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Chapter 1: Introduction: The 𝑅𝑦 = 𝐴𝑦 + 𝐵𝑦 𝑣 = 𝑟𝜔

Nature of Science and Physics 𝑣2

𝑅 = √𝑅𝑥2 + 𝑅𝑦2 𝑎𝐶 =

𝑟

−𝑏 ± √𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 𝑅𝑦 𝑎𝐶 = 𝑟𝜔2

𝑥= 𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1

2𝑎 𝑅𝑥 𝐹𝐶 = 𝑚𝑎𝐶

𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ = 6.38 × 106 𝑚 2

𝑣0𝑦 𝑚𝑣 2

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ = 5.98 × 1024 𝑘𝑔 ℎ= 𝐹𝐶 =

2𝑔 𝑟

𝑐 = 3.00 × 108 𝑚/𝑠 2 𝑣2

𝑣0 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2𝜃0 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃 =

𝑁𝑚2 𝑅= 𝑟𝑔

𝐺 = 6.673 × 10−11 𝑔

𝑘𝑔2 𝐹𝐶 = 𝑚𝑟𝜔2

𝑣𝑥 = 𝑣 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃

𝑁𝐴 = 6.02 × 1023 𝑚𝑀

𝑣𝑦 = 𝑣 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝐹=𝐺 2

𝑘 = 1.38 × 10−23 𝐽/𝐾 𝑟

𝐽 𝑣 = √𝑣𝑥2 + 𝑣𝑦2 𝐺𝑀

𝑅 = 8.31 ⁄𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾 𝑔= 2

𝑣𝑦 𝑟

𝜎 = 5.67 × 10−8 𝑊/(𝑚2 ⋅ 𝐾) 𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 𝑇12 𝑟13

𝑘 = 8.99 × 109 𝑁 ⋅ 𝑚2 /𝐶 2 𝑣𝑥 =

𝑇22 𝑟23

𝑞𝑒 = −1.60 × 10−19 𝐶

4𝜋 2 3

𝜖0 = 8.85 × 10−12 𝐶 2 /(𝑁 ⋅ 𝑚2 ) Chapter 4: Dynamics: Forces 𝑇2 = 𝑟

𝐺𝑀

𝜇0 = 4π × 10−7 𝑇 ⋅ 𝑚/𝐴 and Newton’s Laws of Motion

𝑟3 𝐺

ℎ = 6.63 × 10−34 𝐽 ⋅ 𝑠 = 𝑀

𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚𝑎 𝑇 2 4𝜋 2

𝑚𝑒 = 9.11 × 10−31 𝑘𝑔 𝑤 = 𝑚𝑔

𝑚𝑝 = 1.6726 × 10−27 𝑘𝑔 Chapter 7: Work, Energy, and

𝑚𝑛 = 1.6749 × 10−27 𝑘𝑔 Chapter 5: Further Applications Energy Resources

𝑎𝑚𝑢 = 1.6605 × 10−27 𝑘𝑔 of Newton’s Laws: Friction, 𝑊 = 𝑓𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃

𝑘𝑔 Drag, and Elasticity

𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 1000 3 1

𝑚 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2

𝑓𝑠 ≤ 𝜇𝑠 𝑁 2

1 1

Chapter 2: Kinematics 𝑓𝑘 = 𝜇𝑘 𝑁 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚𝑣𝑓2 − 𝑚𝑣02

1 2 2

𝛥𝑥 = 𝑥𝑓 − 𝑥0 𝐹𝐷 = 𝐶𝜌𝐴𝑣 2 𝑃𝐸𝑔 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ

2

𝛥𝑡 = 𝑡𝑓 − 𝑡0 1

𝐹𝑠 = 6𝜋𝜂𝑟𝑣 𝑃𝐸𝑠 = 𝑘𝑥 2

𝛥𝑥 𝑥𝑓 − 𝑥0 𝐹 = 𝑘𝛥𝑥 2

𝑣= = 𝐾𝐸0 + 𝑃𝐸0 = 𝐾𝐸𝑓 + 𝑃𝐸𝑓

𝛥𝑡 𝑡𝑓 − 𝑡0 1𝐹

𝛥𝐿 = 𝐿 𝐾𝐸0 + 𝑃𝐸0 + 𝑊𝑛𝑐 = 𝐾𝐸𝑓 + 𝑃𝐸𝑓

𝛥𝑣 𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣0 𝑌𝐴 0

𝑎= = 𝐹 𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡

𝛥𝑡 𝑡𝑓 − 𝑡0 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝐸𝑓𝑓 =

𝐴 𝐸𝑖𝑛

𝑥 = 𝑥0 + 𝑣𝑡

𝛥𝐿 𝑊

𝑣0 + 𝑣 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 = 𝑃=

𝑣= 𝐿0 𝑡

2

𝑣 = 𝑣0 + 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝑌 × 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛

1 1𝐹 Chapter 8: Linear Momentum

𝑥 = 𝑥0 + 𝑣0 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑡 2 𝛥𝑥 = 𝐿

2 𝑆𝐴 0 and Collisions

1𝐹

𝑣 2 = 𝑣02 + 2𝑎(𝑥 − 𝑥0 ) 𝛥𝑉 = 𝑉 𝑝 = 𝑚𝑣

𝑚 𝐵𝐴 0

𝑔 = 9.80 2 𝛥𝑝 = 𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝛥𝑡

𝑠

Chapter 6: Uniform Circular 𝑝0 = 𝑝𝑓

Kinematics 𝛥𝑠

𝛥𝜃 =

𝐴𝑥 = 𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑟

2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 360° = 1 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝐴𝑦 = 𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃

𝛥𝜃

𝑅𝑥 = 𝐴𝑥 + 𝐵𝑥 𝜔=

𝛥𝑡

Please Do Not Write on This Sheet

1 2

1 2 Thin rod about axis through center 1

𝑚1 𝑣01 + 𝑚2 𝑣02 𝑃1 + 𝜌𝑣12 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ1

2 2 𝑀ℓ2 2

⊥ to length: 𝐼 =

1 2

12 1

= 𝑚1 𝑣𝑓1 Thin rod about axis through one end = 𝑃2 + 𝜌𝑣22

2 2

1 𝑀ℓ2 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ2

+ 𝑚2 𝑣𝑓2 2 ⊥ to length: 𝐼 =

3

2 1

𝑚1 𝑣1 = 𝑚1 𝑣1′ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃1 + 𝑚2 𝑣2′ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃2 Solid sphere: 𝐼 =

2𝑀𝑅 2 (Δ𝑃 + Δ 𝜌𝑣 2 + Δ𝜌𝑔ℎ) 𝑄 = 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

5 2

0 = 𝑚1 𝑣1′ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 + 𝑚2 𝑣2′ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 2𝑀𝑅 2 𝑣1 = √2𝑔ℎ

Thin spherical shell: 𝐼 =

1 1 1 3

𝐹𝐿

𝑚𝑣12 = 𝑚𝑣1′2 + 𝑚𝑣2′2 Slab about ⊥ axis through center: 𝜂=

2 2 2 𝑣𝐴

+ 𝑚𝑣1′ 𝑣2′ 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜃1 𝑀(𝑎2 +𝑏 2 )

𝐼= 𝑃2 − 𝑃1

− 𝜃2 )

12 𝑄=

𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑊 = (𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝜏)𝜃 𝑅

𝑣𝑒 𝛥𝑚 8𝜂𝑙

𝑎= −𝑔 1 𝑅= 4

𝑚 𝛥𝑡 𝐾𝐸𝑟𝑜𝑡 = 𝐼𝜔2 𝜋𝑟

𝑣1 𝑚1 + 𝑣2 𝑚2 2

(𝑃2 − 𝑃1 )𝜋𝑟 4

𝑣𝑐𝑚 = 𝐿 = 𝐼𝜔 𝑄=

𝑚1 + 𝑚2 8𝜂𝑙

𝛥𝐿

𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝜏 = 2𝜌𝑣𝑟

𝛥𝑡 𝑁𝑅 =

Chapter 9: Statics and Torque 𝜂

𝜌𝑣𝐿

𝜏 = 𝑟𝐹 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 Chapter 11: Fluid Statics 𝑁𝑅′ =

𝜂

𝑟⊥ = 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑚

𝐹𝑜 𝑙𝑖 𝜌= 𝑥𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √2𝐷𝑡

𝑉

𝑀𝐴 = =

𝐹𝑖 𝑙𝑜 𝐹

𝑃= Chapter 13: Temperature,

𝑙𝑖 𝐹𝑖 = 𝑙𝑜 𝐹𝑜 𝐴

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 1.01 × 105 𝑃𝑎 Kinetic Theory, and the Gas

Chapter 10: Rotational Motion 𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔ℎ Laws

and Angular Momentum 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ 9

𝐹1 𝐹2 𝑇(°𝐹) = 𝑇(°𝐶) + 32

𝛥𝜃 = 5

𝜔= 𝐴1 𝐴2 𝑇(𝐾) = 𝑇(°𝐶) + 273.15

𝛥𝑡 𝐹𝐵 = 𝑤𝑓𝑙

𝑣 = 𝑟𝜔 𝛥𝐿 = 𝛼𝐿𝛥𝑇

𝜌𝑜𝑏𝑗

𝛥𝜔 𝐹𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑚𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑑 = 𝛥𝐴 = 2𝛼𝐴𝛥𝑇

