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NFPA® 13

Standard for
the Installation of
Sprinkler Systems

2013 Edition

NFPA, 1 Batterymarch Parl<, Quincy, MA 02169-7471

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ISBN: 978-145590406-8 (Print)

ISBN: 978-145590455-6 (pDF) 8112


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Copyright if) 2012 National Fire: Protection .-\Mociation". All Rights Rcscr\'cd

NFI'A" 13

Standard for the

Installation of Sprinkler Systems

2013 Edition

This edition of NFPA 13, Sta"dam for the lmlallatio" ojSprillJrlerS,rte"u. was preparcd b)' the
Technical Committees on Private: \oVatcr Suppl}" Piping Systems. Residential Sprinkler SystCITU,
Sprinkler S)'Stc:m Discharge: Criteria, and Sprinkler S}'Stcm Installation Criteria. released by
the Technical Correlating Commiuee: onAlltomatic Sprinkler S)'Slcms.. and acted on by NFPA
at itsJunc: Association TechnicaJ Mecting hcldJunc 11-14.2012. in Las Vegas, NV. It wall
issued b)' the StancL.'\rcb Council on Augwt9, 2012. with an effective dale: of Augwt 29. 2012,
and all previous editions.
Tenbth'e interim amendments (rIAs) to Olllptc:r 6. Section 7.6. and Pamgraphs
23.1.3(42). and were issued on August 9. 2012. For further information on tentati,,"C
interim amendments. :see Section 5 of the NFPA Regulations GO\'erning Committee Projccts
3\..ulabJe at hUp:/ /
This edition of NFP.~ 13 was appro,~d as an American National Standard on August 29. 2012.

Origin and DeveJopment of NFPA 13

NFPA 13 represents the first standard published lUlder the 3115pices of the NFPA Commit-
tee on Automatic Sprinklers. Originally titled Rlllu and R~lat;ons of th£ National Board ofF,u
UndmmiftTS fo,-SprinJrlcrEqllljnumJ, AutOlRotic O1/d Opm s,stnlls, the standard has been continu-
ously updated to kc=ep in step ",;th change.
Full infomlation about the NFPA actions on various changes willlx= found in the NFPA Pro-
ceedings. The dates of succc.ssive editions are as folloW3: 1896. 1899, 1902. 1905. 1907. 1908. 1912.
1913.1915,1916.1917,1919.1920,1921.1922,1923.1924. 1925. 1926. 1927,1928. 1929. In 1930,
a sc=paratc= standard was published on Class B s)"stems. This v."aS integrated into the 1931 edition.
Further re\isionswcre adopted in 1934, 1935, and 1936. A t¥."O-6lep rev-ision was presented in the
fonn of a progress report in 1939 and finally adopted in 1940. Further amendm01ts were made in
1947.1950.1953, 1956. 1958. 1960. 1961. 1963, 1964. 1965. 1966, 1968. 1969, 1971. 1972. 1973.
1974.1975.1976.1978.1980.1982. 1984, 1986. and 1989.
The 1991 edition incorporated an entire rewrite of the standard to make the o\'erall
fonnat user friendly. Substantive changes were made to numerous tenns. definitions, and
descriptions. with additional refinements made in 1994.
The centennial (1996) edition included a significant rework of the requirements p<=rtain-
ing to the application, placement. location. spacing, and we of various l)pe.s of sprinklers.
Other changes provided information on extended coverage sprinklers and recogni7.ed the
benefits of fast-response sprinkler lechnolog)"
The 1999 edition encompassed a major reorganization of NFPA's Sprinkler Project that included
the establishm01t of a TcchnkaJ Co~lating Committee on Automatic Sprinkler Systems and four
new sprinkler S)'Slerns technical commitlees, the consolidation ofNFP.As sprinkler S)'SlOn design and
installation requi~menlS. and the impleruc=ntaLion ofnumerousleChnical dl31lges.
The .scope of NFPA 13 was expanded to acldre.5s all sprinkler s}'5tem applications. 111e
1999 edition contained information on the instaUation of undc=rgrolmd pipe from NFPA 24
and sprinkler s}'5tem discharge criteria. for on-floor and rack storage of Class t. n, Ill. IV. and
plastic commodities. ntbber tires. baled cotton, and roll papc=r that were pre\iOltsl)' located in
NFPA231. 231C, 2310. 231 E.. and 231F. Additionall)', sprinkler S)~te:m information for special-
ized hazards from over 40 NFPA documents was either brought into NFPA 13 using NFPA's
extract polic), or specifically referenced A new chapter was also added to addrC=55 the stnlC·
tural aspects of exposed and buried S)~tem piping. A table of cr~s-referencc.s to prC\ious
editions and material that was located in othc=r NFPA documents was included at the c=nd of
the 1999 edition.

Morc .specific changc$ included a ncwsprinkler identification marlcing s}'5tcm and the dC.$ignation ofsprinkler .siZC'-5
by nominal K·factors. New criteria for the lise of steel pipe in lUldcrground applications ww added, as well as a new
provision to guard against microbiologically influenced cOrTosion. Ob5tntClion rules for :r.pccific .sprinkler types and
nalcs for locating sprinklers in concealed spacC$ were revised. New limitations were placed on the sprinkleI'" .si7.d in
storage applications. and criteria for the K-25 sprinkler was added. Additional~" the requirements for protecting
sprinklers against seismic events also lUldclWcnt .significant rC"oision.
The 2002 edition of NFPA 13 undClwcnl st}lc formatting and lcdm.icall'C'oUlOns. 1hc ~c fonnatting was completed to
comply with theMallllalofStyl~jJr..VfPAT«hllimlCmR1Ritt«
unique chaplcn. Editorially, NFP.-\ 13 eliminated all of the exceptions and reworded them as requirements where applicable.
tnO\<-ro. the mandalor)' references to 013ptcr 2. and relocated all ofthe definitions to Oupter 3. In rcorgani1ing NFPA13. SC\"CTa.i
new chaptcn. were created to consolidate requircmen13 including the following: Otapter 10 contained all of the applicable
ratuiremen13 for wlderground piping including m.'llcrials, installation. and acceptance testing: Chaptcr II contained design
approacha. induding pipe schedule, density/area method. room dcSgrt method. speci.'l1 cks.ign :u-cas, residential sprinklc!'s.
exposuTC protcction.and waleT ntl"tains: O'mpter 12 contained the design approadles for the protection of3'tornge. including idle
pallets. miscdlancow .storage. .stor~ less than 12 ft. palletized. .solid pile. bin box, and shelf.storngc, l1lck storage IC'SoS than 25 ft.
rackslorage greater than 25 ft. rubbn- tire. baled coUon. rolled paper. alld special storage dc.signs; and ChaplC1'13 contained all of
the design and installation requirements from all of the ..mollS documcnu that h.'t\--e lxcn extracted into NFm 13.
The 2002 edition made specific technical changes to address .several key usues. Three major areas of irregular
ceiling "''"ere addressed. including 3'kylights. stepped ceiling3'. and ceiling pockets. The design requirements for ESFR
sprinklers were expanded to allow the user to choose the 3'torage height and then the building height for an)' allowable
arrangement. Dc.sign requirements for the protection of 3'torage on solid .shelves were added. Requirements for the
installation of re.sidential 3'prinkler.s were added that parallel the requirements for other t)-pes of .sprinklers.
For the 2007 edition, definitions were reorganized to locate all of the rtorngt definitions in one rn-ea. and sc~ral new
ddinirions addressing private water suppl)' terms were added. The definitiom and requirements of Ordinaf)' Hazard
Group 1 and 2 Occupandc.s were clarified where storage is present. The requirements for trapeze ha.nger:1 ",-ere clarified
and made consistent for all compollen13. and the seismic bracing criteria were updaled to ensure thai. NFPA 13 contains all
of the appropriate requirements for imt3llarion and design of seismic bracing of fire sprinkler S)'3tem3'. The requiremenu
for stor.:tge were further reorganized and di..;ded into separ.:u.e chapter:1 addrcssing gene:rnl re:quiremenu for storage:
misceJlaneot15 storage: protection of Class I to Class IV commodities that are stored palletize:d, 3'olid piled. bin bo:xe~ or .self
storage:: protection of plastic and mbbcr commodities that arc stored palletized. solid piled. bin boxes, or shdf .storage:
protection of Class I through Class IV commodities that arc stored on racks: protection of plastic and mbber commoditio
that arestored on rad..s: protection ofmbbcr tire storage; protection ofroll paper. and 3'pedal desigru of3'torage protection.
For the 201 0 edition man)' ofthe major dlanges related to the ratuiremcnLS for storage protection. Fiot was the combination
of 1m ge drop sprinkler and the specific application contToI mode sprinkler requirements and the ~;gon of the terminology to
identify them as Control Mode Specific Applicarion sprinklcn (CMSA). No.1, newcriteti.a for use of smoke venU were added to
ChapleT 12. The dcruit)/area C\.lfVeS in the storage chapt.c=n: ~e reduced to a rnaxumun 3000 fl:! operating area: this was a
significant reduction of.some cur....c.s tha1 had o.'knded up to 6000 fro Olanges to rack storage in the 2010 edition indudedancw
method to calculate the rack shelf area. Finall)". the pro...i sions for back to back shelfstorage were added to the :storage chapl.e'rs.
Criteria for the protection of three new arrangements were added to Chapter 20. These induded
protection of carton records storage with catwalk access; compact shelving of commodities consisting of paper files,
magazines, books, and similar documents in folders and miscellaneous supplies with no more than 5 percent plastia
up to 8 ft high: and protection of high bay record .storage.
In Chapter 9. a munber of changes occurred regarding swa), bracing of.sprinkler systems including the introduction
of new zone of influence tables for Schedule 5 steel pipe. CPVC. and T)pe M copper tube:. Also the means for
calcubting the loads in the zone of influence were modified to correlate with SEIjASCE-7 and a new Annex E was
added that described this calculation.
Other areas of change included requirements for listed expansion chamber.s; clarification of ceiling podet rules;
and clarification of the fonnulas used in calculating large antifreeze systems.
The 2013 edition of NFPA 13 included changes to many technical requirements as well as the reorganization of multiple
chapten. One significant change that W'a3' made to the administrative chapter of NFPA 13 was to clarify that. watennist
S)"StC1l15 were not covered within NFPA 13 and that NFP.A 750 should be wed when looking for guidance on the design. and
installation of those sy3tems. A series of new requirements address the need for a compatibilil)' rC'-;ew where nonmetallic
piping and fitting3' arc installed in s),stems also using petToleum-based products such as cutting oils and corrosion inhibiton.
Several modifications were made to the standard pertaining to freeze protection. The usc of antifreeze Ul. new NFPA 13
sprinkler S)"StCJnS i.s now prohibited lm1er.s the 3'olution use has been Listed and the listing indicates illustrates the inability for
the solution to ignite. Other freeze protection mod.ificatioll.S to the standard include clarification on the usc of heat tracing.
required bGrrellength for dr)' sprinklers. and the allowance for engineeringanal)'ses to be submiued to support an altenl.a1e
freeze protection .scheme. New sprinkler olniMion requirements were added for dC\o<ltor machi Ile rooms and other dC'--ator
as.sociar.ed spaces where certain criteria is met. Olapter 9 includes updated infonnation on .shared supponstructures a.s well
as a rC'-iscd sdsmic bracing calculation form. Ok'1.pters 16 and 17 'Were reorgnnized to make the: chaptel's easier to follow to
create more consistency between the ..-ariow storage chapters. A new chapter on altcmatl..-e approaches for storage applica.
tions was added to provide guidance on petfonnance-based approaches dealing with .storage arrangements.
Prior editions of this doclunent ha..-e been transbued into languages other than English, ulduding French and Spanish.

W2013 Edition

Technical Correlatiog Committee 00 Automatic Sprinkler Systems (AUl'AAC)

Edward It. Budntck, CIIo;r

Hughet.Assoc:iates. Inc., MD lSE]

Jose R. Bax, JRB Associates Croup tnc., FL [M] NU:trew Kltn, NatJonal Ruearch Council of Canada,.
Rep. NFPA Latin American Section Canada IJrr]
Kerry M. BeIJ, UnderwriteD Laboratories Inc.,IL [RTJ RwreU B. Lew'lt, Thlgian Corporation,AZ tu]
RuSftIl P. f1emln(, National Fire Sprin tier AMoc:iadon. Rep. Trinity Health
Inc., NY 1M] John G. O'NeOJ, The Protection Engineering Group, ~
Scou T. Fraflson, The Viking Corporation, MI {M] VA (5")
MkbaeI J. Friedtnan, Friedman Consulting. Inc.. MD tSEJ
CamerA. PaJeo.Qr;~, Aon/SchinnerEngineering
RlynlOOdA. Crlll, Antp Fire. DC lSEJ
Corporation, c.<\ [lJ
Lute HIlton, Uberty Mutual Property. NC (IJ
Alex Hoffnut1, Viking Fhe Protection Inc., Canada {1M] J. ""... Sheppard, Sheppord&Aosoda..., lLC, MI IS"]
Rep. Canadian Automatic Sprinkler Anociadon Robert D. SpaukBnr;, FM Clobal. MA [Il
ROlaodJ. "urglns, American F1re Sprinkler As5odt\don. DoufIar Paul Sttd(~ U.S. Deptmment of the Na"y. VA [El
Inc., TX 11M] 4= K. Uod.",oo" AxJs US. Property, n.11]
Sultan M.Javerl, SC Engineering. France (IMj
CharlHW. Kettle.; NarionalAutomatic Sprinkler Fitter!>
LU 669, MD IL]
Rep. UnkedAModarion ofJoumeymen and
Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fhting Indus(1)"


DooaJd D. Becter, RJC &:Assochue&, Inc., MO (1M] Scott T. Abrt~ The Viking Corporation. MI [~{l
(AIL to R, J. Hugghu) (Alt. to s. T. lo'Tanson)
TbocnlS C. Brown, The RJA Croup. Inc.• MD [Sfj Donato A AlTO, Electro S1S'temas De Panama,. SA,
(Alt. to R.. A. Crill) Panama [M)
David B. Fuller, PM Global, MA {I] (All. to J. R Baz)
(AlL to R. D. Sp3l.Ilding) J. MIchael Tbocnpson, The ProteCtion Engineering
Kenneth E. I.!man, National Fire Sprinkler Asaodation, Croup, PC. \~"" lSEJ
Inc., NY {M] (AIL to J. C. O'Neill)
(AIL to R. P. Fleming)
George E. Lanrtd., Underwrh.en Inc.,
(AIL to K. M. Sell)


James a BJg«ftU, Global RUt. Consultants Corporation. CheSler W. Sdirmer, Aon/SChinner Engineering
n.lSE) Corporation, NC tIl
Rep. TC on Hanging and Bracing of'Water·Based (Member Emeritus)
Systems Kenneth W. Vtbgooer, ParaJey Comulting £nginee~
Roben M. Capon, Cagnon Engineering. MD tSf] CA [S"J
Rep. TC on Foam·\o\aler SprinkleD Rep. TC on Plhate "tater Supply Piping S)'StemS
,"'llIam E. Koffel, Koffel, Inc•• ",m [SE] Johoj. ~sh, UAJointApprentice.ship Committee.
Rep. suet)' lO Ufe Correlating Committee MD lSEJ
Kenneth W. Under, SWiM: Re, cr tIl Rep. United Awodation ofJoumeymen and
Rep. TC on Sprinkler S)SWD Discharge Criteria
Apprentices of the Plwnbing and Pipe Fitting Indusrty
Joe W. Noble, Noble CoDJUlting Setvicea. u..c.
(Member Emeriul.S)
Rep. TC on Sprinkler S)Stem Installation Criteria
Maurke M. Piette, Mechanial Designs lJd, MA (Sfj
Rep. TC on Re.sidendal Sprinkler S)stems

Maubew j. Klaus, NFPAStalfUabon

This ast
nt/JrtJl!tlts the Mtlfilbmh;pol th Ii_ the CQflllt,;t#u ~ ballotEd o. M~ fimII 1m oJ'1Us tdilioll. Sinre MDt ';IU,
cJumga ;n the JlUMlJmAip.""1 N:we omtmd. A key d(lJSJJi~oI;(II1J is fOUl,d Gt /ht bark of the
NOTE: Membenhip on acommiuee ahall not in and of iaelfcoll&Citute an endor~enloftheAseodation or
anydocumenloo'eloped by we committee on which the membersen'ea.
Committee Scope: This Commiu.eeshaJI ba\'e overall rerporuibilityfordocltments thal pertain (0 the criteria
for the design and inMaUation of automatic. open and foam'W81eT sprinkler S)'"&temS including lbe character
and adequacy ofW1\ter rupplies. and the .selection ofsprinklers. piping. vahes. and all materiah and accesso-
rie. Th~ Committee doe& nOl cover the installation oftanb and (OWeD. nor the inslaUation. maintenance..
and use ofcemral ,nation. proprietary. mudlliuy. and local signaiingS)'SWIU forwatehmen, fire alann. ""per-
visory senice. nor the deign of fire depanmem hose connectiom.

