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# Please Do Not Write on This Sheet

## Physics Formula Sheet

Chapter 1: Introduction: The 𝑅𝑦 = 𝐴𝑦 + 𝐵𝑦 𝑣 = 𝑟𝜔
Nature of Science and Physics 𝑣2
𝑅 = √𝑅𝑥2 + 𝑅𝑦2 𝑎𝐶 =
𝑟
−𝑏 ± √𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 𝑅𝑦 𝑎𝐶 = 𝑟𝜔2
𝑥= 𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1
2𝑎 𝑅𝑥 𝐹𝐶 = 𝑚𝑎𝐶
𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ = 6.38 × 106 𝑚 2
𝑣0𝑦 𝑚𝑣 2
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ = 5.98 × 1024 𝑘𝑔 ℎ= 𝐹𝐶 =
2𝑔 𝑟
𝑐 = 3.00 × 108 𝑚/𝑠 2 𝑣2
𝑣0 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2𝜃0 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃 =
𝑁𝑚2 𝑅= 𝑟𝑔
𝐺 = 6.673 × 10−11 𝑔
𝑘𝑔2 𝐹𝐶 = 𝑚𝑟𝜔2
𝑣𝑥 = 𝑣 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃
𝑁𝐴 = 6.02 × 1023 𝑚𝑀
𝑣𝑦 = 𝑣 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝐹=𝐺 2
𝑘 = 1.38 × 10−23 𝐽/𝐾 𝑟
𝐽 𝑣 = √𝑣𝑥2 + 𝑣𝑦2 𝐺𝑀
𝑅 = 8.31 ⁄𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾 𝑔= 2
𝑣𝑦 𝑟
𝜎 = 5.67 × 10−8 𝑊/(𝑚2 ⋅ 𝐾) 𝜃 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 𝑇12 𝑟13
𝑘 = 8.99 × 109 𝑁 ⋅ 𝑚2 /𝐶 2 𝑣𝑥 =
𝑇22 𝑟23
𝑞𝑒 = −1.60 × 10−19 𝐶
4𝜋 2 3
𝜖0 = 8.85 × 10−12 𝐶 2 /(𝑁 ⋅ 𝑚2 ) Chapter 4: Dynamics: Forces 𝑇2 = 𝑟
𝐺𝑀
𝜇0 = 4π × 10−7 𝑇 ⋅ 𝑚/𝐴 and Newton’s Laws of Motion
𝑟3 𝐺
ℎ = 6.63 × 10−34 𝐽 ⋅ 𝑠 = 𝑀
𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚𝑎 𝑇 2 4𝜋 2
𝑚𝑒 = 9.11 × 10−31 𝑘𝑔 𝑤 = 𝑚𝑔
𝑚𝑝 = 1.6726 × 10−27 𝑘𝑔 Chapter 7: Work, Energy, and
𝑚𝑛 = 1.6749 × 10−27 𝑘𝑔 Chapter 5: Further Applications Energy Resources
𝑎𝑚𝑢 = 1.6605 × 10−27 𝑘𝑔 of Newton’s Laws: Friction, 𝑊 = 𝑓𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃
𝑘𝑔 Drag, and Elasticity
𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 1000 3 1
𝑚 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2
𝑓𝑠 ≤ 𝜇𝑠 𝑁 2
1 1
Chapter 2: Kinematics 𝑓𝑘 = 𝜇𝑘 𝑁 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚𝑣𝑓2 − 𝑚𝑣02
1 2 2
𝛥𝑥 = 𝑥𝑓 − 𝑥0 𝐹𝐷 = 𝐶𝜌𝐴𝑣 2 𝑃𝐸𝑔 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ
2
𝛥𝑡 = 𝑡𝑓 − 𝑡0 1
𝐹𝑠 = 6𝜋𝜂𝑟𝑣 𝑃𝐸𝑠 = 𝑘𝑥 2
𝛥𝑥 𝑥𝑓 − 𝑥0 𝐹 = 𝑘𝛥𝑥 2
𝑣= = 𝐾𝐸0 + 𝑃𝐸0 = 𝐾𝐸𝑓 + 𝑃𝐸𝑓
𝛥𝑡 𝑡𝑓 − 𝑡0 1𝐹
𝛥𝐿 = 𝐿 𝐾𝐸0 + 𝑃𝐸0 + 𝑊𝑛𝑐 = 𝐾𝐸𝑓 + 𝑃𝐸𝑓
𝛥𝑣 𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣0 𝑌𝐴 0
𝑎= = 𝐹 𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝛥𝑡 𝑡𝑓 − 𝑡0 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝐸𝑓𝑓 =
𝐴 𝐸𝑖𝑛
𝑥 = 𝑥0 + 𝑣𝑡
𝛥𝐿 𝑊
𝑣0 + 𝑣 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 = 𝑃=
𝑣= 𝐿0 𝑡
2
𝑣 = 𝑣0 + 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝑌 × 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛
1 1𝐹 Chapter 8: Linear Momentum
𝑥 = 𝑥0 + 𝑣0 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑡 2 𝛥𝑥 = 𝐿
2 𝑆𝐴 0 and Collisions
1𝐹
𝑣 2 = 𝑣02 + 2𝑎(𝑥 − 𝑥0 ) 𝛥𝑉 = 𝑉 𝑝 = 𝑚𝑣
𝑚 𝐵𝐴 0
𝑔 = 9.80 2 𝛥𝑝 = 𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝛥𝑡
𝑠
Chapter 6: Uniform Circular 𝑝0 = 𝑝𝑓

## Chapter 3: Two-Dimensional Motion and Gravitation 𝑚1 𝑣01 + 𝑚2 𝑣02 = 𝑚1 𝑣𝑓1 + 𝑚2 𝑣𝑓2

Kinematics 𝛥𝑠
𝛥𝜃 =
𝐴𝑥 = 𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑟
2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 360° = 1 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐴𝑦 = 𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃
𝛥𝜃
𝑅𝑥 = 𝐴𝑥 + 𝐵𝑥 𝜔=
𝛥𝑡
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1 2
1 2 Thin rod about axis through center 1
𝑚1 𝑣01 + 𝑚2 𝑣02 𝑃1 + 𝜌𝑣12 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ1
2 2 𝑀ℓ2 2
⊥ to length: 𝐼 =
1 2
12 1
= 𝑚1 𝑣𝑓1 Thin rod about axis through one end = 𝑃2 + 𝜌𝑣22
2 2
1 𝑀ℓ2 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ2
+ 𝑚2 𝑣𝑓2 2 ⊥ to length: 𝐼 =
3
2 1
𝑚1 𝑣1 = 𝑚1 𝑣1′ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃1 + 𝑚2 𝑣2′ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃2 Solid sphere: 𝐼 =
2𝑀𝑅 2 (Δ𝑃 + Δ 𝜌𝑣 2 + Δ𝜌𝑔ℎ) 𝑄 = 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
5 2
0 = 𝑚1 𝑣1′ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 + 𝑚2 𝑣2′ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 2𝑀𝑅 2 𝑣1 = √2𝑔ℎ
Thin spherical shell: 𝐼 =
1 1 1 3
𝐹𝐿
𝑚𝑣12 = 𝑚𝑣1′2 + 𝑚𝑣2′2 Slab about ⊥ axis through center: 𝜂=
2 2 2 𝑣𝐴
+ 𝑚𝑣1′ 𝑣2′ 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜃1 𝑀(𝑎2 +𝑏 2 )
𝐼= 𝑃2 − 𝑃1
− 𝜃2 )
12 𝑄=
𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑊 = (𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝜏)𝜃 𝑅
𝑣𝑒 𝛥𝑚 8𝜂𝑙
𝑎= −𝑔 1 𝑅= 4
𝑚 𝛥𝑡 𝐾𝐸𝑟𝑜𝑡 = 𝐼𝜔2 𝜋𝑟
𝑣1 𝑚1 + 𝑣2 𝑚2 2
(𝑃2 − 𝑃1 )𝜋𝑟 4
𝑣𝑐𝑚 = 𝐿 = 𝐼𝜔 𝑄=
𝑚1 + 𝑚2 8𝜂𝑙
𝛥𝐿
𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝜏 = 2𝜌𝑣𝑟
𝛥𝑡 𝑁𝑅 =
Chapter 9: Statics and Torque 𝜂
𝜌𝑣𝐿
𝜏 = 𝑟𝐹 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 Chapter 11: Fluid Statics 𝑁𝑅′ =
𝜂
𝑟⊥ = 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑚
𝐹𝑜 𝑙𝑖 𝜌= 𝑥𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √2𝐷𝑡
𝑉
𝑀𝐴 = =
𝐹𝑖 𝑙𝑜 𝐹
𝑃= Chapter 13: Temperature,
𝑙𝑖 𝐹𝑖 = 𝑙𝑜 𝐹𝑜 𝐴
𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 1.01 × 105 𝑃𝑎 Kinetic Theory, and the Gas
Chapter 10: Rotational Motion 𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔ℎ Laws
and Angular Momentum 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ 9
𝐹1 𝐹2 𝑇(°𝐹) = 𝑇(°𝐶) + 32
𝛥𝜃 = 5
𝜔= 𝐴1 𝐴2 𝑇(𝐾) = 𝑇(°𝐶) + 273.15
𝛥𝑡 𝐹𝐵 = 𝑤𝑓𝑙
𝑣 = 𝑟𝜔 𝛥𝐿 = 𝛼𝐿𝛥𝑇
𝜌𝑜𝑏𝑗
𝛥𝜔 𝐹𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑚𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑑 = 𝛥𝐴 = 2𝛼𝐴𝛥𝑇
𝛼= 𝜌𝑓𝑙
𝛥𝑡 𝛥𝑉 = 𝛽𝑉𝛥𝑇
𝛥𝑣 𝜌
𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝛽 ≈ 3𝛼
𝑎𝑡 = 𝜌𝑤
𝛥𝑡 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑁𝑘𝑇
𝑎𝑡 = 𝑟𝛼 𝐹
𝛾= 𝑘 = 1.38 × 10−23 𝐽/𝐾
𝜃 = 𝜔𝑡 𝐿
4𝛾 𝑁𝐴 = 6.02 × 1023 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1
𝜔 = 𝜔0 + 𝛼𝑡 𝑃= 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇
1 𝑟
𝜃 = 𝜔0 𝑡 + 𝛼𝑡 2 2𝛾 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝐽
2 ℎ= 𝑅 = 8.31
𝜌𝑔𝑟 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾
𝜔2 = 𝜔02 + 2𝛼𝜃 1 2
𝜔0 + 𝜔 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑁𝑚𝑣
3
𝜔=
2 Chapter 12: Fluid Dynamics 1 3
2
𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝜏 = 𝐼𝛼 and Its Biological Medical 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 = 𝑘𝑇
2 2
Hoop about cylinder axis: 𝐼 = 𝑀𝑅2 Applications
3𝑘𝑇
𝑀𝑅 2 𝑣𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √
Hoop about any diameter: 𝐼 = 𝑉 𝑚
2 𝑄=
𝑀 𝑡
Ring: 𝐼 = (𝑅12 + 𝑅22 ) % 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦
2 𝑄 = 𝐴𝑣
Solid cylinder (or disk) about 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝐴1 𝑣1 = 𝐴2 𝑣2 =
𝑀𝑅 2 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
cylinder axis: 𝐼 = 𝑛1 𝐴1 𝑣1 = 𝑛2 𝐴2 𝑣2
2 × 100%
𝑀𝑅 2 𝑀ℓ2
central diameter: 𝐼 = + Chapter 14: Heat and Heat
4 12
Transfer Methods
Please Do Not Write on This Sheet
1.000 𝑘𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 4186 𝐽 1 𝑃𝐸
𝑃𝐸𝑒𝑙 = 𝑘𝑥 2 𝑉=
𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝛥𝑇 2 𝑞
𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿𝑓 𝑚 𝛥𝑃𝐸 = 𝑞𝛥𝑉
𝑇 = 2𝜋√
𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿𝑣 𝑘 𝑊 = 𝑞𝑉𝐴𝐵
𝑄 𝑘𝐴(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) 1 𝑘 𝑉𝐴𝐵
= 𝑓= √ 𝐸=
𝑡 𝑑 2𝜋 𝑚 𝑑
𝑄 𝛥𝑉
= 𝜎𝑒𝐴𝑇 4 2𝜋𝑡 𝐸=−
𝑡 𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑋 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ) 𝛥𝑠
𝐽 𝑇 𝑘𝑄
𝜎 = 5.67 × 10−8 2𝜋𝑡 𝑉=
𝑠 ⋅ 𝑚2 ⋅ 𝐾 4 𝑣(𝑡) = −𝑣𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ) 𝑟
𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑇 𝑄
= 𝜎𝑒𝐴(𝑇24 − 𝑇14 ) 𝐶=
𝑡 2𝜋𝑋 𝑘 𝑉
𝑣𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑋√ 𝐴
𝑇 𝑚 𝐶 = 𝜖0
Chapter 15: Thermodynamics 𝑑
𝑘𝑋 2𝜋𝑡 𝐹
𝑎(𝑡) = − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ) 𝜖0 = 8.85 × 10−12
3 𝑚 𝑇 𝑚
𝑈 = 𝑁𝑘𝑇
2 𝐴
𝐹 𝐶 = 𝜅𝜖0
𝛥𝑈 = 𝑄 − 𝑊 𝑣𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 =√ 𝑑
𝑚/𝐿
𝑊 = 𝑃𝛥𝑉 (𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑏𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝑄𝑉 𝐶𝑉 2 𝑄2
𝐸𝑐𝑎𝑝 = = =
Δ𝑈 = 𝑄 − 𝑃Δ𝑉 𝑚 𝑇 2 2 2𝐶
𝑊 = 0 (𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑐ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝑣𝑤 = (331 ) √
𝑠 273 𝐾
Δ𝑈 = 𝑄 Chapter 20: Electric Current,
𝑃
𝑄 = 𝑊 (𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝐼= Resistance, and Ohm’s Law
𝐴
Δ𝑈 = 0 𝐴𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 = 4𝜋𝑟 2 𝛥𝑄
𝑄 = 0 (𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝐼=
(𝛥𝑝)2 𝛥𝑡
Δ𝑈 = −𝑊 𝐼= 𝐼 = 𝑛𝑞𝐴𝑣𝑑
2𝜌𝑣𝑤
𝑊 𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅
𝐸𝑓𝑓 =
𝑄ℎ 𝜌𝐿
Chapter 17: Physics of Hearing 𝑅=
𝑄𝑐 𝐴
𝐸𝑓𝑓 = 1 − (𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠) 𝐼
𝑄ℎ 𝜌 = 𝜌0 (1 + 𝛼𝛥𝑇)
𝛽 = (10 𝑑𝐵) 𝑙𝑜𝑔 ( )
𝑇𝑐 𝐼0 𝑅 = 𝑅0 (1 + 𝛼𝛥𝑇)
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝐶 = 1 − 𝑣𝑤 ± 𝑣𝑜
𝑇ℎ 𝑓𝑜 = 𝑓𝑠 ( ) 𝑉2
𝑄ℎ 𝑣𝑤 ∓ 𝑣𝑠 𝑃 = 𝐼𝑉 = = 𝐼2 𝑅
𝑅
𝐶𝑂𝑃ℎ𝑝 = 𝑓𝐵 = |𝑓1 − 𝑓2 | 1
𝑊
𝑄𝑐 𝑣𝑤 𝑃𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝐼0 𝑉0
𝑓𝑛 = 𝑛 ( ) 2
𝐶𝑂𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑓 = 𝐶𝑂𝑃ℎ𝑝 − 1 = 2𝐿 𝐼0
𝑊
𝑣𝑤 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 =
𝑄𝑐 ⁄𝑡1 𝑓𝑛 = 𝑛 ( ) √2
𝐸𝐸𝑅 = 4𝐿
𝑄ℎ ⁄𝑡2 𝑉0
𝑍 = 𝜌𝑣 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 =
𝑄 √2
𝛥𝑆 = (𝑍2 − 𝑍1 )2
𝑇 𝑎=
𝑄ℎ 𝑄𝑐 (𝑍1 + 𝑍2 )2
𝛥𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑡 = + =0 Chapter 21: Circuits,
𝑇ℎ 𝑇𝑐 Bioelectricity, and DC
𝑊𝑢𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙 = 𝛥𝑆 ⋅ 𝑇0 Chapter 18: Electric Charge
Instruments
𝑆 = 𝑘 𝑙𝑛 𝑊 and Electric Field
𝑘 = 1.38 × 10−23 𝐽/𝐾 𝑅𝑆 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + ⋯
|𝑞𝑒 | = 1.60 × 10−19 𝐶
1 1 1 1
|𝑞1 𝑞2 | = + + +⋯
Chapter 16: Oscillatory Motion 𝐹=𝑘 𝑅𝑃 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3
𝑟2
𝑉 = 𝑒𝑚𝑓 − 𝐼𝑟
and Waves 𝐸 = 𝐹/𝑞 𝑡
1 |𝑄| 𝑉 = 𝑒𝑚𝑓 (1 − 𝑒 −𝑅𝐶 )
𝑓= 𝐸=𝑘 2
𝑇 𝑟 𝜏 = 𝑅𝐶
𝜆 𝑡
𝑣 = = 𝑓𝜆 Chapter 19: Electric Potential 𝑉 = 𝑉0 𝑒 −𝑟𝐶
𝑇
𝐹 = −𝑘𝑥 and Electric Energy
Please Do Not Write on This Sheet
Chapter 22: Magnetism 𝑅 1 𝜆
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜙 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = (𝑚 + )
𝑍 2 𝑑
