:

Have / Has + subject + had to + infinitive .. ?

Have you had to pay? Where has he had to go?

Note! When an adverb is used, it goes between have / has and the past participle:

subject + have has + adverb + been able to / had to + infinitive

EXPRESSIONS WITH TIME

We often use a preposition in expressions with time:

at times from time to time on time

just in time in good time about time too

in two weeks' time for the time being

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We use the following expressions with time when we are in a hurry:

there's no time be short of time

run out of time time flies

We use the following expressions with time when we are not in a hurry:

have all the time in the world take your time

waste time have time to kill

UNIT 8

LET, MAKE AND FORCE

let someone do something

The following structure with the verb let means 'give permission for someone to do
something'. It means the same as allow someone to do something, but let is less formal.

let + object (pronoun / noun) + infinitive (without to)

They let us wear jeans to work.

Do you let your son walk home alone?

My wife doesn't let me smoke.

The infinitive, past simple and past participle of the verb are all the same: let.

My dad won't let me go there.

The police haven't let anybody leave yet.

They let us stay up last night.

Note! The verb let cannot be used in the passive. We use be allowed to instead.

We were allowed to go to the concert. We were let go to the concert

make someone do something

The following structure with the verb make means 'insist someone does something they do
not want to do'. It can also mean 'cause someone to do something.

make + object (pronoun / noun) + infinitive (without to)

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My boss always makes me stay late.

The film didn't make me cry.

Will you make Tom write the report again?

force someone to do something

The following structure with the verb force means 'make someone do something they do not
want to do'. It implies using authority, threats or physical strength to do this.

force + object (pronoun / noun) + to infinitive

He forced us to open our bags.

You can't force me to eat fruit.

Did they force you to give them some money?

Note! After force + object, we always use an infinitive with to.

The man forced her to get in the car. The man forced her get in the car

ADVICE AND PREFERENCE

had better

The expression had better + infinitive (without to) is used to make a strong recommendation. It
is a stronger way of giving advice than should or ought to.

subject + had better + infinitive (without to)

We always say had (not have) better, but it refers to the present or the future, not the past.
The contracted form is 'd better.

You'd better see the doctor about that cough.

He'd better do some revision before his exams.

We make the negative form by putting not between ‘d better and the main verb:

subject + had better not + infinitive (without to)

She'd better not go out today. We'd better not make too much noise.

Note! Hadn’t is not used to make the negative form of had better.

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You'd better not stay late. You hadn’t better not stay late.

would rather

The expression would rather followed by an infinitive without to is used to say what you would
prefer to do.

subject + had rather + infinitive (without to)

We make the negative form by putting not between had rather and the main verb:

subject + had rather not + infinitive (without to)

The contracted form is 'd rather.

We'd rather see a film than go for a meal. I'd rather not stay late.

Note! Wouldn't is never used to make the negative form of would rather.

She'd rather not eat meat. She wouldn’t rather not eat meat.

We use this structure with would rather to say that we would prefer another person to do
something:

subject + would (‘d) rather + subject + past simple

Although the verb is in the past, the structure refers to the present or the future.

I'd rather you spoke to them. They'd rather we didn't wear jeans.

Note! The contracted form of had and would is the same: 'd. Use the context to decide
whether 'd means had or would.

He'd better go. (He'd = He had) He'd rather go. (He'd = He would)

CHARITY

Charities and people

We use the following words and phrases to talk about charities and the people involved in
them:

Non-governmental organization NGO

charity shop charity worker

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volunteer fund-raiser

donor donation

It’s for a good cause.

Actions

People do the following things for charities:

raise money for someone / something

have a fund-raising event

hold a charity auction

make an appeal for money

donate second-hand clothes

do voluntary work

Disaster areas

These people are involved in disasters around the world:

victim refugee

rescue worker

These are things that charities provide for people in disaster areas:

food blankets

tents medicine

HAVING AN OPINION

Preferences

Where would you rather go? The cinema or the theatre?

I'd rather go to the theatre.

I'd prefer to see a film.

What would you like to drink? Tea or coffee?

I'd prefer coffee, please.

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Offers

Would you like a cigarette?

I'd better not. I'm trying to give up

Do you mind if I open the window?

I'd rather you didn't. I'm cold.

Can I offer you something to eat?

I'd rather not. I'm on a diet

Advice and recommendations

You aren’t allowed to smoke here.

You'd better go outside.

You ought to stop smoking

You oughtn't to smoke.

You're meant to be there at 8 p.m.

You'd better not be late.

UNIT 9

EXPRESSING PURPOSE

to, in order to y so as to

We use an infinitive with to (an infinitive of purpose) to explain why someone does something.
The expressions in order to and so as to are used in the same way, especially in formal written
English.

He died after a lifetime of working to help others.

It would be better to sell the donations so as to create cash.

for + noun or gerund (-ing form)

We can also use for to explain why someone does something, but it must be followed by a
noun, not an infinitive. To describe the function or purpose of a thing (not a person), we use
for + gerund (-ing form).

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Mitty rushed to the bathroom for some soap.

The administrative centre became a shop for selling donated items.

so that

We can also use so that to say why someone does something. It is often followed by can, can't,
will or would in the present, or could, couldn't, would or wouldn't in the past. In informal
English, we often omit that.

Mitty rushed to the bathroom for some soap so (that) he could get the ring off.

UNIT 10

CONTINUOUS FORMS IN THE PASSIVE

Remember that the passive is used to emphasize the person or object to which something
happens. We use it when we do not know who or what does something or it is not important.
The passive is used frequently in English.

The picture was painted in 1908. Tickets are sold every day.

Present continuous passive

We use the present continuous passive to talk about something that is in progress now. It is
formed using the present continuous form of the verb to be

subject + is(n't) / are(nt) + being + past participle

The road is being repaired. Are you being served?

The computers aren't being used now.

Note! The adverb still is often used with the present continuous passive to say that something
is taking longer than expected to complete. Note the position of still between is / are and
being in affirmative sentences, and between the subject and being in interrogative sentences:

subject + is / are + still + being + past participle

Is / Are + subject + still + being + past participle ...?

The meal is still being cooked. The meal still is being cooked.

Is the room still being cleaned? Is still the room being cleaned?

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Past continuous passive

The past continuous passive is used to talk about something that was in progress for a time in
the past. It is formed with the past continuous form of the verb to be:

subject + was(n’t) / were(n’t) + being + past participle

Our hotel room was being cleaned when we arrived.

We weren't being filmed.

Was your car being serviced yesterday morning?

Note! To indicate who or what is responsible for an action, we use the preposition by, and not
for.

The exhibition was being organized by the school.

The exhibition was being organized for the school.

PASSIVE INFINITIVE

The passive infinitive is used after modal verbs such as can, must and will. The passive infinitive
is formed with be followed by the past participle of the main verb:

subject + modal verb (can, must will, etc.) + be + past participle

We can be contacted by email. The house must be painted.

It'll be repaired next week.

The form of the passive infinitive never changes. In negative sentences, it is the modal verb
which is made negative:

subject + negative modal verb (can’t, mustn't, won’t, etc.) + be + past participle

I'm afraid it can't be done. This painting mustn't be sold.

The parcel won't be delivered until tomorrow.

Questions are formed by putting the subject between the modal verb and be:

modal verb (con, must will, etc.) + subject + be + past participle ...?

Can this food be frozen? Where will the meeting be held?

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The passive infinitive is also used after the structures going to, want to and would like to.

We’re going to be invited to the party.

I want to be told immediately.

I'd like to be woken up at 6 a.m.

He isn't going to be punished.

We don't want to be forgotten.

I wouldn't like to be interviewed.

Are they going to be given an award?

Do you want to be filmed?

Would the children like to be taken to the zoo?

Note! Sentences in English do not need it as an extra subject.

This car will be sold next week. This car it will be sold next week.

TALKING ABOUT ART

Talking about an artist

I don't know anything about that artist

I've never heard of that artist.

He's a famous artist.

He's just won an award.

His work is being shown in town.

He's been offered a lot of money.

Talking about pictures

Who's that picture by?

It’s by Picasso

When was it painted?

I've no idea.

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Is it for sale?

You won't be able to afford it!

Giving opinions

Which picture do you like?

I quite like this one.

It's more my kind of thing.

I don't know whether it's good or not.

It looks as if it's been painted by a five-year-old!

UNIT 11

CONSOLIDATION OF DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

The relative pronouns who, which or that are used in defining relative clauses to introduce
essential information about the person, object or animal we are talking about. That can
substitute who and which and vice versa, though that is more common in spoken English.

She's the girl who came to the party. This is the letter which I sent.

Note! We cannot use which to talk about a person.

I met your friend who lives here. I met your friend which lives here.

Whose, where, when and why can also be used in defining relative clauses. Whose replaces the
possessive adjectives her, his or their, and is always followed by a noun. Where refers to a
place, when refers to a time, day or year, and why is used to give the reason for something.

That's the man whose car was stolen. Today's the day when spring begins.

I love the house where I grew up. I know the reason why its hot.

Omission of the relative pronoun

The relative pronouns who, which and that can be the subject or object of the relative clause.
Look at the sentences below.

Tom's the person. He scored the goal.

Tom's the person who scored the goal. (who is replacing the subject He)

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Tom's the person. I met him.

Tom's the person who I met. (who is replacing the object him)

Who, which and that can only be omitted when they replace the object.

Tom's the person (who) I met. Tom's the person scored the goal.

When and why can both be omitted from relative clauses. However, whose and where cannot
be omitted.

Is there a time (when) we can meet? That's the reason (why) he left.

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

A non-defining relative clause is the part of a sentence which begins with a relative pronoun
and provides extra information about the person, object or animal we are talking about. The
person, object or animal has already been clearly identified.

In written English, a comma is always used at the start of the non-defining relative clause, and
at the end if necessary

Last weekend I saw my dad, who hasn't been well recently.

The Mini, which first appeared in 1959, has been a great success.

who and which

In non-defining relative clauses, who is always used for people and which for things. Who and
which cannot be omitted from the sentence.

His girlfriend, who lives abroad, is arriving on Monday.

His girlfriend, lives abroad, is arriving on Monday.

He gave me the present, which I opened immediately.

He gave me the present, I opened immediately.

Note! That cannot be used to replace who or which in non-defining relative clauses.

Mark, who isn't here today, will be at the party.

Mark, that isn't here today, will be at the party.

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whose, where and when

whose, where and when can also be used in non-defining relative clauses.

Jack, whose flat is for sale, is looking for a new house.

We spent a week in Paris, where there are some great restaurants.

I'm going to Barcelona in February, when it's my birthday.

Note! In spoken English, the contracted form who's (who is) sounds the same as whose. Be
careful not to confuse them when writing.

Kate, whose brother is a doctor, is going to study medicine.

Kate, who’s brother is a doctor, is going to study medicine.

EXPRESSIONS WITH IN

In can be used to say which professional field you work in:

in advertising in politics in television in banking

He's been in politics for years.

In can be used to talk about money and finance:

in the red in debt in the black in cash

In can be used to talk about an approximate age:

in my teens in his forties in your twenties in their sixties

She married a man in his sixties.

In can be used to talk about emotions and feelings:

in tears in love in pain in fun

In can be used to talk about problematic situations:

in danger in trouble in a mess

In can be used to talk about doing things quickly or with a sense of urgency:

in a hurry in a panic in brief

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It's a long story, but in brief we're getting married!

TALKING ABOUT LEISURE ACTIVITIES

Books

What's the title of the book that you're reading?

It's The Shadow Of The Wind.

Who's it by?

It's on the tip of my tongue.

It’s by Carlos Ruiz Zafón

Films

Do you like films which have a lot of romance?

Do you ever watch films in English?

Yes, I watch them with subtitles.

Who's your favourite actor?

Tell me about a film that you've seen recently.

Music

Which group do you like best?

Is there a song that you can sing in English?

Yes, it's Yellow Submarine!

How about the CD which you've bought most recently?

That would be one by Madonna.

UNIT 12

REPORTING WITH A PASSIVE VERB

Reporting with a passive verb is common in formal written English. We use this structure to
report what people know, think or say.

it + passive verb (is / 's + past participle) + that ...

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The passive form of know, think or say is used in this construction. Other common verbs used
in this way are believe, assume and understand.

It's known that six million people visit her every year.

It's thought that she was Lisa Gherardini.

Another way of saying what people know, think or say is to use this structure:

subject + passive verb (is / 's + past participle) + to infinitive ...

Compare the following sentences:

The painting is said to be the most famous in the world.

It's said that it's the most famous painting in the world.

Six million people are known to visit her every year.

It's known that six million people visit her every year.

To report something that happened in the past, we can use this structure:

subject + passive verb (is / 's + past participle) + perfect infinitive (to have + past participle)

Mona Lisa is thought to have been Lisa Gherardini.

The portrait is believed to have been commissioned by him.

MODULE 4B
UNIT 1

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

The definite article the is used before a noun when it is obvious to both the speaker and
listener which noun is being referred to.

Where’s the key? The post office closed down last week.

The is also used when there is only one of something.

I visited the Great Wall of China. We’ve been to the British Museum.

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We use the to refer to something specific.

I like the food in that restaurant. She enjoyed the film last night.

However, we do not use the to refer to something general.

I love French food. I love the French food

She enjoys horror films. She enjoys the horror films.

In the following examples, the first sentence refers to wine in general, whereas the second
sentence refers to some specific wine.

Do you like wine? The wine Pete gave us was delicious.

Articles with institutions

The definite article the is not used with institutions such as prison, school, university, church or
hospital when referring to the general idea of the institution.

The judge sentenced him to five years in prison.

The judge sentenced him to five years in the prison.

I went to hospital when I broke my leg.

I went to the hospital when I broke my leg.

The definite article the is used when referring to a specific institution.

The prison is two hours away. I’ve worked in the hospital for a year.

BOTH OF THEM, ALL OF US, SEVERAL OF YOU ETC.

Both of / neither of

Both of and neither of are used as the subject of a sentence to refer to two people or things.

Both of is used with a plural affirmative verb and has a positive meaning.

Neither of is used with a singular or plural affirmative verb and has a negative meaning.

Both of them came to my party. Neither of you saw the film.

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Note! When the two people or things are the object of the sentence, we use either of with a
negative verb, not neither of.

I didn’t invite either of you. I didn’t invite neither of you.

all of / none of

All of and none of are used as the subject of a sentence when referring to more than two
people or things.

All of can be used with a plural affirmative verb and has a positive meaning.

None of can be used with a singular or a plural affirmative verb and has a negative meaning.

All of us want a pay rise. None of you arrived on time.

Note! When the people or things are the object of the sentence, we use any of with a negative
verb, not none of.

I didn’t buy any of them. I didn’t buy none of them.

Several of / some of / a lot of / a few of

Several of, some of, a lot of and a few of are used to refer to a certain number of people or
things. When they are used with a plural affirmative verb, they have a positive meaning, and
when they are used with a negative plural verb, they have a negative meaning. The same form
is used for the subject and object of a sentence.

Several of you have complained about the hotel rooms.

Some of them missed their flight.

A lot of you weren’t happy with the play.

The bank manager apologized to a few of us.

AT THE HOSPITAL

The following words are places in a hospital:

Accident and Emergency

ward

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operating theatre

I went to Accident and Emergency.

My son is in the children’s ward.

He’s in the operating theatre now.

The following words are used with take:

medicine tablets

antibiotic temperature

I took some medicine.

Take two tablets a day.

I’m taking antibiotics at the moment.

I took my daughter’s temperature.

The following word are used with have:

X-ray injection

blood test operation

scan check-up

anaesthetic test

She had an X-ray of her foot.

I had an injection in my arm.

TALKING ABOUT LOCAL INSTITUTIONS

To talk about where an institution is

Is there a hospital where you live?

Where’s you nearest hospital?

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It isn’t very easy to park at the hospital.

The school is near my house.

It’s quite difficult to get to the university.

To talk about going to an institution

When was the last time you visited someone in hospital?

I visited a friend in hospital last month.

Have you ever been a patient in hospital?

I’ve never been in hospital.

Did you go to university?

To talk about people in an institution

I know someone who works in the prison.

My cousin is a doctor in the hospital.

My grandmother is in hospital.

I’m a student at Manchester University.

She’s a teacher at the local school.

UNIT 2

MODAL VERBS OF DEDUCTION (PRESENT)

must

We use must + the infinitive of another verb when we are sure that something is true.

Helen must have a lot of money. She’s got four houses and six cars.

Note! The negative form for deduction is can’t.

That can’t be your brother. You don’t look anything like him!

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That musn’t be you brother. You don’t look anything like him!

might, may and could

We use might, may and could + the infinitive of another verb when we think something is
possibly true.

He might be in bed. She may be at home.

They could be on holiday. I haven’t seen them this week.

We use might not and may not + the infinitive of another verb when we thank something is
possibly not true.

He might not have any money. He lost his job last week.

She may not like that DVD. She doesn’t like horror films.

Note! Could not has a different meaning. It is used to say that we are sure something is
impossible.

They may not be at work. It’s lunchtime.

(=It is possible that they are not at work.)

They could not be at work, it’s lunchtime.

(=It is impossible that they are at work.)

can’t

we use can’t + the infinitive of another verb when we are sure that something is impossible.

You can’t be a police officer. You aren’t tall enough.

Note! The affirmative form of deduction is must.

He must have a car. I saw him driving one yesterday.

He can have a car. I saw him driving one yesterday.

VERBS OF PERCEPTION

The verbs look, sound, feel, taste and smell are verbs of perception.

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Verb + adjective

Verbs of perception can be used with adjectives.

You look happy. That film sounded good.

Your jumper feels soft. That fish tasted salty.

This curry smells delicious.

Verb + like + noun

When verbs of perception are used with a noun, the word like is placed after the verb.

She looked like her mother. That band sounds like U2.

That shirt felt like silk. This meat tastes like chicken.

Her perfume smelt like roses.

Note! The word like is never used when an adjective follows a verb of perception.

She’s looks a bit sad. She look like a bit sad.

Verb + as if + clause

When verbs of perception are used with subject and a verb, the words as if are placed after
the verb of perception.

He looks as if he’s been crying. You sound as if you’ve got a cold.

Your finger feels as if it’s broken. My tea tastes as if it’s got salt in it.

The rice smells as if it’s burning.

WORLD REGIONS

Continents

English speakers think of the world as being divided up into seven continents. Here are their
names:

Europe North America South America Australia

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Asia Africa Antarctica

Regions

The following regions are always written with a capital letter:

the East the West the Middle East the Far East

Western Europe Central Europe Eastern Europe

Note! Note the use and non-use of the definite article the in the following examples:

the North of Spain

northern Spain the northern Spain

The following regions are not written with a capital letter.

the northern hemisphere the southern hemisphere

RULERS AND FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

The following words are used to describe the rulers of different countries:

president prime minister chancellor

king queen emperor sultan

The prime minister is the leader of the government of the United Kingdom.

France has a president and a prime minister. Japan has an emperor as its head of State.

The following word are used to describe different forms of government:

democracy dictatorship theocracy

totalitarian regime communist state monarchy

In a democracy there are free elections. A dictatorship is ruled by one person.

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TALKING ABOUT PHOTOS

Talking about people

She looks really nice. He looks like his father.

You don’t look like you mother at all. That must be you brother.

She might be your girlfriend. That woman can’t be your sister.

Talking about places

It looks really pretty. It doesn’t look very busy.

It sounds lovely. It must be hot.

It can’t be very warm. That might be Bangkok.

Talking about activities

That must be fun. You look as if you’re having fun.

You look as if you had a great time. It sounds as if you enjoyed yourself.

It can’t be very safe. That could be dangerous.

UNIT 3

USING SYNONYMS OF THE VERB SAY

The verbs voice, insist, explain, declare, allege, confirm and state can be uses instead of the
verb say when writing an account.

A number of people voice the opinion that they had learnt a lot from medical programmes.

The man insisted he knew how to do the operation.

‘I saw it on Casualty’, he explained.

Another paramedic declared that he’d seen a man deal with a patient having a fit by putting
a coin in the patient’s mouth.

The paramedic alleged that the man’s action had endangered the patient’s life.

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She confirmed that paramedic are often employed as consultants.

One man stated, ‘If everything was totally realistic, it would be boring.’

UNIT 4

CONSOLIDATION OF THE FIRST AND SECOND CONDITIONAL

The first conditional is used to refer to an action which will happen if a particular condition is
fulfilled. The present simple form of the verb is used after the word if. Will / won’t is used with
an infinitive in the main part of the sentence:

If + subject + present simple + subject + will / won’t + infinitive

subject + will / won’t + infinitive + if + subject + present simple

If it snows, we’ll go skiing. He won’t pass if he doesn’t study.

What will you do if you lose your job?

The second conditional is used to refer to an imaginary or hypothetical situation. The past
simple form of the verb is used after the word if. Would / wouldn’t is used with an infinitive in
the main part of the sentence:

If + subject + past simple + subject + would / wouldn’t + infinitive

Subject + would / wouldn’t + infinitive + if + subject + past simple

If she didn’t smoke, she’d feel better. I wouldn’t walk to work if I had a car.

What would you do if you won the lottery?

even if

Even if means ‘whether or not’. In the following example, the man will be late whether or not
he hurries.

He’ll be late, even if he hurries.

In the following example, the woman would not go to the party whether or not the people
invited her.

Even if they invited her to the party, she wouldn’t go.

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unless

Unless means ‘except if’. It often means the same as if... not.

We’ll go camping unless it rains. We’ll go camping if it doesn’t rain.

Unless they score, they’ll lose. If they don’t score, they’ll lose.

I wouldn’t do it unless I wanted to. I wouldn’t do it if I didn’t want to.

WISH AND IF ONLY (1)

Wish and If only are both used to say that we would like things to be different from how they
are. If only is more emphatic than wish.

wish / if only + past simple

The past simple is used after wish / if only to refer to a present situation we would like to be
different even though it is unlikely to change.

subject + wish + subject + past simple

if only + subject + past simple

Present situation Wish

I don't work for a high company. I wish I worked for a big company

My girlfriend hasn't got a car. If only my girlfriend had a car!

I live in a small flat. I wish I didn't live in a small flat.

My neighbours are noisy If only my neighbours weren't noisy!

I can't drive. I wish I could drive.

Note! When the verb to be is used after wish / if only, were can be used instead of was after I,
he, she and it, especially in more formal English.

I wish I was richer. If only he were fitter!

wish / if only + would / wouldn't

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Would / wouldn't can be used after wish / if only to talk about something we would like to
happen or to stop happening. It is often used to complain about things we find annoying,
especially other people's behaviour.

subject + wish + subject + would (‘d)/ wouldn't + Infinitive

if only + subject + would (‘d)/ wouldn't + infinitive

Present situation Wish

He doesn't tidy up. If only he’d tidy up!

She smokes in the car. I wish she wouldn't smoke in the car.

Note! I would is not used after I wish.

I wish I had more money. I wish I would have more money.

TALKING ABOUT BUSINESS

People and businesses

business partnership company policy

customer service staff turnover

It's company policy to wear a suit.

We need to reduce staff turnover.

Sales and marketing

advertising campaign market share

sales figures target market

an aggressive advertising campaign

an increased market share

Finance

cash flow investment opportunity

profit margin takeover bid

We're having cash flow problems.

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They voted against the takeover bid.

EXPRESSIONS WITH GET

get out of something I got out of going to the meeting.

get rid of something We got rid of our old furniture.

get back to someone They’II get back to me tomorrow.

get down to something She got down to some revision.

get round to something He hasn't got round to fixing the car.

get through to someone I can't get through to my sister.

get up to something What did you get up to yesterday?

get away with something He got away with cheating

get behind with something They got behind with the project.

get nowhere with something He's getting nowhere with the report.

get on with someone I don't get on with my manager.

get together with someone We got together with some friends.

DISCUSSING PROBLEMS

To talk about problems

What's the matter?

I'll be late for work unless I hurry.

I wish I had a car.

I wish I wasn't so tired.

If only I didn't have to get up so early!

To talk about reasons and solutions

Why don't you change your job?

If I were you, I'd take a few days off work.

I’ll lend you the money if you promise to give it back.

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If I had a different job, I wouldn't be so stressed.

To consider reasons and solutions

Unless someone lends me the money, I can't.

I'll pay you back, even if I have to work overtime.

If only I had time to look for a new one!

I won't be able to take any time off unless I see a doctor.

UNIT 5

CONSOLIDATION OF FUTURE TENSES

Present simple

The present simple can be used to talk about future time, especially when referring to
timetables.

My train leaves at 7:00. His plane doesn´t land until 10:30.

Present continuous

The present continuous can be used to talk about fixed plans and arrangements.

She’s playing tennis with Jack tomorrow afternoon.

We aren’t going out on Friday night.

going to

Going to can be used to talk about future plans and intentions.

He’s going to buy a new car this year. She isn’t going to resign.

Going to can also be used to make predictions about the future, especially when there is some
evidence at the moment of speaking that makes us believe an event or action will happen.

Look at that blue sky. It’s going to be a beautiful day.

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will

Will / won’t can be used to make predictions about something we feel sure will or will not
happen in the future. It can also be used to talk about decisions made at the time of speaking.

You won’t enjoy the film. ‘Tea or coffee?’ ‘I’ll have coffee, please.?’

Future continuous

The future continuous can be used to talk about an action in progress at a certain time in the
future.

Don’t call us before eight o’clock, we’ll be having dinner.

This time next week I won’t be working. I’ll be lying on a beach!

FUTURE PEFECT

The future perfect is used to say that something will or will not have happened by a certain
time in the future. It is often used with expressions of time such as before, by / by the time,
when and yet.

The affirmative of the future perfect is formed using this structure:

subject + will have + past participle

Remember that the contracted form of will is‘ll.

They’ll have finished the project before Friday.

By the time you arrive, he’ll have gone.

The negative of the future perfect is formed with won’t have:

subject + will not (won’t) have + past participle

She won’t have saved any money by the end of the month.

Don’t worry. The train won’t have left yet.

The interrogative of the future perfect is formed using this structure:

Will + subject + have + past participle..?

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Will you have written the report by tomorrow?

Will the play have started when we get there?

Note! In English, a short answer is usually used (e.g. Yes, I will. / No, I won’t.)

affirmative negative interrogative


I’ll have gone I won’t have gone Will I have gone...?
you’ll have gone you won’t have gone Will you have gone...?
he’ll have gone he won’t have gone Will he have gone...?
she’ll have gone she won’t have gone Will she have gone...?
It’ll have gone It won’t have gone Will it have gone...?
we’ll have gone we won’t have gone Will we have gone...?
they’ll have gone they won’t have gone Will they have gone...?

TALKING ABOUT JOURNEYS

To talk about timetables

What time does your train leave? Our flight leaves at 9 a.m.

We land at 17:35. We’re taking the train to Paris tomorrow.

We’ve got plenty of time to get to the airport.

To talk about time

How long is the flight? How long does it take?

It takes about six hours. We’ll be travelling all night.

How long will you have been on the plane?

To talk about journeys

How are you getting to the airport? What will you be doing during the flight?

What will you be doing this time tomorrow? I’ll be watching a film.

You’ll be exhausted.

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UNIT 6

ADJECTIVES WITH SUFFIXES

Suffixes can be added to nouns or verbs to form adjectives. Sometimes this involves a change
in spelling.

-able

comfort > comfortable enjoy > enjoyable pleasure > pleasurable

comfortable leather seats

a pleasurable experience

-ic

art > artistic drama > dramatic romance > romantic

artistic decor

a romantic dinner

-ive

attract > attractive decorate > decorative impress > impressive

attractive cushions

this impressive superjumbo

-ous

ambition > ambitious luxury > luxurious space > spacious

luxurious duvets

this spacious aircraft

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UNIT 7

MODAL VERBS OF DEDUCTION (CONTINUOUS)

The modal verbs must, might, may, could, and can't are used to express certainty and
probability.

must

When we deduce that something is very probable, we use the modal verb must followed by the
verb to be and the gerund (–ing form) of the main verb.

John’s in the bathroom. He must be getting ready to go out.

Based on the fact that John is in the bathroom, we deduce that he's very probably getting
ready to go out.

They must be going on holiday. They’re carrying suitcases.

In this case, we observe that they're carrying suitcases. Based on this fact, we deduce that
they're very probably going on holiday.

might, may y could

When we think that something is possible, we use the modal verbs might, may and could
followed by the verb to be and the gerund (–ing form) of the main verb.

He might be playing football.

He might be playing football.

They may be sleeping.

They may be sleeping.

Kate isn’t at her desk. She could be talking to the manager.

Kate isn't at her desk. She could be talking to the manager.

In this case, the supposition that Kate is possibly talking to the manager is based on the fact
that she isn't at her desk

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When we think that something possibly is not happening, we use might not and may not
followed by the verb to be and the gerund (–ing form) of the main verb.

He might not be speaking to me. We had a row this morning.

He might not be speaking to me. We had a row this morning.

It’s quite early. They may not be having dinner yet.

It's quite early. The may not be having dinner yet.

We do not use could not to say that something possibly isn't happening. It would be incorrect
to say.

Since we are deducing that she possibly isn't working, we say:

She may not be working right now. It’s nearly six o’clock.

She could not be working right now. It’s nearly six o’clock.

can’t

When we are sure that something is not happening, we use can't followed by the verb to be
and the gerund (–ing form) of the main verb.

It’s raining! They can’t be sunbathing.

The supposition that they can't be sunbathing is a logical conclusion based on the fact that it's
raining.

He can’t be buying a car. He hasn’t got any money.

Likewise, if he hasn't got any money, then logically he can't buy a car.

MODAL VERBS OF DEDUCTION (PAST)

The modal verbs must, might, may, could and can’t can also be used to talk about possibility
and certainty in the past.

must

Must is used with have and the past participle of another verb when we are sure that
something has happened.

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Subject + must + have + past participle

Simon’s very wet. He must have forgotten his umbrella.

They’re still on the platform. They must have missed the train.

might, may y could

might, may and could are used with have and the past participle of another verb when we
think it is possible that something has happened.

subject + might / may / could + have + past participle

He might have broken his leg. They may have got lost.

Mary can’t find her purse. She could have left it at home.

Might not and may not can also be used with have and the past participle of another verb
when we think it is possible that something has not happened.

Subject + night not / may not + have + past participle

Her boyfriend might not have bought her any flowers.

It isn’t very late. They may not have gone to bed yet.

Note! Couldn’t has a different meaning. It is used to say that we are sure that something has
not happened.

She might not have got up yet. She has a lie-in on Saturdays.

(=It is possible that she has got up.)

She could not have got up yet. She has a lie-in on Saturdays.

(=It is impossible that she has got up.)

can’t

Can’t is used with have and the past participle of another verb when we are sure that
something has not happened.

Subject + can’t + have + past participle

She can’t have taken the car. It’s still in the garage.

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They didn’t stop at the crossroads. They can’t have sent the stop sign.

CRIMINALS AND CRIME

Types of criminals

thief burglar robber blackmailer

mugger murderer hijacker kidnapper

vandal drug dealer

The thief escaped with €1,000.

Types of crimes (nouns)

theft burglary robbery blackmall

mugging murder hijacking kidnapping

vandalism drug dealing

He was charged with murder.

Criminal acts (verbs)

steal burgle rob blackmail

mug murder hijack kidnap

vandalize deal in drugs

Our house was burgled last night.

TALKING ABOUT LOSING THINGS

To say what we’ve lost.

I can’t find my mobile phone. I’ve lost my wallet.

Where are my keys? Where did I leave my car?

Who’s got my bag? Where’s my jacket gone?

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To speculate about what we’ve lost

When did you last have it? You might have left it somewhere.

You could have left it in the coffee shop. Someone must have stolen it.

Someone might be using it right now. It may still be on the table.

To comment on speculation

Yes, that’s possible. You might be right.

Yes, I definitely had it. No, it’s definitely not at home.

I hope not. I’m sure I picked it up.

UNIT 8

THIRD CONDITIONAL

The third conditional (conditional with if + past perfect) is used to refer to an imaginary or
hypothetical situation in the past.

If he had read the book, he would have known.

There are two parts to a sentence in the third conditional. The first is the imaginary situation,
starting with if: if he had read the book. The second is the main part of the sentence: he would
have known.

Affirmative and negative

The past perfect form of the verb is always used after if. Would / wouldn’t + have is used with
the past participle in the main part of the sentence:

If + subject + past perfect + subject + would (‘d) have / wouldn’t have + past participle

If I had seen you before, I would have told you the news.

We can change the order of the two parts of the sentence without affecting the meaning.
Notice that the comma is omitted if the main part of the sentence comes first:

Subject + would (‘d) have / wouldn’t have + past participle + if + subject + past perfect

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I wouldn’t have known about the party if you hadn’t told me.

Would and had can both be contracted to ’d.

We’d have gone to the wedding if we’d had an invitation.

If they’d left home later, they’d have missed the bus.

Note! Would is never used in both parts of the sentence.

If he had got up earlier, he wouldn’t have been late four work.

If he would have got up earlier, he wouldn’t have been late for work.

Interrogative

Questions in the third conditional are formed using this structure:

(question word) + would + subject + have + past participle + if + subject + past perfect …?

A question word can be used before would. The if + past perfect part of the sentence is
normally placed at the end of the question.

Would she have accepted the job if they’d offered her more money?

What would the manager have said if his team had lost the match?

WISH AND IF ONLY (2)

Wish and if only are both used with the past perfect to say that we would like things in the past
to have been different from how they were. If only is more emphatic than wish.

The past perfect is used after wish / if only to express regret about a past situation we would
like to have been different.

Subject + wish + subject + past perfect

If only + subject + past perfect

Past situation Wish

I didn’t call my girlfriend I wish I’d called my girlfriend.

Our son didn’t go to university. If only our son had gone to university!

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I ate all the cake. I wish I handn’t eaten all the cake.

He told her about the party. If only he hadn’t told her about the party?

We never got married. I wish we’d got married.

Note! Would have / wouldn’t have is not after wish / if only.

I wish we hadn’t moved house.

I wish we wouldn’t have moved house.

If only I’d had more time!

If only I would have had more time!

The adverb never can be used after wish to express a stronger regret.

We bought a car but we’ve had a lot of problems with it.

I wish we hadn’t bought it. > I wish we’d never bought it.

I sent the email to her by mistake and now she’s really upset.

I wish I hadn’t sent it. > I wish I’d never sent it.

BOOK PUBLISHING

The following word are used to talk about people involved in publishing.

author ghostwriter publisher

His autobiography was written by a ghostwriter.

The following word are used to talk about different stages of a book.

manuscript first edition second edition

She collects first editions of Victorian novels.

The following words are used to talk about features of a book.

copyright cover illustration

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There was a photo of the author on the cover.

The following words describe things that happen after a book is published.

book signing publicity review

Did you see the review of her novel in yesterday’s newspaper?

EXPRESSIONS WITH OFF

The following word with off are written as one word:

offhand offshore offside

She was very offhand with me yesterday.

The following words with off are written with a hyphen:

off-duty off-key off-limits

an off-duty police officer

off-peak off-white off-peak travel

The following expressions with off are written as two words:

off colour off sick

I’m feeling a little off colour this morning.

The following expressions with off are written with more than two words:

off the record off the top of your head

I don’t know off the top of my head.

TALKING ABOUT REGRETS

To express regrets

I wish I’d told you. I wish I hadn’t offered!

I wish I hadn’t said anything now. If only I’d been more careful!

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That was a really bad idea. I wish I hadn’t done that.

To talk about what you would have do

What would you have done? I’d have bought you a present.

I’d have arranged a surprise party. I’d have invited everyone you know.

I wouldn’t have told anyone. I wouldn’t have gone out last night.

To make comments about regrets

Don’t worry. Never mind.

It doesn’t matter. I had no idea.

I’d forget about it if I were you.

There’s nothing you can do about it.

UNIT 9

COMMON MISTAKES

Some English word can be difficult to spell:

business debt disappear mortgage

possible receive separate suddenly

They got into serious debt.

Anne received thousands of pounds.

What makes people suddenly decide to vanish?

Some English words have an irregular plural form.

Child > children foot > feet life > lives person > people

He missed his children.

He was living just a few feet away.

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What sort of people tend to disappear?

Other nouns are uncountable and cannot be used in the plural.

Furniture information knowledge news

He hid behind the furniture.

The police had no knowledge of this

There was no further news.

UNIT 10

REPORTING VERBS + INFINITIVE

The verbs expect, forget, offer, refuse, agree, decide, threaten and promise can be used to
report what someone said before.

These verbs are usually used with this structure:

subject + reporting verb +to infinitive

‘I’m sure I’ll pass.’ You expected to pass.

‘I didn’t remember to shave.’ He forgot to shave.

‘Shall I make the dinner?’ He offered to make the dinner.

‘No, I won’t speak to you.’ I refused to speak to him.

Note! It is also possible to use expect with this structure:

Subject + expect + object + to infinitive

‘You’ll get the job.’ We expected him to get the job.

The negative is formed by placing the word not before to and the infinitive:

Subject + reporting verb + not + to infinitive

‘OK, I won’t tell anyone.’ He agreed not to tell anyone.

‘I’m not going to leave.’ She decided not to leave.

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‘We won’t pay you back.’ They threatened not to pay us back.

Note! An auxiliary verb is not needed to form the negative.

He promised not to ask questions. He promised don’t ask questions.

With agree, decide and promise it is also possible to use this structure:

subject + reporting verb + that + subject + verb

He agreed that he wouldn’t tell anyone.

She decided that she wouldn’t leave.

We promised that we’d be on time.

REPORTING VERBS + OBJECT + INFINITIVE

The verbs encourage, invite, persuade, remind, advise, convince, order and warn can be used
to report what someone said before. They are used with an object (a person’s name, a noun or
an object pronoun) and an infinitive with to:

subject + reporting verb + object + to infinitive

‘I think you should stay’. You encouraged me to stay.

‘Would you like to have dinner?’ She invited a friend to have dinner.

‘We think you should buy it.’ They persuaded us to buy it.

‘Don’t forget to write.’ He reminded his friend to write.

The negative is formed by placing the word not before to and the infinitive of the main verb:

subject + reporting verb + object + not + to infinitive

‘You shouldn’t smoke.’ He advised me not to smoke.

‘I really don’t think you should go.’ She convinced Lucy not to go.

‘Don’t move!’ They ordered him not to move.

‘Don’t eat so much.’ I warned her not to eat so much.

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Note! In English, the main verb is always in the infinitive.

She advised him to look for a new job.

She advised that he looked for a new job.

With persuade, remind, convince and worn, it is also possible to use this structure:

subject + reporting verb + object + that + subject + verb

I must remind him that the play start at seven.

They warned the inhabitants that the river would flood.

SUFFIXES –ful AND –less

The suffix –ful means ‘with’. Adjectives can be formed by adding the suffix –ful to the following
nouns:

beauty > beautiful wonder > wonderful peace > peaceful

The suffix –less means ‘without’. Adjectives can be formed by adding the suffix –less to the
following nouns:

home > homeless end > endless sleep > sleepless

Both –ful and –less can be added to the following nouns, forming two different adjectives:

care > careful > careless use > useful > useless

help > helpful > helpless harm > harmful > harmless

pain > painful > painless thought > thoughtful > thoughtless

TALKING ABOUT BORROWING THINGS

Asking to borrow something

Can you lend me £50? Will you lend me the money for the tickets?

Can I borrow your car? Could I borrow your jumper?

Can you do me a favour?

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Asking for and giving a reason

What do you need £50 for? What’s the matter with your car?

So, why do you need my car tonight? A friend has invited me out for dinner.

Because my friends have asked me to take my car.

Talking about previous agreements

But you agreed to stop going to concerts. But I advised you to drive more carefully.

But I convinced you to stop doing it. I promised not to go out every night.

She persuaded me not to go.

UNIT 11

REPORTING VERBS + GERUND/THAT…

The reporting verbs admit, insist an, apologize for, consider, regret, deny, recommend and
suggest are used to report what someone said before. They have more precise meanings than
say.

All of these verbs can be used with the gerund of another verb:

subject + reporting verb + gerund

‘Yes, I took your money.’ > He admitted taking my money.

‘No, I’m not going to pay.’ > He insisted on not paying the bill.

‘We’re sorry we forgot.’ > They apologized for forgetting.

The negative is formed by placing not before the gerund of the main verb:

subject + reporting verb + not + gerund

‘I might not accept the job.’ > She considered not accepting the job.

‘I wish I’d worn a coat.’ > He regretted not wearing a coat.

The verbs admit, insist, deny, recommend and suggest can also be used with this structure:

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subject + reporting verb + that + subject + verb

‘Yes, I took your money.’ > He admitted that he had taken my money.

‘No, I’m not going to pay.’ > He insisted that he wouldn’t pay the bill.

‘No, I didn’t steal his wallet.’ > She denied that she had stolen his wallet.

‘Don’t see that film.’ > You recommended that we didn’t see the film.

‘Why don’t we go for a walk?’ > I suggested that we went for a walk.

Note! Insist is followed by that when it is used with a subject and a verb. We do not include on.

She insisted that she would drive. She insisted on that she would drive.

DIRECT SPEECH

A dialogue tag is used in writing with direct speech. It tells us who said what and how they said
it. The most common ones are say (e.g. she said), ask (e.g. they asked) and tell (e.g. he told
her).

Dialogue tags before direct speech

Dialogue tags can be placed before direct speech.

Hannah said, ‘You look nice.’ Daniel asked, ‘What are you doing?’

Notice that there is a comma between the dialogue tag Hannah said and the direct speech.
The direct speech, including the final punctuation, is enclosed in single quotation marks: ‘You
look nice’.

Dialogue tags between sections of direct speech

Dialogue tags can be used in the middle of direct speech.

‘Go away,’ she said, ‘I’m busy.’ ‘You’re late, ‘ he told me, ‘very late.’

A comma is always placed at the end of the first part of the sentence, inside the quotation
marks, a full stop or a comma can be used after the dialogue tag. The second part of the
sentence begins with a capital letter if a full stop is used.

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Dialogue tags after direct speech

Dialogue tags can also be placed after direct speech.

‘Enjoy your trip,’ my sister said. ‘Where are you going?’ Beth asked.

A comma is placed at the end of the direct speech if there is no question mark or exclamation
mark. It is usually possible to invert the order of the subject and the verb in the dialogue tag if
the subject is a name or a noun. Note that the verb tell cannot be inverted.

‘Enjoy your trip,’ said my sister. ‘Where are you going?’ asked Beth.

‘Wear a coat,’ Ryan told me. ‘Wear a coat,’ told me Ryan

Other verbs can also be used in dialogue tags. Notice that they follow the same rules as the
previous examples.

‘Turn around,’ he whispered. ‘Help!’ screamed Anna.

‘No’, Andy replied.

Note! A dialogue tag is never inverted when the subject is a pronoun.

‘I can’t,’ She replied. ‘I can’t,’ replied she.

WAYS OF SPEAKING

The following verbs are used to indicate loud and soft voices.

yell scream whisper mutter

‘Don’t do that again!’ he yelled. ‘Help me!’ She screamed.

‘Hide under here,’ she whispered. ‘What a stupid idea,’ he muttered.

The following verbs are used when someone asks or answer a question:

enquire wonder answer respond

‘What time is it?’ he enquired. ‘Ten o’clock,’ she answered.

‘Why did he do that?’ she wondered. ‘Because I wanted to,’ he responded.

The following verbs are used to give more information about what is being said.

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argue complain explain joke

‘No, it isn’t,’ he argued. ‘My back hurts,’ she complained.

‘First, switch it on,’ she explained. ‘I made it, so be careful,’ he joked.

VERB PREFIXES

The prefix re- is used before a verb to mean ‘again’.

Rebuild retell rewrite

The prefix mis- is used before a verb to mean ‘wrongly, incorrectly’.

miscalculate misunderstand misuse

The prefix over- is used before a verb to mean ‘too much’.

overcharge overcook overestimate

overrate overspend overstate

The prefix under- is used before a verb to mean ‘not enough’. It can often be used with the
same verbs as the prefix over-.

undercharge undercook underestimate

underrate underspend understate

TALKING ABOUT STORIES

Talking about stories

Can you remember any stories from your childhood?

Do you know any traditional fairy stories?

My favourite story was Aladdin.

Is it well known in you country?

Everyone knows it.

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Talking about the background

Where’s the story set?

It’s set in a fictional world called Terabithia.

Who was it written by?

Has it ever been made into a film?

They’ve made several films of the book.

Saying what happened in the story

Is there any magic in the story?

The story is full of magic.

Does anyone get killed?

What happens at the end?

The ending is very sad.

The story has a happy ending.

UNIT 12

NARRATIVE TENSES

The three main tenses that are used to tell a story are the past simple, the past continuous and
the past perfect.

The past simple is used to describe consecutive actions that occurred in the past.

Jeff restarted his laptop and inserted yet another copy of the disc.

The past continuous is used to describe a longer, continuous past action. This is often an action
that was already in progress when another action happened.

He was gazing blankly at his computer screen.

The figure made similar noises into the silver box that she was carrying.

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The past perfect can be used to show that one past action or event happened before another.

At 23, he had already designed two major computer games.

MODULE 5A
UNIT 1

CULTURAL AWARENESS

harmonize make systems or rules similar in different countries or organizations

There is a need to harmonize tax levels across the European Union

widespread existing or happening over a large area or among many people

The plan received widespread support from staff

two-way street a situation or relationship requiring give-and-take

The relationship between a worker and an organization is a two-way street

DESCRIBING CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIENCES

do your homework prepare for something thoroughly by learning a lot about it

His presentation was brilliant – you could tell that he had really done his homework

awareness knowledge that something exists and is important

It is important that children develop an awareness of Internet safety

deal with have commercial relations with

Have you ever dealt with companies in the United States?

attribute to say or believe that something is caused by a particular thing

She attributed the poor sales to the financial crisis

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DESCRIBING CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIENCES

dull boring

The presentation this morning was so dull I almost fell asleep!

upmarket designed for or used by people who belong to a high social class or
have a lot of money

The City of London is full of upmarket restaurants

tedious not interesting and not taking too long

I’m fed up with wasting my time in long, tedious meetings

melting pot place or situation in which large numbers of people, ideas, etc. are
mixed together

New York is a melting pot of different cultures

REPORTING BACK ON RESEARCH

keen enthusiastic about something

I’m not very keen on the idea of moving to the Moscow office

pitfall a danger or difficulty that is not obvious

Before starting a business you should get professional advice to avoid the potential pitfalls

brewery a place where beer is made

When the brewery closed many locals lost their jobs

pin down explain or understand something completely

Sales are falling rapidly but we can’t pin down the reason

REPORTING BACK ON RESEARCH

Reporting a personal observation

I get the impression that… From what I could see, …

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Reporting from another source

Apparently, it seems that… According to…

I gathered from… It was made clear that…

Expressing doubt

I’m just not 100% convinced I’m a bit wary of…

I’m a bit reluctant to…

Avoiding commitment

I wouldn’t like to say I can’t promise anything

I wouldn’t go so far as to say…

Being persuasive

I’ve got to say that… I’m totally convinced.

I’m sure you’ll agree… I’m fully confident…

We can’t go wrong.

Trying to avoid being negative

To be fair, it could have been worse

It’s more of a … than a …

I’m not saying … / It’s not that … It’s just that …

Dismissing obstacles

That’s not a reason to…

Starting an advantage

The major advantage is… The pros definitely outweigh the cons.

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TENSES REVIEW

I had planned to spend an extra day in Krakow itself.

But as it was made clear that I should go exploring…

It’s going to be a bit more complicated that we anticipated.

The client has told us that the site is likely to be around the Krakow area.

They’re really pushing the area for development.

I had been looking around Krakow for a couple of days by that point.

I’ll be writing everything up later this week.

TENSES REVIEW

Present simple

Use the present simple:

1. to talk about general facts, states, and situations

The purpose of business is to make a profit

2. to talk about regular or repeated actions or permanent situations

Jack works for Nissan

3. to talk about timetabled future events

The meeting starts at 10.00

Present continuous

Use the present continuous:

1. to talk about an action in progress at the time of speaking/writing

I’m trying to get through to Jon Berks

2. to talk about a very current activity, taking place around the time of speaking

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They are pushing the area for development

3. to talk about fixed plans or arrangements in the future

I’m meeting the management committee on Friday

Present perfect simple

Use the present perfect simple:

1. to talk about actions which finished recently with a present result

The IT guys have changed all the PCs and access codes

2. to talk about actions that started in the past and are still going on

Silvio has worked for us since he left school

3. to talk about experiences in your life or events in history

I’ve never been to Bahrain

Present perfect continuous

Use the present perfect continuous to talk about a recently completed action. The focus is on
the activity, not the result

The IT guys have been changing all the PCs and access codes

Past simple

Use the past simple:

1. to talk about past actions which are over at the time of speaking

I heard from the locals that there were several interesting sites

2. to talk about past states

I lived in Haringey when I worked in the City

Past continuous

Use the past continuous to talk about being in the middle of a past action – there is likely to be
an interruption (in the past simple) in the sentence

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Everything was going really smoothly, when Wu took over the project

Past perfect

Use the past perfect to put events in the past in sequence. The past perfect indicates that the
action it refers to happened before a reference to the past simple

I had heard from the locals that there were several interesting sites

Past perfect continuous

Use the past perfect continuous to refer to an action in progress before something else
happened

He was the one who had been working on the project, but his boss was the one who got all
the credit

TENSES REVIEW

Should

1. Use should + infinitive to recommend something strongly

You should try that vegetarian restaurant on the river

2. Use should + perfect infinitive to talk about a lost opportunity

You should have gone this morning – it was quite an interesting meeting

3. Use could / should + infinitive to predict

It could / should turn out to be quite an interesting conference

Future forms

1. Use will + infinitive to make on-the-spot decisions

We’ll have to point out the training need to the client

2. Use be going to + infinitive when we are talking about an action we have already given
some thought to

We’re going to have to point out the training need to the client

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3. Use the future continuous to talk about something that will be in progress at a
particular time in the future

I will be writing everything up later this week

4. Use the future perfect to refer to events which finish before a given time

I will have finished by the end of the next financial year

INTRODUCING YOURSELF TO A GROUP

take on board accept and understand (an idea or a suggestion)

I told her what I thought but she didn’t take my advice on board

jettison get rid of or reject something that you no longer think is useful or
likely to be successful

The product was jettisoned owing to a lack of interest from customers

benchmark something that can be measured and used as a standard that other
things can be compared with

Last year’s sales figures were benchmark against which this year’s performance will be
measured

INTRODUCING YOURSELF TO A GROUP

Saying who you are

Hi, my name’s… I’m from the … office

As most of you will know, I’m…

For those of you who don’t know me already, I am…

Talking about your role

I’m accountable for…

My responsibilities include…

I’m empowered to … and have the task of…

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Lately I’ve been concentrating on…

Basically, my role is to…

This entails…

I’m responsible for…

Giving your reasons for being there

What’s the point of me being here today?

I hope to share some of my ideas with you

I’m here today to…

Updating people on achievements / activities

I’m pleased to say that…

I’ve now managed to…

I’d like to point out that over the years, I’ve been continually…

We’ve had a great few years

You’ll be happy to know that…

Talking about your aspirations

And I can see ways of further improving…

We want to help you…

I guess I’m ready to take on board…

I can’t wait to share our expertise with you and to help you…

UNIT 2

THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION

uplift an increase

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There has been a significant uplift in sales

hurdle a problem or difficulty to be solved in order to achieve something

The next hurdle will be to get the directors to agree

wheeling and dealing doing a lot of complicated business deals, sometimes in a dishonest
way

He’s been wheeling and dealing since he left school

jargon words and expressions that are used by a particular profession or group and
which are difficult to understand

The people in the IT Department are always using computer jargon. I don’t understand a
word they say

COMPARING CAREER PATHS AND CHOICES

aspiring wanting to start the career or activity that is mentioned

Aspiring managers need to be good communicators

scrutiny careful examination

Our company’s environmental record has come under scrutiny recently

rung a step on a ladder or in a series

She’s on the bottom rung of the promotional ladder

get up rise; go up

He’s not going to get up to chief executive officer unless he improves his attitude

ruthless hard and cruel; determined to get what you want whatever the cost

He has a ruthless determination to succeed

COMPARING CAREER PATHS AND CHOICES

lateral to one side on the same level, rather than up or down

It was a lateral move rather than a promotion

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be sidelined be prevented from taking part in an activity

He was sidelined because he wasn’t good at working in teams

broaden become wider; make wider

If we broaden the appeal of our products, we’ll sell more

ambassador a person who acts as a representative for an organization

Employees who attend conferences are ambassadors for their company

scope opportunity or ability to do something; potential

There’s still plenty of scope for improvement

demotivating make somebody feel it is not worth making an effort

Having perks taken away is very demotivating

demotion a move to a lower rank or position, often as a punishment

He decided to leave the company rather than accept the demotion

MANAGING THE DISCUSSION IN MEETINGS

recruitment the act of looking for new people to join a company

The recruitment of qualified staff is proving difficult

prestigious respected and admired as very important or of very high quality

She works for one of the most prestigious accountancy firms in the world

turnover the rate at which employees leave a company and are replaced

The production facility has a high turnover of staff

staff retention the ability of an organization to keep its staff

We need to improve staff retention

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MANAGING THE DISCUSSION IN MEETINGS

Managing the discussion

So let’s get started

The purpose of today’s meeting is…

Can I suggest we come back to…?

Coming back to…

I’ll get on to that in a moment…

Involving people

Perhaps you’d like to talk us through…

Did you want to talk about…?

Asking / giving permission to speak

Could I just say something?

If I could just come in there…

Go ahead

Putting forward unpopular ideas

I know you’re not keen on it but…

You probably won’t like this idea…

I’m not sure what your feelings are about this, but…

Putting forward ideas under consideration

We were wondering if…

Something else we’ve been thinking about is…

Putting forward ideas you are confident about

I’m sure you’ll understand the need to…

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The obvious solution to this problem must be to…

Disagreeing / expressing reservation

It’s interesting you should say that, because actually…

You’re absolutely right, but…

Interrupting / dealing with interruptions

Would this be the right moment to mention…?

Now, coming back to…

EXPRESSING ATTITUDES TO THE PAST

I’m so glad I finally had a face-to-face meeting with the partners

Yes. It’s just as well I brought you along. Arun, as you’re the one who’s…

If I’d thought about it, I could have brought one of the recruitment consultants…

It would have been good if we’d made a bit more progress today

Well, we should have anticipated it really…

I might have been a bit too forthright, but I need to be sure…

But suppose I hadn’t been there to present the other side of the argument?

What would have happened if I hadn’t suggested improving our graduate intake?

I still don’t think Arun brought much to the discussion…

Yes, but it’s a good thing he came to the meeting, though

EXPRESSING ATTITUDES TO THE PAST

Third conditional

Use the third conditional:

1. to talk about past situations that did not happen

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If you had chased up the reference, you would have known not to employ him

2. to express regret or to analyse past actions

If I had sold my shares in May, I would have made a good profit

3. to congratulate ourselves or others for the actions they took, or to express relief

If we had followed the consultant’s advice, we’d have probably gone bankrupt

Perfect modals

Use perfect modals

1. to talk about things that did not happen in the past

I would have finished the presentation on time, but the power went off

2. to talk about our likely actions if we were in the situation described

I would have told my manager straight away, rather than hiding everything

3. to express irritation and criticism

I might have known the distributors would let us down

They should have consulted me about the cancellation

They ought to have warned us about the strike

Fixed phrases

There are many fixed phrases that can be used to express our attitude to the past

Fixed phrase + past simple

We can use I’m (so) glad … and It’s a good thing… with the past simple to express satisfaction

I’m so glad we met

It’s a good thing you came to the meeting

We can use It’s just as well… with the past simple to express relief

It’s just as well you spoke up when you did

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We can use I still don’t think (that)… with the past simple to express dissatisfaction

I still don’t think he was a very good manager

Fixed phrase + past perfect

We can use Suppose / Supposing… and Imagine if… with the past perfect to express relief

Suppose we had invested in Northern Rock…

Supposing the boss had come back in…

Imagine if we had kept the shares….

We can use If only… with the past perfect to express regret

If only we hadn’t relocated, we’d be sitting on €1 million of real estate now

GETTING YOUR POINT ACROSS

scale the relation between the actual size of something and its size on a map or
diagram

The plans for the new offices are drawn to the same scale

in-tray a container on a desk for letters and documents that are waiting to be looked
at

My in-tray is always full when I get back from my holidays

appreciate understand that something is true

I’m sure you appreciate how difficult it is for the Sales Department in the current economic
climate

feedback advice, criticism or information about how good or useful something or


somebody’s work is

I’d appreciate some feedback on the report I’ve written

trial test the ability, quality or performance of something

Can we trial the software for a month before we decide whether or not to buy it?

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GETTING YOUR POINT ACROSS

Reformulating

Yes, sorry, let me rephrase that

In other words, …

To put it another way, …

Clarifying what is meant

What I’m saying is that…

I was actually referring to…

What I mean by… is…

To clarify, I’m saying that…

Illustrating or offering to illustrate a point

Would it help if I gave you an example?