𝛼= 𝜌𝑓𝑙

𝛥𝑡 𝛥𝑉 = 𝛽𝑉𝛥𝑇

𝛥𝑣 𝜌

𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝛽 ≈ 3𝛼

𝑎𝑡 = 𝜌𝑤

𝛥𝑡 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑁𝑘𝑇

𝑎𝑡 = 𝑟𝛼 𝐹

𝛾= 𝑘 = 1.38 × 10−23 𝐽/𝐾

𝜃 = 𝜔𝑡 𝐿

4𝛾 𝑁𝐴 = 6.02 × 1023 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1

𝜔 = 𝜔0 + 𝛼𝑡 𝑃= 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

1 𝑟

𝜃 = 𝜔0 𝑡 + 𝛼𝑡 2 2𝛾 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝐽

2 ℎ= 𝑅 = 8.31

𝜌𝑔𝑟 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾

𝜔2 = 𝜔02 + 2𝛼𝜃 1 2

𝜔0 + 𝜔 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑁𝑚𝑣

3

𝜔=

2 Chapter 12: Fluid Dynamics 1 3

2

𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝜏 = 𝐼𝛼 and Its Biological Medical 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 = 𝑘𝑇

2 2

Hoop about cylinder axis: 𝐼 = 𝑀𝑅2 Applications

3𝑘𝑇

𝑀𝑅 2 𝑣𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √

Hoop about any diameter: 𝐼 = 𝑉 𝑚

2 𝑄=

𝑀 𝑡

Ring: 𝐼 = (𝑅12 + 𝑅22 ) % 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦

2 𝑄 = 𝐴𝑣

Solid cylinder (or disk) about 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝐴1 𝑣1 = 𝐴2 𝑣2 =

𝑀𝑅 2 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

cylinder axis: 𝐼 = 𝑛1 𝐴1 𝑣1 = 𝑛2 𝐴2 𝑣2

2 × 100%

Solid cylinder (or disk) about

𝑀𝑅 2 𝑀ℓ2

central diameter: 𝐼 = + Chapter 14: Heat and Heat

4 12

Transfer Methods

Please Do Not Write on This Sheet

1.000 𝑘𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 4186 𝐽 1 𝑃𝐸

𝑃𝐸𝑒𝑙 = 𝑘𝑥 2 𝑉=

𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝛥𝑇 2 𝑞

𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿𝑓 𝑚 𝛥𝑃𝐸 = 𝑞𝛥𝑉

𝑇 = 2𝜋√

𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿𝑣 𝑘 𝑊 = 𝑞𝑉𝐴𝐵

𝑄 𝑘𝐴(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) 1 𝑘 𝑉𝐴𝐵

= 𝑓= √ 𝐸=

𝑡 𝑑 2𝜋 𝑚 𝑑

𝑄 𝛥𝑉

= 𝜎𝑒𝐴𝑇 4 2𝜋𝑡 𝐸=−

𝑡 𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑋 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ) 𝛥𝑠

𝐽 𝑇 𝑘𝑄

𝜎 = 5.67 × 10−8 2𝜋𝑡 𝑉=

𝑠 ⋅ 𝑚2 ⋅ 𝐾 4 𝑣(𝑡) = −𝑣𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ) 𝑟

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑇 𝑄

= 𝜎𝑒𝐴(𝑇24 − 𝑇14 ) 𝐶=

𝑡 2𝜋𝑋 𝑘 𝑉

𝑣𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑋√ 𝐴

𝑇 𝑚 𝐶 = 𝜖0

Chapter 15: Thermodynamics 𝑑

𝑘𝑋 2𝜋𝑡 𝐹

𝑎(𝑡) = − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ) 𝜖0 = 8.85 × 10−12

3 𝑚 𝑇 𝑚

𝑈 = 𝑁𝑘𝑇

2 𝐴

𝐹 𝐶 = 𝜅𝜖0

𝛥𝑈 = 𝑄 − 𝑊 𝑣𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 =√ 𝑑

𝑚/𝐿

𝑊 = 𝑃𝛥𝑉 (𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑏𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝑄𝑉 𝐶𝑉 2 𝑄2

𝐸𝑐𝑎𝑝 = = =

Δ𝑈 = 𝑄 − 𝑃Δ𝑉 𝑚 𝑇 2 2 2𝐶

𝑊 = 0 (𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑐ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝑣𝑤 = (331 ) √