𝐹 = 𝑞𝑣𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑃𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜙 𝜆
𝑚𝑣 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑚
𝑟= 𝑊
𝑞𝐵 𝜆
Chapter 24: Electromagnetic 𝜃 = 1.22
𝜖 = 𝐵𝑙𝑣 𝐷
Waves
𝐹 = 𝐼𝐿𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜆𝑛
1 2𝑡 =
𝜏 = 𝑁𝐼𝐴𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑐= 2
𝜇0 𝐼 √𝜇 0 𝜖0 2𝑡 = 𝜆𝑛
𝐵=
2𝜋𝑟 𝐸 I = ½ I0
𝜇0 𝐼 =𝑐
𝐵= 𝐵 𝐼 = 𝐼0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃
2𝑅 𝑐 = 𝑓𝜆 𝑛2
𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃𝑏 =
𝐵 = 𝜇0 𝑛𝐼 𝑐𝜖0 𝐸02 𝑛1
𝐹 𝜇0 𝐼1 𝐼2 𝐼𝑎𝑣𝑒 =
= 2
𝑙 2𝜋𝑟 𝑐𝐵02 Chapter 28: Special Relativity
𝐼𝑎𝑣𝑒 =
2𝜇0 𝛥𝑡0
Chapter 23: Electromagnetic 𝐸0 𝐵0 𝛥𝑡 =
𝐼𝑎𝑏𝑒 = 2
Induction, AC Circuits, and 2𝜇0 √1 − 𝑣2
𝑐
Electrical Technologies
1
Chapter 25: Geometric Optics 𝛾=
𝛷 = 𝐵𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 2
𝛥𝛷 √1 − 𝑣2
𝜃𝑖 = 𝜃𝑟 𝑐
𝑒𝑚𝑓 = −𝑁
𝛥𝑡 𝑐
𝑛= 𝑣2
𝑒𝑚𝑓 = 𝑣𝐵𝐿 𝑣 𝐿 = 𝐿0 √1 −
𝑒𝑚𝑓 = 𝑁𝐴𝐵𝜔 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡 𝑐2
𝑛1 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2
𝑉𝑆 𝑁𝑆 𝐼𝑃 𝑛2 𝑣𝐿𝑇 + 𝑣𝑇𝐺
= = 𝜃𝑐 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 𝑣𝐿𝐺 = 𝑣 𝑣
𝑉𝑃 𝑁𝑃 𝐼𝑆 𝑛1 1 + 𝐿𝑇 2 𝑇𝐺
𝑐
𝛥𝐼2 1
𝑒𝑚𝑓1 = −𝑀 𝑃= 𝑢
𝛥𝑡 𝑓 1+
𝜆𝑜𝑏𝑠 = 𝜆𝑠 √ 𝑐
𝛥𝐼 1 1 1 𝑢
𝑒𝑚𝑓 = −𝐿 = + 1−
𝛥𝑡 𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖 𝑐
𝛥𝛷 ℎ𝑖 𝑑𝑖
𝐿=𝑁 𝑚= =− 𝑢
𝛥𝐼 ℎ𝑜 𝑑𝑜 1−
𝑓𝑜𝑏𝑠 = 𝑓𝑠 √ 𝑐
μ0 𝑁 2 𝐴 𝑅 𝑢
𝐿= 1+
ℓ 𝑓= 𝑐
2
1 2 𝑚𝑣
𝐸𝑖𝑛𝑑 = 𝐿𝐼 𝑝=
2 2
𝑡 Chapter 26: Vision and Optical √1 − 𝑣2
𝑒 −𝜏 ) 𝑐
𝐼 = 𝐼0 (1 − Instruments 2
𝑚𝑐
𝐿 1 1 𝐸=
𝜏= 2
𝑅 𝑃= +
𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖 √1 − 𝑣2
𝑡 𝑐
𝐼 = 𝐼0 𝑒 −𝜏 𝑚 = 𝑚𝑜 𝑚𝑒 𝐸0 = 𝑚𝑐 2
𝑉 𝑁𝐴 = 𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛼 𝑚𝑐 2
𝐼= 𝐾𝐸𝑟𝑒𝑙 = − 𝑚𝑐 2
𝑋𝐿 𝑓 1 2
𝑋𝐿 = 2𝜋𝑓𝐿
𝑓/# = ≈
𝐷 2𝑁𝐴 √1 − 𝑣2
𝑐
𝑉 𝑑𝑖 = 𝑓𝑜 𝐸 = (𝑝𝑐) + (𝑚𝑐 2 )2
2 2
𝐼=
𝑋𝐶 𝑓𝑜
𝑀=
1 𝑓𝑒
𝑋𝐶 =
2𝜋𝑓𝐶
𝑉0 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 Chapter 27: Wave Optics
𝐼0 = 𝑜𝑟 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 =
𝑍 𝑍
𝜆
𝑍 = √𝑅2 + (𝑋𝐿 − 𝑋𝐶 )2 𝜆𝑛 =
𝑛
1 𝜆
𝑓0 = sin 𝜃 = 𝑚
2𝜋√𝐿𝐶 𝑑