Well, if you look at… you’ll see…

Summarizing

The fact of the matter is…

But the point I’m trying to make is…

Basically, …

To summarize, …

UNIT 3

CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION

item a single object often on a list

I don’t really like any of the items on the menu

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tend be likely to happen because this is what usually happens

It tends to rain a lot in Britain

the Continent mainland Europe, not including Britain or Ireland

The weather is much better on the Continent

Privacy the state of not being watched or disturbed by other people

He went back to his hotel room for some peace and privacy

LEARNING TO AVOID CULTURAL GAFFES

gaffe an embarrassing mistake made in public

He made a terrible gaffe in front of his bosses

splinter a small, thin, sharp piece of wood or glass that has broken off a larger piece

I’ve got a splinter in my finger and I can’t get it out

bestow (formal) give something to somebody, especially to show respect

She was bestowed with gifts at her retirement party

blunder make a stupid or careless mistake

The government blundered in its handling of the crisis

repast (formal) a meal

The repast was fit for a king

paramount more important than anything else

Innovation is paramount in our business

overbearing trying to control other people in an unpleasant way

I don’t like the way she talks to people. It’s very overbearing

chagrined (formal) feel disappointed, humiliated or annoyed

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I felt chagrined when he told me he was too tired to come to my party

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

Attempting to do something

I try to… I try to pick up some words before I go

I do like to try to… I do like to try to speak French when I go there

I try and… (informal) I try and speak the local language

Talking about your abilities

I’m really good / quite good at… -ing I’m quite good at speaking German

I’m not bad at… -ing I’m not bad at learning new vocabulary

I’m not very good at… -ing I’m not very good at remembering phrases

I’m really / quite bad at… ing I’m really bad at meeting new people

Talking about differences

The biggest difference is… The biggest difference is the food

I notice that… I notice that public transport is used more

They tend to… They tend to go to bed earlier

There are obvious differences when… -ing There are obvious differences when socializing

There have a different idea of… They have a difference idea of time in Asia

There are differences with regards to… There are differences with regards to punctuality

Contrasting ideas

…, whereas…

They tend to eat lunch at about 2pm, whereas we like to eat earlier

…, but…

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They drive on the left, but we drive on the right

They … which / that we don’t…

They eat things which we don’t (eat)

COVERING LETTERS

covering letter / cover letter (BrE / AmE) a letter containing extra information that you
send with something such as a job application

Send a CV and covering letter to the following address…

farewell the act of saying goodbye to somebody

She said her farewells and left

relish to get great pleasure from something

Teaching children with disabilities is something she relishes

proficient able to do something well because of training and practice

I’m a proficient user of Microsoft Excel

UNIT 4

THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY

volume a book forming part of a series

The second edition of the Oxford English Dictionary consists of 20 volumes.

update make something more modern by adding new parts or changing old ones

We need to update our software.

novel a fictional story long enough to fill a book

I like to read Stephen King novels

supplement a book or section at the end of a book that gives extra information

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The Oxford English Dictionary supplement contains new words that originated after the
dictionary was printed

fleece a soft warm sweatshirt made from a fabric that feels like sheep’s wool

He pulled on his fleece and went out into the cold

lyrics the words of a song

I find the lyrics of most pop songs to be awful

DRINKING TEA AND QUEUING

quirk an aspect of somebody’s personality or behavior that is a little strange

He has the quirk of staring at his food before he eats it

preserve an activity, job or interest that is thought to be suitable for one particular
person or group

Free time is no longer the preserve of the rich

rank and file the ordinary members of an organization

The rank and file of the workforce need to be consulted about this

pragmatism thinking about solving problems in a practical and sensible way

Her pragmatism is a real asset to the company

proliferation a large number or sudden increase of something

The proliferation of crime in this city needs to be dealt with

nuanced slightly differentiated in meaning or quality

The report is complex and finely nuanced

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS

once and for all conclusively; finally

Let’s see if we can dispel some of the myths once and for all

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go from strength to strength progress with increasing success

Since then, the annual event has gone from strength to strength

in all likelihood very probably

In all likelihood you’ll be offered a cup of tea

stuff (informal) things or material of an indeterminate kind

Don’t worry if you don’t like the stuff

a means to an end a thing not valued in itself but useful for achieving an aim

Queuing is a means to an end

on the face of it apparently; without knowing all the relevant facts

On the face of it, there doesn’t seem much sense in chatting about the weather

it turns out it transpires; it proves to be

It turns out everyone talks about it

be the first to admit willingly accept that something is true

The British are the first to admit that fish and chips is not exactly the height of culinary
sophistication

UNIT 5

CHANGE MANAGEMENT

warehouse a building where large quantities of good are stored, especially before they
are sent to shops to be sold

The company is expanding its warehouse in order to increase its stock capacity

shelf life the amount of time something is usable or effective

The new strategy will be lucky if it has a shelf life of more than a few months

layout the way in which the parts of something such as a building are arranged

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Here’s a map showing the general layout of the office

driver one of the main things that influence something or cause it to make progress

The housing market is a key driver of the economy

fulfil do something you have promised to do

Do we have enough stock to fulfil all these orders in time for Christmas?

DISCUSSING WORKING PATTERNS

era a particular period of time that is different from other periods

When she left the firm, it was the end of an era

aversion to a strong feeling of not liking something / somebody

Sam is so lazy, she seems to have an aversion to work

seamless without any difficulties or delays between one stage and the next

There was a seamless transfer of power from the director to her replacement

DISCUSSING WORKING PATTERNS

lay out plan how something should look and arrange it this way

Our office is laid out in an open plan style without individual cubicles

ongoing continuing to exist or develop

Training is part of our ongoing career development programme

sponsor a person who introduces and supports a proposal for a new law, plan, etc.

Larry Smith MP is a leading sponsor of the immigration bill

GIVING A FORMAL PRESENTATION

commuting travelling regularly by bus, car, train, etc., from your home to your place of
work

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She sees commuting as a waste of time and resources

give rise to cause something to happen or exist

This gave rise to a number of problems

amateur done for enjoyment, not for money as a job

My boss is a keen amateur golfer

flip-side a different aspect of a situation, especially one that is less welcome

The flip-side of more flexibility at work can be less security

sheer used to emphasize the size, degree or amount of something

The sheer size of the machine makes it difficult to move

GIVING A FORMAL PRESENTATION

Outlining a structure

I’ve divided my talk up into…

First of all, I’ll… After that, I’ll… I’ll conclude with…

Beginning the presentation

I’d like to start by saying

Referring forwards / backwards / sideways

I’ll return to … later

As I said earlier…

I’ll say more about … in a moment

Just to digress for a second, …

Signalling the next section

OK, moving on…

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Turning to…

This brings me to…

Ensuring understanding

Just to fill you in on some of the background, …

By … I mean…

Now I don’t know if you’re familiar with…

Well, … refers to…

This is where…

And perhaps here I should explain what I mean by…

That’s when…

So, for example, …

Ending the presentation

And this is my key point

To sum up, …

I’ll be happy to take any questions now

SPECULATING ABOUT FUTURE CHANGES

The flexible working revolution means that management will become more about resourcing
and measuring results

It’s estimated that by 2050 most people will have been working flexibly for more than a
decade

It’s anticipated that as many as twelve million people in the UK will be working from home
by 2020

The 21st century is going to be about a new generation of ‘career nomads’

The trend towards home working could have other positive social side effects

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We anticipate that this trend will only increase

Home-based businesses are likely to revive local communities

By the mid-21st century a major cultural change will have taken place

People are expected to be working more flexibly in the future

Solving this dilemma must surely become a key priority

SPECULATING ABOUT FUTURE CHANGES

will / shall or going to

In many sentences and situations, either will or going to is possible

However, in general use will:

1. to make predictions based on experience

We’ve changed the job description so more people will apply

2. to give or ask for information about the future

When will we need to be ready?

3. to make future promises, requests and threats

Will you give me a hand?

4. to make spontaneous decisions (at the time of speaking)

You’re running late? OK, well. I’ll start the presentation without you

Use going to

1. to make predictions based in our current feelings and thoughts

I’m going to get angry in a minute

2. to talk or ask about plans or intentions

Sue’s going to attend the Milan conference in June

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3. to talk about decisions that have already been made

I’m going to give Ed a written warning, no matter what he says

4. Note that we also use the present continuous for arrangements

Jeremy’s attending the conference in Berlin in May

Future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous

1. Use the future continuous (will + be + -ing form) to say that something will be in
progress at a time in the future. The focus is on the future actions, rather than their
result

This time next year, I’ll be playing golf on afternoons like this

2. Note that going to + be + -ing form is also possible, especially for plans and intentions

We’re going to be experimenting with Internet campaigns from next March

3. Use the future perfect (will + have + past participle) to say that something will be
finished at a time in the future

Our end-of-year figures will have come out by the time of our next meeting

4. Use the future perfect continuous (will + have + been + -ing form) to stress the
continuation of an action, seen from a later time in the future

Our companies will have been working together for ten years in May – we should
plan a celebration

SHOWING UNDERSTANDING

hectic very busy; full of activity

Today was too hectic for me – I need a rest

tricky (informal) difficult to do or deal with

The equipment can be tricky to install.

badger put pressure on somebody by repeatedly asking them questions or asking


them to do something

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My boss has been badgering me for the sales figures all week

SHOWING UNDERSTANDING

Showing you understand the problem

I know what you mean No, it hasn’t, has it?

I hear what you’re saying I can see where you’re coming from

I totally understand

Explaining why you understand

It’s quite hectic over here, too I know this is a tricky time for a lot of you

I had a similar problem at… That happened to me, too

Offering practical solutions

It might be worth… -ing… I still think you should…

You might want to… What about… -ing?

Have you tried… -ing?

UNIT 6

AN INVESTMENT BANKER

close complete and formally agree on a piece of business such as a project, deal,
sale, etc.

He was able to close the sale in just a few minutes

pay off when a risk you have taken brings good results

The risk paid off, he got his bonus

upside the more positive aspect of a situation that is generally bad

Being self-employed has its upside – you decide how you manage your time

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TALKING ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF RISK

adept good at doing something that is quite difficult

He became adept at getting her to listen to his ideas

habitual done as a regular habit

Complaining about change sometimes becomes habitual

let alone used after a statement to emphasize that because the first thing is not true or
possible, the next thing cannot be true or possible either

There isn’t enough room for us, let alone any guests

assessment the act of judging or forming an opinion about somebody / something

Objective assessment of the severity of the problem was difficult

sound adj. sensible; that you can rely on and that will probably give good results

He gave his client some very sound advice.

TALKING ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF RISK

the other side of the coin the aspect of a situation that is the opposite of or contrasts
with the one you have been talking about

Most of the factories in the city have closed, but the other side of the coin is that technology
start-ups are moving in

justifiable done for a good reason, and therefore acceptable

He took justifiable pride in his achievement

sizeable quite big

Income from tourism accounts for a sizeable proportion of the area’s total income

severity the degree to which something is serious or bad

He’s not aware of the severity of his mistake

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TAKING PART IN A TELECONFERENCE

pipe dream a hope or plan that is impossible to achieve or not practical

I know it’s a pipe dream, but I’d love to be CEO one day

carbon offsetting calculating your carbon emissions and purchasing ‘credits’ from
emission reduction projects

Quick Air is the first airline in Europe to offer carbon offsetting to passengers

termite mound a pile of earth that is built by a group of termites (insects similar to
ants) as their home

They had accidentally disturbed a termite mound

uptake the use that is made of something that has become available

There has been a high uptake of the free training

TAKING PART IN A TELECONFERENCE

Checking understanding

Am I right in saying that the general opinion is…?

You’re saying that…?

Can I just check – we are now talking about…?

Nominating or inviting someone to say something

X, could you talk us through this?

I’d be interested in hearing what you think about this

Maybe we can let X answer this

Expressing doubts / disagreement

I still have serious reservations

I’m not fully convinced as yet

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I’m having second thoughts …

With respect …

Managing the discussion / the participants

Sorry, X. Could you let Y finish, please?

Maybe we’re digressing a little

That’s interesting X, but I think…

I’m not sure this is getting us anywhere

If I could just bring the conversation back to the agenda

Ending the meeting

We seem to have some sort of consensus

I’d like to draw things to a close

Can I just ask everyone to sum up their views?

REFERENCING USING PRONOUNS

That’s interesting Thomas… but I think it’s probably best left for another meeting

Well, if you remember, we did explore this last year – that was just before you joined us
Khalid – and we decided… it wasn’t the route to go down

Greta – I’d be interested in hearing what you think about this

What do you think of this? We offer customers the option of paying…

I think that’s where we’ve got to. Is that right? Joana?

To me, it sounds a lot more manageable

It’s been quite hard – but I think we’ve made the right decision. It would have been risky to…

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REFERENCING USING PRONOUNS

Referring backwards

It, this and that can be used to refer back to something that has just been mentioned. All three
words can refer back to a person or thing, a situation or a thought / idea / proposition, etc.

He said the greater the risk, the greater the potential reward. This might well be true

Here’s our prototype. It gives a pretty good idea of what we hope to make

John was arguing for cuts in the R&D budget. That’s the last thing we need

Emphasis

1. It is used for neutral reference: as a simple way of continuing the discussion, without
giving special emphasis to the information being referred to

There’s also a subsidized canteen. It’s OK, but no better than in most companies

2. This and that are more often used to add emphasis to the information: they draw our
attention to what has just been said

And we have a gym exclusively for staff. That’s one of the best things about working
here

3. This in particular is used when there is something new or especially relevant about the
information introduced

Finally, there’s our final salary pension scheme. This has been praised throughout
the industry

REFERENCING USING PRONOUNS

Reference

1. In sentences where several things are mentioned, it is usually used to refer to the
main topic, whereas this / that more often refer to the last topic mentioned

There’s a meeting in the Kennedy Suite. It’s very important and could go on for hours
(it = the meeting)

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There’s a meeting in the Kennedy Suite. That’s on the third floor, by the lifts
(that = the Kennedy Suite)

2. Generally, this refers to things that are near to us (in space, in time or conceptually –
thought of as close and relevant); that refers to things we think of as more distant

Carlos asked about the depreciation of the dollar. This will affect us all, he said

Carlos asked about the depreciation of the euro. That was unlikely in the
foreseeable future, Kate answered

They, these, those

1 When the information referred to has a plural form, they is used instead of it, these instead
of this, and those instead of that

We discussed several options during the brainstorming sessions. They were all considered
impractical, though

We discussed several options during the brainstorming sessions. These were quite good fun,
by the way, but hard work

New information

This can refer toward to new information. We do not use that or it in this way

Craig isn’t a great team player. This is his main problem, though – his lack of creativity (refers
forward to the new information about his lack of creativity)

Craig isn’t a great team player. That’s his main problem (refers back to the information about
the fact that he is not a great team player)

ESTABLISHING RAPPORT AND SHOWING INTEREST

rapport a friendly relationship in which people understand each other very well

She understood the importance of establishing a close rapport with clients

challenging difficult in an interesting way that tests your ability

My job is rewarding, but also quite challenging

compliment something nice that you say to or about someone to praise them

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She paid me a huge compliment. She said that I was the best salesman in the whole
company!

echoing the other person to encourage them to say more = repeating part of what someone
says as a question so that they give more information

e.g. A: I work in publishing B: Publishing?

picking up on a key word in order to extend the conversation = asking someone a question
repeating an important word they have used

e.g. A: Going down the Amazon was a real nightmare B: In what way was it a nightmare?

ESTABLISHING RAPPORT AND SHOWING INTEREST

Recalling past events in common

It must be two years or more since we last met?

Wasn’t it at that conference in…?

Oh, yes… - it was really beautiful

Do you remember…?

Paying a compliment

You’re looking well

You look great – have you been on holiday?

Asking a follow-up question

And are you still enjoying it? Really?

And what do you think of it?

Asking about someone’s journey

How was the journey?

Was the journey OK?

How was the flight?

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Did you get there OK?

Showing knowledge about someone you meet

It’s X, isn’t it? I’ve seen your picture on the website

You’re not the X who…, are you?

And anyway, X, I’ve heard quite a lot about you, too. You …, didn’t you?

Giving a summary of your recent history

Well, I’d working in… for five years when…

So I’ve been in… for the last…, in a luxury apartment overlooking…

Echoing the other person

A: I have had a few ups and downs B: Ups and downs?

A: I’ve just been on a business trip to Budapest B: Budapest?

Picking up on a key word

A: … but the job’s pretty challenging B: Challenging in what way?

A: I’m not sure about Jack. I find him a bit distant B: Distant in what way?

Joking about yourself

I may be old, but you can’t get rid of me that easily

Being modest about achievements

Well, it wasn’t just me. There was a whole team involved

Oh, it was nothing

I couldn’t have done it without the team

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UNIT 7

CANDIDATES

specification a detailed description of how something is

The technical specifications of the new phone are amazing!

adrenalin a substance produced in the body when you are excited, afraid or angry

A large crowd will get the players’ adrenalin flowing

overconfident feeling too sure about your abilities or chances of success

He made mistakes through being overconfident

background the circumstances or past events explaining why something is the way it is

Can you give me some more background on the political situation in China?

entail to involve something that cannot be avoided

The job entails a lot of hard work

rehearsal an experience that helps you to prepare for something that is going to happen

A rehearsal is a good idea before a job interview

SKYPE INTERVIEWS

grill ask somebody a lot of questions, sometimes in an unpleasant way

He was grilled by detectives for several hours

ordeal a difficult or unpleasant experience

The interview was less of an ordeal that she expected

pool a group of people

The pool of teachers available for state schools is shrinking

disconcerting causing a feeling of anxiousness, confusion or embarrassment

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The way she looked at me was very disconcerting

pitfall a hidden difficulty or danger

Many people assume there are pitfalls to buying goods online

branch out start an activity that you haven’t done before, especially related to work or
business

The company is branching out into the smartphone sector

cite mention something as an example or reason

He cited the weather as the reason for his lateness

INTERVIEW EXPERIENCES

Expressing degrees of feeling

Do you get…?

Do you get anxious before an interview?

Slightly. / A little. / Sometimes. / Not really. / It depends.

Talking about your feelings

Yes, I do get…

Yes, I do get very scared before meeting new people

No, I don’t get…

No, I don’t get nervous at all

The more…, the more…

The more I relax, the more talkative I get

I’m (a bit / very / very, very)…

I’m a bit worried about the questions they might ask

Being… can be a good / bad thing because / if / as…

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Being relaxed can be a bad thing as it may affect your mental capacity

Talking about negative interviews

… never had a bad interview…

No, I’ve never had a bad interview

I had a very bad interview when I…

Yes, I had a very bad interview when I applied to be a teacher

It was very, very…

It was very, very embarrassing

Getting the job

get the job

I still got the job

He didn’t get the job

end up getting the job

And she ended up getting the job

give somebody the job / give the job to somebody

They gave me the job

They gave the job to someone else

Preparing for job interviews

find out about…

I find out about the job and what it entails

think about what / which…

I think about what answers I might give

read about…

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I read about the company

research / do research into…

I research the sector and find out as much as I can

do a rehearsal of…

I might do a rehearsal of the interview

get my friends / family to…

I get my family to ask me questions

CVs

CV also curriculum vitae (BrE) / résumé (AmE) a written record of your employment and
education that you send when you apply for a job

Send a CV and covering letter to the following address…

numeracy the ability to understand and work with numbers

Standards of literacy and numeracy are falling

first-rate excellent; of the highest quality

The customer service is absolutely first-rate

single-handedly done on your own with nobody helping you

She single-handedly wrote the presentation, the report and the prospectus

UNIT 8

NEW YORK CITY

borough a part of the city that has its own local government

The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of New York

commute travel regularly between work and home by bus, train, car, etc.

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It takes me an hour to commute by train

landmark a well-known building or place with a lot of history

The Empire State Building is a landmark in New York

congested crowded; full of vehicles or traffic

I’m late because the road into the city is so congested

hustle and bustle busy noisy activity of a lot of people in one place

We escaped from the hustle and bustle of the city for the weekend

boutique a small shop that sells fashionable clothes or expensive gifts

There are lots of boutiques in the centre of the city

go-getter (informal) a person who is determined to succeed, especially in business

We are looking for go-getters with experience in custom service

LANGUAGE IS THE DRESS OF THOUGHT

mindset a set of attitudes or fixed ideas that someone has and that are often difficult
to change

You won’t get him to try anything new – he has a very conservative mindset

persuasion of the type mentioned

I have some acquaintances of the Liberal persuasion

play out happen or take place

The same scenario plays out all over the country every Monday morning

mooch be somewhere not doing very much

He’s happy to mooch around the house all day

tag along go somewhere with someone, especially when you have not been asked or
invited

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Do you mind if I tag along with you tonight?

blurt out say something suddenly and without thinking carefully

She blurted it out before I could stop her

draw on (of a period of time) pass by and approach the end

Night was drawing on

whys and wherefores the reasons for something

I have no intention of going into the whys and wherefores of the current situation

vernacular the language spoken in a particular area or by a particular group

He spoke in the vernacular in order to reach a wider audience

insight an understanding of what something is like

I hope you have gained some insight into the difficulties we face

AMERICAN ENGLISH

momentarily in a moment

I’ll join you momentarily

pants trousers

I’ve spilled some ink on my pants

closet wardrobe or cupboard

He took a clean shirt from the closet and started to get dressed

mail send a letter or packet by post

Did you mail the letter I gave you yesterday?

check bill, amount to be paid in a restaurant

Can we get the check, please?

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bill note, paper money

He left a ten-dollar bill as a tip

table postpone or leave an idea or proposal for a later date

They tabled the proposal until the next meeting

moot irrelevant; having little or no relevance

The issue became moot after the company changed its policy

UNIT 9

FREELANCE OR EMPLOYED?

SMEs small and medium-sized enterprises

The new government has promised lower taxes for SMEs

sole trader a business that is owned and controlled by one person, although they may
employ workers

I was going to go into business with a friend, but in the end I decided to run my company as
a sole trader

broker arrange or negotiate an agreement

We broker deals between brands and media companies

freelance earning money by selling your work or services to several different


organizations rather than being employed by one particular organization

I’ve been working as a freelance translator for several years

downside the disadvantages or less positive aspects of something

The downside of working for yourself is the financial insecurity

give (something) a go try or attempt something

Why not give it a go? You might enjoy it

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EXPLORING TEAM RELATIONSHIPS

absent-minded tending to forget things, perhaps because you are not thinking about
what is around you, but about something else

He can be a little absent-minded at times

boundless without limits; seeming to have no end

The new intern seems to have boundless energy

vigorously with a lot of energy and determination

He vigorously denied the allegations

spur into action encourage someone to do something

I was spurred into action by his letter

painstaking needing a lot of care, effort and attention to detail

The event had been planned with painstaking attention to detail

EXPLORING TEAM RELATIONSHIPS

know (something) inside out be very familiar with something

Karl knows all our products inside out

pinpoint be able to give the exact reason for something or to describe something
exactly

The report pinpointed the areas most in need of attention

neglect not give enough attention to something; fail to take care of something or
someone

This building has been neglected for years

DEALING WITH CONFLICT

decent of a good enough standard or quality

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They offer decent meals at good prices

batch a number or amount of goods produced at one time

They produced a trial batch of the new product

liaise work closely with someone and exchange information with them

He had to liaise directly with the client while writing the report

chairperson the person in charge of a meeting, who tells people when they can speak, etc.

Sue will be the chairperson of today’s meeting

chair act as the chairman or chairwoman of a meeting, discussion, etc.

Who’s chairing this meeting?

DEALING WITH CONFLICT

Clarifying the situation

Can I just make sure I’ve understood this correctly?

Would I be right in thinking…?

Do you understand what I’m trying to say?

Staying focused on the facts

Let’s try not to get personal here

Can we try and stay focused on the facts?

Expressing concerns diplomatically

I’m a bit worried about…

I don’t know if you are aware, but…?

Expressing concerns directly

I’m really not happy with…

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The real issue here is…

Chairing the negotiation

How do you propose we deal with this issue?

Can we try and avoid…?

I need to know…

Can I leave you to…?

Expressing points of disagreement

I can’t just…

I just don’t understand how…

I see what you mean, but…

I just won’t be able to…

Offering a compromise

I’m prepared to… if…

Would it help if…?

I’d be more than happy to…

ADDING EMPHASIS

The reason why I say this is because if we get it right this time, any future campaigns should
run more smoothly

Which is why this whole thing is just so frustrating

How we resolve this is the issue now

It’s the Vienna convention which really worries me

In which case, Riccardo, can I leave you to liaise with the printer…?

What really concerns me is the way this has been handled so badly by the printers

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The problems with the artwork I’m prepared to overlook

The thing that bothers me is that we just don’t have time

Not only do we have a major error on our hands, but we’re also not sure how this happened

ADDING EMPHASIS

Cleft sentences

Cleft sentences begin with it or what and emphasize a particular word or group of words

John broke the photocopier > It was John who broke the photocopier

I manage the team > What I do is manage the team

Fixed phrases to add emphasis

We can use many fixed phrases to add emphasis such as The reason I say this is…, Which is
why…, Not only… but, etc.

Fronting

Fronting is when we place the information we want to emphasize at the beginning of the
sentence

I liked the first candidate. I thought the second was arrogant > The first candidate I liked. The
second I thought was arrogant

Adverbs of degree

We can use adverbs of degree to add emphasis to most adjectives and adverbs, for example:
very, really, absolutely, just so…

ADDING EMPHASIS

Adverbs of degree

1. Adverbs of degree can add emphasis to most adjectives and adverbs. These include:
very, really, extremely, so, just so, very… indeed

It was just so short-sighted of them to risk upsetting our Japanese distributors

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2. Some adjectives and adverbs are ungradable: they express extreme qualities such as
perfection. With these words we use adverbs such as completely, absolutely, utterly
(not very)

It’s absolutely vital that you inform me of things like that (Not: It’s very vital that you
inform me of things like that)

Fronting

1. In most active sentences, the subject of the verb comes first. However, we can alter
the word order to place the information we want to emphasize at the beginning of the
sentence. This is called ‘fronting’

I liked the conference hall, but I thought the accommodation was awful > The
conference hall I liked. The accommodation I thought was awful

2. Note that subject and verb / auxiliary are inverted after negative expressions, after
only and after participles

Rarely have I seen such a confident presentation

Only in Japan can you get fish as fresh as this

Included in the contract was a job description

It-clefts

Form: it + be + emphasized language + relative clause

Use: To focus our attention on a noun phrase or adverbial

It was the finance director who suggested freezing recruitment

It was earlier this morning when she phoned me

What-clefts

Form: what + noun phrase / clause + be + emphasized language

Use: To move our attention to the end of the sentence

What he does is assess proposals

What I want is an evening off

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Other phrases

We can also use phrases such as the person / people who / that, the place where, the reason
why, the thing that to add emphasis

Tom is the person that you need to speak to

The place where our next conference will be held is Brighton

The thing that annoys me most is that no one contacted us about the problem

RESPONDING TO FEEDBACK

feedback advice, criticism or information about how good or useful something or


someone’s work is

We need both positive and negative feedback from our customers

point out mention something in order to give someone information about it or make
them notice it

He pointed out the mistakes in her work

be entitled to have the right to

As an employee you’re entitled to a free lunch in the staff canteen

RESPONDING TO FEEDBACK

Responding to positive feedback

Thanks for your support – it’s good to know I’m on the right track

Thanks, though I have to admit, I got the idea from…

Thanks, I’m glad you liked it

Accepting negative feedback

I’m sorry, I didn’t realize – thanks for pointing that out

Oh, I see. Well it seems a pity to…, but maybe you’re right

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Oh, really? Why do you think that?

So how do you think I could improve it?

OK, I’ll see if I can improve it

Actually, I’m very happy to have some honest feedback

Challenging negative feedback

Look, you’re entitled to your opinion, but…

I see what you’re saying, but…

To be honest, I just don’t have time to…

Fair enough, but it’s a bit late now

No, I’m sorry. I don’t see what you’re getting at

I’m not sure I agree with you

I’d like a second opinion on this, if you don’t mind

UNIT 10

EXPANSION OF A SUPERMARKET

billion one thousand million (1,000,000,000)

The company’s turnover was close to one billion dollars

dominate be the most important or noticeable feature of something

Apple and Samsung dominate the smartphone market

tactic the particular method you use to achieve something

The manager discussed sales tactics with his team

no-frills including only the basic features, without anything that is unnecessary,
especially things added to make something more attractive or comfortable

Travelling abroad has become cheaper thanks to no-frills airlines

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mainstream considered normal and usual and used by most people

Mainstream political parties are losing votes across Europe

DISCUSSING FACTORS FOR SUCCESS

niche an opportunity to sell a particular product to a particular group of people

They spotted a niche in the market

lose ground to lose an advantage

The Conservatives lost a lot of ground to the Liberal Democrats at the election

entrepreneur a person who makes money by starting or running businesses, especially when
this involves taking financial risks

Many entrepreneurs see potential in this market

hard and fast that cannot be changed in any circumstance

There are no hard and fast rules for pronouncing English words

the bottom line the amount of money that is a profit or a loss after everything has
been calculated

Sales last month failed to add to the company’s bottom line

knock into shape make something more organized or successful

It shouldn’t take her long to knock the team into shape

stifle prevent something from happening

The new rules stifle creativity

get the creative juices flowing starting thinking in a creative and lively way

We had a brainstorming session to get the creative juices flowing

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PROBLEM-SOLVING IN MEETINGS

brainstorming a way of making a group of people all think about something at the
same time, often in order to solve a problem or to create good ideas

We held a brainstorming session to generate new ideas on how to boost earnings

charitable helping people who are poor or in need

After I left university I spend a year in Africa doing charitable work

sporadic only occasionally or at intervals that are not regular

There is only sporadic mobile phone reception at the site

Putting forward an idea

Couldn’t we consider…?

I would have thought it would be possible to…

I’m not sure how this would work in practice, but how about…?

Supposing we were to…?

Asking for clarification

It’s not clear to me what you mean by…

Oh I see, so you’re thinking… am I right?

What did you have in mind?

Clarifying the idea

Well, for example, …

I was thinking along the lines of…

Building on the idea

Thinking about it, we could even…

And there’s nothing stopping us from… is there?

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Evaluating the idea

I’m concerned about how…

I can’t help wondering…

I would certainly need to know… before –ing…

It’s certainly worth thinking about

We should at least consider it…

In terms of… I think it has potential

That’s not such a bad idea

USING ADVERBS TO QUALIFY ATTITUDES

Could I just explain in a bit more detail?

You’re obviously given this some thought

I’m not totally convinced

It’s been a surprisingly difficult year

It’s easily the best idea I’ve heard so far

I’m just not convinced

It was actually one of the most rewarding things I’ve ever done

Look, I only say that because there’s big money in energy-saving

I’m not so keen on the idea

I don’t really think we could get away with that – do you?

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USING ADVERBS TO QUALIFY ATTITUDES

Adverbs of degree

1. Many adverbs of degree are used to qualify the gradable adjective or adverb they
precede, e.g. quite, rather, pretty, fairly, a bit, a little, somewhat

The figures were quite promising

He suggested, rather stupidly, that we forget about the deadlines

2. We can use most of these words with adjective + noun combinations. Note the word
order with quite

It was a rather tedious speech

It was quite a good party (Not: It was a quite good party)

3. We can also use an adverb of degree with not, e.g. not very, not really, not absolutely.
We can also say not at all

I’m not very / not at all concerned about the canteen’s closure

4. Note that not really can mean both not very and not, in fact. The word stress in the
sentence helps to convey the different meanings

I’m not really angry about her resignation, just disappointed (not angry, in fact)

He wasn’t really angry, but he raised his voice (a bit angry)

5. When the adverb comes before not, the meaning is different

I’m not absolutely convinced (less than 100%)

I’m absolutely not convinced (0%)

Note that putting the adverb before not isn’t possible with very

Focus adverbs

1. The adverbs even, just and only focus our attention on one part of a sentence. They
usually come before a main verb, but after an auxiliary or be

Exetica only had better results than us in May (not June, etc.)

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I just don’t understand why team A didn’t complete the first away day task (I really
don’t understand)

Jo couldn’t even remember all the details (a criticism of Jo)

2. If these adverbs refer to a noun phrase then they come before it, and the meaning is
changed

Only Exetica had better results than us in May (no other company)

I don’t understand why team A didn’t complete just the first away day task (they
managed to complete all the others)

I don’t understand why just team A didn’t complete the first away day task (all the
other teams managed to do it)

Even Jo couldn’t remember all the details (Jo is usually good at remembering and the
fact that she couldn’t indicates there were a lot of details)

Functional adverbials

Adverbials are often used to refine the message conveyed by the sentence, without altering
the meaning of any individual words

For example, they can be used:

1. to soften negative reactions

Unfortunately, I can’t agree with you (also: regrettably, sadly)

2. to provide a link to what someone else has said

Of course, you’re right about that, but… (also: no doubt, obviously, evidently,
certainly)

3. to move the subject of conversation / writing onto a different area

Frankly, I’d prefer not to discuss that… (also: to be honest, actually)

USING VAGUE LANGUAGE

vague not clear, exact or fully explained

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Her justification for the decision was very vague

come round (a date or regular event) happens again

The annual review seems to come round quicker every year

put (someone) on a spot to make somebody feel uncomfortable or embarrassed by


asking them a difficult question

The interviewer’s questions really put him on the spot

rationale the principles or reasons which explain a particular decision, course of action,
belief, etc.

What is the rationale behind these new exams?

hint a small amount of something

There was a hint of humour in his presentation

USING VAGUE LANGUAGE

Trying to remember something

Something about…, I think!

… you’ve put me on the spot there

I’m not quite sure now

I seem to remember

… something like that, in any case

I’m sure I would have done

I’m trying to think…

Trying to explain something

It’s difficult to explain, really…

It almost had a hint of…

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It was kind of…

… you know, that sort of thing

… a bit like that, but not quite as…

It was a bit… oh, I don’t know

Giving feedback

I’d say you’re on the right track

… it’s the kind of thing…

It just needs a bit more…

You know, … and so on

Something along those lines

Yes, … something like that

No, not really

UNIT 11

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

aim try or plan to achieve something

I’m aiming to finish my thesis by the end of the month

abroad in or to a foreign country

She went abroad for two years

yacht a large sailing boat, often with an engine and a place to sleep on board

They bought a yacht in order to sail around the Greek islands

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STEPS TO SUCCESS

tempt attract somebody or make them want to do something, even if they know it is
wrong

I was tempted by the dessert menu

explicit clear and easy to understand

She gave me very explicit instructions on how to look after the dog

summit the highest point of something, especially the top of a mountain

We reached the summit at noon

feasible possible and likely to be achieved

I doubt very much that that suggestion is feasible

doable able to be done

None of the tasks were fun, but they were doable

drastically extreme in a way that has a sudden, serious or violent effect on something

Things have started to go drastically wrong

sincere saying only what you really think or feel

He seemed sincere enough when he said he wanted to help

SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM GOALS

Talking about plans

I hope to… I hope to visit Africa soon

I plan to… I plan to change my job at the end of the year

I’m planning to… I’m planning to move to a different country

I’m aiming to… I’m aiming to lose weight before the summer

I’m going to… I’m going to New York

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I’m going to try and… I’m going to try and learn German

Hypothesizing about the future

It’s possible (that) I’ll be… -ing It’s possible I’ll be working abroad

I might have… + past participle I might have retired by then

(I think) I’ll be… I think I’ll be back at university studying

I hope to be… -ing I hope to be living on a tropical island somewhere

I want to be… I want to be an architect with my own company

Hopefully, … - ing… Hopefully, working from home and not travelling to


the office everyday

Indicating time

at some point I’m planning to study the piano at some point

in October / the winter / 2020, etc. I’m going to university in September

in five / ten / twenty’ years time I want to be retired in ten years’ time

in the next few days / weeks / months, etc. I’m going to New Zealand in the next few
weeks

this October / winter, etc. I’m going to try and learn to drive this summer

by the end of the year / next month / then, etc. I want to have a new job by next December

PROPOSALS

consultation a formal meeting to discuss something

There were extensive consultations between the two parties

enforce make sure that people obey a particular law or rule

It’s the job of the police to enforce the law

peak times moments when the greatest number of people are travelling

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The train journey always takes longer during peak times

core the central and most important part of something

Nurses should be allowed to concentrate on their core activity – looking after patients

prior happening or existing before something else

Prior knowledge of statistics is not necessary

UNIT 12

QUEENSTOWN, NEW ZEALAND

ultimate most extreme; best, worst, greatest, etc.

This race will be the ultimate test of your skill

not averse to not opposed to doing something; liking something

She was not averse to the idea

crystal clear completely clear and bright

The water in the river is crystal clear

gold rush a situation in which a lot of people suddenly go to a place where gold
has recently been discovered

The California Gold Rush started in 1848 when gold was discovered in Coloma

thrilling exciting and enjoyable

The experience was absolutely thrilling

outskirts the parts of a town or city which are furthest from the centre

We live on the outskirts of Wellington

wary careful when doing something because you think there may be a
danger

Our cat is very wary of strangers

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KIWI WORDS UNDER ATTACK

Kiwi (informal) a person from New Zealand; from, of or relation to New Zealand

When you go to New Zealand, if you want to understand the Kiwis, you need to learn some
Kiwi slang

harrumphing express dissatisfaction or disapproval

Your grandfather is harrumphing about the younger generation again

stoically able to suffer pain or trouble without complaining

She stoically accepted her illness

rant loud or angry complaint

I find his rants against the government boring

pedantic too worried about small details or rules

His insistence on always doing things this way is a bit pedantic

pounce move suddenly to attack or catch something

The cat pounced on the mouse as it came out of the hole

heck (informal exclamation) used to show that you are slightly annoyed or surprised

Oh, heck! I’m going to be late!

interloper a person who is present in a place where they do not belong

She felt like an interloper at the family reunion

pervasive existing in all parts; spreading gradually to all parts of a place or thing

There’s a rather pervasive smell in this hotel

cringe feel embarrassed or uncomfortable about something

I cringe when I think about what I said

make headway make progress, especially if it is slow and difficult

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We are making headway with the negotiations

baffling confusing; difficult to explain

Many countries’ customs are baffling to foreigners

NEW ZEALAND ENGLISH

truck a large road vehicle for carrying heavy goods and materials; a lorry

Emergency supplies arrived by truck

away laughing finish or do something with no problem

He’s done the shopping and is away laughing

mates’ rates getting a good deal from someone

I got the computer really cheap. Trev sold it to me at mates’ rates

pack a sad be moody or bad tempered

Don’t be late, mate, or he’ll pack a sad

clobbering machine pressure from society to conform with accepted standards

If you try to be different, the great big clobbering machine will get you

tiki tour scenic route

We took a wrong turn and had to take a tiki tour back to Wellington

a box of fluffies a very happy state; wonderful, great

Everything is a box of fluffies

tramper a person who goes on long walks, a hiker

The trampers took a tiki tour so they wouldn’t get hit by any trucks on the road

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MODULE 5B
UNIT 1

TRAINING

role-play a learning activity In which a person acts how another person might behave In
a particular situation

Role-play allows learners to practise in a safe situation.

GP general oracntoner a doctor who practises medicine in the local community,


not In a hospital

I wasn't feeling well so I went to see our local GP.

folk (informal) people in general

The folk in our office are unhappy with the new timetable.

Cascade down pass something on to people it lower positions in an organization

Information should cascade down through the departments of an organization.

impactful (AmE) having a major effect.

The new design is very impactful and eye-catching.

facilitator a person who helps somebody to do something by giving advice and


discussing problems

A teacher often acts as a facilitator for learning.

TALKING ABOUT TRAINING AND LEARNING

nurture help something or somebody to develop and be successful

It's important to nurture a good working relationship with your colleagues.

upheaval a big change that causes a lot of confusion, worry, and problems

I don’t want the upheaval of changing jobs again.

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holistic considering something as an interconnected whole, rather than as a collection
of disconnected parts

We need to take a holistic approach to these negotiations.

radical concerning the most basic and important bars of something; thorough and
complete

There are radical differences between Apple and Microsoft.

deferential being polite or respectful

Some bosses like their employees to be assertive; others like them to be deferential.

TALKING ABOUT TRAINING AND LEARNING: CHECK THESE WORDS

geared towards
designed or organized to achieve a particular purpose

The programme is geared towards preparing students for work.

the bottom line the amount of money that is a profit or a loss after everything has
been calculated

Sales last month failed to add to the company's bottom line.

remit the area of activity over which a person or group has authority or control

This decision is outside the remit of the committee.

drawback a disadvantage or problem that makes something less attractive

The main drawback of the idea is the cost.

COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES ON THE TELEPHONE

compliant in agreement with a set of rules

We need all our software to be compliant with the Data Protection Act.

off-topic not relevant to the subject in question

I think that comment is entirely off-topic.

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hazardous involving risk or danger, especially to health

This list includes chemicals which are potentially hazardous to health.

tailor-made made for a particular person or purpose and therefore very suitable

All of the courses are tailor-made for each department.

COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES ON THE TELEPHONE

Checking facts

Did you say ...?

.. did you say?

What was .. again?

Checking understanding

What you're saying is that ..

Do you mean that ...?

Asking for clarifications

I‘m not quite clear about your last suggestion.

I’m not quite sure I understand.

Could you run it by me again?

Could you clarify exactly what the problems were?

Could I ask you to spell out some details?

Dealing with misunderstanding

It's not that we don't .... We don't

What I‘m saying is ..

That's not what I mean. What I mean is ..

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Digressing

Just a thought. It may not be entirely relevant, but…

That reminds me. Have you heard ...?

By the way, talking about…

Resuming

Actually, it doesn't matter - it's a bit off-topic right now.

Anyway... sorry. That's a bit of a digression.

Let’s get back to the main issue.

PARTICIPLE CLAUSES - THE FUTURE IN THE PAST

Faced with the need to be fully compliant with the new legislation by early next year, I think
we ..

Working on the principle that they can all pass the content on to their own staff, we should
have

Given the limited number of companies offering this training, we don't actually have much
choice.

Having discussed it with the relevant people, we now think ..

I was going to contact her this week, but apparently she's on holiday.

They were supposed to call me before 2 p.m., but I haven't heard anything.

I was meeting Jim at 9 am. tomorrow, but he's just cancelled.

PARTICIPLE CLAUSES

Participle clauses

1. An adverbial clause begins with a conjunction (eg. because, when, after) and gives
extra information.

When I travel by train, I prefer to sit by the window.

Often we can use a clause with a present participle instead. This is called a participle
clause.

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Travelling by train, I prefer to sit by the window.

2. We can use most conjunctions (e.g.. after, when, while, before) before the participle,
but not because.

After travelling by train, I needed some fresh air. (Not: Because travelling by train, I
allowed plenty of time.)

3. Usually we use the present participle (verb + -ing) for present and recent situations,
in place of the present simple / continuous / perfect and past simple / continuous.

Since living in Dubai, I've learnt to cope with the hot weather. (= since I have lived ...)

Learning English, I often wrote difficult words on post-it notes. (= when I learnt / was
learning ...)

4. Having + past participle is used in place of the past perfect (for a past action before
another past action).

Having decided to hire Fatima Mattar, we made her a job offer. (= after we had
decided ...)

5. We can use a passive participle in place of a passive adverbial structure.

Offered the job, I wasn't sure whether to accept it. (= when I had been offered the job
...)

6. Note also the use of given, which has a meaning similar to because + be

Given his reluctance to accept criticism, you'll have to be careful how you word your
email (= because he is reluctant...)

THE FUTURE IN THE PAST

Was going to

1. We can use was going to to talk about the future from a point of view in the past, to
talk about former plans and intentions.

I was going to visit our Alicante office too, but the plane was delayed.

2. It is the intention that is in the past and has now changed. The time the plan or
intention refers to can still be in the future.

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Tomorrow we were going to go to the races, but the course has been flooded.

3. The time the intention or plan refers to may also be in the past.

Yesterday I was going to have a meeting with my boss, but she was ill.

4. We use this structure to explain why something didn't happen, to make excuses, to
explain changes to plans, and to give background to our current intentions or
thoughts.

I was going to call you, but I forgot.

We were going to meet in the cafe, but it was too noisy.

5. We can also use perfect tenses with going to for a different perspective in the past.

She’s been going to visit this office for ages - I don't think she ever will.

They had been going to make me redundant, if l hadn't taken early retirement.

Other structures

A number of other structures are also possible.

1. The past continuous can be used for former arrangements (just as we would use the
present continuous for current arrangements).

I was meeting their sales rep at 3 p.m., but he‘s just cancelled. (Compare with: I'm
meeting their sales rep at 3 pm.)

2. Was to / were to is possible as the past form of be to, particularly to talk in a formal
style about past plans and arrangements.

We were to launch the new products at the International Spring Convention but
there were delays.

EXPRESSING DISSATISFACTION

understatement a statement that makes something seem less important, impressive,


or serious than it really is

To say the figures are disappointing is an understatement.

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up to scratch as good as something should be; satisfactory

His work simply isn't up to scratch.

have a lot on very busy (especially at work)

I don't think she can take on this project; she's got a lot on at the moment

EXPRESSING DISSATISFACTION

Not useful to the speaker

I have to admit. I'm not getting much out of it

I can‘t really see the point of . -ing

I just don't think this is the best use of my time.

Making the speaker impatient or bored

It's doing my head in!

It's really testing my patience.

To be honest. I'm finding it a bit frustrating that …

Not as good as the speaker had hoped

It hasn't lived up to expectations so far.

I have to say, I was expecting something a bit more…

Not the required quality

It's just not up to scratch.

To be frank, I'm not very happy with …

This is just not good enough.

The speaker cannot tolerate any more

I think I've reached my limit.

This is ridiculous.

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UNIT 2

JOB SATISFACTION

moderately to an average extent

He only did moderately well in the exam.

commission an amount of money that is paid to somebody for selling goods and
which increases with the amount sold

You get a 10% commission on everything you sell

incentive something that encourages you to do something

There is a tax incentive to encourage saving.

ceremony a public or religious occasion that includes a series of formal or


traditional actions

The opening ceremony for the new offices will start at midday.

pick up get information or a new skill without making a deliberate effort

She picked up Spanish when she was living in Mexico.

DISCUSSING EMPLOYER / EMPLOYEE EXPECTATIONS

correlation a connection between two things in whim one thing changes as the other
does

There is a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and company profits.

atmosphere the feeling or mood in a place or situation

The hotel offers a friendly atmosphere and personal service.

derive get something from something

He always derives great pleasure from closing a deal.

worthwhile important, enjoyable; worth spending time, money, or energy on

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It's worthwhile finding a second buyer just in case.

DISCUSSING EMPLOYER / EMPLOYEE EXPECTATIONS

prospective expected to do something or become something; potential

He showed a prospective buyer around the property.

know-how knowledge of how to do something and experience of doing it

We need skilled workers with technical know-how.

rapport a friendly relationship in which people understand each other very


well

She understood the importance of establishing a close rapport with clients.

on-the-job while working; at work

We provide on-the-job training.

GIVING AN IMPROMPTU PRESENTATION

sketch out give a general description of something: outline

She sketched out her plan for tackling the problem.

touch on mention or deal with a subject in only a few words

He was only able to touch on a few aspects of the work.

specifics the details of a subject which need to be thought about or discussed

So, that's the broad plan - now let's get down to the specifics.

brainstorming having a group of people think about something all at the same time.
often in order to solve a problem

We had a brainstorming session to come up with as many ideas as possible.

rough not exact; approximate

I've got a rough idea of what I want to do.

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GIVING AN IMPROMPTU PRESENTATION

Setting the context

Where we are at the moment is…

What I can tell you is that...

I'd like to be able to… but unfortunately I can‘t…

You‘ll appreciate that I still need to...

Signalling intention

Perhaps it would be a good idea if I just...

I'd just like to sketch out...

Let me just touch on...

I think that’s covered everything.

Responding to questions and challenges

I was coming to that.

I have to admit that

You're quite right, we need to address this.

That's a good point.

Highlighting key points

So, the first thing is…

And I think you should be aware that…

So that's one key point right there.

…and I think this is a really important point...

So, the main thing to remember is...

Responding to requests for detail

Let me check… and I'll get back to you.

I can't remember exactly, but off the top of my head...

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I can double check if you like?

I don‘t have the exact figures, but what if l...?

USING QUESTIONS

Now, how can I put this?

If it was just one or two individuals, then just how useful are the results?

Anya, can you give us an overview of where we are with this?

I assume everyone participated in the brainstorming, did they?

I don't know if you've heard of a 'balanced scorecard’?

It's probably best if I just highlight some of the ideas we came up with, don't you think?

And you've still got time to do that, have you?

Would you like to run through the union complaints briefly?

OK. How long do I have?

Anya, you haven't said anything about management training?

Using questions

yes / no questions

Yes / no questions are questions that could be answered yes or no. They usually begin with an
auxiliary verb or be, followed by the subject. It is often polite and appropriate to give extra,
more detailed information along with the answer.

A. Is this the best solution?

B. Yes, after detailed research we're convinced that it is.

wh- questions

Wh- questions ask for specific information about people, places, etc, and begin with what,
where, when, why, how, which, how many, etc, followed by inversion of subject and auxiliary
(note the inversion of did and you in the example below).

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A. Where did you study for your MBA?

B. In Stanford. Why do you ask?

Using statements as questions

1. statement can sometimes have the function of a question. In writing, this is shown by
a question mark.

A. And you trained as a lawyer before moving into baking?

B. Yes, that's right.

2. Particularly in speech, we can sometimes use parts of statements to similar effect.

A. And your other interests?

B. I like football and tennis.

Indirect questions and modals in questions

1. In indirect questions, the question that asks for information is contained within
another question or a statement. Unlike with standard questions, there is no inversion
of subject and auxiliary.

I'd like to know how many days annual leave you offer. (More direct: How many days
annual leave do you offer?)

2. Modal verbs are also used to make a question less direct.

Would you say that you're a team player? (More direct. Are you a team player?)

May I ask if you'd be likely to accept the job? (More direct: Are you likely to accept
the job?)

Could I check whether you've signed in with security? (More direct: Did you sign in
with security?)

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USING QUESTIONS

Question tags

1. We can follow a statement with a question tag to check or confirm information, or to


check that the person we are talking to agrees with us or is following what we are
saying. Usually a positive statement has a negative tag and vice versa.

They said they'd arrive around midday, didn’t they?

It's probably best if we deal with that later, don't you think?

2. Note that it is possible to have a positive tag after a positive statement, to express, for
example, a reaction to something you have just heard.

And you're happy with that decision, are you?

Functions of questions

Questions can have a range of functions beyond asking for information. We can use them

1. to check that the audience is following or that they understand

It's not, is it, a question of threats, but of opportunities, do you see?

2. to set up or introduce a subject which you can then explain

What are our objectives for the coming year? Well, first of all, we hope to...

3. to give yourself time to think, or to give the audience a pause in concentration

And then, erm, how can I put this? Well, we have decided that...

4. to challenge what somebody has said

And you really believe that these measures will have an effect, do you?

5. to lead someone towards a specific point of view

That may not be a good thing, surely?

Don‘t you agree that it's better to wait?

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DEALING WITH DIFFICULT QUESTIONS

all over in or on all parts of something

Snow is falling all over the country.

hard line a strict policy or attitude

The government took a hard line on the strike.

up to speed having the most recent or accurate information

I’ll bring you up to speed on the new developments.

disclose give someone previously secret information about something

The spokesman refused to disclose details about the takeover to the press.

DEALING WITH DIFFICULT QUESTIONS

Admitting ignorance

I'm afraid I don‘t know any more than you do.

Sorry. I don't know what you mean.

I'm afraid I'm not up to speed on...

Refusing to answer

I’m sorry, but I can’t answer that

I would prefer not to talk about it.

I'm afraid I can't disclose that information – it’s confidential.

Avoiding the question

Well, it's not that straightforward.

It's hard to say at the moment.

I can‘t really comment.

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Distancing yourself from the question

I’m afraid I'm really not in a position to talk about that.

It's not for me to say.

It's nothing to do with me.

UNIT 3

THE LIVES OF OTHERS

festivity activities that are organized to celebrate a special event

The traditional Christmas and New Year festivities took place in the centre of town.

bonnet a hat tied with strings under the chin

Little Georgina looks lovely in her bonnet.

wrap a piece of fabric that a woman wears for decoration or to keep warm

All the women wore wraps around their heads.

flamboyancy the quality of being bright, colourful and noticeable

Flamboyancy is a key characteristic of the festival.

carnival a public festival that usually happens at the same time every year, involving
music, dancing and colourful clothes

There is a local carnival every year.

reggae a type of West Indian popular music

Even the police were dancing to the reggae at the carnival.

rural connected with or like the countryside

More and more people are moving from rural areas into the cities.

ARE DYING LANGUAGES WORTH SAVING?

handful a small amount of people or things

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Only a handful of people came to the meeting.

quirk an aspect of somebody's personality or behaviour that is a little strange

He has the quirk of staring at his food before he eats it.

irrational not based on, or not using clear logical thought

Being scared of the dark is irrational.

prop up help something that is having difficulties

The council has promised to prop up declining industry in the local area.

subsidy money that is paid by the government or an organization to reduce the costs
of services or of producing goods so that their prices can be kept low

The government is thinking of reducing the agricultural subsidy.

in the public good for the benefit of ordinary people

Increasing the speed limit is not in the public good.

viable capable of developing and surviving independently

There needs to be a viable population of this endangered species if it is to survive.

doomed to fail certain to have an unfortunate outcome

We have outdated products and no money to develop new ones. This business is doomed to
fail.

handwringing a display of worry or distress

There's often a lot of handwringing before a wedding.

TRADITIONS

Talking about quantity

We have lots of… We have lots of traditional costumes.

We have loads of… (informal) We have loads of strange traditions.

There isn‘t a single… There isn‘t a single special holiday.

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There are lots of local… There are lots of local holidays.

Talking about places

Different regions have… Different regions have different costumes.

…vary from region to region / place to place. Traditions vary from place to place.

You can tell someone from … from someone who's from You can tell someone from the
north from someone who's from the south.

Talking about dress

People don't wear… People don't wear those costumes every day.

They wear them for celebrations / festivals / festivities / carnival / special occasions.

They wear them for carnival.

For the women / men / children it would be…For the children it would be special hats.

Talking about traditions

One interesting thing is… One interesting thing is the food.

It's quite different from… It's quite different from what happens in other countries.

There's a great tradition of… There's a great tradition of music and dancing.

Traditional culture is… Traditional culture is mainly rural.

Talking about change

…a lot of change. I think there is a lot of change.

…changing a little bit. It's probably changing a little bit.

…not as popular anymore / as they used to be. They are not as popular as they used to be.

…not changing at all. I don‘t think they're changing at all.

…is inevitable. It's inevitable.

REPORTS

facility a special feature of a service, machine, etc. that makes it possible to do


something extra

The software has a facility for checking spelling.

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dispatch send a letter, parcel, or message somewhere

Goods are dispatched within 24 hours of your order reaching us.

doorstep a step outside the door of a building or the area that is very close to the door

The police turned up on their doorstep at three o'clock in the morning.

prior happening or existing before something else

Prior knowledge of statistics is not necessary.

worthwhile important, enjoyable; worth spending time, money, or energy on

It's worthwhile finding a second buyer just in case.

UNIT 4

GEORGE ORWELL

novel a fictional story long enough to fill a book

I like to read Stephen King novels.

surveillance the act of carefully watching a person suspected of a crime, or a place where a
crime may be committed

The police are keeping the suspects under constant surveillance.

satire a way of criticizing a person, an idea or an institution in which you use humour
to show their faults or weaknesses

The novel is a stinging satire on American politics.

hack secretly find a way to look at and / or change information on somebody else's
computer without permission

He hacked into the bank's computer.

tramp (disapproving) person with no home or job who travels from place to place, usually
asking people in the street for food or money; a homeless person

The tramp sat in the shop doorway asking for money.

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live rough live or sleep on the street, usually because you have no home or
money

It's very sad to see young people living rough in this day and age.

NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR

china white clay used to make delicate cups, plates, etc.

The vase is made of china.

wink close one eye and open it again quickly

He winked at the boss as he said it.

sloppiness the state of containing too much liquid

The food was inedible due to its sloppiness.

pannikin a metal container for drink or food

Penny packed her pannikin in her backpack.

pedant a person who is too concerned with small details or rules especially when
learning or teaching

The new consultant is a bit of a pedant to be honest.

wastage amount of something that is wasted

There is little wastage from the new production processes.

afterthought a thing that is thought of, said or added later, and is often not carefully
planned

They only invited Jack and Sarah as an afterthought.

vapid lacking interest or intelligence

That is a vapid use of our resources.

unorthodox different from what is usual or accepted

We chose an unorthodox method of negotiation

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divine find out something by guessing

She could divine what he was thinking just by looking at him.

Abolish officially end a law, a system, or an institution

This tax should be abolished.

ORWELLIAN LANGUAGE

The following words and expressions from the extract of Nineteen Eighty-Four were invented
or popularized by George Orwell. They are now commonly used in English:

newspeak language that is not clear or honest, for example the language that is used in
political propaganda

'Negative growth' is newspeak for contraction.

Big Brother a person or organization exercising total control over people's lives

Big Brother will be watching you from next week when security cameras start to operate in
London.

thoughtcrime an idea or opinion that is considered socially unacceptable or criminal

You have to be careful about what you write online, in case you are accused of committing a
thoughtcrime.

prole (informal, derogatory) a member of the working class

The proles have no jobs and no hope under this government.

The following colloquial words and expressions also appear in the extract

gabble talk quickly so that people cannot hear you clearly or understand you

She was nervous and started to gabble.

get on used to talk or ask about how well somebody is doing in a particular situation

How’s your painting getting on?

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be on the tip of your tongue if a word or name is on the tip of your tongue, you are sure
that you know it but you cannot remember it

Oh, I‘ve forgotten the name of the film… it's on the tip of my tongue.

be written in / on someone's face be very obvious to other people from the expression
on somebody‘s face

He had seen terrible things - it was written in his fate.

UNIT 5

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

vulnerable weak and easily hurt, physically or emotionally

The sudden resignation of the financial director put the company in a very vulnerable
position.

fuel poverty the condition of being unable to afford to keep one's home adequately
heated.

Poor insulation of homes and rising fuel prices both contribute to fuel poverty.

eradicate completely get rid of something bad or unwanted

We are determined to eradicate discrimination from the organization.

tariff a set of fixed charges paid for a service or supply such as electricity or water

The tariff that we pay for water has gone up again.

entitlement something that you have an official right to

You contributions will affect your pension entitlement.

topical connected with something that is happening or of interest at the current time

Unemployment is once again a topical issue.

TALKING ABOUT RESOURCES

pledge formally promise to give or do something

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The government pledged their support for the plan.

deploy use something effective

Small companies can often deploy resources more freely.

embrace accept an idea or proposal with enthusiasm

It is unlikely that these countries will embrace capitalist ideas.

enhance increase or improve quality

This is an opportunity to enhance the reputation of the company.

nurture help something to develop and be successful

It's important to nurture a good working relationship.

secondment a temporary transfer of a worker to another position, department or


employment

He spent six months on secondment to the HR department.

green credentials proof of acting in an environmentally-friendly way

Their green credentials have won them lots of customers.

cynic a person who believes that people only do things to help themselves rather
than for sincere reasons

Don‘t be such a cynic! I'm sure they‘re doing it for all the right reasons.

TALKING ABOUT RESOURCES

equity the value of a company's shares

Equity in the telecommunications sector is going up and up.

sound reliable and sensible

She gave me some very sound advice.

intangible something that does not exist as a physical thing but which is still valuable

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Reputation is a highly undervalued intangible.

feasibility possibility or likelihood of achieving something

I doubt the feasibility of the plan.

DISCUSSING OPTIONS AND REACHING DECISIONS IN MEETINGS

admin administration

Admin costs are passed on to the customer.

purpose-built designed and made for a particular purpose

The software is purpose-built for us.

cope with deal successfully with something difficult

She can easily cope with the stresses and strains of the job.

unfeasible not possible and unlikely to be achieved

The amounts you're proposing are unfeasible.

worst-case scenario involving the worst situation that could happen

In the worst-case scenario, more than ten thousand people might be affected.

DISCUSSING OPTIONS AND REACHING DECISIONS IN MEETINGS

Setting the context / discussing strategy

Looking at the situation from a long-term perspective

We need to develop a clear strategy to...

I think we need to look at the bigger picture.

We have to bear in mind the long-term viability of...

Stating / discussing options

We have a number of options.

I think our options are quite clear here.

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How would it work if you / we...?

Basically, we don't have much choice... We can either... or we (accept that) ...

We're in a really strong position to...

Discussing feasibility / evaluating options

There's no point in -ing, If we don’t / can't…

Provided we… I'm convinced we can...

I'm not sure that would work.

Realistically, would we be able to finance this strategy?

Assuming we decided to... we could also...

Reaching agreement

So, the general consensus is that...

Are there any other points to consider?

Right. So we're decided.

USING CONDITIONALS

There's no point in investing in a system upgrade if we don't have the space, the personnel,
or the finances…

If the IT system is updated, you'll be more efficient in terms of your customer admin.

If we made them our key users, we could gradually train up the rest.

If you'd recruited more young employees at the start, they would have had some IT
knowledge from school.

If we hadn't invested in the system, we'd be way behind the competition.

Zero conditional

1. Use zero conditionals when the relationship between the situation and result is always
true or always the same; there is no element of doubt.

If we hit our targets, we get a bonus.

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2. We can also use two past tenses, to talk about something that always used to be true.

We got time off if we worked weekends.

3. We can use a zero conditional informally, instead of a first conditional.

If we lose the contract, we're in trouble.

First conditional

1. Use the first conditional when a situation is very likely to have the result given.

If you arrive late, you'll miss the first part of the meeting.

2. The present continuous and present perfect are possible in the if-clause.

If Jenny's working on this project, she'll learn a lot of useful stuff.

If Amit's broken his leg you'll have to give the presentation.

3. Other modal expressions such as can, may, be going to are possible in the result.

If we don't gain market share, we may be in a sticky situation.

I'm going to change distributors if Kikibo don't get their act together.

Second conditional

1. Use the second conditional when a situation is hypothetical or imagined.

If taxes rose, we would consider relocating.

2. The second conditional is also useful to make suggestions, offers, warnings, etc. more
polite.

If you arrived at meetings on time, we'd get much more done.

3. Might and could are also possible in the result.

We could save hundreds of hours if we adopted the new system.

Third conditional

1. Use the third conditional to talk about past situations that did not happen, to express
regret, or for criticisms.

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If you'd given him the job, you wouldn’t have regretted it.

If I'd left earlier, I wouldn't have missed my train.

2. Might and could are also possible in the result.

We could have saved hundreds of hours if we had adopted the new

Type Situation Result


zero If + present present
If you hand in work late, you make a bad impression.
first If + present will+ infinitive
If we lose the contract, we'll be in trouble.
second If + past tense would + infinitive
If we lost the contract, my job would be on the line.
third If+ past perfect would have + past participle
If we'd got the contract, we'd have made a lot of money.

USING CONDITIONALS

Mixed conditional

1. We can use a second conditional if-clause with a third conditional result.

If you cared more about your work, you would have been promoted years ago.

(General hypothesis with an imagined past result.)

2. More often we use a third conditional if-clause with a second conditional result.

If I had got the job, I would be commuting for four hours a day.

(Imagining something that didn't happen in the past.)

Passives

Passive forms are possible in all types of conditional sentences, in either clause.

If the contract is lost, we'll be in trouble.

If we adopted the new system, hundreds of hours could be saved.

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Other words instead of if

1. In many conditional sentences, when can replace if. This makes the situation sound
more likely. The same is true of every time.

When we hit our targets, we get a bonus.

Every time we hit our time, we get a bonus.

2. In zero, first, and second conditionals, we can use unless to mean ‘except if’ or ‘if not‘.

Unless we keep our contract with Zimiercz, we'll be without a Polish partner
company.

3. Participles such as providing, provided, assuming, and supposing, and phrases such as
on the condition that and as long as, can also replace if.

Providing the building goes well, our new offices will be ready in May 2018.

As long as the pound stays strong, our projections will be realistic.

DEALING WITH MISUNDERSTANDINGS

net profit the actual profit after working expenses not included in the calculation of
gross profit have been paid.

They made a net profit of £2 million.

gross in total, before anything is taken away

She earns £25,000 a year gross.

shift a period of time worked by a group of workers who start as another group
finishes

He works the night shift at the factory.

DEALING WITH MISUNDERSTANDINGS

Saying you haven‘t understood

I don't know what you're talking about.

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What do you mean?

I don't get it.

Responding to a misunderstanding indirectly

Sorry if l didn't make that clear.

I was thinking more along the lines of...

That's not really what I meant - what I actually wanted to say was...

What I meant was...

It may seem..., but actually...

No, that's not exactly what I'm saying.

Responding to a misunderstanding directly

I didn't mean that.

No, you've got it wrong.

Can I put this straight?

No, that's not right.

UNIT 6

LEADERSHIP

crucial extremely important because it will affect other things

Winning this contract is crucial to the success of the company.

status quo the situation as it is now or how it was before a recent change

We must restore the status quo.

bombastic seeming important and impressive but actually with little meaning

His speech didn't carry much weight - it was nothing more than bombastic rhetoric.

cognizant knowledgeable or understanding of something

We need to be cognizant of the importance of the task.

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hone develop and improve something over a period of time

She honed her debating skills at college.

au fait (from French) completely familiar with something

It's my first week here so I'm not completely au fait with the system.

prima donna (disapproving) a person who thinks they are very important because they are
good at something and who behaves very badly when they do not get what they want

He's been a prima donna ever since he landed the Texicom contract.

TALKING ABOUT LEADERSHIP STYLES

overt done in an open way and not secretly

There was overt aggression during the meeting.

autocratic ruling with complete power

He's an autocratic boss who doesn't like to hear other people's opinions.

delegate give part of your work or power to someone in a lower position than you

Some managers find it difficult to delegate.

trait a particular quality in your personality

Politeness is not one of his best traits.

disparate made up of parts or people that are very different from each other

They are a very disparate group of individuals.

duplication unnecessarily do something a second time

We should avoid unnecessary duplication of effort.

instil gradually make somebody feel, think or behave in a particular way over a
period of time

I‘m trying to instil discipline into the team.

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cohesion the act or state of sticking together

The cohesion between departments leaves a lot to be desired.

fuselage the main part of an aircraft in which passengers and goods are carried

We had to wait at the boarding gate while engineers inspected the fuselage.

vice versa used to say that the opposite of what you have just said is also true

You can look at the report first and then do the numbers, or vice versa.

daunting something which makes you feel nervous and less confident

Starting a new job can be a daunting prospect.

paycheck a way of referring to the amount of money that you earn

He'll get a big paycheck at the end of the project.

micromanage control every part of an activity or organization, usually in a negative sense

Our boss tries to micromanage everything in the department.

GIVING A BRIEFING ON CHANGE

bring up to speed fully inform and notify

I'I bring you up to speed with regards to the day‘s events.

e-banking banking in which the customer conducts transactions electronically via the
Internet

It's hard to beat e-banking for the convenience it offers customers.

core markets the main people to whom a business sells goods or services

We need to target our core markets otherwise we're wasting our time.

implementation the process of putting a decision or plan into effect

The implementation of the new software is taking longer than we had planned.

seminar a meeting for discussion or training

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On Tuesday I'm going to a management seminar.

proactive controlling a situation by making things happen rather than waiting for things
to happen and then reacting to them

Jenny has suggested a proactive approach to this project.

raise an issue talk about an important topic

I need to raise an issue with Tom in the next meeting.

implication a possible effect or result of an action or decision

They failed to consider the wider implications of their actions.

recoup get back an amount of money that you have spent or lost

We hope to recoup our initial investment in the first year.

GIVING A BRIEFING ON CHANGE

Distancing the facts

A decision was taken…

It has been agreed that…

It is proposed that…

My understanding is…

Apparently…

As I understand it…

Focusing on positive benefits

What this will allow us to do is ..., something we couldn't do before.

…it will be well worth

In the longer term, the benefits are clear.

Another great thing about this development is…

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Making people feel involved

You… are crucial to…

Each one of you has a key role to play in…

I'd like to see all of you… -ing

I would encourage all of you to…

Expressing concerns

I understand the reasons for… but I'm slightly concerned about…

I like the idea of…, but I‘m not very happy about…

I have some reservations / concerns about…

Responding to concerns

That's a valid point, but I really don't see this as a problem.

I understand where you're coming from…

I understand your concerns, but I think we need to look at the positive side.

…let's give this a chance to work.

Asking for trances

I wonder if you have any information about this?

Can you assure us / give us an assurance that... ?

What assurances can you give us that...?

Are there any guarantees that… ?

DISTANCING AND DEPERSONALIZING USING THE PASSIVE

It is proposed that we hold a series of seminars for team leaders.

Ok, you're all aware that a decision was taken at last week's strategy meeting that affects all
of us.

It has been agreed that we are going to combine our e-banking systems

The switch over to the new system will be coordinated centrally...

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DISTANCING AND DEPERSONALIZING USING THE PASSIVE

Forms

1. In all tenses (simple, continuous. or perfect) we form the passive with be in the
appropriate tense + past participle.

Mistakes were being made. (past continuous)

Eight applications have been received. (present perfect)

2. Passive modals are also possible in simple, continuous, or perfect forms.

Forms may be filled in with black ink, or typed.

The computer network must be being updated - I can't access it.

You timesheet should have been received by now.

Have to, going to, etc. all follow the same rules.

You're going to be offered a position in the Frankfurt office.

3. A passive infinitive is to be + past participle. A passive perfect infinitive is to have

been + past participle.

I‘m delighted to be offered the post, but unfortunately I must decline.

I‘m delighted to have been offered the post, but unfortunately I must decline.

4. A passive -ing form is being + past participle. A passive perfect -ing form is having been
+ past participle.

Being asked to leave the company wasn't pleasant.

Having been offered three options Jim chose the cheapest.

5. The object of an active sentence becomes the subject of a passive sentence. If a verb
has two objects, either object can become the subject.

Someone at the door gave us a handout.

We were given a handout.

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A handout was given to us.

Verbs that do not take an object (e.g. go, come. full) cannot be made passive.

Profits fell last year. (Not: Profits were fallen last year)

Use

1. We use the passive to focus attention on the action mentioned, or on the object of the
action (the person or thing affected by it.) We do not know who does the action, or it
isn't important.

The office has been redecorated. It looks so much better than before!

2. Using the passive helps create an impersonal style. This is often appropriate in formal
English, for example in business letters and reports, where a personal style would not
be appropriate.

Results for the first quarter were published on 6 April, and were strong.

3. The passive is a useful way of adding distance between an action and those doing it,
for example, when giving people bad news.

Regrettably, redundancies will have to be mode. Some of those sitting here will be
affected. (Compare: I'll have to make redundancies. It will affect some of you.)

4. In discourse, we often use the passive if it provides a better link with the sentence
before. In these cases, we can say who does the action using by.

We asked for ways to improve customer relations. Making changes to our


complaints procedure was suggested by several respondents.

DISTANCING AND DEPERSONALIZING USING THE PASSIVE

Passive reporting

1. We use the passive with reporting verbs when we don't know, or would prefer not to
say, whose words we are reporting - for example, if their identity is confidential or
sensitive.

I've been asked to write you a reference.

2. In the active sentence below, Carol is an indirect object.

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Jim told Carol the likely result of the restructuring.

The indirect object becomes the subject of a passive sentence.

Carol was told the likely result of the restructuring.

Some reporting verbs do not take an indirect object, so cannot form passives in this way. These
include: agree, allege, announce, argue, claim, decide, imply, predict, propose, report, say,
state, and suggest. Instead we use them in a structure with an empty subject: it + be + past
participle + that.

It was alleged that you stole money from the company.

It is reported that the CEO of ClarkeCorp is set to resign.

EXPRESSING PERSONAL VIEWS

sort out organize in a satisfactory way

Can you sort out the hotel for tomorrow?

proper right, appropriate, or correct

We should have had a proper discussion before voting.

interference the act of getting involved in and trying to influence a situation which doesn‘t
concern you

The company doesn't like interference in their internal affairs.

pointless having no purpose; not worth doing

He argued that the merger was pointless.

EXPRESSING PERSONAL VIEWS

Encouraging someone to express personal views

So what did you think of…?

Such as?

You're not in favour of..., then?

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I was interested in what you said earlier about...

What did you like about it in particular?

It must have been...?

Encouraging someone to express personal views

How does it feel to…?


You were saying earlier that
I heard…
What do you mean?
So…?
What are your thoughts on…?
I'd like to know what you think about it.

Expressing personal views

To be honest with you…

Personally speaking…

I have to say…

To tell you the truth...

To be perfectly honest…

Honestly?

Personally, I think...

I look at it like this...

My attitude is...

UNIT 7

GETTING PERSONAL

fairly to same extent but not very

I know him fairly well, but I wouldn‘t say we were really close friends.

acquaintance a person that you know but who is not a close friend

Claire has a wide circle of friends and acquaintances.

catch up with talk to someone who you haven't seen for a long time

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I'm going to catch up with my friends from London at the weekend.

out and about travelling around a place

We've been out and about talking to people all over town.

IS 29 THE PERFECT AGE?

smug looking or feeling too pleased about something you have done or achieved

What are you looking so smug about?

forge put a lot of effort into making something successful or strong so that it will last

Strategic alliances are being forged with major European companies.

pass out lose consciousness

He passed out after the car crash.

wholeheartedly completely and enthusiastically

I agree with you wholeheartedly.

hot sexually attractive

Angelina Jolie is so hot!

subpar below an average level

I'm afraid these results are subpar.

go out on a limb risk doing something that other people are not prepared to do

I wouldn't go out on a limb like this if l didn‘t have the data to justify it.

flawed having a fundamental weakness or imperfection

We can‘t accept this delivery - the goods are flawed.

flock gather together in large numbers

Thousands of people flocked to the beach this weekend.

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fair-weather friend a person whose friendship cannot be relied on in times of difficulty

Sarah turned out to be a fair-weather friend.

FRIENDS AND ACQUAINTANCES

Talking about your personality

I'm fairly… I‘m fairly easy-going.

I'm quite… I‘m quite hard-working.

I think I'm… I think I'm willing to try new things.

Adjectives for personality:

outgoing friendly easy-going

willing to try new things sociable quiet

shy hard-working

Talking about changes

When I was younger… When I was younger, I went out more often.

As I've got older… As I've got older I stay in with my family a lot more.

I find now that… I find now that my social life is not so important.

I used to be… I used to be quieter.

Talking about friends and acquaintance

I have lots of… I have lots of acquaintance

I've loads of… I‘ve loads of really good friends.

I have quite a few… I have quite a few close friends.

I've got about… or so really good friends. I‘ve got about five or so really good friends.

My circle of friends / acquaintances is… My circle of friends is quite small.

I have few… I have few really close friends.

I've known them since / for… I‘ve known them since university.

I met them when / in… I met them when / lived in Scotland.

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Talking about your social life

It's quite It's quite busy.

spend time I like to spend time with my family.

I prefer to spend time on my own.

go out with I like going out with new people.

go out and about I like to go out and about as much as possible.

catch up with I enjoy catching up with my friends at the weekend.

LETTERS OF AGREEMENT

via by means of a particular person, system, etc.

We've decided to start selling our products via the web.

subject to depending on the stated thing happening

The report is ready to be published, subject to your approval.

bring about cause something to happen

What brought about the change in his offer?

exclusivity the quality of being used by only one particular person or group

Black Tree Publications will have exclusivity in this deal.

revenue the money that an organization receives from its business

The company’s annual revenues rose by 30%.

mutually felt or done equally by two or more people

Can we find a mutually convenient time to meet?

UNIT 8

THE IRISH POTATO FAMINE

famine a lack of food during a long period of time in a region

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The rains have failed and there is the threat of widespread famine.

harvest the crops or amount of crops, cut and gathered

The weather this year means there will be a very good apple harvest.

ancestry the family or race of people you are descended from

With a name like MacDonald he's probably got Scottish ancestry.

marching band a group of musicians who play while they are marching

We heard the marching band before we could see it.

WHY DO THE IRISH SPEAK THE WAY THEY DO

commonality a shared feature or attribute

We can see commonalities between these languages.

stem from be the result of something

Most of the company's problems stem from a lack of organization

for starters used to emphasize the first of a list of reasons. opinions, etc. or to say what
happens first

We'll have to get rid of some staff for starters.

turn of phrase a particular way of describing something

She always has a lovely turn of phrase.

IRISH ENGLISH

be after doing used in place of present perfect with 'just' for recently finished actions

I'm after going to the corner shop. = I've just been to the corner shop.

yous plural you

A. Did yous come along the Fearnley Road?

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B. We did.

do be doing habitual present, used in place of present simple for habits

We do be working in the garden at weekends. = Every weekend we work in the garden.

How are ye keepin'? How are you?

How are ye keepin'? I haven't seen you for ages.

What's the story? What‘s up? / How are you?

So, what's the story with you and your man there?

Give us give me

Give us a cup of tea, will ye?

There you go now! Here you are! (when giving someone something)

There you go now! Have a grand day!

Not a bother. You're welcome.

A. Thanks for the tea.

B. Not a bother.

your man that man

When I crossed over the way your man was coming in the other direction

grand good; great

Well, now, isn‘t that just grand.

UNIT 9

THE COLLAPSE OF ENRON

phenomenally in a very great or impressive way

This product has been phenomenally successful.

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mirage a hope or wish that you cannot make happen because it is not realistic

His plan for innovation was a mirage.

precarious not safe or certain

The company is in a financially precarious position.

subsidiary a business company that is owned or controlled by another larger company

She's working for an overseas subsidiary of the company.

ruin to make somebody or something lose all their money, their position, etc.

If she loses the coin case it will ruin her.

TALKING ABOUT VALUES

strive try very hard to achieve something

We encourage all members to strive for the highest standards.

scrutiny careful and thorough examination

The documents should be available for public scrutiny.

cohesively in a way which forms a united whole

The departments will be more effective if they act cohesively.

TALKING ABOUT VALUES

marked noticeable; east to see

There has been a marked increase in sales this year.

scandal behaviour or an event that people think is morally or legally wrong and which
causes public feelings of shock or anger

There has been another scandal in the financial sector.

downturn a fall in the amount of business that is done

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The downturn in sales has affected the bottom line.

uptake the rate at which something happens

The uptake of the new software has been slow.

hostile very unfriendly or aggressive and ready to argue or fight

The speaker got a hostile reception from the audience.

irretrievably in a way that you can never get back or never make right

The organization has been irretrievably damaged by the allegations.

stall stop making progress

The economy stalled last year and has yet to recover.

trend a general direction in which a situation is changing or developing

There is a growing trend towards early retirement.

REACHING AN AGREEMENT

backlog a quantity of work that should have been done already, but has not yet been
done

The staff will have to do overtime as there is a backlog that needs to be cleared.

foresee know about something before it happens; predict

We do not foresee any problems.

at stake that can be won or lost, depending on the success of a particular action

You cannot take risks when people's lives are at stake.

pushy trying hard to get what you want, especially in a way that seems rude

The salesman was very pushy and wouldn't leave us alone.

out of the question impossible or not allowed and therefore not worth discussing

Hiring more staff is out of the question.

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budge mange your opinion about something

He won't budge an inch on the issue.

go under become bankrupt

The firm will go under unless business improves.

REACHING AN AGREEMENT

Stating the position

We are in a very difficult situation.

We have reached the point where we have no other option than to...

This is beyond our control.

We are stuck with this situation.

Trying to reach a compromise

Could you make do with...?

What would you say to doing...?

Would you consider...?

Showing willing to negotiate

Let's try to find a way round this.

That's not out of the question

I'd be willing to...

Being unwilling to negotiate

I have to say no to...

That's out of the question.

I'm afraid it is just not possible.

I refuse to budge on this.

I have to stay firm on this.

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That just won't work.

We can't possibly...

Agreeing on a solution

Are we all agreed?

I'll go along with...

That sounds feasible.

USING INVERSION FOR EMPHASIS

Not only has one of our contracts just trebled their order, but another new contract has just
come in.

At no time have we suggested that we can be flexible on these dates.

Had I been given more notice of these other jobs, this wouldn‘t have happened.

USING INVERSION FOR EMPHASIS: READ THE EXPLANATIONS

Questions

The most common uses of inversion are in questions and short answers.

1. In inversion, the auxiliary comes before the subject

A. Have you met the new boss yet?

B. No, I haven‘t.

C. Neither have I.

2. Do / does is used as an auxiliary with simple-tense verbs.

Does Chris like the new receptionist?

3. Ordinary verbs be and have and modal auxiliaries do not require do.

Was I the best candidate?

Can you help us?

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As well as in questions, inversion is used in a variety of structures, often formally.

Negative expressions

1. Inversion is used after the negative words neither and nor, and after phrases with not
and no.

In no way do I accept their conclusions. Neither do l think the report should be


circulated.

Not without careful thought am I writing this letter. Nor is it without having
consulted several of my closest associates.

2. We also use inversion after adverbs such as seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly (ever) and
little that restrict the meaning / reference of the verb that follows.

Rarely have I been to such a well-organized product launch.

Little did we know that she had accepted a position with our rivals.

Only

When only is used with time expressions or prepositional phrases, the verb that follows is
inverted.

Only before 30 September can you hand in a non-calculated tax return.

Only by travelling overland will you really appreciate the country.

Participles

When participles are moved to the front position, inversion takes place in formal English.

Waiting for us in his office was my boss.

Conditionals

Instead of saying if I had, if she was, etc, we can use inversion. Note that was becomes were.

Had the minister announced the tax increases more openly, he would have faced a storm of
criticism. (= If the minister had ...)

Had I been told about the dress code, I wouldn't have felt such a fool. (= If I had ...)

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Were she to be fired, she'd probably sue. (= If she was/were ...)

We can use the inverted structure should + subject as another way of expressing condition.

Should we require further information, we will contact you again. ( = If we require ...)

These forms are especially common with passive structures.

UNIT 10

SELLING

charcoal a black substance made by burning wood slowly in an oven with little air. Used
as a fuel or for drawing

We mustn't forget to buy charcoal for the annual staff barbecue.

affluent having a lot of money and a good standard of living

Gary lives in a very affluent neighborhood.

retiree a person who has stopped working because of their age

My grandfather can do anything he wants now that he is a retiree.

spruce up make something clean and neat

They've spruced up the entrance hall for the president’s visit.

long hard slog a difficult and long period of hard work or effort

The project was a long hard slog but we‘ve finally finished it.

passed from pillar to post be forced to go from one person or situation to another
without achieving anything

I‘ve been passed from pillar to post all morning and I still haven‘t got the forms signed.

untenable that cannot be defended against attack or criticism

His position had become untenable and he was forced to resign.

fitter a person whose job is to put together or repair equipment

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The fitter is coming tomorrow morning to install the radiators.

split divide into parts

We can split our customers into two groups.

over a protracted period for a longer time than was expected

The negotiations took place over a protracted period but were eventually concluded
satisfactorily.

TALKING ABOUT PERSUASION AND INFLUENCE

broad general; not detailed

We are in broad agreement with the proposal.

tailor towards make or adapt something for a particular purpose

This training programme is tailored towards the needs of new staff.

take off become successful or popular very quickly or suddenly

Her managerial career has really taken off.

tap into make use of or exploit something

We need to tap into the skill and expertise of the people we already have.

esteem great respect and admiration

She is held in high esteem by her colleagues.

TALKING ABOUT PERSUASION AND INFLUENCE

pretty to some extent; fairly

Sales last month were pretty healthy.

gadget a small tool or device that does something useful

He bought some new kitchen gadgets at the weekend.

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conspicuous easy to see or notice

I felt very conspicuous in my new clothes.

hook catch

Our sales department hooked a big new customer on Monday.

make or break be the thing that makes something either a success or a failure

This project will make or break him as a manager.

SELLING AN IDEA

diversify develop a wider range of products, skills, etc. in order to be more successful or
reduce risks

Our new range of products will allow us to diversify into new markets.

brutally directly and clearly, not thinking of people's feelings

Let me be brutally frank about this.

fall short fail to reach the standard that you expected or need

The hotel fell short of our expectations.

cash cow the part of the business that always makes a profit and that provides money
for the rest of the business

We need to milk this cash cow for all that it's worth.

guru a person who is an expert on a particular subject or who is very good at doing
something

They‘ve hired a management guru for the training sessions.

Establishing the need for change

I know that, like me, you are concerned...

What comes across from talking to you is ...

It's become apparent that…

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We could be missing out on a great opportunity

If we don't…

Building the argument

We not only benefit from ..., we also gain...

Not only that. It's also essential that we...

OK, that's the first benefit. Now, the second point…

In addition to that…

Acknowledging different points of view

Having said that, it's important to remember...

I accept that... but we have to recognize that... / put this into perspective…

You could argue that ..., but on balance...

Reinforcing the message

So, as I said before...

…is achievable. No question.

We're in an extremely strong position. Why?

Because...

We're committed, we're motivated, and we believe in what we do.

Asking for commitment / concluding

I very much hope that...

Please give serious consideration to…

We can‘t afford to miss this opportunity...

I'm calling on you to…

DISCOURSE MARKERS

I've been doing some research into our position in the market and what opportunities are
available to us, and to tell you the truth, I'm excited.

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Now, as I was saying before, we've secured external investment for our diversification plan
and we've employed a consultant.

Basically, studies show that most companies only invest a small percent of their advertising
budget in print media.

Ravi, our key account manager, actually comes from the field of online advertising so he's
going to be our guru, so to speak.

Anyway, he's on our side.

DISCOURSE MARKERS

Truthfulness

1. honestly and frankly are used to claim that the speaker is telling the truth. Often they
introduce criticism or negative remarks. Quite adds emphasis to both words.

Frankly, I didn’t like the venue.

Quite honestly, I thought your comments were ill-judged.

2. to tell you the truth and to be honest have a similar function.

To tell you the truth, I didn’t enjoy the conference.

To be honest, the meeting was a complete waste of time.

Strengthening arguments

All of the following discourse markers stress the importance of the point that follows.

1. We can use in fact, as a matter of fact and after all to suggest that an opinion is not
personal, but is based on evidence.

As a matter of fact, house prices fell by 2.5% last month.

2. We can use if you ask me and I must say to suggest that it is personal.

If you ask me, the government is to blame for ruining the economy.

3. We can use clearly, of course, naturally, obviously, undoubtedly, and after all to
suggest that what will follow is not controversial or will not be questioned.

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Clearly, the next two years will be critical for the future of the economy.

Concession

1. We can use admittedly, to be sure, it's true that, to acknowledge that someone has
made a good point before disagreeing with them or to concede a negative point
before making a different point. The sentence that follows the sentence containing
these phrases often begins with but or however.

Admittedly, the result could have been better. However, we retained our position as
market leader.

2. We can concede that someone else has a point before making our own point, to make
our own point sound stronger or more carefully thought out. To do this, admittedly, to
be sure, and it's true that… but / however are possible.

A. We're in danger of missing the deadline.

B. It's true that we are dealing with an incredibly large workload at the moment, but I
know that we can meet this deadline.

DISCOURSE MARKERS

Discourse patterns

Some discourse markers draw attention to the discourse itself - the pattern of what is said.

1. We can use the following to rephrase or paraphrase an argument: as l was saying, as it


were, l mean, if you like, so to speak, that‘s to say, to put it another way, well.

Your holiday could cause a real problem… well I mean, we need to amend the
schedules, really.

2. We can use the following to link to a new topic: now, anyway, mind you, moving on,
actually, indeed.

So, that's the plan for the next two months. Anyway, didn't you want to ask me
about the sales figures?

3. We can use the following to return to a previous topic: anyway, as l was saying.

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The contract was signed yesterday and... oh, David, you've decided to join us!
Anyway, as I was saying, the contract has just been signed and...

4. We can use the following to introduce a conclusion: so, anyway, basically, in


conclusion, to sum up.

That was what my report uncovered, so basically, we have to consolidate our


products list over the next year.

Acknowledging non-literal meanings

Some discourse markers show that language is being used in a way that is different from its
usual, literal meaning: so to speak, as it were, if you will, if you like.

A. George seems quite volatile.

B. Yeah, he's a bomb waiting to go off, so to speak.

If you start speaking too quickly, you must put the brakes on, as it were, so that the audience
can understand you clearly.

Successful marketing depends on a number of complex factors. It's a science, if you like.

There has been, as it were, a rebellion among the staff over the reduction in holidays.

GIVING AND RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS

worthwhile important, enjoyable; worth spending time, money, or energy on

It's worthwhile finding a second buyer just in case.

handout a document containing information that is given to people in a meeting, class,


or training session

I'I be giving out a handout at the end of the meeting summarizing everything.

GIVING AND RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS

Giving compliment

That was great.

A very worthwhile meeting / discussion.

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You're looking well.

I like your…

I thoroughly enjoyed that.

It was very interesting.

Great design.

I love...

Well done, you did a great job.

That was brilliant.

I saw your... and I thought it was excellent

Responding to compliments

Thanks.

Thank you. I felt it went well.

Thanks for the feedback.

I don‘t know how you can say that, but thanks anyway.

I was hoping it'd be well received.

Glad you enjoyed it.

I'm pleased you like it.

UNIT 11

THE NATURAL WORLD

remarkable unusual or surprising in a way that causes people to take notice

The area is remarkable for its scenery.

inhospitable difficult to stay or live in because of the weather

The mountains are an inhospitable place.

stunningly impressively or attractively

The view of the lake was stunningly beautiful.

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long-haul involving transport over long distances

We took a long-haul flight to the Far East.

sake in order to help somebody or something

They moved to the country for the sake of the children.

whatnot used when you are referring to something but are not being exact and do not
mention its name

It's a new firm. They make toys and whatnot.

go overboard be too excited or enthusiastic about something

He can sometimes go overboard when he's talking about the places he's visited.

ECO TOURISM

lounge the act of sitting, standing or lying in a lazy way

I'm going to have a lounge on the sofa.

weigh up decide or consider

We need to carefully weigh up all our options.

plaudits praise and approval

His work won him plaudits from the bosses.

geek a knowledgeable and obsessive enthusiast

He's a bit of a computer geek.

commend recommend

The organization has little to commend it.

upside the more positive aspect of something that is generally bad

The upside of this plan is that we make more money in the short-term.

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pamper take care of somebody very well and make them feel as comfortable as
possible

Pamper yourself our new range of beauty treatments.

stay put remain somewhere

I told him to stay put until we come and get him in the car.

put paid to stop suddenly

Maria put paid to our ideas of expanding the company.

insatiable always wanting more of something

There seems to be an insatiable demand for new smartphones.

TRAVEL

Talking about visiting places

I'd say the most remarkable /

impressive / fantastic place was… I'd say the most remarkable place was the Pyramids
in Egypt.

It's probably… It's probably when I went to the Great Barrier Reef.

I visited... when I… I visited Peru when I was a student.

I travelled around… I travelled around Canada some years ago.

I found that to be… I found that to be a fantastic experience.

X, which is an incredible… Chichen Itza, which is an incredible ruin in Mexico.

I was in… I was in Asia last year.

I would go to… I would go to Niagara Falls if l could.

Talking about travelling

I'm (pretty) used to… I‘m pretty used to flying.

I do quite a lot of… I do quite a lot of travelling by car, actually.

I travel a lot with / to/ for… I travel a lot with my friends.

I travel a lot to North America.

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I travel a lot for work.

Talking about worries

I'm a bit worried… I‘m a bit worried by it.

Not as… as l… Not as concerned as I might be.

I don't think about it as much as… I don‘t think about it as much as some people.

Yes, I am quite worried about… Yes. I am quite worried about deforestation.

I fear for… I fear for the future.

I think we should… I think we should do more to stop it.

MAILSHOTS

have an edge / have the edge have a slight advantage

Speedwell & Company have the edge on us.

get your hands on obtain something

We've been trying to get our hands on the software update for ages.

get lucky be fortunate

We got lucky when we found this supplier.

hacker a person who secretly finds a way of looking at and / or changing information
on somebody else's computer system without permission

We've had a hacker trying to get into the system to steal credit card details.

UNIT 12

GREAT BARRIER REEF

wonder something that fills you with surprise and admiration

The Grand Canyon is one of the natural wonders of the world.

breathtaking very exciting or impressive

The scene was one of breathtaking beauty.

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fragile easily broken or damaged

Be careful with that vase. It's very fragile.

snap off break something suddenly with a sharp noise

The wind must have snapped the branch off.

souvenir a thing you buy or keep to remind yourself of a place, an occasion, or a holiday

I bought the ring as a souvenir of my visit to Greece.

isolation the state of being separate

The country has been threatened with isolation from the international community.

iconic acting as a sign or symbol of something

Microsoft and Apple are iconic companies in the IT sector.

initiative a new plan for dealing with a particular problem or for achieving something

The government has come up with a new initiative to combat unemployment.

refuge a shelter or protection from danger

We went to visit a wetland refuge for birds and wild fowl

flourish grow well and be healthy

These plants flourish in a damp climate.

THE RISE AND FALL OF AUSTRALIAN SLANG

propensity a tendency to a particular kind of behavior

She has a propensity to exaggerate.

build up a head of steam start to increase

This project began slowly but now we're really building up a head of steam.

hamper (often passive) prevent someone from easily doing or achieving something

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We were hampered by the weather in our efforts to reach the airport on time.

nickname an informal, often humorous, name that is connected to appearance,


personality, etc.

It was my nickname when I was at school.

buttoned-up reserved and not inclined to reveal information

The Colonel is a very buttoned-up individual but then he is from a different generation.

jargon words and expressions that are used by a particular profession or group and
which are difficult to understand

The people in the IT Department are always using computer jargon. I don't understand a
word they say.

lingo expressions used by a particular group of people

I don't understand him when he uses computer lingo.

on the slide changing to a lower or worse condition

The Western economies are on the slide.

powerhouse group or an organization that has a lot of

China is the new economic powerhouse.

buzzword a word or phrase that has become popular and fashionable and is used a lot in
newspapers, etc.

Analogue is the buzzword in photography at the moment.

AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH

go off like a bucket of prawns in the sun cause a commotion

I spilt my coffee on him and he went off like a bucket of prawns in the sun.

flat out like a lizard drinking very busy

I'm flat out like a lizard drinking doing eight in the morning till eight at night.

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his / her blood's worth bottling he / she is an excellent person

Sheila gave me a lovely birthday prezzie - her blood's worth bottling, mate

cost big bikkies expensive

I'm thinking of getting a new car but it'll cost big bikkies.

arvo afternoon

The game doesn’t start until this arvo

sunnies sunglasses

Anyone seen my sunnies?

swimmers swimming trunks

Your sunnies are next to your swimmers, mate.

mozzies mosquitoes

These mozzies are driving me mad!

bikkies biscuits

Do you want some bikkies with your tea?

neck drink or swallow

Neck your tinnies and we'll go for something to eat.

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