𝑠 273 𝐾

Δ𝑈 = 𝑄 Chapter 20: Electric Current,

𝑃

𝑄 = 𝑊 (𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝐼= Resistance, and Ohm’s Law

𝐴

Δ𝑈 = 0 𝐴𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 = 4𝜋𝑟 2 𝛥𝑄

𝑄 = 0 (𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝐼=

(𝛥𝑝)2 𝛥𝑡

Δ𝑈 = −𝑊 𝐼= 𝐼 = 𝑛𝑞𝐴𝑣𝑑

2𝜌𝑣𝑤

𝑊 𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅

𝐸𝑓𝑓 =

𝑄ℎ 𝜌𝐿

Chapter 17: Physics of Hearing 𝑅=

𝑄𝑐 𝐴

𝐸𝑓𝑓 = 1 − (𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝐼

𝑄ℎ 𝜌 = 𝜌0 (1 + 𝛼𝛥𝑇)

𝛽 = (10 𝑑𝐵) 𝑙𝑜𝑔 ( )

𝑇𝑐 𝐼0 𝑅 = 𝑅0 (1 + 𝛼𝛥𝑇)

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝐶 = 1 − 𝑣𝑤 ± 𝑣𝑜

𝑇ℎ 𝑓𝑜 = 𝑓𝑠 ( ) 𝑉2

𝑄ℎ 𝑣𝑤 ∓ 𝑣𝑠 𝑃 = 𝐼𝑉 = = 𝐼2 𝑅

𝑅

𝐶𝑂𝑃ℎ𝑝 = 𝑓𝐵 = |𝑓1 − 𝑓2 | 1

𝑊

𝑄𝑐 𝑣𝑤 𝑃𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝐼0 𝑉0

𝑓𝑛 = 𝑛 ( ) 2

𝐶𝑂𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 = 𝐶𝑂𝑃ℎ𝑝 − 1 = 2𝐿 𝐼0

𝑊

𝑣𝑤 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 =

𝑄𝑐 ⁄𝑡1 𝑓𝑛 = 𝑛 ( ) √2

𝐸𝐸𝑅 = 4𝐿

𝑄ℎ ⁄𝑡2 𝑉0

𝑍 = 𝜌𝑣 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 =

𝑄 √2

𝛥𝑆 = (𝑍2 − 𝑍1 )2

𝑇 𝑎=

𝑄ℎ 𝑄𝑐 (𝑍1 + 𝑍2 )2

𝛥𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑡 = + =0 Chapter 21: Circuits,

𝑇ℎ 𝑇𝑐 Bioelectricity, and DC

𝑊𝑢𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙 = 𝛥𝑆 ⋅ 𝑇0 Chapter 18: Electric Charge

Instruments

𝑆 = 𝑘 𝑙𝑛 𝑊 and Electric Field

𝑘 = 1.38 × 10−23 𝐽/𝐾 𝑅𝑆 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + ⋯

|𝑞𝑒 | = 1.60 × 10−19 𝐶

1 1 1 1

|𝑞1 𝑞2 | = + + +⋯

Chapter 16: Oscillatory Motion 𝐹=𝑘 𝑅𝑃 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3

𝑟2

𝑉 = 𝑒𝑚𝑓 − 𝐼𝑟

and Waves 𝐸 = 𝐹/𝑞 𝑡

1 |𝑄| 𝑉 = 𝑒𝑚𝑓 (1 − 𝑒 −𝑅𝐶 )

𝑓= 𝐸=𝑘 2

𝑇 𝑟 𝜏 = 𝑅𝐶

𝜆 𝑡

𝑣 = = 𝑓𝜆 Chapter 19: Electric Potential 𝑉 = 𝑉0 𝑒 −𝑟𝐶

𝑇

𝐹 = −𝑘𝑥 and Electric Energy

Please Do Not Write on This Sheet

Chapter 22: Magnetism 𝑅 1 𝜆

𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜙 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = (𝑚 + )

𝑍 2 𝑑

𝐹 = 𝑞𝑣𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑃𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜙 𝜆

𝑚𝑣 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑚

𝑟= 𝑊

𝑞𝐵 𝜆

Chapter 24: Electromagnetic 𝜃 = 1.22

𝜖 = 𝐵𝑙𝑣 𝐷

Waves

𝐹 = 𝐼𝐿𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜆𝑛

1 2𝑡 =

𝜏 = 𝑁𝐼𝐴𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑐= 2

𝜇0 𝐼 √𝜇 0 𝜖0 2𝑡 = 𝜆𝑛

𝐵=

2𝜋𝑟 𝐸 I = ½ I0

𝜇0 𝐼 =𝑐

𝐵= 𝐵 𝐼 = 𝐼0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃

2𝑅 𝑐 = 𝑓𝜆 𝑛2

𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃𝑏 =

𝐵 = 𝜇0 𝑛𝐼 𝑐𝜖0 𝐸02 𝑛1

𝐹 𝜇0 𝐼1 𝐼2 𝐼𝑎𝑣𝑒 =

= 2

𝑙 2𝜋𝑟 𝑐𝐵02 Chapter 28: Special Relativity

𝐼𝑎𝑣𝑒 =

2𝜇0 𝛥𝑡0

Chapter 23: Electromagnetic 𝐸0 𝐵0 𝛥𝑡 =

𝐼𝑎𝑏𝑒 = 2

Induction, AC Circuits, and 2𝜇0 √1 − 𝑣2

𝑐

Electrical Technologies

1

Chapter 25: Geometric Optics 𝛾=

𝛷 = 𝐵𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 2

𝛥𝛷 √1 − 𝑣2

𝜃𝑖 = 𝜃𝑟 𝑐

𝑒𝑚𝑓 = −𝑁

𝛥𝑡 𝑐

𝑛= 𝑣2

𝑒𝑚𝑓 = 𝑣𝐵𝐿 𝑣 𝐿 = 𝐿0 √1 −

𝑒𝑚𝑓 = 𝑁𝐴𝐵𝜔 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡 𝑐2

𝑛1 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2

𝑉𝑆 𝑁𝑆 𝐼𝑃 𝑛2 𝑣𝐿𝑇 + 𝑣𝑇𝐺

= = 𝜃𝑐 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 𝑣𝐿𝐺 = 𝑣 𝑣

𝑉𝑃 𝑁𝑃 𝐼𝑆 𝑛1 1 + 𝐿𝑇 2 𝑇𝐺

𝑐

𝛥𝐼2 1

𝑒𝑚𝑓1 = −𝑀 𝑃= 𝑢

𝛥𝑡 𝑓 1+

𝜆𝑜𝑏𝑠 = 𝜆𝑠 √ 𝑐

𝛥𝐼 1 1 1 𝑢

𝑒𝑚𝑓 = −𝐿 = + 1−

𝛥𝑡 𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖 𝑐

𝛥𝛷 ℎ𝑖 𝑑𝑖

𝐿=𝑁 𝑚= =− 𝑢

𝛥𝐼 ℎ𝑜 𝑑𝑜 1−

𝑓𝑜𝑏𝑠 = 𝑓𝑠 √ 𝑐

μ0 𝑁 2 𝐴 𝑅 𝑢

𝐿= 1+

ℓ 𝑓= 𝑐

2

1 2 𝑚𝑣

𝐸𝑖𝑛𝑑 = 𝐿𝐼 𝑝=

2 2

𝑡 Chapter 26: Vision and Optical √1 − 𝑣2

𝑒 −𝜏 ) 𝑐

𝐼 = 𝐼0 (1 − Instruments 2

𝑚𝑐

𝐿 1 1 𝐸=

𝜏= 2

𝑅 𝑃= +

𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖 √1 − 𝑣2

𝑡 𝑐

𝐼 = 𝐼0 𝑒 −𝜏 𝑚 = 𝑚𝑜 𝑚𝑒 𝐸0 = 𝑚𝑐 2

𝑉 𝑁𝐴 = 𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛼 𝑚𝑐 2

𝐼= 𝐾𝐸𝑟𝑒𝑙 = − 𝑚𝑐 2

𝑋𝐿 𝑓 1 2

𝑋𝐿 = 2𝜋𝑓𝐿

𝑓/# = ≈

𝐷 2𝑁𝐴 √1 − 𝑣2

𝑐

𝑉 𝑑𝑖 = 𝑓𝑜 𝐸 = (𝑝𝑐) + (𝑚𝑐 2 )2

2 2

𝐼=

𝑋𝐶 𝑓𝑜

𝑀=

1 𝑓𝑒

𝑋𝐶 =

2𝜋𝑓𝐶

𝑉0 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 Chapter 27: Wave Optics

𝐼0 = 𝑜𝑟 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 =

𝑍 𝑍

𝜆

𝑍 = √𝑅2 + (𝑋𝐿 − 𝑋𝐶 )2 𝜆𝑛 =

𝑛

1 𝜆

𝑓0 = sin 𝜃 = 𝑚

2𝜋√𝐿𝐶 𝑑

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