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MICROWAVE

ENGINEERING

SANJEEVA GUPTA
B.Sc. (Electrical) Electronics Engineering
DINESH ARORA
B.Sc. (Electrical) Electronics Engineering
SATYA BHUSHAN SARNA
B.Sec. (Electrical)Electronics Engineering
PRASHANT LONKAR
B.Sc. (Electrical) Electronics Engineering

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ISBN No. 978-81-7409-087-8

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Third Edition :
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Foreward

Microwave system has rapidly developed in the last three or four


decades. Microwave communication is now being very widely used. All these
required rapid development of microwave components and equipment. In
the last two decades there has been very progress in this branch of electronic
engineering with the addition of solid state devices and microstrip elements.
This is primarily due to it increasing diverse application to fields like radio
astronomy, long distance communication, defense navigation and to study
of physical and chemical properties of matter. The rapid progress in
microwave electronics has created an increasing demand for trained micro-
wave engineering personal which has resulted in introduction of many
microwave courses in various universities, and engineering institutes. This
is a field which is of equal interest to electrical engineers and as physicists.
A student entering this field is confronted with scarcity of a comprehensive
book. There are many books by foreign authors dealing with different
aspects of microwaves. However, there are very few books written by Indian
authors for Indian students. I hope the attempt made by Sanjeeva Gupta
will be successful and provide a useful for microwave engineers and
physicists.

Sd/-
Prof. G.P.Srivastava
Project Incharge, Training of
Manpower in the Field of Microwave
Engineering, Department of Physics
and Astrophysics,
University of Delhi.
Preface

With the widening of the communication systems, the new Micro-


wave Technology has come up very fast. In the last one decade, the Indian
Post and Telegraph Department has spread a network of microwave links
throughout the country. Since then, large scale requirement of microwave
engineers is being felt by the country. There is hardly any book available by
Indian authors to cope with the needs of the students. This inspired the
authors to prepare and present this book. The authors hope that this book
will go a long way in solving the basic need of the students in the field of
Microwave Engineering. The book is recommended for the students prepar-
ing for degree Engineering Examinations, M.Sc. (Electronics) or for UPSC
Engineering Services Examination.
This book has been written after consulting vast literature in the
field of Microwave Engineering. The authors acknowledge with the due
courtesy the sources consulted in the preparation of this book.
The authors are grateful to their teachers. Prof. G.P. Shrivastava
(Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi), PRof. R.S.
Shukla and S.P. Mathur of Delhi Collage of Engineering who are responsible
for moulding our thinking on this subject. The authors are grateful to Mr.
Naresh Gupta and Mr. s. Nariharan for their help in Proof reading.
The authors are also highly grateful and obliged for the most co-
operative attitude of Shri Romesh Chander Khanna during the course of
preparation of this book.
Finally, the authors will be highly obliged for any positive criticisms
and suggestions from the readers for improving this book with an object to
serve the student community in better way.
—Authors
Contents

1. Microwave Principles 1-45


1.1. Introduction 1
1.2. Microwave Band 2
1.3. Millimeter Wave Band 3
1.4. Historical Background 4
1.5. Velocity of Waves Propagation in media 7
1.6. Advantages of Microwave Line of Sight Communication 8
1.7.
1.8. Wave Propagation and Noise 10
1.9. Bending of Ray Path due to Atmospheric
Refractivity Gradient 15
1.10. Estimation of Microwave Link Parameters 19
1.11. Application of Ray and Wave Theories in Microwave Links 30

2. Maxwell’s Equations 46—58


2.1. Faraday’s Law 46
2.2. Displacement Current 51
2.3. Maxewell’s Second Equation 53

3. Transmission Lines 59-109


3.1. Introduction 59
3.2. Basic Transmission Line Equations 61
3.2.1. Distortions in Transmission Lines 66
3.2.2. Types of Transmission Lines 69
3.2.3. Impedence matching by use of stubes 81
3.2.4. Matching 83
3.2.5. Concept of Transmission Line Converted to
Wave Guide 92
3.3. Electromagnetic Field Equations 95
3.4. Historical Background of Maxwell’s Field Equations 97
3.5. Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Field equations for
Electromagnetic Waves 101
3.6. Electromagnetic Plane waves 102
3.7. Polarisation of Electromagnetic Waves 104

4. Wave Guids 110—133


4.1. Introduction 110
4.2. Phase Velocity and Group Velocity in a Wave Guide 111
4.3. Mathematical Analysis of Rectangular Wave Guides 113
4.4. Transmission of TM Waves in Rectangular Wave Guide 116
4.4.1. Propagation properties and cut off Frequencies
for Rectangular Wave guide 119
4.5. Transelectric Waves (TE Waves) 122

5. Microwave Components 134-168


5.1. Wave Guide Tees 134
5.1.1. E-plane Tee 134
5.1.2. H-plane Tee 136
5.1.3. Magic Tee 137
5.2. Wave meters 140
5.3. Directional Couplers 143
5.4. Isolators and Circulators 147

6. High Frequency Effects and Scaling 169-187


6.1. Scaling in Ultra-High-Frequency Tubes 169
6.2. Problems Associated with Conventional Tubes At UHF 196
6.3. Tubes for Ultra-High-Frequency 184

7. Klystrons 188—208
7.1. Klystron 188
7.1.1. Velocity Modulation 190
7.2. Multi-cavity Klystrons 192
7.3. Mathematical Analysis of Two Cavity Klystron 192
7.4. Performance and Applications 197
7.5. Reflex Klystron 198
7.5.1. Operation 199
7.5.2. Transit Time 200
7.6. Mathematical Analysis for Reflex Klystron 201
7.6.1. Relationship between accelerating voltage and
repeller voltage 203
7.6.2. Relation between repeller voltage and frequency of
operation of reflex Klystron 204
7.6.3. Modes 205
7.6.4. Performance 207
7.6.5. Tunning 207
7.6.6. Repeller protection 207

8. Magnetron and Travelling Wave Tube 209—228


8.1. Magnetron 209
8.1.1. Constructional Features of a cavity Magnetron 210
8.1.2. Parallel Plate Magnetron 211
8.1.3. Cylindrical Magnetron 215
8.2. Mechanism of Oscillations in Magnetron 218

9. Microwave Measurements 229—247


9.1. Measurements of Power 229
9.1.1. Measurement of Low Microwave Powers 229
9.1.2. Bolometer Methods 230
9.1.3. Extension of Bolometers Methods 233
9.1.4. Other Methods 234
9.1.5. Measurement of Medium & High Microwave Powers 234
9.2. Measurement of Frequency and Wavelength 236
9.2.1. Frequency Measurement 236
9.2.2. Wavelength Measurement 236
9.2.3. Standing Wave Detector 237
9.3. Measurement of Impedence 237
9.4. SWR Measurement 237
9.5. Impedance Measurement 240
9.6. Measurement Attenuation 241
9.6.1. Power Ratio method 242
9.6.2. Substitution Method 242

9.7.1.
Measurement of Q by Transmission 242
9.7.2.
The Determination of Cavity Q by VSWR
Measurement 243
9.7.3. Decrement Measurement of Q 245
9.8. Measurement of Noise Factor 246

10. Microwave Attenuation 248—259


10.1. Horn Antennas 248
10.2. Antennas with Parabolic Reflectors 251

11. Radar Systems 260—300


11.1. Basic Principles 261
11.2. Radar Equation 262
11.3. Factors Influencing Maximum Range 264
11.4. Effects of Noise 266
11.5. Powers and Frequencies used in Radar 267
11.6. (a) Basic Pulsed Radar System 269
11.7. Modulators 270
11.8. Receiver Bandwidth Requirements 273
11.9. Factors Governing Plus Characteristic 274
11.10. Duplexer 276
11.11. Moving Target Indicator(MTI) 279
11.12. Tracking Radar Systems and Search Radar System 284

12. Propagation of Microwave 301—324


12.1. Space Wave Propagation over Ideal Flat Earth 302
12.2. Effect of Curvature of an Ideal Earth 306
12.3. Various Other Considerations in Space Wave Propagation 307
12.4. Atmospheric Effects in Space Wave Propagation 311
12.4.1. Refraction of Rays and the Radio Horizon 312
12.5. Duct Propagation 314
12.6. Tropospheric Scattering and Reflection 316
12.7. Fading of Space Wave Signals 318
12.8. Satellite Communication 319
12.9. Synchronous Satellite 320
12.10. Satellite Antennas 321
12.11. Ground Stations 322
12.12. Ground Antennas 323

13. Semiconductor Microwave Devices 325—343


13.1. UHF and Microwave Transistors 325
13.2. Varactors and Multipliers 326
13.3. Characteristics of Varactor Diode 328
13.4. Parameteric Amplifiers 331

Appendix A 344—348
1. Stoke’s Theorem 344
2. Divergence Theorem 346

Appendix B 349—359
1. Attenuators 349
2. Dielectric Phase Shifter 352
3. Cavity Resonators 353
4. Principle of operation 353
5. Resonant Frequency of Rectangular Cavity 357
6. Q of Cavity Resonators 358

Appendix C-Smith Chart and Graphic Solutions of


Transmission Line 360—376
1. Smith Chart for Analytical Equations 360
2. Commercial Rectangular smith chart 364
3. Standing wave Ration from Smith Chart 365
4. Impedance Matching 368
5. Matching by Impedance Matching Device 369
6. Matching by Single Stub 370
7. Matching by Double Stub 371
1
Microwave Principles

1.1 Introduction
Microwaves are radiowaves of very short wavelength. Basically
radiowaves are electromagnetic waves the term radio being intro-
duced from the concept of radiation of electromagnetic waves. Ac-
cordingly there should not be any lower or higher limits of the
wavelengths. However, it is usual to confine the wavelength of
radiowaves within certain limits to have electronics systems to
generate, radiate and detect the radio waves, while infrared and
optical waves are covered by systems called optoelectronic systems.
Table I
Radio wave bands
Frequency band Frequency range Wavelength range
Extra Low Frequency (ELF) < 3 KHz > 100,000 m
Very Low Frequency (VLF) 3 – 30 KHz 100,000 – 10,000 m
Low Frequency (LF) 30 – 300 KHz 10,000 – 1,000 m
Medium Frequency (MF) 300 – 3000 MHz 1,000 – 100 m
High Frequency (HF) 3 – 30 MHz 100 – 10 m
Very High Frequency (VHF) 30 – 300 MHz 10 – 1 m
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 300 – 3000 MHz 100 – 10 cm
Super High Frequency 3 – 30 GHz 10 – 1 cm
(SHF) or Microwave
Extra High Frequency 30 – 300 GHz 10 – 1 mm
(EHF) or Millimeterwave
2 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING

Microwaves have wavelengths which are limited to include


wavelengths in the centimeter and millimeter wavelength regions.
The entire frequency spectrum of radiowaves upto microwaves and
millimeterwaves are, in fact, divided into a number of frequency
bands as indicated in Table I, in which microwave and millimeter-
wave bands cover the shortest wavelengths. The relation between
the frequency f and wavelength λ being fλ = c, where c is velocity of
propagation of the radiowave, which is equal to that of lightwaves
in free space, 3 × 1010 cm/sec = 3 × 108 m/sec.

1.2 Microwave band


A glance at the various frequency ranges indicates that the UHF
band and the SHF range constitute the microwave frequency range.
However, instead of microwave the term ‘microwaves’ include both
the microwave and millimeterwave band. Like wise, the term
‘‘millimeterwaves’’ include both millimeterwave and submillimeter
wave [> 300 GHz].
It may be mentioned here that the unit of frequency which was
originally called cycles per second is now called. Hertz, with the code
Hz, after the name of Heinrich Hertz, who first demonstrated the
existence of electromagnetic waves at microwave, (λ = 66 cm) 30
years after the theoretical prediction of electromagnetic waves by
James Clerk Maxwell in the year 1858.
During world war II, the development of Microwave Radars in
the frequency range 1–12 GHz prompted the defence engineers to
subdivide the microwave range into four bands with the codes L, S,
C, and X using the letters, in a way so that the bands may be kept
secret through this code letters. These four bands cover the frequen-
cy ranges as shown in Table II.
Table II
Radar microwave bands

Frequency band Frequency range


L 1 – 2 GHz
S 2 – 4 GHz
C 4 – 8 GHz
X 8 – 12 GHz
Subsequently, in recent years microwaves at frequencies higher
than 12 GHz were generated and used for Radar and communication
systems and those are also subdied into Ku, K and Ka bands as
MICROWAVE PRINCIPLES 3

shown in Table III, which also includes the radar microwave bands,
L, S, C, and X.

Table III
Microwave bands

Frequency Band Frequency Range


L 1 – 2 GHz
S 2 – 4 GHz
C 4 – 8 GHz
X 8 – 12 GHz
Ku 12 – 18 GHz
K 18 – 26.5 GHz
Ka 26.5 – 40 GHz

1.3 Millimeterwave band


It may be noted that the Ka band covers a part of the millimeter-
wave band which starts from 30 GHz. However, the manufacturers
of millimeter wave products extended the millimeter wave band
down to 18 GHz as the same infrastructure for the production of
millimeterwave products may be used to manufacture products
down to 18 GHz. There is thus a overlap of microwave and mil-
limeterwave bands over the frequency range 18 – 40 GHz covering
K and Ka band of which 18 – 30 GHz is microwave and 30 – 40 GHz
is millimeterwaves, as indicated in Table I. Manufacturers of
Microwave products are now, in fact, developing products in the
range 1 – 40 GHz, while Millimeterwave manufacturers are develop-
ing products in the range 18 – 300 GHz and even beyond 300 GHz.
Thus there is a scope of choice between the Microwave and Mil-
limeterwaves manufactures in the overlap bands K and Ku. Recent-
ly, some manufactures like Hewlett Packard are developing both
Microwave and Millimeterwave products.
In view of the commercial interest millimeterwave manufac-
turers are now covering the band 18 – 300 GHz and even beyond
300 GHz upto about 400 GHz in the submillimeterwave region, and
the millimeterwave band has been subdivided like that of
microwave into a number of subbands as shown in Table IV, which
also includes the K and Ka bands, included in Table III for the
Microwave bands.
4 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING

Table IV
Millimeterwave bands
Band Frequency range
K 18 – 26.5 GHz
Ka 26.5 – 40 GHz
Q 33 – 50 GHz
U 40 – 60 GHz
V 50 – 75 GHz
E 60 – 90 GHz
W 75 – 110 GHz
F 90 – 140 GHz
D 110 – 170 GHz
G 140 – 220 GHz
H 170 – 260 GHz
It may be noted that there are overlaps of frequency bands
between the Ka and Q, Q and U, U and V, V and E, F and W, W and
F, F and D, and D and G bands.
In recent years, the entire spectrum of radio starting from
ELF/VLF/LF/HF bands waves, may be integrated as shown in Fig.
1, covering Microwave and Millimeterwave bands, in which the
frequency ranges in the UHF, SHF and EHF bands are indicated as
‘Microwaves’.

1.4 Historical background


Historically microwave signal was first generated by Henrich
Hertz in 1888 at 66 cm wavelength (454.5 MHz) while millimeter-
wave signal was first generated by Sir J. C. Bose in 1895 at 5 mm
wavelength (60 GHz). Subsequently, in 1890s, Bose also generated
microwave signal at wavelengths upto 2.5 cm (12 GHz) wavelength.
Besides these, Sir J. C. Bose also developed the world’s first solid
state point contact detector working at millimeterwave, infrared
and optical wavelengths, using Galena (PbS) crystal as the detector
material. Bose also developed world’s first horn antenna and
waveguide radiator for microwave and millimeter wave bands. In
1899 Sir J. C. Bose developed a highly sensitive iron-mercury
detector in which a U-tube, made of glass, filled up with mercury,
was used for a fine control of mercury contact pressure to optimise
MICROWAVE PRINCIPLES 5

the sensitivity of the detector. Subsequently, in 1901 Marconi


employed Sir J.C. Bose’s technique of the highly sensitive iron-mer-
cury detector.
Often the millimeterwaves, submillimeter waves (f > 300 GHz)
and infrared waves are covered in an integrated manner under
‘‘infrared and millimeterwave’’ although the technologies for mil-
limeterewaves as well as that of submillimeterwaves may be quite
different from that required for infrared, where Optoelectronics
Technology is prevalent. The reason for such an integration is that,
some of the components are similar in design for millimeterwaves,
submillimeterwaves and infrared, which are, in fact, borrowed from
the systems used for optical waves, and called quasi-optical com-
ponent. It may be mentioned here that many of the quasioptical
components used for microwave and millimeterwave bands were
first developed by Sir J. C. Bose in 1890s, to prove the quasi-optical
properties of millimeterwave and microwave2. Sir J. C. Bose, in fact,
developed a number of quasioptical components for microwave and
millimeterwave bands, such as dielectric lens for focusing the wave
to the detector, wire grid polariser for polarising the wave and also
for analysing the polarised waves and curved cylindrical grating for
accurate measurement of wavelength of microwave and millimeter-
wave. In addition to these, Sir J. C. Bose also worked for the first
time on the response of living and nonliving meterials to microwave
and millimeterwave bands, a subject which has now grown to a high
level for the studies of microwave hazards to living beings, animals
and vegetation and also for microwaves diathermy therapy of
tumour and cancer. From the above history of Science about Sir J.
C. Bose, who worked pioneeringly on a wide range of fields in Radio
Science covering URSI commissions A. B. C. D. E. F. and K, it
appears that Sir J.C. Bose may be called the father of Radio Science.
The difficulty of generating which, however, Bose generated by
using his ‘open resonator’ coherent millimeterwaves and the limited
distance of propagation of millimeterwaves upto line of sight dis-
tance apparently shifted the interest from millimeter waves to
longer waves to wave length longer than a meter.
However, investigations of the millimeterwaves were continued
and stimulated by scientific and millitary developments. For the
purpose, feasibility of generating millimeterwaves of wavelength 1
cm (30 GHz) was demonstrated by Cleeton and Williams in studies
of ammonia molecular resonances in the early 1930s. Subsequently
in 1930 the observation by L. A. Hyland of the Naval Research
Laboratory (NRL), about the reflection of radio signals from over-
flying aircrafts, stimulated the investigation of radar techniques for
6 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING

detecting flying aircrafts in NRL, Fort Monmouth and elsewhere in


United States. During this period excellent work was also done
independently in England with high priority as there was the threat
of war in Europe with impending raids by bomber aircraft. This
early connection between aircraft and radar is continued even today
for detecting aircrafts from remote ground locations or from ships
and also from airborne radars for detecting other aircrafts, ships
and ground features and for developing countermeasures.
During early stages of World War II, however, the most require-
ments about aircraft related radar was found to be met at microwave
frequencies upto 10 GHz. At the same time, an attempt to build a
radar at millimeterwave around 10 mm wavelength range, at the
M. I. T. Radiation Laboratory, failed due to a wrong choice of the
exact wavelength which happened to be near the water vapour
absorption line.
During World War II J. H. Van Vleck predicted theoretically the
oxygen absorption band at 60 GHz (λ = 5 mm), at which Sir J. C.
Bose first generated millimeterwaves. NRL used this band to
develop secure communication system for millitary applications,
which is still being used round the world. It is interesting to note
that the 60 GHz band is now being used for a number of other
application areas like Wireless LAN developed in Japan, Doppler
radar for speed monitoring of cars and also for intersatellite com-
munication. After World War II millimeterwave work continued at
NRL for millitary applications and at Bell Telephone Laboratories
(TL) for telecommunication applications. In 1950s Hughes aircraft
company successfully extended the frequency range of coupled–
cavity travelling wave tubes to millimeterwaves. In 1960s, intensive
work in millimeterwave technology was done at BTL on the develop-
ment of solid state components required in the development of
underground repeaters using low loss overmoded waveguides,
which was also first developed by Sir J. C. Bose.
In 1970s, Hughes began manufacturing a solid state sweep
generator which apparently triggered a chain of development in
Hughes in the Millimeterwave Technology area of a full range of
devices, components and instruments covering 18 to 160 GHz with
the work continuing to extend the frequency range to shorter mil-
limeter wavelength range. Recently, all this activities of Hughes has
been taken over by Millitech, U.S.A., which developed a unique focal
plane array acting as a ‘millimeterwave eye’ for high resolution
passive imaging of objects at millimeter waves around 94 GHz.
Microwave Engineering

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