2013 Edition W

Technical Committee 00 Banging aod Bracing of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems (AUT-BBS)

lemes B. Bfggfns, Cltair

Clobal RUt Consultanta Corporation. n.. [SE.}
Richard W. Bonds, Dualle Iron Pipe Research Marco R. Nleraelh, XLClobalAwet Protection Service••
_lion.AL (M] C\ (I)
Samuel S. Doon.way. S. S. DannaW3)' AssociateS. Inc., Janak B. Patel, Savannah Rhw Nuclear Solutions..
Christopher t. Deoeff, FM Clobal, Rl[I] Mld1aeJ A. Rothmler, UAJolntApprent1ce.hip
John Deut.tcb, atyoe Brea Fire Department. CA lEj Comm!.ttee. CO lLJ
Daniel C. Dugan, Fire Sprinkler De&ign, MO [Mj Rep, United Assn, ofJourneymen & Apprentices of the
Thomas J. Forsythe, Hughes Assodaua. Jnc., C>\ (SEJ Plumbing 8c Pipe Flnlng Industry
Jeffrey E. Harpe.; The RJACroup,lnc.,IL ($E] Peter T. Schwab, Wa)lleAutomatic Fire Sprinlders.. Inc.,
DavidJ. Jel~ WOO International Corporation. OH {M] Fl. [1M]
KmlgJao_ner, AFCON,C\(M] Ze~ko Sucevlc, \1pond Fire Protecdon. Canada lIMJ
Abo R. LaIUfUt, Merit Sprinkler Compan)'.lnc.• lA (1M] Rep, Canadian Automatic Sprinkler Association
George E. L..erl~ Underwriters Laboratories Inc., JaatM nuby. Mason Industries. Inc., NY [MJ
IL (RT] Jack W. Thacket; Allan AUtcmallc Sprinkler Corp. of So.
PbJUp D. LeCrone, Rl!.k Management Solutions, lnc., Qillfornia. CA rIM]
TN (SEI Rep. National Fire SprinklerAJsodatlon
UsUe "0119" L lindley, D, UndleyFire Protection Glenn F. Tho~ Ubeny Mutual Propeny. CA [IJ
Company Inc., C~ (1M] Rep. Property Quualty Innlren.AssoclaJ.ion of America
NormanJ. MacDonald, m, FlexHead Indwuiea,. Inc., Vlecorla B. Valettdne, NatlonaJ Fire Sprinller Assodation,
MA(M] Inc.. NY [M)
Wayne M. MartJn, WCI)ne Martin & Inc., c.<\. {SEj Rep, National F1re SprinltlerAssodatlon
DufdS. Mowrer, Babcock &: Wilcox Technical Service&, GOOIIe Voo Cnatetl.'l.k)f, Tolco, CA [MJ

Randy R. \'1'5 FIre and Securll)'Servloeo, CA(IM]
Rep. American Fire Sprin tIer Aslodadon
Rep. National Are SprinltlerAssociation
ThOtna5 C. \\\lIien, American lo1re Sprinkler AJ5odaLion,
Inc,. 'IX (1M]

R.obert 1'- Bachman, Roben E. Badunan. ColWlldng MldlaelJ. Madden, HUghesAwodaU!S, Inc., CA LSEJ
Suuctural Engineer. CA {Mj (Alt. toT.]. FOfS)1.he)
(All. to N.]. MacDonald.lD) EmIl W. Mhtdlko, UnderwriteB l.abor:uories Inc., n. [lIT)
Charle"W. Bamford, Bamford Inc.. Wl\. {IMj (All. to G. E. l,.a\wlck)
(All. to R. R. Nebon) j.Scot.tMttcbe8, B&WTechnicalSenicesPanteX, TX (UJ
Sbeldon Da_ Securll)'Flre Procea.lon Company. 1N IMJ (All. to D. S. Mowrer)
(All. to V. B. valentine)
Toc:IdA. 0000, XL Global A!6et Protection Senioe•• OH [I]
Joseph Normandeau, l)'co/Simplex.Crinnell. CA LMJ
(All, to M. R. Nieraeth) (All. to G. \On Cnatensky)
knneth W. V.~ooer; Panley Connilling Englneen.
MaUhewW. Donahue, The RJA Group, Inc., CA {SEj
C~ [1M)
(AlL U> j. E. HlU')lO'l
Donak! L Dutra, l.iberty Murual huumnce. CA {I] (AlL to T, C, Wellen)
(All. to C. E.. Thompr.on) R.ooald N. W:!bb, SA Conumale Company, Inc" OH [1M)
Charle"W. Kemer, National AIUomaric Sprinkler Fiuen (AlL U> J. W. Thacker)
LU6<i9.MD (Lj
(AlL to M,A. Rot:hmier)

MatthewJ, lQaus, NFP.-\ StaffLiabon

TAiJ luI nptr:.snrts the t1tltlf1JmJr;P d th~ti,1tt flu Co~"j'et O'AS ba,qttd ml IhI finol Wd of this tdiJion. Since thai tiMt~
cAangts in IN IfItabenhip MIa, hQUI «cllnrd. A Iu:J to clasJi/uQUons if /(m"J at the fJoc* oftJ.e dtxU/fUt\t.
NOTE: Membership on a comminee.hall not In and ofilJelfcolUt!.tUte an endorsement oftheAs5odation or
any docwnent de\'e!oped by the commiuee on which the member sene.,
Committee Scope: Thir Committee .hall hln'e the primary rellpOllIibillty for th05e portionr ofNFPA 13 that
penain to the air.eria for the use and installation of componentl and devicu used for the suppon of
water~d fire protection 5)''Slem piping indudingproleetton agaio5t5eismlc eventa.

W2018 Edition

Technical Committee nn Private Waler SuppJy Piping Systems (AUf-PRJ)

Kenneth W. \\'a(0fK>,r, Chair

Parsley Consulting EngineeD. CA [SEJ

Richard W. Bonds. Ductile Iron Pipe Research John Lake. City of Caines\ilJe. liL [El
A~iation.AL{MI Michael T. Larabel, Amway Inc... MI (Ul
PhllllpA. Brown. American Fire Sprinkler A!&lciaLion. Geo~ E. Laverlck. UndeJwriten Laboratories Inc ..
Inc.. n (Il'tf I IL [lIT]
Jame.sA. CharreUe. AllanAmomatic Sprinkler Colp. of James 101. Maddry, James M. Maddr)'. P.E.. GA [SEI
So. California. CA 111\11 Kevin D. MmJpan. T)'Co Fire Protection Product!>. Rl I MI
Rep. National Fire Sprinkler .-\.5&odation BobD. Morpn. Fort\\'Orth Fire Depanment. TX lEI
Flora R (ben. City of Ha.yward CA [EJ DavId S. MOwn',r, Babcock & Wilcox Technical Senica
Stephen.-\. auk-Jr., AIIi:mz Risk COllSlutants., LLC. GA [IJ LLC. TN [U]
Jeffry T. Dudley. National Aeronautics & Space Dale H. O'DelI, N:.uionaiAutomatic Sprinkler FitteD
Administration. Fl. 1U J LV 669. G·\ [LJ
Byron E. £JUs. Ente(8)' Corponuion. L·\ [UJ Rep. UnitedA!sn. ofJournE:)'men & Apprentices of the
Rep. Edison Electric Institute Plumbing & Pipe Atting Industf)'
Brandon W. Frakes. XL Global A¥oet Protection Senice3. Adam P. OIomon, Aon/RRS/Schirmer Enginemng. TX II)
NC{II Sam P. Salwan. Emironmental S}'~tems Design. Inc... n. [SE)
David B. Fuller. FM Global. MA [I J James R. Schlfilld. Fire Safe£)' Consultants., Inc.. n. 11M)
Robert ~L Gal'l0n. Gagnon Engineering. MD [SEJ Rep. lIIinois Fire Pre\"ention A!soriation
T ..nya ~L GIl.mac. Liberty Mutual Propeny. MAil I Peter T. Schwab, \"Iayne Automatic Fire Sprinklel3. Inc..
William j. Gotto. Global Risk Con.sultants Corporation. FL [1M]
NJ ISEI J. WBII81Il Sheppard. Sheppwd & A!05ociate!., lLC. },(I [SEJ
LaMar Hayward. 3-D Fire Protection. Inc.. ID {IMI Scott ~L "lWele. The RJAGroup.lnc .. c.-\ [SEJ
AJan R. ~na. Merit Sprinkler CompaIl)'·. Inc.. L-\ LIMJ Karl \\\e(an~ National Fire Sprint.ier A.w>cialion. !W (M)


Jame.s n. Blg(ins. Global Risk Consultants Corporation. Cbarle~ W. Ketner! Nalional Alllomatic Sprinkler Flttel3
IL ISE) LU 669. MD [LJ
(Alt. to W. J. Couo) (Alt. to D. H. O'Dell)
Mark A. Bowman. XLGlobal A!set Protection Seo-jces. Michael G. McCormkk. UnderwriteJ"!o laboratOries Inc..
(Ail. to B. V,,'. Frakes) (All. to G. E. La\"erick)
Joshua Davts~ The RJAGroup. Inc.. GA {SEJ
Martin Ramos. Emironmental 9,'5tems Design. Inc.. IL ISEI
(Ail. to S. M. Thele)
(Alt. 1.0 S. P. Salwan)
Sle~ L Escue~ TK Engineering Company. TN {M]
JeffreyJ. Rovqno. Mr. Sprinkler Fire Protection. CA (I1\{J
(Alt. to K. Wiegand)
Cliff Hartford. T)'Co Fire & Building Producl!o. ~'Y [MI (All. to P. A. Brown)
(Ail. to K. D. Maughan) Austin L Smith. Babcock & Wilcox ¥12. LLC. TN [Uj
AJldrew C. HlWns. Allianz Risk Consultants. LLC. GA [II (All. to D. S. Mowrer)
(Alt. to S. A. Clark. Jr.) nonakiN. We~ SA. Comunale Compan}·. Inc., OH (IMJ
1.A.Ike HIlton~ libert)· Mutual PropeTt)·. NC [IJ (All-loJ.A. Cham!ue)
(Alt. to T. M. Glumac)

Matthew J. Klaus~ NFPAStaff liaison

This wt n:pw!Dlts the mURbmhip at tM tim/. the CmRnitl£e u,w ba(kJk"Yl OR tht jim;l to.1 o/this. editiOlI. Sime thaI. ti11lt!.
tha"ga i" the 11ImbmAip "1llJ Atwe owutrd. A kcj ., dcuijirGlirl1/s is. fOIDld al tht bark oj 1M d00111l11/.
NOTE: Membership on acommiuee:shall not in andofi~lfcoR!otitutean endorsement of the A!o5Odation or
any document de\'eloped by me committee on which the membersen"es.
Commluee Scope: This Committee .shall hal'e the primary responsibility for document:-. on pm".lte piping
S)'!otern.s.!>uppl)ing water for fire protection and for hyd.rants. hose howe5. and vah'e\. The Committee is a1!oO
respolUible for document.s on fire flow testing and marking of h)'dranUi.

2013 Edition W

Technical Committee on Residential Sprinkler Systems (AU1~RSS)

Maurtce I.L PUeHe, Chair

Mechanical Designs Lid.. MA (5£1

l\erry M. Bell, Underwriters Laboratories Inc.. lL lRT] RooaJd G. Nkk5on. National Multi HOlwng Council.
Fred Doon. Ad\<U1cedAlltomatic Sprinkler. Inc.. CA [1M] DC [UI
Jonathan C. BUtenbender. RFJiAU Incorporated. VA 1M] Mkhul O'Orlan, Brighton Area Are Authorit)" MI (EI
Frederick C. Bndley. FeB Engineering. G.A {SEJ Rep, Inl.emational A!oSodation of Fire OJiefs
Phillip A. B~"Q. American Fire Sprinkler Associalion. Steven Orlowski. National A~i:uion of Home BuildeD.
Inc .. 'IX (1M] DC [U]
Thomas G. Deegan. The Viking Croup. Inc.. MI 1M] MlJosh T. Puchovsky, \YorceMer Polpechnic Institute,
Rep. :uional Fire Sprinkler AS5ociation MA [SEJ
Jeffrey Feld. Slate Fann Insurance Compan)'.IL II] Srou C. Pup~ Oa!osic Are Protection Inc" Canada (1M]
Dawn M. Fl.neher. American V\'ater\Yort.sAMociation. Rep, Chnadian Automatic Sprinkler k'5OC.iuion
CO lUI Steven R. mans, StandardAlItomatic Fire EnterprUe!o.
Inc .• TX lIM]
Jeffrey S. Grove, The RJAGroup. Inc.• NV ISEJ
Rep, American Fire Sprinkler A!oSodation
Dana R. HaarMsefl. Mas,s:lchusetts Departmenl of Fire
C~,ljter W. Schirmer. AonjSchirmer Engineering
Seryice!.. ~iA IE)
Corporntion. NC [IJ
Tonr- L Hoover. c..u. Fire. Office of the Stale Fire Peter T. Schwab. \\'a}ne Automatic Fire Sprinklers. Inc..
Marshal. CA {E] Fl. [IMJ
Mark Hopkins. HughesAssoci31e5. Inc.. MD I SE] Harry Shaw, Fail Safe Safety S}':!otenlS Inc.. MD [MJ
Kenneth E. Ism.n. National Fire Sprinl:.ler Association. Matt Sigler. IntemationalA!oSodation of Pllimbing
Inc .. NY (MJ & Mechanical Officials. CA lEJ
Gary I- Johnson, Lubrizol. FL 1M] ElicJ. S1tare. Upon or. Inc.. MN [M]
Rep. Commiuee for Firesafe Dwelling!< George \Il Stanley. Wiginton Fire S}':!otems. FL 11M)
Charleli" W. Ketner. National Alltom:uic Sprinkler Finers Rep, National Flre Sprinkle!" As'5OC.i3.lion
LV 669. MD ILl Ed Van Wal~wn. Aspen Fire Protection District. ex:> i Ej
Rep. United.-\s!.n, ofJournC!)men & Apprentices of the Teny L. vlctor, l)"CojSimplexGrinnell MD [MI
Pllunbing & Pipe Fining Industry Hong-Zen~ Yu. FM Global. MA [II


David \Il Am, Lubrizol.-\ch'3l1ced Materials, Inc.. OH [M] Mar.maD A. Klein. Marshall A. Klein & A~ales. Inc..
(All. to G, LJohnson) MD [U]
Rob<>nS. Blach. Menlo Park Fire Protection District. (Alt. to R. G. Nickson)
CA lEI George E. Laverldl:. Underwriten Laboratories Inc..
(All. to M. O'Brian) IL [RTI
Lawrence Browo. NaJionaiAssoci81ion of Home Builders. (AIt, to K. M, Bell)
DC lUI Stephen M. Leyton. Protection Design and Consulting.
(All. to S. Orlowski) C:' [1M]
Edward K. BudnJdI:. HlIghesA!oSodales. Inc.. MD ISEI (Alt. 10 S. R. Ri:uu)
(All. to M.!o) Paul McCulloch, Up:mor. Inc.. ~{N [MI
Bradford T. Cronfn. Newport Fire Department. RI IEJ (All. to E.J. SI:.are)
(All. to D, R. Haagensen) Thomas L Muher. Reliable Automuic Sprinl:.1er
Mark E. Feli"'5endPO. T)"Co Fire Supprenion & Building Company. Inc .. SC lMJ
Products, RIIM) (AlL to T. G. Deegan)
(All. to T. L. \-ictor) David A. Nkir,cJsoo, REHAU Incorporated. v..\ 1M)
David n. Fuller. Bf Global M-\ {II (All. [0 J. C. Bittenbender)
(All. to H.-Z. Yu) Alalth<>w Osburn, CanaclianAutomatic Sprinkler
Je.rry R. HUIlter, Aon Fire Protection Engineering .-\s!.ociation, Canada [1M)
Corporation. TX (IJ (A.l.l. to S. C. Pugsle}/
(All. to C. \0,', Schirmer) Richard M. Ray. C)bor Fire Protection Cornp:uI)·. Il (M)
Thomas LJacquel, lltomas l. JacquelAmomalic Fire (A..IL [0 K. E. Isman)
Sprinkler Consulting Senlces. fl.t-\ [IM:J RooaId N. ~bb, SA. Comunale Cornpan)'.lnc.• OH [1M)
(All. 10 P. A Brown) (Alt. [0 G. W. Stanley)


Rohll Khanna. U.S. ConSluner ProchlCl Safety Lawrence A. McKeon.,Jr., U.S. Deparunenl of
Commission. MD (Cl Homeland Security. MD [C)
M. Larry Marwkln, U.S. Depanmem of Homeland
SeCllrir)'. MD (CJ

TJJJ list ~lIls thi t1lttNbmhip at th~ titHe thi CoIRlRitl~ Ilolas ballad 01/ the jinal tixt oj this «Iilion. Si1/(~ that t;lI'u.
cAangiJ in tAJ: IRilRbtnhip /Nfl) hm.>e OUIDTrd.•4 kcj to das.rijimtions i.r fOlltlll Gt the bat:k oftAJ: dOClI/Nnlt.
NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and ofilSelf connitute an endol'5emem of theA!oSociation or
a.ny doctunenl developed by the commiuee on which the member 5oCrves.
Commltt~ Scope: This Committee shall hn-e primary responsibitity for docrnnents on the design and·
tion of aulomatic sprinklerS)'S.e1l1s in dwellings and residential occup:mdes up to and including four $.ories in
height. including the charwer and :tdeqll:l.C:y of Woller supplies. and the selection ofsprintlers. piping. \'3i\'C$, and
all ITI3terial!o and at.:c~ries.

ttl 2013 Edition


Technical Committee on Sprinkler SyslCm Discharge CrilCria (AUT-SSO)

Kenneth W. Llodcr, CADiT

S_ llJ
w..... c.BaI<..;Jr•• FMClobal,MA[lj Sultan M.Javerl, SC Engineering. France LIM]
Cbutes O. Baurotb, uberty Muwal Property, MA {IJ Lany KeepfO(, Vipond Fire Prolec:tion. Canada lIM]
Rep. Property cuuaJo/ lmurers AMods.t.lon ofAmerica Rep. Canadian Automatic SprinklerAssociaLion
KertyM. &11, UnderwriteD Laboratories Inc .• IL {Uj ,"1Jllam B. KoffeJ, Koffel A'Vodat.e.s.lnc.,. MD LSE]
Tracey 0. BeJlaroy, Telgian Corpontion, GA LUJ A. ClIutine laF1eta; Sandia National Laboratori NM LV] N

Rep. The Home Depot. Thomas L Multer, Reli3bleAutomatic Sprinkler

Thomas c.. BI"OWO, The RJA Croup, Inc., MD LSE] Company, Inc.. SC lM)
Thomas C. Deegan, The ViJdng Croup. Inc., MI {M] Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Assodation
John Au&'JSC Denbardt, Strickland Fire Protection. Inc.,
Erlc L., UnltedAYn. ofJoume)men
MD [1M]
&:Apprenticel of the Plumbing Be Pipe Atting Indumy.
Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Association MD [L]
Ja.tneS E.. CoUnveam:., 1}'oo Ftre Supprewon & Building CamerA.. Paleo.ske, Aon/Schinner Engineering
Produces, RJ {Mj
80 HJortb, AlbaConAB,Sweden {SB] Corpontion, CA llJ
AlfredJ.Hopn. WinterHaven. FLLE.] Richard Pehr5oo, Pehrson Fire PC. MN IE)
Rep. New !:nglandAModatlon of Are Mar.shals Rep. International Are ManhalsAwviarion
Donald Hopkins,. Jr., Hughes Awviaw. Inc., MD {SB] Mkbael D. SideS', XL Global AMel Proteetion Senicetr.,
RolandJ. Hugtns, American Fire Sprinkler A'5&Od:ttion. FL Il)
Inc.. TX (IM] Jack W. nacker, ADanAutomatlc Sprinkler Corp. of So.
Rep. American Are Sprinlfjer As5od:ttion California, C\ lrM)
Kenneth E.. Lsman, NaLional Ftre Sprinkler Aseodadon, Rep. National Are Sprinkler A.uocladon
Inc., NY (M]


MartJ.Aaby, Koffel As.'SOd8U!&, Inc., MD (SE.] DanlelJ.O·Connor, ADn Fire ProteCtion Engineering.
(AIL to W. E. Kofl'el) n.[lJ
Ralph E.. B.Ies.t,Jr., TeIgfan Corporation, GA {OJ (All. to C. A. Palenll:e)
(AIL toT. D. Bellamy] Matthew O..blrO, Canadian AutOmatic Sprinkler
Mark A. Bowman, XLClobaJ AMet Proteetion Servicetr., AYod3don, Qulada (1M)
OH [II (All. to L Kl!eping)
(AIL to M. D. Sidea)
TIlomuPrymat, The Ry\Croup.lnc.• 'IX [SE]
Edward K. BUdnJck, HugbesA$6ociatel.lnc., MD {SE]
(All. LO'T: C Brown)
(All. to D. Hopkilu.Jr.)
John A. CaI'bone, Vicuulic Company. PA {MJ Ste"fettj. Scandallato, SOC. U.C,AZ LIM]
(AIL toT. L. Multer) (AIL toJ-A. Denham!)
Pravlnny D. Caodhl, Onderwritea LaboratOriu Inc., Peter T. Sdnorab, Wayne Automatic Fire SprinkleD. Inc.•
n.[RTJ FL 1M)
(AIL to K. M. Bell) (All. LO It E:. lsman)
Tanya M. CJOOIat', Uberty MmuaJ Propen~ MA {I] Ceo~ W. Stanley, Wiginton Fire S)5WD$. FL [1M)
(All. to C. O. Bauroth) (Alt. to J. W. Thacker)
ThomasMcNlmara, UnitedA!ln. ofJoumeymen Peter W. Thorn.." T)'Co Fire SuppreJlSion &: Building
Ie Appremicel of the Plumbing &: Pipe Atling IndU&try. ....aduClS, RI 1M]
MI[L! (All. LO j. E. Golim'eat.lX)
('I>tingAIL to UA RA!p.) Mardn H. Workman, The ViJdng Corporation, MI LM)
JackA. Medorich, FIre & Ufe SafetyAmeric:a. MD {1M]
(All. LO'T: C. Deegan)
(AIL to R. J- Huggiw)

Barry At. Lee, Tyco Internadonal. Awualia LMJ

Maubew J. Klaus, NFPAStaffUaison

This 1iJ11f!j1n!Jetlts the tl/ul/fbmhipottAe Ii.., the CQflII/titWtOO.I btllloltd o. ,llt/mf11 fed o/this tdilioll. Sime Ihai tr1lf4,
Manga in IhI MnIlbmAip tnO'J Ai:HJe «tU1Ttd. A k8J "clsJJijiUltiOIlS is /OIDld ai tlu bodt cf the dccnaml.
NOTE: Membenhipon acommiuce &haJJ not in and of i.L5elfconatinlle an endorsemenloflheAs.1odadon or
any document oo-eloped by lhe commiueeon wbich the membersen'u.
Commfltee Scope: Th.i.s Committee &hall ha,,"e primal)' responsibility for tltose portiona of NFPA IS that
pertain to the classification ofwriow fire hazards and the determination oflWOCiated discharge criteria for
sprinkler systems employing automatic and open sprinkleD, sprinkler S)'&tetD plana and calculadoru., and
water rupplies.

2013 Edition W

Technical Committee on Sprinkler SYSlCRl In... lallarion Criferia (Alf1~[)

Joe W. Noble. Choir

Noble Con5uiling SEmices. LLC. NV lEI
Rep. International Fire Ma~als ,\.\sodation

Hamid R. Bah.dort. Hughes Associ:ues. Inc.• n.{SE] James D. Lake, National Fire SprinklerA~alion.lnc.,
Weston C. Bakcrdr., FM Global. 1.1/\ II] MA[M)
Pat D. Brock, Oklahoma State Unr.enit)" OK [5£1 Gt."OI"f;e E. Laverkk, Underwriters Labor:ltoriE5lnc.,
Phillip A. Brown. American Fire SprinUer A~iJ.tion, IL [RT]
Inc.. TX 11l\.lj Kenneth W. Under. SwiM Re. CT {II
Robert G. Caputo. Fire & life Safe!}' America. CA [SEj AtISllllt'> S. MarblJr'l::er, Fire Protection Indunriu.. Inc..

Del Dornbo~ 'iUng Croup. Inc.. MI [1\11 B\ [1M]

Rep. Nalional Fire Sprinkler Association Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association
Ralph D. Gerdes. Ralph Gerdes Consultant!-. u..c.lN I SE.] Rodney A. Mc,PtK.'e, Canadian ,"'oDd Council. Canada IV J
MJchael F. Meehan. VSC Fire & Security, v..\ [IMJ
Rep. American Inslinue of Architects
Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Assodation
Donald G. GOOA1llln. The RJAGroup, Inc., IL [5[,1
David S. Mowrer, Babcock & Wilcox Technical Senices.
Luke HDton. libert,.. Mumal Propeny. NC (II
Rep. Propert)' Cuualt)' Insurer&As5ociation of America ThomasA. Noble, Cit}' of Henderson. Building & 101rc
Elwin G.Joyce, U. Eastern KenlUc¥-}' Unr.enit)'. KY [UJ SafN}'. NV IE]
Rep. NFPA InchlStrial Fire Protection Section Janak B. Palel. Savannah Rh-er Nuclear Soluliorn. GA IVJ
Larry Keeping. Vipond Fire Protection. Canada [1M] Peter T. Schwab. Wa}ne Automatic Hre Sprinklers. [nc..
Rep. Canadian AutomaIic Sprinkler Association F1. [1M]
Charles W. Ketner. Nuional Automatic Sprinkler Filters LeJay Siocum, Aon Fire ProleClion Engineering. GA {II
LV 669. MD ILJ Paul A. SUItt, Eastman Kod3.k. Company. !'IiY (U I
Rep. United Ann. ofJourneJomen & Appremic~ of lhe Leonard R. Swantek, ViClaulic Company ofAmerica. PA [M]
Pllnnbing & Pipe Fitting Induslry yron K. Underwood. Axis US Pro pert),. IL [I}
Michael D. Kim. Code Consullanu.lnc .. MO lSE] Terry L. Vietor, T)'co/SimplexGrinnell MD [MI


&orry M. Bell~ Underwriters Laboralories Inc.• IL lRT] Russell B. Leavitt, Telgian Corporation..0\2 [1M)
(All. to G. E. tal'erick) (All. LO M. F. Ml:'l:'han)
CedI Bllbo.Jr.. Acade:m)' of Fire SprinklerTechnolog,r. 8oel)"Oda MIranda, The RJA Group. Inc .. VA [SEl
Inc .. IL (lM] (Alt. 10 D. G. Goosman)
(All. to P. A. Brown) Matthew Osburn, Canadian Automatic Sprinkler
John.o\.. Carbone~ Vicl3ulic Company. PA [M] Anociation. Canada [1M]
(All. to L. R. Swantek) (All. 10 L. Keepi ng)
James A. (])arn>Ue. Allan AlIl.omatic Sprinkler Corp. of Michael A. Rol.hmler. UAJoint Apprenticeship
Committee. CO IL]
So. Cllifomia. CA {1M]
(All. 10 C. W. Ketner)
(All. to A. S. Marburger)
AustJnLSmll.h. Babcock&WilooxY-12.LLC, TN[Ul
ToddA. DI1Ioo. XL Global A!&el Proteclion &nices.
(All. 10 D. S. Mo~r)
OH [IJ \\l.IIlam B. Smith. Code Consultl.R1s. Inc.. MO [SEI
(All. 10 K. W. Linder)
(Alt. 10 M. D. Kim)
David n. Fulk!.r. Bt Global. M..-\ [I] Glenn E. Thompson, liberty Mutual Propert)·, CA {IJ
(All. to W. C. Baker.Jr.) (All. LO L. Hilton)
Janus E. GoUnvealJ][, T)'Co Fire Suppre.\S.ion & Building Sf:cven ttL TomlIn. Aon/Schirmer Enginl:'eJing
Products, RI{MJ Corporation. Canada II}
(All. 10 T. L. \iclor) (AlL 10 L. Slocum)
Mark Hopkl:os, HughesA:ssodale'S. inc.. MD {SE] Rolx>rt Vlocenl. Shambaugh & Son. L.P.. IN (M)
(All. 10 H. R Bahadori) (All. LO J.D. L3.k.e)


Barry hoL LeE-. Tyro ImernationalAustralia [MJ

Ma uh('W J. Klaus.. NFP..-\ SlaB" li ilia n

TAi.J. lig trpres£lIts tht 'wtRlurship at the fi'He thi (AnuR;tlN !lo1/lS ballct£t! 011 IN jinnl ttxt oj this «lilion. Sime thall;1/li.
cAnngfS in rAe mnbtnhip may haueartllrm1. .4 kt:J to c/QSSijiraUons is JOIIW! at tilt' badt O/IAe docullunl.
NOTE: Membership on a. commiuee shall nOl in a.nd ofilself constitute an endorsemenl oftheA:ssodation or
any dOCllmem de\\~loped by the commiuee on which Ihe member Soef'-es.
Commhtee Scope: This Commiuee shall ha\'~ me primary mlpOlL.oQbility for moee portions of 1\'FPA 13 that
pertain to the crileria for (he we and insClUation of sprinUer S)'SLeJ1U componen~ (with the el.:ception ofthwe
componen~used forslIpponingof piping), position ofsprinkler.s. t.}pe'>ofs)'SLems, and acceptance tesling.

ttl 2013 Edition


Chapter 1 Adminisb'atiou •....................•••.....•. 13- 13 6.6 Hangen •••..•..••••......••••..•..••••......••... IS- 33
1.1 Scope ...................................•••....... 13- 13 6.7 ~"'es .•••••..•..••••......••••.....••••......••... IS- 33
1.2 Purpose . 13- 13 6.8 Fire Dc:pamnent ConnectiolU •••....••••... IS- 33
1.3 Application ..........••................•.•....... 13- 13 6.9 \\Uterflow Alann Devices ......••••....••••... IS- 34
1.4 Reuoacth.ity ...........................•.•....... 13- 13 6.10 Sign.s ..••.••.....••••......••••.....••••..•..•••... IS- 34
1.5 Equivalc:nC)'" .•••.......••••......•••.••,.••.•.. 13- 13
1.6 Units and SymboLs ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 13- 13 Chapter 7 System Requiret:nents ••.....•••••......•.... IS- 34
1.7 New Technology ••....•••••.....••••....••..... 13- 14 7.1 Wet Pipe Systern.s •.....••••.....•••••........... IS- 34
7.2 Dry Pipe S)'Stems •.....••••.....•••••......•.... IS- 34
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications .........••........ 13- 14 7.3 Preaetion Systems and Deluge Sysc.cms ... IS- 36
2,1 General ••••.....••••......••••.....••••.••...•••.. 13- 14 7.4 Combined Dry Pipe and Preaction
2.2 NFPA Publications . 13- 15 S)'stelTU!l for Pier,s, TcrminaJs, and
2.3 Other Publications . 13- 15 Wbnrvc.s .••.....••••......••••.....••••......•••.. IS- 38
2.4 Rc:fcrcnce.s for Extracts in Mandatory 7.5 l\f111ti-Cycle S)'SleIn.S ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• IS- 38
Scetion,s •••.....•.•.•....•••••.....••••.....•.•.•. 13- 17 7.6 Antifrecze S}'stc:rns ....•••.....•••••....••••... IS- 38
7.7 Automatic Sprinkler Systems with
Chapter 3 Definitions ..••••......•••......•.••.••,..•••.. 13- 17
Non-F'lrc Protection Connections •.••••... IS- 40
3.1 General . 13- 17
7.8 Outside Sprinklers for Protection
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions ....•••••.....••.... 13- 17 Against Expo"l1rc Fires (E.'tposure
3.3 Gcneml Definitions ..•••••......•••.....•••••. 13- 17 Protection Sprinkler S)'stcms) •••....•••••.. 1S- 41
3.4 Sprinkler S)'stem Type Definitions ...••••.. 13- 18 7.0 Refrigeratcd Spaces ..••••.....•••••....•••••.. IS- 42
3.5 System Component Definitions •.....••.•.. 13- 19
7.10 Commercial-Type Cooking Equipment
3.6 Sprinkler I>re6nitions ..•••.....•••......••.•.. 13- 19 and Ventilation ••......••••.....•••••....•••••.. IS- 44
3.7 COIUtruction Dc:fmitions •......•.•.•••.••.•.. 13- 20 7.1 I Additive.s and Coating! . IS- 45
3.8 Private Water Supply Piping
Definitions ....••••......••.•.....•••......•.•.•. 20 Chapter 8 Installation Requirements .•.•••....•.•••.. IS- 45
3.9 Storage De6nitioIU ...•••••.....•••......•••••. 13- 21 8. I Basic Requirement! ..••••.....•.•••....•••••.. IS- 45
3.10 Marine I>cfinitiolU ...••••......•••......•••••. 13- 24 8.2 S)'Stcm Protection Arca Limitations •••••.. IS- 45
3.11 Hanging and Bracing De6nitioIU ....••••.. 13- 24 8.3 Use ofSprinklc:n . IS- 46
8.4 Application ofSprinklerT)'Pc:.s ••....•.•.•.. IS- 49
Chapter 4 General Requirements •.....••••.....•.••.• 13- 24
4.1 Level of Protection . 13- 24 8.5 Position, Location, Spacing, and U,sc
of Sprinklers ..•.•......•••••.•..••••••.•.•••••.. IS- 50
4.2 Limited Area S)'stema .•••.•.•..••••...•.•••••. 13- 25
8.6 Standard Pendent and UprightSpra)'
4.3 Owner'" Certificate ...•••••.....••••...•.•••••. 13- 25
Sprinklcrs . IS- 52
4.4 Additives ••.•...•••..•....••.•.....••••...•.•••••. 13- 25
8.7 Sidewall Standard Spray Sprinklcr'3 .••••••. IS- 59
4.5 Air, Nitrogen, or Other Approved Gas ••.. 13- 25
8.8 Extcnded Coverage Upright and
4.6 SUPPOr[ ofNonsprinkler S)'3tem
Pendent Sprat· SprinklCl'3 •••••••••••••••••••• IS- 62
Components ••••••.••••.••••••••.••••••.•.•••••. 13- 25
8.9 Extended eoV<rag<' Sidewall Spray
Chapter 5 ClaliSi6cation of Occupancies and Sprinklcl'3 ••••••••••••••.••••••••.•••••....••••••. IS- 67
Commodities ••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••• 13- 25 8.10 Rc:.sidcntial Sprinklers •••••••••••••....••••••. IS- 70
5.1 Cla.s.sification of Occupancies ••••..••••••••• 13- 25 8.11 0fSA Sprinklers •••.•.•.••••••••••••....••••••• IS- 77
5.2 Light Hazard Occupancies •••••••..••••••••• 13- 25 8.12 Earty Suppression Fast.Rc:sponse
5.3 Ordinary Hazard Occupancies •••••..•••••• 13- 25 IS-
Sprinklcl'3 •••••.•.•••...••••••....•••••....•••••.• 79
5.4 Extra Hazard OccupanciC5 •••••••••••.•••••• 13- 25 8.13 In·Rack SprinkJer,s ••..••••.•.•.•.•••...••••••.• IS- 82
5.5 Special Occupancy Hamrd.s . 13- 25 8.14 Pilot Linc Detcetor,s IS-
. 83
5.6 Commodity Clas.sification .••••••••.•••.•••••• 13- 25 8.15 Special Sitllations IS-
. 83
8.16 Piping In.stallation IS-
. 89
Chapter 6 System Components and Hardware ••••• 13- 27 8. I7 S)"'stem Attaclunents .•••••••••••••••.•••••••.•• IS- 93
6.1 General . 13- 27
6.2 Sprinklens •••...•••••••••••••••....••••••••••••••• 13- 27 Chapter 9 Hanging, Bracing, and Restraint of
6.3 Aboveground Pipe and Tube ••••..•••••••.• 13- 29 Sy.stem Piping •••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••• IS- 96
6.4 Fittings •••••••••••••.••.•••••••.•..••••.•••••••••• 13- 31 9.1 Hangers •.•..............•••••....•.•.•..•..••.•.. IS- 96
6.5 Joining of Pipe and FittingJ .•••••.•••••••••• 13- 31 9.2 Installation of Pipe Hanger.s •••••••••••••••• 1S-101

201S Edition W

9.3 Protection of Piping Against Damage 14.4 Earl)' Suppression Fast.Resporue

'Where Subject to Earthquakes . 1:1-104 (ESFR) Sprinklers for Pallctizcd or
Solid-Piled Storage of Clas5 I
Chapter 10 Underground Piping ...............•... '" 13-113 Through Clau IV Commoditie.s . 13-139
10.1 Piping Matcri<t)" .. 13-113 14.5 Special DC5ign for Palletized,
10.2 Fittings .. 13-113 Solid-Piled. Bin Box, or Shelf
10.3 Joining of Pipe and Fitting$ .. 13-113 Storagc orelass I Through Class IV
10.4 I::>cpth of Covcr . 13-113 Colnmodities . 13-139
10.5 Protection Against Freezing . 13-11:; 14.6 High-Expansion Foam - Reduction to
10.6 Protection Against Damage . 13-115 <:Ciling Densit)· . 13-139
IO.i Requircment for Lariog Pipe . 13-115
10.8 Joint Restraint . 13-116 Chapter 15 Protection for PaUetiz.ed,
10.9 Backfilling . 13-118 Solid-Piled, Bin Box, Shelf, or
Back-to-Back Shelf StOTaK'! of
10.10 Testing and Acceptance ...............•...... 13-118
!'tutle and Rubber
Conlmodities . 13-141
Chapter 11 Design Approaches . 13-121
I J.l (}cneraJ . 13-121 15.1 c.eneral . 13-141
11.2 OccupanC)' Hazard Fire Control 15.2 Control Mode De.ruit),/Area Sprinklcr
Approach for Spray Sprinklers . 13-122 Protcction Criteria for Palletized,
11.3 Special Design Approaches . 13-125 Solid-Piled. Bin Box. Shelf. or
Back-to-Back Shelf Storagc of
Chapter 12 General Requirements for Storage . 13-126 Plastic and Rubber Commodities .. 13-141
12.1 Ckneral . 13-126 15.3 CMSA Sprinklcrs for Palletized or
12.2 Hose Connections .. 13-127 Solid-Piled Storage of Plastic and
Rubber Commodities .. 13-143
12.3 Adjacent Hazards or D~ign Meth0d5 .. 13-127
12.4 Wet Pipe S)'Stems .. 13-127 15.4 Earl)' Suppression Fast-Response
(ESFR) Sprinklers for Pallctizcd or
12.5 Dr)' Pipe and Preaction Spterns . 13-127
Solid-Piled Storage of Plastic and
12.6 Storage Applications . 13-127
Rubber Commodities . 13-143
12.7 Discharge Considerations . 13-127
15.5 High-Expansion Foam -Reduction in
12.8 Hose Stream AJlowance and 'Vater
<:citing Densit)' . 13-143
Supply Duration . 1:1-128
12.9 RestJ'lctJons . 1:1-128
Chapter 16 Protection of Rack Storage
12.10 Room Design Method . 1:1-130 of Class I lhrough Class IV
12.11 High-E.."pansion Foam Systems . 1:1-130 Coolmodities . 13-148
12.12 Protection of Idle Pallets . 1:1-130 16.1 Genoru . 13-148
16.2 Protcction Criteria for Rack Storage
Chapter 13 Miscellaneous Storage . 1:1-132
of Class I Through Class IV
13.1 Miscellaneous Storage Up to 12 ft
Commodities Stor<:=d Up to and
(3.7 m) in Height . 1:1-132
Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height .. 13-149
132 [)resign Basis . 1:1-132
16.3 Protection Criteria for Rack Storagc
13.3 In-Rack Sprinklers . 1:1-135
of ClaM> I Through Qass IV
Commodities Stor<:=d Over 25 ft
Chapter 14 Prote(:tion for PaUetized~
(7.6 m) in Height . 13-163
Solid-Piled, Bin Box~ Shelf. or
Back-to-Back SbelfStorage of
Class ] through Cl958 ]V Chapter 17 Protection of Rack Storage
COlllnlodities . 1:1-135 of Plastic and Rubber
14.1 c:.eneral . 1:1-135 Conlmodities . 13-176
14.2 Control Mode Densit)'/Arca Sprinkler 17.1 c.encml . 13-176
Protection Criteria for Palletized, 17.2 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of
Solid-Piled, Bin Box., SheU:. or Plastics Commodities Stored Up to
Bock-to-Back ShelfStorage ofOass I and Including 25 ft (7.6 01) in
Through Class IV Commodities . 1:1-136 Hcight . 13-177
14.3 CMSASprin.klers for Pallc:rized or 17.3 Protection Criteria for R"ck Storage of
Solid-Piled Storage of Class 1 Plastics Commoditics Stored Over
Through Class IV Commodities .. 1:1-137 25 ft (7.60'1) in Height . 13-191

W2013 Edition
OONTENTS 13...11

Chapter 18 Protection of Rubber TIre Storage •..• 13-200 22.3 Acrosol Product.! ...•••••.....••••......•••....• 1~213
18.1 General •.....•••........•••....•...••....•.••...• 13-200 22.4 Spray Application Using Flammable or
18.2 Columru W;th;n RubbcrT e Storage 13-201 Combustible Materials 1!>-213
18.3 Water SuppHes 13-201 22.5 SolvcntExtraction Plan.. [NFPA36) •..... 1!>-214
18.4 Ceiling Sync",. •................................ 13-201 22.6 In.nallauon and Usc ofStationary
) 8.5 In-Rack Sprinkler System Combustion Engines and Gas
Requirements for Protection of Turbines ..... •••.... ..••••.... ..•••.... ..•••..... 13--214
Rubber TIres 13-2M 22.7 Nitl"ate Film ••••......••••......•••......•••..... 13--214
18.6 Reduccd-Discharge Dc:nsity ••••....•........ 13-2M 22.8 Laboratories U,ingChemicab •..•..••...... 1~215
22.9 Oxygen-Fuel Gas S)'Stems for Welding,
Chapter 19 Protection of Roll Paper 13-204 Cutting, and Allied Proe 1!>-215
19.1 Protection of Roll Paper Storage ..•.•...... 13-204
22.10 Acctylene Cylindcr Otarging Plants ••.•.•. 1~215
Chapter 20 Special Desigos of Stornge 22.11 Compressed Gases and Cryoge-nic
Protection •••......••.•......•.•.....•..•.... 13-206 Huich Code •••••....•••••.....••••......•.•...•. 13-215
20.1 General •.....•••........•......•••••.....•..•.... 13-206 22.12 Utility LP.Qu Plan 1!>-216
20.2 Plastic Motor Vchicle Componenu .•••.... 13-206 22.13 Production, Storage, and Handling of
20.3 Sprinklcr Design Criteria for Storagc Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) .....••••.•.•. 1!>-216
and DisplayofOsS'li I Through 22.14 Protection of Information Technology
Class IV Commodities, Cartoncd Equipmcnt .•••••....•••••.....••••.....••••..... 13-216
Nonexpanded Group A Plastics 22.15 Standard on Incincrators, and Waste
and Nonc:xpandcd Exposed Group and Linen Handling S)'Ste:ms and
A Pla"bCII in Retail Stores ..•••••.....•.•..... 13-206 Equipment .••••.....•••••.....••••.......•.•.... 13-216
20.4 Protection of Baled Cotton Storage ••••••• 13-208 22.16 Standard for Oven.s and Furnaces •.•...... 1!>-217
20.5 Sprinkler Protection of Carton 22.17 Hcalth Care Facilities Codc.
Recorch Storage with Catwalk Hyperbar;c Otambcrs •.....••••......•.••.... 1!>-217
Acccss •••......•........•••......••.••.....••••.... 13-208 22.18 Fixcd GuidcwayTransit and Passenger
20.6 Compact Storage of Commoditia Rail System.! ••••.....•••••.....••••.....•••••.... 13-218
Consisting of Paper Fila,
22.19 Motion Picture and Television
Maga:zil'u:s, Books, and Similar
Production Soodio SoundstagC$,
Documents in Folden and
Approved Production Facilities,
Miscc:llaneous SuppliCfl with No
and Production LocatioN .••••......•.••.... 13-218
More Than 5 Percc:nt Plastics Up
to 8 it (2.44 m) High . 13-209 22.20 Animal Housing Facilitia ...•............... 13-218
20.7 Protection of High Bay Rccorch 22.21 WD.terCoolingTower$ •.....••.•.....•••••.... 13-218
Storage ••.••••••••.....••••••...•••••...•.••••.••. 13-209 22.22 Standard for the Construction
and Fire Protection of Marine
Chapter 21 Alteroati""e Sp-inlder System Tcnninals, Pier." and Wharves 13-220
Designs for Chapters 12 22.23 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities 13-221
Through 20 ••.•.•.•••.••••.•••••...••••••.••. 13-210 22.24 Aircraft Hangat"$ ...•.•.•......•••.....•••••.... 13-221
21.1 General •••••.••••••••.••••••••••••••...••••••.••. 13-210 22.25 Airport Terminal Bwlding,J. Fueling
21.2 Sprinklcr Protection Criteria for Ramp Drainage. and Loading
Pallc:tized, Solid-Pilcd, Bin Box, \YD..l~ ••• •••.••••• •••• ••.... ••.••••.• ••••••••••
Shelf, or Back-tc>Back Shclf
22.26 Aircraft Engine Test Faolitics •••.••••••••••• I ~222
Storage ofCJas.s I Through Class IV
and Plastic Commo<litie.s ...••.•.....•••••.... 13-210 22.27 Advanced Ugbt 'Yater Reactor Electric
Generating Plants ..•.••.....••••.....••.••.... 13-222
21.3 Sprinldcr Protection Criteria for
Opc:n-Frame Rack Storage of Clau I 22.28 Light \"Inter Nuclear Power Plants ••••..... 13-223
Through ehw IV and Plastic 22.29 Hydroelectric Generating Plants
Commodities •••••••• •••••••.. ••••••.••• .•••••••• 13-210 [NFPA 851] .•••.... ..••..... .•••••.... 13-223
21.4 Stream Allowance and 'Walc:r 22.80 Code for the Protection of Cultural
Supply Duration .•.••••••••••••••••••••••••••.• 13-210 Retource Properties -,
21.5 Minimum Ob.strucbon Criteria •••.••••••••• 13-210 Libraries, and Places of Worship
[NFPA 9og] ••••.••••.•••••••.••••.••••••••••••••• 1!>-224
Chapter 22 Special Oocupancy Requirements •.••• 13-213 22.31 National Electrical Code .•••••••••••••••••••• 1!>-224
22.1 General . 13-213 22.32 Fire Protection ofTeiccommunic:ation
22.2 Flammable and Combwtible Liquids ••..• 13-213 Fao'lib' ell . 1!>-224

2013 Edition li)


22.33 Exhaust S)'~tcms for Air C'.on\'C)ing of Chapter 26 Mnrine Systenu .. 13-249
Vapon. Gases, MUb:. and 26.1 GencraJ 13-249
Noncombustible Particulate Solids . 13-224 26.2 S)'l>lem Components. Hardware,
22.34 Hypobaric Facilities . 13-224 and U"e . 13-250
22.35 Coal ~lil1C!t . 13-225 26.3 S)'!'tem Requirements . 13-251
22.36 Metal/Nonmetal Mining and Metal 26.4 Installation Requirements . 13-251
Mineral Processing Facilitio . 13-226 26.5 Design Approache5 .....................•...... 13-252
22.37 Hazardous Materials Code . 13-226 26.6 Plans and CaJculatiotl.5 . 13-252
26.7 Water Supplies . 13-252
Chapter 23 Plans and Calculations . 13-229 26.8 Sy!.tem .-\cceptance . 13-254
23.1 \Vorking Plans . 13-229 26.9 System InstnJctions and Maintenance .... 13-254
23.2 "VateT Suppl)' Information .. 13-230
Chapter 27 S)''8tem Inspection, Testing, and
23.3 Hydraulic Calculation Forms .. 13-230
t\.laintenanee 13-254
23.4 Hydraulic Calculation PrOCCdUTe5 .. 13-236 27.1 Genernl 13-254
23.5 Pipe Schedules . 13-239 27.2 Inactive Sprinkler Sp;tems Abandoned
23.6 I:>c:Jugc: ~CJTUl . 13-242 in Place 13-254
23. i E.","posure Protection Sprinkler SYStCfT1S . 13-242
23.8 In-Rack Sprinklers . 13-243 Annex A Explanatory t\.laterial 13-254
23.9 Hose ..\Jlov.'allce . 13-243 Annex B MisceUaneous Topics. 13-406

Chapter 24 '\ater Supplies . 13-243 Annex C Explanation of Test Data and

24.1 ~neral . 13-243 Procedures for Rack Storage 13-407
24.2 T)'Pcs .. 13-243
Annex D Sprink&er System Information from
the 2012 Edition of the LifeSafdy
Chapter 25 Sywtems Acceptance .. 13-244
Code .....•.....................................•.. 13-413
25.1 Approval of Sprinkler S)'!tems and
Private Fire Service Mains . 13-244 Annex E Development of the Design Approaeh
25.2 Acceptance Requirements .. 13-244 to Conform with SEllASCE 7 13-417
25.3 Circulating Closed Loop Systems .. 13-248
Annex F Informational Refe~nces .. 13--421
25.4 Instructions . 13-249
25.5 Hydraulic Design Information Sign .. 13-249 h,dex 13-424
25.6 General Information Sign .. 13-249

til 2013 Edition


NFI'A 13 1.2.2 Sprinkler systems and private fire service main.s arc spe-
cialized fire protection systems and shall require knowledge-
Siandani for Ibe able and e~.p erienced design and installation.

1.$ Applicntion.
Installation of Sprinkler Systems
1.$.1 This stand...ud shall apply to the following:
2013 Edition (I) Character and adequacy of water supplies
(2) Sprinklers
IMPORTANT NOTE· This NFPA dOCIlI1tf'"t ;s made available for (3) Fiuings
lise slIbjed to important "oti«$ and It'gal dig:lailJl~ Thf'5e notiet'S (4) Piping
and disclaimers appear in all publirotions containing this dOOlmn,t (5) '~ves
and 1110)' be found WIder the heading "Important Noti«s aHd D;~ (6) All matc::rials and accessories. including the installation of
claimers COIlC'f'TtrinK NFPA. DocwJlnds. l'" Th~ mn al.wJ bf' obtained private fire sen;cc mairu
on reqllf'st from NFPA or vif'wnl at WU'Iv."'TT.
NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter 1.3.2 TItis standard shall also appl)' to "combined service
designating a pamgraph indicates that explanatot)· matel'"ial mains" used to carr)' water for both fire service and othcr uses
on the paragraph can be fowld in Annex A. as well as to mains for fire scnice use onl)".
Changes othcr than editorial arc indicated bj. a vertical 1.4 Retroactivity. TIle provisions of this standard I-dlect a con-
ntle beside the paragraph. table. or figure in which the sensus of what is nece.ssary to pl'"Ovide an acceptable degrcc of
change occurred. These rules arc included as an aid to the protection from the hazards addressed in this standard at the
user in identifying changes from the previous edition. Where time the standard was issued.
one or more complete paragraph.s have 1M=en deleted. the de-
letion is indicated b)· a bullet (e) between the pamgraprn that 1.4.1 Unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this stan-
remain. dard shall not appl)· to facilities. equipment, structures. or in-
Areference in brackets [ J following a section or paragraph stallations that existed or were apprO\'ed for construction or
indicates material that has been extracted from another NFPA installation prior to the effective date of the standard. Where
doannent. As an aid to the user. the complete title and edition specified, the provisions of this standard shall be retroactive.
of the source documents for cxtracts in mandatory sections of 1.4.2 In those cases where the authorit)' ha..ingjurisdiction
the document a1-e given in Chapter 2 and those for extracts in determines that the existing situation presents an unaccept-
informational sections are given in Annex F. Extracted text able degree of risk, the authority hm;ngjl1risdiction shall be
rna)· be edited for consistenC)· and style and ma~· include the permitted to appl)" retroactively any portions of this standard
revision of intenlal paragraph references and other refer- deemed appropriate.
ences as appropriate. Requests for interpretations or revisions
of extracted text shall be sent to the technical commiuee re- 1.4.3 The retroactive requircmenls of this standard shall be
sponsible for the source document. permitted to be modified if their application clearl)' would be
Infonnation on referenced publications can be found in impractical in the judgment of the authority havingjwisdic-
Chapter 2 and Anne.... F. tion. and onl), where it is clearly evident that a reasonable
degree of safet)· is provided.

1.5 Equivalency. Nothing in this standard is intended to pre- I Adminislrafion vent the usc of s)'5tems, methods. or de'\;ces of equivalent or
superior quality. strength. fire resistance, effectiveness, dum-
1.1· Scope. bility. and safety over those prescribed b)· this standard.

1.1.1 This standard shall prO\;de the minimwn requirements 1.5.1 Technical documentation shall be submitted to the au-
for the design and installation of automatic fire sprinkler .5)'3- thority havingjurisdictioll to demonstrate equh-alenC)·.
telll5 and exposure protection sprinkler s)"Stems covered 1.5.2 The S)'3tem, method, or de'\;ce shall be approved for the
within this standard. intended purpose b)' the authorit)· havingjUl"isdiction.
1.1.2 This standard shall not provide requirements for the
1.6 Units and Symbols.
design or installation of water mist fin: protection S)'3tems,
which are not consid~ed fine sprinkler S)'3tems and are ad- 1.6.1 Units.
dressed b)" NFPA 750. Metric units of measure.ment in this standard shall be
1.1.$· This stalldard is writtcn with the assumption that the in accordance with the mode.nlized metric s)'5tem kno\'t'll as
sprinkler s)"Stem shall be designed to protect against n single the Intemational System of Units (51).
fire originating within the building. Two units (liter a11d bar), outside of but recognized by
1.2· Purpose. 51. arc commonl)' used in international fire protection.
1.2.1 The purpose of this standard shall be to provide a reaw These units with conversion mctors shall be wed as
SOllable degrce of protection for life and propert)· from fire listed in Table
through stailClardization of design. instaUation, and testing rew
quiremCIlt5 for sprinkler systems, including privatc fire scn.;ce If a value for measurement as gi,·en in this standard is
mains, based on sOillld engineering principles. test d...'lL."l... and followed b}' an equivalent value in oth~ units, the first scated
field o,:perience. shall be rcgarded as the requirement.

2013 Edition W

I Table Conversion Faclors 1.7 New Technology.

J.7.1 Nothing in this standard shall be intended to restrict
Name ofUnil Unit Symbol Conversion roctor
new technologies or alternate 3lT3ngements. pro\'ided the
level of safet}· prescribed b)' this standard is not lowered.
liter L I gal = 3.785 L
milli.meter pet mm/min J gpm/ft·• = 1.7.2 Materials or devices not specificaUy doignated by this
minute 40.746 mm/min = stand.·ud shall be utilized in complete accord with all condi·
40.746 (L/lllin)/m% tions. requitemen15, and limitations of their listings.
cubic decimeter dm!> I gal = 3.785 dm~
p..,<al Pa I p'; = 6894.757 Pa
bar baT I psi = 0.0689 bar
bar baT I bar = lOs Pa Chapter 2 Referenced Publications

Note: For additional com-ersions and information. see ASTht 51 lO. 2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this
Standard lor Us, oJthe 11Imlcrimlof S)stCI1I of UnnJ (SI): The/lfodenl Mane chapter arc referenced within this standard and shall be con·
SysUNI. sidered part of the requirements of this document.
2.2 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association.
1.6.2 H)'draulic Symbols. TIle standard abbreviations in 1 Baltel")'march Park. QuinC)', MA 021 69-74il.
Table 1.6.2 shall be: used on the h)'draulic calculation Conn NFP.o\. 11. Standard for Low-. Med;uRb-. and High.Expansion
ducwsed in Chapter 23. FOa1I1. 2010 edition.
NFP.o\. 14. Stamford for the Installation of SlondpijJ6 mId HOSE
S,stel1's, 2010 edition.
I Table 1.6.2 Hydraulic Symbols NFP.~ 15. Stalldard.fur WatnSpra, Fixed s,sti'11~.s for Fim Protro-
h"oll~ 2012 edition.
NFPA 16, Stalldard for the /nstaUatiotl of Foollf-·Water 5pn"nAla
Symbol or
Abbre";atjon Item and Fomll~n&terSpm,s,stall..s, 2011 edition.
NFPA 17. Stalldard for Dry Chcmiml Exti·nguishing SysteRu.
p Pressure in psi 2009 edition.
gpm U.S. gallons per minute NFPA 20. Stamiard for the Imtalln#otl of StatiotlaT)' Pltl1'PS for
q Flow inucment in gpm to be added at a Fin Proiatioll, 2013 edition.
specific location NFPA 22. Standard for n&tt'T TatJrs far Private Fin ProIu#on.
Summation of flov.· in gpm at a specific 2008 edition.
location NFPA 24. Standard for the IIl.stallation of P11vaU Fin SmJiu
Total prcssure in psi at a point in a pipe MaillS and Thl'ir AppurletlQtlu..s., 2013 edition.
Prcssure loss due to friction between NFPA 25, Standard for the lnsputiotl, u.sting. and Maintmanu
points indicated in location column of ~\&ta-Bas€dfin Prot«titm s,ste»u, 2011 edition.
p. Prcssure due to ele"''3tion difference NFPA 30, Flaum,abli: and Qmbustihli: Liquids Calk. 2012 ~di·
betv.een indicated points. This can be tion.
a plus value or a minus \'3lue. If NFP.A 30B. CLXi~ forthi: J\'lmwfactwr alld StomgeofAn"OSDI.Prod·
minus, the (-) shall be used ifplw, /lets, 2011 edition.
no .sign is needed. NFPA 33, Standard.for Spray A.pplication Usi"ng f1al1lRlablil or
C01Jlbllstibl~ Matnials, 2011 edition.
Vdocity pressure in psi at a point in a
NFP.~ 40, Standard for thi: Stomg6 and Ha"ndlhl(J of C ..UuIDSe
Mtmt~ Fillll", 2011 c=dition.
p. NonnaJ pressure in psi at a point in a
NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire PmlH:ntion Durillg ~~"lding. Cut-
E 9O-degree ell ting. and Other Hot \-\-bolA:, 2009 edition.
.7I/FPA 7rr. Natiollal El«trical Code~. 2011 edition.
EE 45-degree ell
Lt.E Long-rum elbow NFP.-1. 7?, NahollolFtrrAlan". mId Signaling O:xJe, 20 13 edition.
Cr Ceo,", NFPA 82. Standard 011 hu:inn"ators and Wa.ste mId LinCtl Han·
T Tee-flow tUJTIed 90 degrees dling Sy'sletlts and Equip»umt, 2009 edition.
GV Gate valve NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Qmt1Dl and Fire Pro/eetio'l of
BV Butteril)' (wafer) check valve Cotll'ltnrial CooJcing Opemtiotls, 2011 edition.
Del V Deluge valve NFPA lOr, Life Saftty Ccde~, 2012 ~dition.
ALV Alann valve NFPA 120. Standard for Fim PWv111tion and Control in CLlal
DPV Dry' pipe valve Mines, 2010 edition.
cv Swing check valve NFP.-\ 170, Standardfor FireSafay and ElIurgenC) Syll.bol.s. 2012
we" Buttedl)' (wafer) check valve
NFPA 214, Standatrl Otl Water-Cooling Towers.. 2011 e:dition.
5t Strairu::r
Pounds per squ...·ue inch
• NFP.~ 259, Standard. Tc;t Afdhod for Potential Heat of Building
v Velocit)'ofwater in pipe in feet per Matuials. 2008 edition.
second NFP.o\. 400, Ha-:nmolL'i Matm·al.s Code. 2013 edition.
K K.factor NFPA 409, Standard Otl Hallf!1rs. 2011 edition.
Cfaclar Friction loss coefficient NFPA 703, Standard for Fire &tard~l'1It- Tn-atcd H~i and Fin~·
Rdardant Coatings for Building Matmals, 2012 c=dition.

W 2013 Editbn
R~NCEDPU8uc~nONS 1$-15

NFPA 750. Standard on Wali'r'Mist,Fi,.,: Protedion s,.stl71U, 2010 ASTM A 153A/153M. Sta71dam Spmficatiollfor Ziru:. Coatillg
edition. (Hot Dip) Oil froll ami St€d flarduJarr. 2004.
NFPA 780, Standard for the bl5tnllation of Lightning Prollxtion
ASTM A 234. Stalldard S/Nc.ifILatioll for Pipillg Fittings of
S)'rteIR.s, 2011 edition.
~»nII{Jj1~Carlxm Stul alld AlloJ Stul for ModeTate alld High TnR-
NFPA804. Standardfor Fire ProteetionforAduanud Light nbtl'T
ptral11TZ Service. 2001.
Reactor aectnc Cell-mlting Plants, 2010 edition.
NFPA 909, Colk jorthe Protcctionoj Cultural Rrsolur:e PropntiCi ASTM A 795. Stalldard Sp«ificatiou for BlatJr alld Hot-Dipped
- M USt"lt HIS,. Libran'€s, a lid Places of Wonhip. 2010 edi rion. zjll,;-Coat€~i (Galvanized) l>~ldnl alld SeaRlins Stul,Pipefor Fin: Pm-
NFPA 1963. Standard for Fire Hose C(mllfflio,1S,. 2009 edition. t«lio,l Use, 2000.
2.3 Other Publications. ASTM B 16.15. Cart B,T7/IU Thrtnded Fittillgs., 1985.
2.3.1 ACI Publications. American Concrete Institue. P.O. ASTM B 32. Standard Spmficatioll for Soldl'T Ml1a/~ 2000.
Box 9094. Fannington Hills. MI 48333.
ASTM B 43, Sfxeificatitm for Stn lRlns Rrd Brnss Pi/N, 2009.
ACI 355.2. Qualificatioll ofPost-/mtallni MuhanicalAncho13 i"
Cona'l1e and ColRluntary. 2007. AS1M B 75. Slal/danl sptrifll:ation for ScmRkss Copper Tum. 1999.

2.3.2 ASCE Publications. American Society of Chil Engi- ASTM B 88. Stmldani Sp«ifKatioll for &G1llm Copper WateT
necr:s. 1801 Alexander Bell Dri"e. Reston. VA 201914400. Tulx. 1999.

SEI/ASCE 7, Mini'R,lUR Df'3igll1.MdJ of Buildillg$ and Other ASThI B 251. Stmldard Sptt:ification for G6neTal RrquimRellts
Strudmrs, 2005. for nS-ought Sea1Rli'ss Copperalld Copper-Alluy Tubt'., 199i.

2.3.3 ASME Publications. American Societ)· of Mechanical ASI1\1 B 446. Sta1/dard 5p«ifimh'on for Nidcrl-ChtrmiUl1£-
Engineers. Three ParkA,.-enue. New York. NY 10016-5990. MoI.ybdcmtlR.-CoIUlRbillUl Alloy (UNS.7\l 06625) alld Nidcd·ChlfmiUlR,-
MolybdmwR,-Siliam 04,80)' (UNSN 06219) Rod alld Bar. 2000.
ASME Boill'1'and p'?SS1tre If.ssel Oxie, Secrion IX -"Welding
and Brazing Qualifications." 2004. ASTM B 813. Standard SpaifKationfor Liquid alld Paste f7wres
for SoUieri'lg Applications of CoppeTand CofrPt"t'-Allo., TulN. 2000.
ASME A 17.1. Saftty Code for EwoJalon a"d Escalatm~. 2010/
I CSAB44-lO.
ASME B1.20.1. Pipe Thrrads. Ge"eral Pltrpose (bICh). 200 I.
ASTM B 828. Standard Pmctiu for Making CapillaryJoillts by
Soldni'lg of Copper 011 d Copprr Alloy Tube mId Fitti'lgS, 2000.
ASTM C 635. Stalldard Specification for the MamtJad1tTF, PeT-
ASME B 16.1. Cast IlTm Pipe Ra IIges and Flangcd Fittings, fonR01lu, and Testing ofMetal Su.spell,sion s,stnR,sfor Acoustiml Tile
Classes 25. 125, and 250, 1998. alld Lll).. . ./1l Pallel Ceil;'lgs. 2004.
ASME B 16.3. Ma{/£able lrem ThreadEd Fittillg$. ClassES 150 a"d ASTM C 636. Standard Prodiu for /Ilrtallatioll ofMdal Ceilillg
]00. 1998. Sll.spe1l5iOIl S)St€1RS for AcolLstical Tile alld Lll).. . .11l Pall~ls, 2004.
ASME BI6.4, Gut Iron Threaded Fitti,,~. GasSES 125 and 250, ASThI E 84. Stmldam Test Method for Sur/au Bumillg CJzmnc-
1998. ten'sties ofBuilding Matm'als.. 20 IO.
ASME BI6.5. Pi/N f7a,,~.s a lid Ffollged Fittillg$. 1996. ASTM E 119. Stalldard Trost Methods for Fi" Test,s of Bllildi1v:
ASME BI6.9. Factory-Made Wrought Stul BltUwddillg Fittillgs. Collst"md;on and Matm'alJ, 2010.
2001. ASTM E 136. Stalldard ust Methodfor Behavior ofMatl'17a ~ ;11
ASME BI6.11, Fo~d Steel Fittings. Soded-Weldillg and a lmi£al Tilhe FII17laa at 750°4 1999.
Th:rraded. 1996. AS1M F 437. SJandard SJtrojicationfur Th,mdRi Chlorillatld Poly
ASME B16.18, Cast Copper A,IIoy SoIdl'T Joint Prrsntn: Fittings, (l'r'l)" CNoride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittillgs, Schrdule 80. 1999.
1994. ASTM F 438. Staminrd SfxcificofiOIl for Sodut..Ty/N OllonllalEd
ASME BI6.22, Wrought CoP/J" alld Cop/Nr Alloy Soldl'T joint PofJ (li,!)-/. Olloride) (CPl'C) Pln.stic Pipe Fittillgs. Scheduli' 40. 2001.
P-rr.s.sltr€ Fittillg$. 1995. ASTM F 439. StamJilIri Specificatioll for Sodut-Ty/N OllonllalEd
ASME BI6.25, Buttwddillg Ends. 1997. Poly ('ii,!)-/. CJzloride) (CP\-t:') Plnstic Pipe Fittillgs. Schedule 80. 2001.
ANSljASME B31.1, Cod£forPolLlerPipi11g. 2001. ASTM F 442, Standard Sprofication for Chlon'llatt'd Poly (lljllyl
CMorid,) (CPVC) PIa"i, Pip< (SDR-PR). 2009.
ANSljASME B36.IOM. Welded alld Scan,lus Wrollght, Steel
Pip< 2000. ASTM F 1121, Standard S/NclflCatioll for Intmwtio1lo1 Shmr:
Call "eet«ms for Man'lli' Fin: Applications. 1998.
2.3.4 ASrM Publications. ASTM Intemational, 100 BarT
Harbor Drive. P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428- ASTM SilO, Standard for Use of the J.llt1'17latiollal Syste'R of
2959. Units (Sl): Thr Jo.'fodem Metric 5)'ste'lI, 1997.
ANSIj ASfM A 53, Sta1ldard SprofrmtionfO'r Pi/N, Sted, Blade 2.3.5 AWS Publications. American Wdding Society. 550 N.V....
alld Hot-Dipp£d, Zill~.Qx,ted. Welded alld SeQ/Rle,ss, 2001. Lejeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.
ASTM A 106. Stalldard Spu'flJ.:ation for SeQ/Riess Cnrlxm Steel AWS ...\.5.8, Sptdjicatiml for Filll'T Metals for S,m2l1g alld Braze
Pipefor High Ternpnnlurr Servia, 2008. Weldillg.I992.
ASTM A 135, Standard Spuification for Eltrtn'c.lUsistmue- AWS B2.1, S/Ncificatioll for Weldillg Procedure alld Pnj017Rallct
IVdd,d Slut Pi"" 200 I. Qualification, 2000.

2013 Edition W

2.3.6 AWWA Publications. American. \o\atc:t Works Asso<:i~ AWWA Mil, A Ouidi' for Steel Pipe lksigl1 alld Installation,
tion. 6666 West Quincy Avenue. Denver. CO 80235. 31"d edition. 1989.
A\o\oWA CI04. Q;",ml Morlar U"ing for Ductile Iron Pipe and 2.3.7 IEEE Publications. Institute ofEJcctrical and Electronics
Fittings for Wain: 1995. Engincet3, TIncc ParkAvenuc, 171..h Floor, Ncwyork. NY lool&'
AvV'WA CI05. PolyethylEne ElImSolll7lt lor Dll<hU bun PifH: Sys-
t61r1S. 1999. IEEE. 45, R£<011l1Mllded Pmdicl', for Ekctn·c.lnstallations onShip-
board. 1998.
AWV./A CIlO. Dut:tik froll and Gm)' Iron Fittings, 3-hL ThrrnJf/l
48-in. (76 RI1R Throllf!!ll2191R111tJur wat"a1~ Otha Liquids, 1998. 2.3.8 UL Publications. Undel"WTitcrs L"lbomtorics Inc .. 333
Pfingsten Road. NorthbTOOk. lL 60062·2096.
AW'WA Cili. Rubba Gaskl1 Joint.s for Dudik Iron Prcssure Pipe
and Fittings, 2000. ANSIjUL 62. Fkxibl€ Cords and Grhl£s, 2010.
A\o\o"\\'A C115. FTnnged Dltdilr Iron Pipe viti! Ductile hrm or Gray ANSI/UL 723. Standard for Sill/au. Burning Charadnistics of
Iron Thrmded f7angr.s.. 1999. Bllilding Materials, 2008. Revised 2010.
A\o\o"WA e116. Protective FllsWm-Bo"dai Epoxy Coatings I1Ilrmal ANSIjUL 1581. Rifmmce Stan doHi for ElatriGfll n)n-s. Cabk~
and External Surface DllCtih'../roll/Gmy-llTm Fittings. 2003. mId f7i'xible Cords. 2011.
A\o\o"WA ClSO. ThicJwtsS IX..sign ofDudi'e Iron Pipe. 1996. 2.3.9 U.s. Government Publications. U.S. Governmcnt Print·
A\VViA CJ 51. Du£!ik Iron Pip£.. G7llnfllg:l11y Cast for l\bler. 1996. ing Office, Washington. DC 204a2.

AWViAC153.Dllctil~bvll Cm1fpad Fitti"g~.for '\btaSeroia. 2000. Title 46. CFR, PaTls 54.15-10 Safet), and Relief Vah·es..
56.20 Val..·cs. 56.20~5 (3) Markings. 56.50-95 O ...eTboard Dis-
.-\"V\\~C200, Sted nlQta Pipe 6 in. (150 mil') and La"'gn: 1997. charges and ShoTe Connections. 56.60 Materials. and
.-\Y\'·WA C203. Coaf.. Tar Profative Coatings and Lin i"gs for Sted
58.01-40 Machinery. Angle of Inclination.
Wate,.. PipelineJ EnQ111el and Tape - Hot Applied. 1997. Title 46. CFR Subchapter F, "Marine E.ngineering,"
.-\W\YA C205. UN/oIl-Mortar PlUtec.tive Lining and Coati'zgfQr Title 46. CYR, SubchapteT J. "Electtical Engineering."
Sted \\'ilta Pipe 4 in. (100 rRl11) mId Largu- Shop AfrPlied. 2000.
2.3.10 Other Publications.
A'WWA C206, Field Wddirzg ofSted nata Pipe, 1997.
Afemfl1R-W(bsta:S GJlkgiate Dictio1UD,. 11th edition. Merriam-
AV"'\\~ C207. Steel Pipe Flanges fm' n&tn-worlr~ SenJice
- SiU'~ 'Webster, Inc., Springfield. MA. 2003.
4 in. Thluugh 144 in. (l ()() '11'" Through 3,600 ,,,,.",), 1994.
2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
AVtoVlA C208. Di.",nl-sion.s for Fabn'caled Steel n'ata Pipe Firtin~.
NFP.~ I, Fire CodL,. 2012 edition.
NFP..\ 24, Standard for the hutallah'on of Pn'vate FillJ StTViu
AVto"VA CWO. Reinfurced Concrrle Pnuun Pipe.. Sted-G.,linder Mai1l-~ a'nd Their AppUrli'IIa1IUS, 2013 edition.
Type, fur l\'ater and Othi'r Liqllid~, 1997, NFP.~ 33, Standard for Spray Applicatio11 Uri·ng f7al1uUJbli: or
C0111bllstihle Matn-ialr. 2011 edition.
A,",V,~ C301. P,.,:sb1!sud Conone PffsS1ln Pipe. Sted-Cylinder
NFP..\ 37. Sta 1UJarri fOT the 1mtallation a ud USl', of Statiollm,
Type.. fur '''ater and Othe'''' Liquids, 1999. Co'RbustiOll Ellgillu a lid Gas Til1billt:s. 20 I0 edilion.
AY\'V,~ CSa2. Rri,ljmr:ed Conerne P~.ssure Pipe, Non-Cylinder NFP..\ 40. Standard for the Storage and Ha·ndli1lg of Cellulose
Type.. fur Water and Othn" Liquid~, 1995. Nitrate Fill1l, 2011 edition.
NFP..\ 45, Standard on Fire Prot«tion for LabomtOlW!,s Using
AWWA C303. J?n·nfurced Conone Prr-SJ'lln Pipe.. Sted-Cylindn"
Clle1Ricals. 2011 edilion.
Type.. Prdensiotled. for \\'iltnand Othn Liquids, 1995.
NFPA 51, Standard for the lksig11 Q1ld butnlla/iorl of Oxygrm.....Fuel.
A\o\'WA C4OO. Standard for Asbestos-Cnunl Dim-ilmtNm Pipe. Gas S):5tnu far l-WMing. Gifting. and AI/Hd PrOCl:S.seS, 2013 edition.
4 in. Through i 6 in. (100 rRI" Through 400 1R111.)' for Water alld NFP.A 51A. Standan1 Jur .""utylnu Cylinder Chargi11g Pla1lt~
Other" Liquids. 1998. 2012 edition.
NFP.A 55, Cb1np1T:ssed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids Code, 2013
C40 I, Standatd Pml1icefor the SeUction of..4ubest~Cn1li'"t
Water Pi/¥. i in. Through i 6 i". (100 ,1I1t1 Through 400 ,.,UII). 1998.
NFPA 59. Utility LP-Gas Pla'nt Code. 2012 edition.
A\t"VA C600. Stalldm-d for the installation ofDlILtile /,.,11/ "Wltn" NFP..\ 59A, Standard for the Prodlll'tion, Storag~.. and Handling
Mains and Their.>\ppurtmarlcu. 1999. of Liquefied Natural Gas (UVC), 2013 edition.
NFPA 7d", National Electrical Codl',~. 20 11 edition.
A\-\'"YA C602, ull1mf...Morlar Lilli"g of Hbter Pipe Linu 4 itl.
NFP.A 75, Standardfor the Fire Prot~ction ofbifomation Tec hnol,..
(/00 111111) arid Largn"- in Piau. 2000.
Og'J FLJuip1Mmt, 2013 ediLion.
AWWA C60S, Stmuuml for the Installation of Asbutos-Ce"lent NFP.A 76, Standard for th, Fin: Prot«tioll ofTek<o""I1.wI ieatio1U
Watn· Pipe, 1996. Fadlitiu. 2012 edition.
NFP.A 82, Standard oll/m:inn-ators a'nd Waste and Linen Hall-
AY\'WA C9oo, Pol:Jvin,l Chloride (PVC) p,.r:mm: Pi/¥, 4 in.
dling Syste,"s and Eqll ip"'l?lt, 2009 edition.
ThlUugh 12 in. (]OO NIIII· Thlfwgh 300 '.1111'), for Water and Other
NFPA 86, Standard for Ovt:?lS and Fumaus. 2011 edition.
Liquids, 1997.
NFPA 91. StamJardfor Exhaust Sy!JnRSJurAir Collueyi1zgofVa~
A'''W-\. C906, Polyrlh,lnze (PE) PTi:SSIll~ Pipe and Fitti'zg$. 4 in, Gasi's. Afirts, and Nouco,lIb,l9ihkParlic,JafeSo!ids, 2010 edition.
(]OO 1111.11.) Th. 63 in (1,575 '11'11.). for Watn- Distn'bution and Trrl1l~ NFPA 99, Health (An FadNties Code, 2012 edition.
porlation. 1999. NFP.A 998. Standard for Hypobmit: Facilltus. 2010 edition.

W 2013 Editbn
DEflNmONS 1$-17

NFPA 120. Standard for Fir~ PmJlmliorl alld O:mhVl in Coal requiremellts and which is in a form generall,.. suitable for
Mincs.. 2010 edition. mandatory reference b)'another standard or code or for ado~
NFPA 122. Stlllldnrd for n" />mJmtion alld Omtrol in Mrlnl! tion into law. Nonmandatol)' pro\isiotl5 are not to ~ consid-
N01l11u1alMi"ingand MrlalMinnnl Proussi1lg Fa<:i/itid, 2010 edi- ered a part of the requirements of a standard and shall be
tion. located in an appendix. annex. footnote. informational note,
NFPA 130. Standard far FiXX'd Guidcwll"j Transir alld Pass(7lg" or other means as permitted in the Manllal oj 51)1£ JOT tv'FPA
Rail SystnRs, 2010 edition. T«hrl ieal Co,mRiUu Docll1l1£r1ts.
NFPA 140. Sta miLl rd 011 Morio1l Pidllre and Tdevision Pnx!1tr-
tioll StlldioSolmdstagrs. Af1!n"t1wd ProdIiClio" Facilities, arid Prodll£'- 3.3 Gene,ral DefinitioDs.
tioll Ltxations.. 2008 editioll. 3.3.1 Automatic Sprinkler. A fire .supprcssion or control de-
NFPA 150. Stalldard 011 Fin: alld Life Safet)· i" .~nimnl HOILSing vice that operates 3utomaticall}' when its heat-activated cle-
Facilih'es, 2013 edition. ment is heated to its thermal rating or above. allowing Welter to
NFPA 214. Stalldard 011 Waln:Cooli"g Town".. 20 II edition. discharge over a specified area.
NFPA 307. SrandaHi for the Con.stntdion arId Fin: Pro/ectio" of
Marille Tennillals, Picn. alld lt7rarv~.. 2011 edition. 3.3.2· B."throom. Within 3 dwelling unit, any room or com-
NFPA SI8, Stalldard for the ProIct:tion of SeN/icon dudor FabricQ- parunent dedicated to per.sonal hygiene. containing 3 toilet,
eiollFaa'lities.. 2012 edition. sink, or lx.:.thing capabilit)' such as a shower or tub.
NFPA 400. HllUlrdolls Matmals Cod~ 2013 edition. 3.3.3 Ceiling Height. The distance between the floor and the
NFPA 415. Stalldard 011 Airport TmRirral 81lildi"gs. rll£li"g underside oCthe ceiling abm'e (or roof deck) within the area.
RarRp Dm;lIage, alld Loading \\'a!.kwaJS.. 2013 edition.
NFPA 423. Stalldard fur Constntcliorr alld Prot«t«m ofJiirrmft 3.3.4* Ceirmg Pocket. An architectural ceiling feature that
Engille FacilirN-S, 20 I 0 ed ition. consists of a bounded area of ceiling located at a highc:-r eleva-
NFPA804. StalldaH!for FireProt«t«", forltdvarrced Lighl U0ta tion than the attached lower ceiling.
Rcactor El«tn'c Gn,em h'lIg Plall ts,. 20 I0 edition.
3.3.5 c.;liog TYP"'"
NFPA 805. PaJo,..,narrce-Ba.sed SralldaHi for Fill" Protection for
Light n~ra lUado,- El«::fn'c Cemmti,'IJ Plalll-s, 2010 edition. Flat Ceiling. Acontinuow ceiling in a single plane.
NFPA 851. &COJR'R611ded Practice for £Ill" Protffi«", for H)'liro- Monum/oJ Cer1i"g. A ceiling with a slope not exceed-
el£'ctn'c GnI£'mtillg Plants,. 2010 edition.
ing2in 12.
NFPA 909. Cod£ Jar the Prol£'ch'orr oj GIlII/tral &sollrce Propmit:5
- .M!LSt:lIRlS, Libran·£'s. and Pious ofWm"Ihip, 2010 edition. Slopul Oili"K' A ceiling with a slope exceeding
Chapter 3 Defillit'lons Smooth Ceiling. A continuous ceiling free from sig.
nificant irregularities. lumps, or indentations.
3.1 General. The definitions contained in this chapter .shall
apply to the terms used in this .standard V¥here tcnns are not 3.3.6 Compartment. A .space completely enclosed b)' walls
defined in this chapter or within another chapter. they shall and a ceiling. Each wall in the compartment is penn it ted to
~ defined using their ordinarily accepted meanings ",;thin have openings to an adjoining .space if the openings have a
the context in which the,.. are wed. lHmlarR~nHlstiT:S Collegiat£' minimum lintel depth of 8 in. (200 mm) from the ceiling and
DicrionmJ. 11th edition. shall be the SOUTce for the ordinarily the t'otal width of the openings in each wall does not exceed
accepted meaning. 8 ft (2.4 m). A single opening of 36 in. (900 mm) or less in
width without a lintel is permitted when there are no other
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions. openings to adjoining spaces.
3.2.1· Approved. Acceptable to the authority havingjurisdic. 3.3.7* Control Vahoe. A valve contl'Olling flow to water-based
t1on. fire protection s)"stems.
3.2.2· AuthQl'ity Having Jurisdiction (AH]). An organization, 3.3.8* Draft Curtain. A continuow material protnlding
office. or individual responsible for enforcing the require. down""-ard from the ceiling to create a reservoir for collecting
m~ts of a code or standard. or for approving equipment. smoke and heat.
materials, an installation, or a procedure.
3.3.9 Drop-Oue Ceiling. Asuspended ceiling S)'5tem. which is
3.2.$· Usted. Equipment, materials, or sen;ces included in a installed below the sprinklers, with listed trntulucent or
list published by:an organization that is acceptable to the au- opaque panels that are heat sensitive and faU from their .set-
thorit)· having jurisdiction arid concerned with evaluation of ting when e:\:posed to heaL
products or senices, that maintailu periodic inspection of
production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evalu· 3.3.10 Dwelling Unit (for sprinkler system installations). One
ation of sen,.;ces, and whose listing states that eithe:r the equip. or more rooms arranged for the use of one or more individu·
ment, material, or service meets appropriate designated stan· nls living together. as in a single: housekeeping unit normall}'
dareb or has ~en tested and found sui table for a specified ha..;ng cooking. li..;ng, sanitary. and sleeping facilities that in-
purpose. clude, but are not limited 1.0, hotd rooms. donnitor)' rooms.
apartments, condominiwns, sleeping rooms in nUl'sing homes.
3.2.4 Shall. Indicatc,s a mandatory requirement. and similar living units.
3.2.5 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is
3.3.11 Fin!' Control. Limiting the size of a fire b)' distribution
ad\-iscd but not required.
of water so as to decrease the heat release rate and pre-wet

I 3.2.6 Stald.nrd. A document, the main text of which contains adjacent combwtibles, while contTolling ceiling gas tempera-
onl,.. mandatory provisions using the word "shall'" to indicate tures to avoid structural damage.

2013 Edition W

3.3.12 Fire SupPn."Q!iiol1. Sharply reducing the heat release 3.3.21 Small Room. A comp:uunent of light hazard occu-
rate of a fire and preventing its regrowth by means of direct panC)" classification having unowtructed construction and a
and sufficient application of water through the fire plume to floor area not e.xceeding 800 ft: (74.301:).
the burning fud .surface.
3.'.22· Sprinkler System. A S)'3tem that consists of an inte--
3.3.13 Fuel-Fired Healing Unit. An appliance that produces grated nelWork of piping designed in accordance with fire
heat by burning fuel. protection engineering sL.mdards that includes a water supply
source. a water control val\."e. a waterflow alann. and a drain
3.3.14 H"rgb ''OJume Low Speed Fan. A ceiling fan that is aJ> and is commonly acth-ated b}' heat from a fire. discharging
proximately 6 ft to 24 ft in diameter with a rotational speed of watcr over the fire area. The portion of the sprinkler s>'StC'11l
approximatcl)" 30 to 70 re...olutioru per minute. abo"'e ground is a network of specificall)' sized or h)<draulicall)"
3.3.15 Hydraulically Designed System. A rdlculated .sprinkler designed piping installed in a building. strtlcture. or area. gen-
s)'Stcm in which pipe sizes are selected on a PI"C'SSUTC loss basis erall}' overhead. and to which sprinklers are attached in a sys-
to provide a prescribed water density. in gallons per minute tematic pattern. The s)'Stem is commonly actr.-ated by heat
per .square foot (mm/min), or a prescribed minimum dis- from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
chaogc pressure or flow per sprinkler. disb"ibulcd with a Tea- 3.'.23 S)"5tem WorlUng P~ure. The maximum anticipated
sonable degree of unifonnity over a specified area. static (nonflowing) or flowing pressure applied to sprinkler
3.3.16* umited-Combuslible (Material). Refers to a building .5)'!tem components exclwivc of surge pn:'.s5ures and exclwi,,·c
construction material not complying with the definition of of pressure from the fire department connection.
noncomb~tiblematerial that. in the fonn in which it is wed. 3.'.24 1bermaJ Barrier. A material that limil1 the averagc
has a potential heat "alue not exceeding 3500 Btujlb temperature rue of the unexposed surface to not more than
(8141 kJ/kg) , where tested in accordance ....; th NFPA259. and 250°F (139°C) above anlbient for a specified fire e:\:posure
include'! either of the following: (1) materials having a Stn.lC- duration using the standard time-temperature curve of
tural J:>as,e of noncombustible material. with a surfacing not ASThf E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fin Tesl.s of Building Con-
exceeding a thickness of J,il in. (3.2 mm) that has a flame smution and Afatnials.
spread index not greater than 50; or (2) materials. in the fonn
and thickneM wed. having neither a flame spread inde.x 3.4 Sprinkler System Type Definitions.
greater than 25 nor e'\oidence of continued progressi,,"C com- 3.4.1 Antifreeze Sprinkler S>-stem. A wet pipe system wing
bwtion. and of such composition that surfaces that would be automatic sprinkle13 that contains a liquid solution to prC"\'ent
exposed by cutting through the material on all)' plalle would freezing of the S)'·stem. intended to discharge the solution
have neither a flame spread index greater than 25 nor cvi- upon sprinkler operation. followed immediately by water
dence of continued progreMh-e combustion, when tested in from a water suppl)".
accordance with ASDtl E 84. Standard Test A1£thod of Surfau Premixed .41rtifrNu Solutimr. A mLxture of an anti-
Buming Oraradn";sh"CJ of Buildi,rg Mat"ials. or ANSlfUL i23.
freeze material with water that is prepared and factol")"illixed
Standard usf MEthod ofSmfau Brmrillg CJraractnistics ofBuilding 1»' the manufacturer with a qualit), control prociCdure in plan'
that ensures that the antifreeze solution remains homage--
3.3.17 Noncombustible Material. A material that., in the fonn ncowand that the conciCntrnuon is as specified
in which it is wed and under the conditions anticipated, will 3.4.2 CiR:ulnting Oosed-Loop Sprinkler S)~efn. A wet pip~
not ignite, burn, support combustion, or rc::lease flammable sprinkler s)'Stem having non-fire protection connections to
vapon, when subjected to fire or heat; materials that are re-- automatic sprinkler S)'S((:lTIS in a closed-loop piping arrange--
ported as passingASTM E 136. Slmrdard Test MdJrodfor &hauim- ment for the purpos(: of utilizing sprinkler piping to conduct
of Afatnia/s in a l'ntical Tube Frmrace at 750°C shall be consid- water for heating or cooling. where wat(:r is not remo,,'ed or
ered noncombwtible materials, wed from the S)':5tem but onl)' circulated through the piping
3.3.18 Obstruction. sy.stem, Co"6",,OIU Obstnu:uo". An obstruction located at 3.4.3 Combined Dry Pipe-R('sction Sprinkler S,.-stem. Asprin-
or bc::low the Icv'e! of sprinkler deflectors that affect Ule kler S)'Stem emplojing automatic sprinklers attached to a pip-
discharge pattern of two or more adjacent sprinklers, ing s)'Stem containing air under pn=ssur(: with a supplementa..1
detection sj'Stem installed in Ule same areas as the sprinkliCrs. N01lrolltimlolu Obstn~tion. An obstruction at or Operation of the detection .!}"Stem netuatiCs tripping devices
below the level of the sprinkler deflector that affects the that open dry' pipe ,,'Ulves simultan(:owly and without loss of
discharge pattern of a single sprinkler, air pressure in the $)'Stem. Th(: detection S)':5te.m also serves as
3.3.19* Raw Water Source. A water supply that has not been an automatic fire alarm system.
treated and could contain foreign material that could enter 3.4.4 Deluge Sprinkler S)'Stef1l. Asprinkler sptem iCmplo),ing
the sprinkler system, open or nozzles that are attached to a piping s>'StiCm
3.3.20 Shop-Welded. Iu used in this standard. Jhop in the that is connected to a water supply through a valve that is
tenn shop-wddrd means either (l) a sprinkler contractor's or opened by the operation of a detection s)'Stem installed in the
same areas as the sprinklers or the nozzles. Vlhen ulis ,,·al,,·C'
fabricator's premise or (2) an area specifically designed or
opens,. water flows into the piping S)':5tem and discharges from
authorized for welding, such as a detached outside location,
all sprinklers or nozzles attached thereto.
maintenance shop, or other area (either temporary' or perma-
nent) of noncombwtible or fire.resistive construction free of 3.4.5 Dry Pipe Sprinkl('rSystem. Asprinkler system employing
combwtible and flammable contents and suitably segregated autornatic sprinklers that arc atL"lchC'd to a pipingS)'Stem contain·
from adjacent areas. ing air or nitrogen under preMUl"e, the release of which (as from

W2013 Edition
DEflNmONS 1$-\9

the opening of a sprinkler) penniu the water prcuure to open a 3.5.12 S,-stem Riser. TI1e aboveground horizontal or vertical
\"al\"e kn0W11 35 a dry pipe \nlve. and the water then flows into the pipe between the water suppl}' and the mains (cross or feed)
piping S)"lem and out the opened sprinklen:. that contains a control vah'e (either directl}' or within its sUi>
ply pipe). pressure gauge. drain. and a waterflow alarm device.
3.4.6· Gridded Sprinkler System. A sprinkJer .system in which
parallel cross maim: arc connected by multiple branch Jines. 3.5.13 Uateri10w Alarm l>e\.ice. An attachment to the sprin-
causing an operating ~prinkler to receive water from both kler .system that detects a predelcnnined water flow and is
ends of its bnmch line while other branch lines help transfer connected to a fire alann sptem to initiate an alann condition
water between cross mains. or is used to mechanicall)'or electrically initiate a fire pump or
local audible or visual aJann.
3.4.7· Looped Sprinkler System. A ~prinkler S)'3tem in which
multiple cro.s~ mains arc tied together ~o as to pro\ide more 3.6 Sprinkler Definitions.
than one path for water to flow to an operating sprinkJer and
3.6.1" Genernl Sprinkler Characterista The following arc
branch lines arc not tied together.
characteristics of a sprinkler that define its abilil)' to control or
3.4.8 MuJtiC)'cle System. A l)'Pe of .sprinkler ~ptem capable of extinguish a fire. (1) TIlermai sensitivity. A measure of the
repeated on-off flow C}"Cles in response to heal. rapidity with which the thermal clement operatC!l as in.stalled
in a specific sprinkler or .sprinkler assembly. One measure of
3.4.9 Pipe Schedule S}'5lem. A .sprinkJer .5)'Stem in which the
thermal sensitivity is the response time index (RTI) as mea-
pipe ~izing is .selected from a schedule that is determined by the
sured under standardized test conditions. (a) Sprinklers de-
occupang' classification and in which a given number of sprin-
fined as fast response ha"'e a thermal element with an RTI of
klen aJ'e allowai to b<:: supplied from specific siz.cs of pipe.
50 (meters-seconds) lIZ or less. (b) Sprinklers defined as smn-
3.4.10· Preoction Sprinkler S)."Stem. A sprinkler .5}'StCln emplo)'- dard response have a thennal clement with an RTI of
ing automatic sprinklers thal arc attached to a piping !)~em that 80 (meters-5econds) 1ft or more. (2) Temperature rating.
contains air that might or might not b<:: under pressure. with a (3) K-fuctor (set: Olapta 6). (4) Lnstallation orientation (ue
mpplemental detection .5)'5tem installed in the same areas a"l the 3.6,2). (5) 'Water distribution characteristics (i,e.. application
sprinkleB. rate, wall weuing). (6) Special conditions (5« 3.6,3).
3.4.11 Wet Pipe Sprinkler System. A sprinkler S}'3tem emplo)'- 3.6.2 Lnstallation Oraenlation. The following sprinklers arc
ing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping s)'5tem containing defined according to orientation.
water and connected to a water supply so that water discharges Co"cealnl Spritwler. A rc:-cessed sprinkler with cm~
immediately from sprinklers opened b}' heat from a fire.
3.5· System Component Definitions. Spr;"kler. A sprinkler in which all or part of
3.5.1 Air Recehoer. A chamber. compatible with an air com- the bod)', including the shank thread is mounted abo...e
pressor, that can store air under pres.sure that is higher in the lower plane of the ceiling.
pressure than that in the dr)' pipe or pr~tion ¥tem piping. Pendent Sprinkler. A sprinkler designed to be in-
3.5.2 Air Resenroir. A c.hamber that can store air at the same stalled in such a wa)' that the water stream is directed dO'nTl-
pressun: that is in the wet pipe .system piping, ward the deflector.
3.5.3 Am:.-Over. A horizontal pipe that extends from the'd Spr;',kler. A sprinklel' in which a11 or part
branch line to a single sprinkler or a .sprinkler above and be- of the body. other than d1e shank thread. is mOl-mted
Iowa ceiling, within a reces.sed housing.
3.5.4 Bmnch Lines. The pipes suppl),ing sprinkleB. either di- Sid~wcJl Spnnkle.r. A sprinkler having special de-
recd)' or through sprigs. drops. return bends, or ann-overs. flecrors that arc designed to discharge most of the water
awa}' from the nearby wall in a pattern resembling one-
3.5.5 Cross Mains. The pipes .suppl)ing the branch lines, ei-
I ther directly or through riser nipples.
3.5.6 FHd Mains. The pipes suppl)ling cross main.s, either
quarter of a sphere, with a small portion of the discharge
directed at the wall behind the sprinkler. Upnght Sp,.;'Jder. A sprinkler designed to be in-
directly or through risers.
sla1led in such a wa)' that the water spra)' is directed up-
3.5.7 Flexible listed Pipe Coupling. A listed coupling or fitting wards against the deflector.
that allows a.'\.-ia1 displacement., rot:.uion, and :a1 least 1 degree of
3.6.3 Special Service Conditioos. The following sprinklers are
angular mO\'tment of the pipe without inducing harm on the
defmed according to special application or environmenL
pipe. For pipe diameter.s of 8 in. (203.2 mm) and larger, me
angular movement shall be penniued to be: less than I degree Corros;o"..Rai.!tat,tSpnnkler. Asprinkler fabricated
but not less than 0.5 degree. wid1 corrosion-resistant material. or with special coatings
or platings, to be used in an atmosphere that would nor..
S.5.8 Riser Nipple. Vertical piece of pipe bet"..een the main
mally corrode sprinklers.
and branch line.* Dr)' Spri"kJi'r. A sprinkler secured in an extension
3.5.9 Risers. TheYertical supply pipe.s in a sprinkler s)'Stem.
nipple that has a seal 3tthe inlet end to prevent water from
S.5.10 Sprig. A pipe that rises vertically and .supplies a single entering the nipple until the sprinkler operates.
.sprinkler. Itls-titutiotJal Sp,.;',kler. A sprinkler specially de-
3.5.11 Supenisory Device. A device arranged to the .signed for resistance to load-beal"ing purposes and with
operative condition of automatic sprinkler systems. components not rcadil)' con\'Cned for use as weapons.

2013 Edition W
1:1-20 INSTAllATION OF SPRINKLER SVSTEMS lrd"",ed;al~ Levd Spri"kl(!f"/Rack St~ Sprillkln:. A Standard Spray Spri"kler. Aspnt)' .:!prinkler with
sprinkler equipped with intcgra1shiclds to protect its oper- maximum cove:ragc areali as specified in Sections 8.6 and
ating dements from the discharge of sprinklcu irutallcd at 8.7 of th.U standard.
higher elevations.
3.7 Construction Definitions. Ommllerrtal/DN::orative Spn"kl€T". A .sprinkler that
3.7.1* Obstructed Construction. Panel constTUction and other
has been painted or plated b}' the manufacturer.
consttuction where beams, ttusscs., or other mcmben; ilUpede Pilot Line Detedor. A standard sPTa}" sprinkler or heat flow or water distribution in a manner that materialJ)· affect.!
thcnnostaric fixed-temperature release dC'\--icC' lIsed as a detec- the abilit}, ofsprinklers to control or suppress:1 fi.e.
tor to pncmnarically or 11}UtaulicaUy release the main valve.
controlling the: flow ofwater into a fire pmtcctiol1 S)'31cm. 3.7.2· Unobstructed Construction. Consttuction where beams.,
trusscs, or other members do not impede heat now or water dis-
3.6.4 Sprinkler Typ('l!l. The following sprinklcu arc defined tribution in a manner that matedall)· affects the abilil)· of .sprin-
according to design and perfonnancc characteristics. ideo to control or supprC5.:l a fi.e. Unobstnlctcd construction has* Control ModeSpeeificApplirotiotl (G\1.s.4) Spri"klfT. A horizontal stTllcturnl mcmbcl'":5 that arc not solid. whcre the
t)pc of spear sprinkler that is capable of producing charac- openings arc at least 70 percent of the crosS-5Cction area and the
teristic large water droplcts and that is listed for its capabil~ depth of the member docs not exceed the least dimension of the
ity to p.ovide fi.e control of specific high-challenge fi.e opening.:!. or all COllstruction type!l where the -spacing of struc~
hazards. tural members exceeds 7* ft (2.3 m) on center.* Early Sllppressio" Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinkler. A 3.8 Private Water Suppl)r Piping Definitions.
t)pe offast-.esponse sprinkler that has a thennal dement
3.8.1 General Definitions from N'FB\ 24.
with an RTl of 50 (metefS-5econds)l/2 o.less and is listed
for its capability to p.ovide fi.e supp.ession of specific AJ1purttffICJnu. An acce!i6ol")' o. attachment that en-
high-challenge fi.e hazards. able.s the private fire .:!en;ce main to perform its intended Exhnd,.d CotlfT'age Sprinkler. A l)'pe of spra,. sprin- function. [24~ 2013]
kle. with maximum cove.age areas as 5JX=cified in Sections Conwiotl-Rni.stant Piping. Piping that has the prop-
8.8 and 8.9 of this standard. crt)' of being able to withstand deterioration of its surface or NoWes. A device for use in applications .equiring its properties ""TIen o.:posed to its environmenL [24, 2013 J
special water discharge patte.ns. di.ectional sp.a)·. 01" other CorTOSiotl-Retarom,t Matn-ial. A lining or coating
unusual discharge c.haracte.istics. material that when applied to piping or appurtenances has Old-Style/ConoontionaJ Spri"kler. A sprinkle. that the propert)· of reducing or .:!Iowing the deterioration of
di.ects from 40 pc:.cent to 60 pe.cent of the total water the object's surface or properties when exposed to its envi-
initiall)· in a downwa.d di.ection and that is designed to be ronment. [24,2013]
installed ",;th the deflector eithe. upright or pendent. firil Deparll1vmt Comlu1ioJl. Aconnection through Open Spri"kl". A sprinkle. that does not have ac- whic.h the fire department can pump supplemental water
tuatOI'":5 o. heat-.esponsive elements. into the sprinkler system. standpipe, or other S)·stem. fur-
nishing water for fire extinguishment to supplement exist-* Qllwk..RRsJxmsil (QR) Sprinkler. Atype ofsprnysprin-
ing water supplies. [24, 2013]
ider that has a thenna! dement with an Rfl of 50 (mete.-
seconds) 1/% o.less and is listed as a quick-'C5ponse .sprinkle. fin Pump. A pump that is a provider of liquid flow
for its intendc=d use. and pressure dedicated to fire protection. [20,2013]· Quirk-Response Early Sllppre~io" (QRES) Sprin- Hose House. An enclosure located m·cr 01· adjacent
kler. A t}pe of quick-response sprinkler that has a thermal to a hydrant or other water supply designed to contain the
dement .....; th an RTI of 50 (meter-5econds) 1/2 or less and is necessary hose nozzles. hose wrenches, gaskets. and span-
listed for its capability to prO\;de fire suppre!i6ion of spe- ners to be used in fire fighting in conjunction with and to
cific fire hazards. pro"ide aid to the local fire d<:partment. [24,2013) Qllick-IUspo"se E\1£'1lded Covilrage Sprinkler. A 3.8. I. 7 H)'drcmt Butt. The hose cOlmection outlet of a hy-
t}pe of quick-response sprinkler that has a thermal dement drane [24,2013]
with an RTI of 50 (meter-seconds)l/% or less and complies
"';th the extended protection areas defined in Chapter 8. I-I)'dralJiccJly Call1llatt"d Jf&ter Demand Row Rnte.
The waterflow ratc for a system or hose stream that has bet:n Residenfial Sprinkler. A type of spritr calculated tlSing accepted engineering practices. [24, 2013J
k1er hm-in~ a thenna} dement "";th an IITI of 50 (meter:s-
seconds) 1 or 1es.5, that has been specifically investigated for 3.8. 1.9 ~SStiNt.

its abilil)· to enhance survivability in the room of fire origin. Rnidual Press"r,. The pressure that exist!; in the
and that i'5 listed for usc in the protection of dwelling units. distribution s)"Stem. measured at the residual hydrantst the Spedal Spri,~Ii!r. A sprinkler that has bce:n tested time the flow readings arc taken at the flow hydrants. (24,
and luted as prescribed in 8.4.8. 2013] Spray Spri,~Ier. A t}l'e of sprinkler luted for its Static Ihssrfre. The prcssure that exists at a giVC11
capability to pro,,;de fire control for a wide range of fire point under nonnal distribution system conditions measured
ha1:U"ds. at the residual h)rdrant with no hydrants flowing. [24,2013J

W2013 Edition
DEflNmONS 1$-21 Pressure R~g"lati"g Device. A device doigned for Residual Hydrcmf. The h)'drant that is used for
the purpose of reducing. regularing, controlling, or re- measuring static and residual pressure during a flow test.
stricting water pre$ure. [24,2013] [24,2013]· Private Fire Service Mai". Private fire service JJW BOTn'l1l.ldmllt. A l)-pe of h)xlrant that some-
main, as used in this standard. is that pipe and its appur- times is wed whe,re there is no danger of freeling weather.
tenances on pri\-.ate property (I) between a source of Each outlet on a WC't barrel hydrant is provided with a
water and the base of the s)'Stem riser for \'o"3tcr-based fire valved outlet threaded for fire hose. [24.2013J
protection S)"5terns, (2) between a source of water and
3.9 Storage Definitions.
inlets to foam-making sptelns. (3) between a ."iource of
water and the base elbow of private hydrants or monitor 3.9.1· GenemJ.
nozzles. and (4) ll."ied as fire pump ."iuction and discharge 3.9.l.1· AllOilable HeightJOrStoragto. The ma.'\':imum height
piping. (5) beginning at the inlet side of the check valve at which commodities can be stored above the floor and
on a gravity or pres.sure tank. 124,2013] still maintain necessat')' clearance from ."itructural members PllmJxr Outlet. The hydrant outlet intended for and the required clearance below sprinklers.
we b)' fire departments for taking suppl,. from the h)"CIrant Carlomd. A method of storage consisting of corru-
fo. pump cos. [24,2013J gated cardboard or paperboard containel"."i full}· enclosing Rated Capacity. The flow 3\<lilable from a h)'drant the commodi tJ.
at the de5ignated re5idual presmre (rated pressure) either· Carton &cords Stomge. A Class III commodit)· con-
measured or calculated. [24,2013] .sisting p.edominantl)· of paper records in cardboard carton.s. Test. Cahtlalk. For the purposes of carton reco.ds stor- FlC1W T~st. A test perfonned by the flow and age. a storage aid consisting of either open metal graring or
mea,mrement ofwater from one h}·d.ant and the static and solid horizonblbarriers supported from a rack storage S)'S-
residual preMllres from an adjacent h}'dram for the pur- tem that is utilized as a walkwa)' for access to storage at
pose of detennining the available \'o"3ter suppl)· at that loca- elevated IC\·c1.s. Catwalks are accessed wing stairs and are
tion. [24,2013] not .separate floors of a building. Flllshi"K Tt'st. A test of a piping .5)'Stem using Ckaranu to Ceiling. The distance from the top of
high velocit), flo\'o"S to remove debris from the piping system .storage to the ceiling above.
prior to it being placed in service. [24,2013] Commodity. The combination of product!. pac.k- H)>drostatic Test. A test of a closed piping system ing material. and container that determines commodit)·
and its attached appurtenances consisting of subjecting the classification.
pi ping to an increased internal pre.s.sure for aspecified period Compact Storage. Storage on solid shd\·cs not ex-
of duration to vcri£)' system imegril)· and leak rates. [24~ 2013] ceeding 36 in. (0.9 m) in total depth, arranged as part of a Valv<. compact storage module. with no more than 30 in. (0.76 m)
between shelvt=S \'erticall)· and with no internal \'Crtical flue Clta:k Valw. A v:.Uve thal alloM: flow in one direc- .spaces other than those between indi\;dual.shclving sections.
tion only. [24, 2013] Compad Slorags Modllie. A t}-pe of shelving unit Indicati"g Valrltl. A valve that has components consisting of compact storage whereby the unics move to
that show if the valve is open or closed. Examples are out- allow for .storage to be pwhed together creating a storage
side screw and yoke (OS&Y) gate valves and underground unit with no flues or minimal .spaces between units. Aisles
gate valves \'o;th indicator posts. [24~ 2013] are created by moving the shelving unit. Compact storage
3.8.2 H)draoc DeflniciOl:wi from N'Fm. 24- modules can be manual or electric in opcration. H)v/rallf. An exterior valved connection to a water 3.9.l.9· Comparlmeuted. The rigid separation of the prod-
suppl)' .system that provides hose connections. [24, 2013] ucts in a container b)· di"iders that fonn a stable unit under
frre conditions. Dr)' BotTt'l Hydrant. This is the most common· Co"tailJw (Shippi'lg, Mastel:. or Orlln" Cquta;n~r). A
type of h)'drant; it has a control valve below the frost line
receptacle strong enough. b)· reason of material. de.sign,
between the footpiece and the barrel. [24,2013]
and coosuucrion. to be .shipped safely without furthe.r Flm" Hydm"l. The h),drant that is used for the packaging.
flow and flow measurement of water during a flow te.s1.
3.9.l.11· Comleutio"al Pallets. A mate.rial-ha.ndling aid de-
signed to support a tmit load with opening.s to prO\ide accC$ Private Fire H)'llra"t. A ,'a!ved connection on a for materiaJ-handJing devices. (Sn Fig-lDoe A. 3. 9.1.11.)
wate• .suppl)· s),stem having one or more outlets and that is· Ellcapsttlatio". A method of packaging that ei-
wed to supply hose and fire department ptunpe:n with waw
ther consists of a plastic .sheet completely enclosing the
ter on private propcrt}'. [24, 2013]
sides and top of a pallet load containing a combustible Public Hydrant. A valved connection on a wate. commodity. a combwtible package, or a group of combus-
supply s),stem having one or more outlets and that is used tible commodities 00 combustible packages. or consists of
to .supply hose and fire department pum~rs with water. combwtible commodities indh;duall)' wrapped in plastic
[24,2013] sheeting and stored exposed in a pallet load.

201$ Edition W
I$-22 INSTAllATION OFSPRJNKLER SYSTEMS Expallded (FoQU'w.d or C~nllJar) Pinsticr. Those: Bi" Ben: Storag~. Storage in five-sided wood, metal.
plastics, the density of which i.s reduced by the presence of or cardboard boxes with open face on the aillies in which
nurncrow 5maJi cavities (cells). interconnecting or not, boxes arc self-supporting or supported b)' a structure so
dispersed throughout their mass. designed that little or no horizontal or vcrtical5pace e.:\.;sl$
around boxes. ~d Groll./JA Plastic Commoditiel. Those plas-
tics not in packaging or coverings that absorb water or oth- Polletix.«J Storage. Storage of commodities on pal·
erwise apprcciabl)' retard the bmning hazard of the com- lets or other 5torage aids that fonn horizontal spacC'S be-
modit)". (PapCT wrapped or encapsulated. or both. should twecn tiers of storage.
be considered expoo:cd.)* Pile StClbml)~ Stable Piles. Thmc atTa)'S wherc col· Free-Flowing Plastic Materials. Those plastics that lapse, 5pillage of content, or leaning of stacks across flue
faJl out of their containen> during a fire. fill flue .spaces, and spaces is not Iikdy to occur soon after initial fire dC'\'c:1opmcn L
create a smotlu:ring effect on the fire. E.'\'aJTlplcs include
powder, pcllcls, flak('5. or random~p3Ckcdsmall objects [e.g..* Pr7f' Stabili~ U,utable PiJ4'$. Thosc arrn}'S where
razor blade dispcnscn.. 1 oz to 2 02 (28 g to 57 g) ootll(5]. collapsc. .spillage of contents. or leaning of 5tack5 aucml
flue .spaces occun .soon after initial fire dc='\o"e1opment. High-CilaIlf'''~ Fire Hmard. A fire hazard t>'picaJ
of that produced b)' in combustible high~piled storage.* ShrlfStorage. Storage on stnlcture.:s up to and in·
eluding 30 in. (0.76 m) deep and.separated b)' ai5les at least High-Piled Storage. Solid-piled. palletized. rack
30 in. (0.76 m) wide.
storage, bin box, and shelfstorage in excess ofl2 ft (3.7 m)
in height.· Back-to-Badf Shdf Storage. Two 50lid or perfo-* MisulJOlleollS StJJmg~. Storage that does not ex- rated .shdve.s up to 30 in. (0.76 m) in depth each. not cx-
ceed 12 ft (3.66 m) in height~ is incidental to another occu- ceeding a total depth of 60 in. (1.52 m) . .separated b)' a
panC)' we group. does not constitute more than 10 percent longitudinal vertical barrier such as plywood, particle-
of the building area or 4000 ft% (372 m%) of the sprinklered board. sheet metal, or cquivalent. ",;th a maximum 0.25 in.
a.ea. whichever is greater. does not exceed 1000 ft2 (93 m%) (6.4 mm) diametcr penetrations and no longitudinal flue
in one pile or area, and is separated from other storage spacc and a maximum stor:tge height of 15 ft (4.57 m).
areas b)' at least 25 ft (7.62 m). Solid.pjkd Storagf'. Storage of commodities 5tacked* OfHIt-Top Container. A container of any shape on each other.
that is entirely or partiall)' open on the top and arranged 50 Solid Unit Load of No"expanded Plastic (Either Co,..
as to allow for the collection of discharging .sprinkler water
toned or E."posed). A load that docs not ha\'e voids (air)
cascading through the .storage aJTII}'.
within the load and that bunts onl)' on the exterior of !.he Padaging. A commodit)· wrapping. cushioning. load; W3t<::r from sprinklen might reach most .surfaces a\"3il-
or container. able to burn. Plastic Panet. A pallet having an)' portion of its 3.9.3 Rack Storage.
cowtruction consisting of a plastic material. * Ai.sJe Width. The: horizontal dimension between* R.e;nforud Pfa.stic Panet. A plastic pallet incorpo- the face of the loads in racks under consideration.
rating a secondary reinforcing material (such as .sted or
fiberglass) within the pallet. .4JtlOt11otit1e Compouents 0" Porlable Rocks. Automo-
tive components on portable racks arc defined as the Roof HeighL The distance between the floor and following: instrument panels, windshidds, metal and
the undenide of the roof deck within the storage area. plastic gasoline tanks. he:ater housings. door panels. in- Slave Pallet. A special pallet captive to a material- terior trim, bumper facia, wiring harnesses, .sheet metal.
handling system. (Su Figr.lTr. A.3.9. J. JJ,) body componenu, engines, dri\'dine componenu. steer-
ing mechanisms, auxiliary motors. and lighting - all Storage Aim. Commodit)· storage devices, such as
with or without expande:d plastic donnage:. This defini-
pallets. dwmage• .separators. and skids.
tion doe.s not include: the storage of air bag.s. tires, and Unj~ Load. A pallet load or module hdd together seau on portable racks.
in .some manner :and normall), traruported b)' material-
handling equipment. Bulkhead. A venical barrier across tl1e: rack. Jf'OOd Pallet. A pallet constructed entirel}' of wood* Face Spri"klers. Standard sprinklers that arc lo-
with metal fastenen. cated in tran.svcrse flue spaces along the ai51e: or in tl1e rack,
are: within 18 in. (0.46 m) of the aisle f.a.ce of storage, and
3.9.2 Palletized, Solid-Piled, Bin Box, and Shelf Storage. arc wed to vertical devdopment of fire on the ex- Arra)' lemal face of storage. Oouxl Arroy. A storage arrangement where air Horiumtol Bamn-. A.solid barrier in the horizontal
movement tluough the pile is restricted because: of 6 in. position covering the entire: rack. including all flue spaces at
(152 mm) or less vertical flues. certain height increments, to prevent vertical fire spread.* Opn, Arrtl)l A storage arrange:ment where air* LmgihldinaJ nIle Spau. The space between rows
movement tluough the pile is enhanced became ofverucal of storage perpendicular to the direction ofloadingwith a
flues larger than 6 in. (152 mm). width not exceeding 24 in. (610 mm) betwecn storage.

W 2013 Editbn
DEflNmONS 1:1-23* Rock• .-\n)' combination of vertical, horizontal, Hori.wlltal OzamJrl. Any uninternapted .space in
and diagonal membcu that supports stored materials. excess of 5 ft (1.5 m) in length between horizont.a.lla)'crs of
[1,2012] storcd tire.s. Such channcu can be fanned by pallets. :shel...~
ing, racks, or other storage arrangements. Doublf'>-1low Rocks. Racks Icss than or equal to
12 ft (3.7 m) in depth or single-rov.' racks placed back to Lac«J Tire Storage. lires stored where the sidc-.$ of
back having an aggregate depth up to 12 ft (3.7 m), with the tires ovcrlap, creating a woven or laced appear;U1ce.
aisles having an aisle width of at least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) between [S" F,i'''' A. 3. 9. 4.9(gj.j
loads on racks.* Muccnannnu nrc Stqrage. The storage of rubber Movable Ro.cks. Racks on fl.xed rails or guides
that can be moved back and forth only in a horizontal.
, .
tires that is incidental to the main use of the building: .stor~
age areas do not exceed 2000 ft (186 m~). and on-tread
tw<>-dimensional plane. A moving aisle is created as abut~ storage piles. regardlcss of storage method, do not exceed
25 ft (7.6 m) in the direction of the wheel hole'S. Acceptable
ting racks are either loaded or unloaded, then mo·.ed
storage arrangements indudc (a) on-fico•. on~sidc storagc
across the aisle to abut other racks.
up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high.: (b) on-floor. on-tread storage up Multiple-Row Racks. Racks greater than 12 ft to 5 ft (1.5 m) high.: (c) double-rowo. multirow fl.xed or
(3.7 m) in depth or single~ or double~rO\'o' racks separated portable rack storage on~side or on-tread up to 5 ft (1.5 m)
b)' aisles less than 3.5 ft (1.1 m) wide having an overall high: (d) single--row fixed or portable rack storage on-side
width greater than 12 ft (3.7 m). or olHread up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high: and (e) laced tire,s in
racks up to 5 ft (1.5 m) in height. PortabW Racks.. Racks that are not fixed in place
and can be arranged in any number of configurations. o,t-Side lireSiorage. Tires stored horizontally or flat. Si"gl~Rou' Racks. Racks that have no longitudi- On-Tread Tire Storage. Tires stored "'ertica11)' or on
nal flue space and that have a depth up to 6 ft (1.8 m) with their treads.
aisles having a v.;dth of at least 3.5 ft (I. I m) between loads PalletUnlTireStorag~.Sto.age on portable rack.s of
on racks. various t}PCS utilizing a con~ntional pallet as a base. Rock Sh~1f .4na. The area of the horizontal sur~ Pyramid Tire Storage. On-floo. storage in ....- hich
face of a shelf in a rack defined by perimeter aisle(s) or tires are formed into a pyramid to prm.;de pile stabilit),.
nominal 6 in. (152 mm) flue spaces on all four sides. or by* Rubbtr lire Rack lll",stmh'ons. See FiguriC'A.
the placement ofloads that block openings that would oth-
through Figure A.
erwise serve as the required flue spaces. Rubber 1ir~s. Pneumatic tires for passenger auto- Opm Rack. Racks without shel..;ng or with she h'-
mobiles. aircraft. light and heav}' lnlcks. trailer.s, farm
ing in racks that are fl.xed in place with shelves ha..;ng a
equipment. construction iC'quipment (ofI-the-road). and
solid surface and a shelf area equal to or less than 20 ft:!
(1.9 m%) orv.;th shelves having a y..;re mesh. slatted surface,
or other material with openings reprcsenting at 3.9.5 Roll Pnper Definitions.
50 percent of the shelf area including the horizontal area Array (PaP<r).
of rack member.s and where the flue spaces are maintained. Closed .4n-CI)l (Paper). A vertical storage arrange-- Slotted Sh~lfRock. A rack where shelves are fixed ment in which the dislanciC's between columns in both di-
in place with a series of narrow individual .solid supports rections are short [not more than 2 in. (50 mm) in one
wed as the shelf material and .spaced apart with regular direction and 1 in. (25 mm) in the other].
openmg.s. 0IM" Arra, (Paper). A ,,'ertieal.storagiC' a.range-- Solid S/tE/fRack. A rack where .shelves are fl.xed in ment in which the distance between columns in both
place v.;th a solid, slatted, or wire mesh barrier used as the directions is lengthy (all ~rtical arrap other than dosed
shelf material and limited o~nings in the shelf aro. or standard). Solid Shaving. Shelving that is fi."ted in place, slat-* Stolldard Array (pa!'"). A vertical .storage ar-
ted. wire mesh, or other type of .sheh·es located within rangement in which the distance between columns in one
racks. The area of a. .solid shelf is defined by perimeter aisle direction is short [1 in. (25 mm) or less] and is in e:xce5S of
or flue space on all foUl' sides. Solid shelves hm;ng an area 2 in. (50 mm) in the other direction.
equal to or le$5 than 20 ft:! (1.9 m:!) are defined as o~n Banded Ron Pap" Storage. Roils prm;ded with a
racks. Shelves of wire mesh, slats, or other materials more circumfiC'rential steel strap [% in. (9.5 mm) or wider] at
than 50 percent open and where the flue spaces are main- each end of the mil.
tained are defined as open racks.
3.9.5.S Col"mn. A.single vertical stack of rolls. Trmuvflrsr. Rue Space. The .space between roW!! of
storage parallel to the direction of loading. (Se£ Fig Con The ccntral tube arolmd which paper IS

'Iln: A. 3. 9. 3. 6.)
wOlUld LO fonn a roll. Paper (Genwal Tt'1'lII). The t.e.m for all kinds of
3.9.4 Rubber TIre Storag~ Definitions.
felted sheets made from natural fibrous materials. usually Bonded TiN',$. A storage method in which anum· vegetable but.sometimes mineral oranimal, and fonned on
ber of tires are strapped together. a fine wirc screen from water .suspension.

201$ Edition W
1:>-24 INSTAllATION OFSPRJNKLER S\''STEMS Roll POfHr Storage. perature at ail)' one- pOilll, including an)'joint. rise- more than
405"F (225"C) abo....'C the- original te-.mperarure. Hori.umta[ Roll Papu Storagq, Rolls stoTed with
the COTes in the horizontal plane (on-side storage). 3.10.10 Marine Water SUppl)f. The suppl)' portion of the-
sprinkler s)'Stent from the water pressure tank or the sea suc- VerftM[ RoU Paper Stor~. Rolls stoted with the
tion of the designated sprinlJer .system pump up to and in-
cores in the vertical plane (on-cnd .stOJ<lgc). cluding the valve that isolates the sprinkler S)'Slem from these*Wrapped Roll Paper Stofflg& Rolls provided witll a two water .sources.
complete hea"')' kraft covering around both sides and ends. 3.10.11 Supen'ifiion. A vislL'l1 and audible alann signal gi\'en* Roll PajHr St~ Height. The maximmn vertical at the central safet), station to indicate when the .!)'3tem is in
distance above the floor at which 1"011 paper is nonnaJl}'slorcd operation or when a condition that would impair the .satisfac·
tOI)" operation of the ..5)'3tCln exists. Supervisor,., a1arm.s must
3.9.6 Baled Cotton Definitions. give a distinct indication for each illdi...; dual S)~tem compo-* Baled Cotto,•. A natural seed fiber wrnppcd and nent that is monitored.
secured in industry-accepted materials. wuaJl)' consisting 3.10.12 Survt...ul Angle. TI,e maximum angle to which a vc=.ssel
of burlap. woven polyprop)·lenc:. or sheet pol,.cth}~c:ne. is permitted to heel after the assumed damage required b)'
and secured with sted.5}'llthetic OT wire bands, or wire; also .5tabilit,., regulations is imposed.
indudcs linten (lint removed from the cottonsced) and
3.10.13 Type- I Stair. A fully enclosed stair that serves allleveJ.s
motes (residual materials from the ginning process). (Su
ofa ....essel in which persons can be emplo)'ed,
Tab/eA. )* TIered Slora!§!. An arrangement in which bales are 3.11 Hanging aoo Bracing Definitions.
.5tored directl)· on the floor. tw"o or more bales high. 3.11.1 C". The seismic coefficient that combinc=.s ground mo-
:U 0 Marin(' Definilions. These definitions apply to Chap- tion and seismic rc.sponsc= factors from SEI/A5CE 7. Milli,RUNI
ter 26 onl)·. lXsign Loam of Buildillgs mid Otna Stnutu1T.S.
3.11.2 Fpw' The horizonL'l1 force duc= to seismic load acting
3.10.1 A-Class Boundary. A boundaf)' designed to remt the
on a brace at working stress 1C"\-,e1s,
p:u5age of smoke and flame for I hour when tested in accor-
dance with .4STM E 119, Standard url M8thods for Fire Tes/oS of 3.11.3* Four-\\3y Brncing. Adjacent sway brnce!ll or a swa)'
Building Consln/clion and Matnials. brace :u5embl)' inte::nded to re!llist diffe::rential movemc=nt of the
~tem piping in all horizontal directions,
3.10.2 B-a865 Boundary. A boundar)' designed to resist the
panage of flame for lh hour when tested in accordance with 3.11.4 Hanger. A de::,';ce or assembly wed to support the gra\'-
ASTM E 119. Standard TlSt Mdhods fur Fire Trsts ofBuildi,Jg emv- il)' load of the:: S)'3tem piping.
stntction and Materials. 3.11.5 Latet"81 Brae.. A..sway brace intended to resist differen-
3.10.3 C('nlrnl SafetyStation. Acontinuously manned control tial movement perpendicular to the a..xis of the s)'Stem piping.
station from which all of the fire control equipment is moni- 3.11.6 Longitudinal Brae.. AsW3)' brace intended to re.sist dif-
tored. If this .5tation is not the bridge. direct communication ferential mo....ement parallel to the axis of the s)'Stem piping.
with the bridge must be provided by means other than the
ship's service telephone. 3.11.7 Net ""rticnl ForoE'. The ....ertical reaction due to the
angle of installation of sway braces on s)'Stem piping resulting
3.10.4* HeatS('nsilh.-(' Material. A material whose melting from earthquake motion,
point is below 17000f' (926.7°C).
3.11.8* P05t·L¥itaUed Anchors. A device used for fastc=ning
3.10.5 He<t'J. The inclination of a ship to one side. pipe to the building structure, installed in hardened concrete.
3.10.6 He<t'IAngl('. The angle defined by the inu:r.section of a 3.11.9 51' The maximum considered earthquake ground
\'ertica.lline through the center of a vessel and a line perpen- motion for O.2-second spectral response acceleration (5 per-
dicular to the surface of the water. cent of critical damping), site QaJ5S B for a specific ,site.
3.10.7· lnternaliooal Shan!' Connoction. A connec- 3.11.10* Sei5l11te Separation AsS('mbl)'. An :u5embl)' of fitting.s,
tion to the·s flre to which a shoreside flre-fighting pipe. Oc-,;ble pipe, and/or couplings that pennits movement
water suppl)' can be connected. in all directions to accommodate seismic differential mo....e-
ment across building seismic sepamtionjoints.
3.10.8* Mario(' S)'5tem. A sprinkler S)'ste:m installed on a ship.
boa.t. or other floating structure that take..s its supply from the 3.11.11 ~-ay Brace. An assembly intended to be attached to
water on which the vessel floats. the system piping to resist horizontal earthquake loads in two
3.10.9* Marine Tbemw Barrier. An assembly that is con-
structed of noncombustible materiaL! and made intact with
the main stru.cture of the vC$Sel, such as shdl, structural bulk-
heads. and decks; meets the requirements of a B-Class bound- Chapler 4 General Re<luirements
ar)': and is insulated such that. if tested in accordance with
ASTM E 119, Standard TlSt Methods for Ftre Tats of Building Con· 4.1 I...e\.-el of Prot('ction. A building. where protected b)' an
strudion mId Matn-iaf.s. for 15 minute-.s, the a\'Cragc tempe-l"a- automatic sprinkler .,syl'tem ilUtallation, shall be pm....ided with
ture- of the unexposed side doc.s not rise more than 250°F sprinklers in all areas except where .specific sections of this
(193"C) abov'C the original temperature, nor does the te-m· standard pennit the omission of sprinklers.

W 20t3 Edition

4.2 Limited Area S)"'Scems. stockpiles of contents with modcrate rates of heat rdcasc do not
C':Xcc:cd 12 ft (3.66 01). and MOCkpilcs of cont.ent:! with high rate's
4.2.1 'When partial sprinkJer systems arc installed, the require-
ofheat releasc do not exceed 8 ft (2.4 m).
ments of this standard shall be used iruofar as thC)' arc applicable. I:>cdicated and miscellaneous storage shall be: protected
4.2.2 The authority ha...ingjuri.sdiction shall be consulted in in accordancc with Chapter 12 and 13 as applicable.
each case.
5.4 Exira Ha:mrd Occupancies.
4.3· OVt"DeI"'s ee..tificate. The owner(.s) of a building or struc-
ture where the fire .sprinkJer sptem is going to be installed or 5.4.1 * Exira Hazard (Group 1). E..Xtfa hazard (Group 1) occu-
their authorized agent .shall pro\ide the sprinkler S)'3tem in- pancies shall be defined a.'l occupancies or portions of other
occupancies whcre the quantit), and combustibility of con-
staller with the following infonnation prior to the l~ut and
detailing of the fire sprinkler S)'Stem (SN: Figrm:A.23.1(b)f. tents arc vcr)" high and dust. lint, or other materiaLs arc
present. introducing the probabilit}" of rapidly dcveloping
(I) Intended \L5e of the building including the materials within fires with high rates of heat rdease but with little or no com-
the bwlding and the maximum height of all}' storage bustible or flammable liquids.
(2) A preliminary plan of the building or stntcture along with
5.4.2* Exira Hazard (Group 2). E..xtrn hazard (Group2) occu-
the design concepts necessary' to perfonn the layout and
pancies shall be defincd a!I occupancies or portions of other
detail for the fire :sprinkler :S)'5tem
occupancia with moderate to substantial amounts of flam-
(3)*Any :special knowledge of the water suppl)", including known
mable or combustible liquids or occupancies where shielding
ellvironment.:'1.1 conditions that might be responsible for cor~
of combwriblcs is extensive.
rosion. including microbiologically influenced corrosion
(MIC) 5.5* Special Occupancy Hazards.
4.4* Addith..eli. Additi...a or chemicals intended to stop leaks. 5.6* Commodity Classification. Sec Section C.2.
mch as sodium silicatc or dc:ri..'31i...cs of sodium silicate. brine. or 5.6.1 General.
similar acting chemicals. shall not bc wed in sprinkJcr ~tems. * Classification of Commodities.
4.5 Air; Nitrogen, or Other Appro"'ed Gas. \o\'bcrc air is used Commodity classification and the corresponding pro-
to charge. maintain. or supervise sprinkJer S)'3tems. nitrogen
tection requi~mentsshall be determincd based on the makeup
or othcr approvcd gas shall also be pennitted to be used. of individual storage units (i.e.. unit load. pallet load).
4.6* Support of Nonsprinkler S)"'Slem Componenl5. SprinkJer When specific tat data of commodil)' classification
S)'5tcm componcnts shall not be used to support nonsprinkJer b)' a nation311)" recognized tating agency arc a\ailable, the
S)'5tem components wlless exprcssl" pennitt:ed b)' this standard. data .shall be pennitted to be wed in determining classifica-
tion of commodities. Mixed Commodities.
Chapter 5 CJ.\ssification of Occupancies Protection requirements .shall not be- based on the
and COOlm odi ties overall commodit)" mix in a fire area.

5.1* Classifacation of Occupandes. Unless the requirement:! of or arc
met. mL'ted commodity storag~ shall be protected b)" the re-
5.1.1 OccupanC}' classifications for this standard shall relate quirements for dle classified commodity and .storage
to sprinkler design, installation. and water supply require- arrangement.
ments only" The protection requirement:! for the lower com-
5.1.2 Occupancy classifications shall not be: intended to be a modit)· class shall be- permitted to be utilized where all of thc
general classification of occupancy hazards. following arc met:
5.2* Light Hazard Occupancies. Light hazard occupancies.shall (1) Up to 10 pallet loads of a higher hazard commodity. as
be dcfmcd as occupancies or portions of other occupancia describe:d in 5.6.3 and 5.6.4. shall be p~rmitled to be
where the quantity and/or combustibility of contents is low and present in an area not excceding 40.000 ft:! (3716 m:!).
frres with rc1ati\'~I)' low rates of hear. rele~ are expected (2) The higher hazard commodity shall be randoml)" dis.-
persed with no adjacent loads in an}" direction (including
5.3* Ordinary Hazard Occupancies. diagonall)') .
5.3.1* Ordinary Hazard (Group 1). (3) 'Where the ceiling protection is based on Qas; I or Oas; n
commoditic.s, the allowable numbcr of pallet loads for Ordinary hazard (Group I) occupancies shall be de- ClaM IV or Group A plastics .shall be reduced to fh,·c.
fined as occupancia or portiolU of other occupancies wher~
combustibility is low. qu..-".ntity of combustibles is moderate, Mixed Conunodity Seg~atioD. TIle protection re-
stod:.piles of combustiblC$ do not exceed 8 ft (2.4 m), and fires quirements for the lower commodil)' claM shall be permitted
with moderate rates of heat release arc ex.pected. to bc utilized in the area of lower commodity class. where the
higher hazard material is confined to a designated area and Dedicated and miscellancous storngc shall be protected the area is protected to the higher hazard in accordance with
in accordance with Chapter 12 and Chapter 13 a5 applicable. the requirements of this standard.
5.3.2* Ordinary Hazard (Group 2). 5.6.2 PaUel Types. