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Reaction Engineering

The content of the lecture "reaction engineering" ("Reaktionstechnik") contains


fundamental principles of chemical and biological reactions and processes. Students
obtain the knowledge about the influence of kinetic quantities and learn how these
quantities are modified to control and adjust a process. Thereby, different chemical
and biological processes are described from elemental thermodynamic principles up
to the point of complex chemical reactions. Different catalytic reactions, mass and
heat transfer characteristics and different growth kinetics of microorganisms are
discussed in detail. Furthermore, balances of biotechnological processes are
discussed in detail. Discussion of reaction kinetics includes not only the detailed
mechanistic analysis in a biological and chemical context, but also modelling and
simulation.

For this, students learn in practical courses how to work with simulation tools as well
as with unstructured, structured and segregated models. Different optimisation
strategies and techniques are taught to understand the theoretical discussed
influence of kinetic phenomena in practical exercises.

Lecture topics

1.) Introduction and facts about raw material change


2.) Reactor systems and operation modes
- Homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts
- Biocatalysts (isolated enzymes, whole cell, living cells)
- Reactor types
- Modes of operation (Continuous, discontinuous, batch, fed-batch)
- Reaction examples and suitable reactors
- Process evaluation by: selectivity, throughput, degree of conversion,
yield, space-time yield
3.) Comparison of biotechnological and chemical processes (benefits and draw-
backs
4.) Kinetics of chemical and biological reactions (elemental equations, equilibrium
reaction)
5.) Reaction orders (zero order, 1st, 2nd or higher order), Reactions with multiple
reactants
6.) Biocatalytic reactions (Michaelis-Menten, Monod-kinetic, Lineweaver Burk and
its drawbacks)
7.) Model of cultures that grow in batch mode and autocatalytic chemical
reactions
8.) Other growths kinetics for microorganisms
9.) Contois-kinetics as a negative example for an empirical growth model
10.) Kinetic models to describe substrate limitations
11.) Introduction of general balance sheet equations (without definition of a kinetic
type) for batch, continious and tube reactor
12.) Comparison of continuous stirred tank and tube reactor, Irreversible reactions
0. to 3. order, Irreversible autocatalytic reaction (A + R → R + R)
13.) Instationary and stationary model of a continuous microbial culture, the
leaching point, stationary substrate concentration
14.) Maintenance metabolism
15.) Chemostatic control and turbidostatic regulation
16.) Pros and Cons of batch and continious processes
17.) Product formation with simultaneous (unwanted) by-product formation
18.) Fed-batch mode of operation. basics:
- In case of chemical operation with by-product formation
- In a fermentation process with substrate excess inhibition
19.) Continuous reactor cascades
- Reactions 1'ter and 2'ter order
- Model of a 2-stage reactor cascade in a fermentation process with
simple monod kinetics
- Product-inhibited continuous culture, comparison 1- and 2-stage
variants
- Model-free estimation of operating data for continuous (single and
multi-stage) fermentation processes from batch experiments
- 2-stage bioreactor cascade with intermediate supply
20.) Dwell time behaviour of reactors
21.) Thermodynamic Fundamentals of Reaction Engineering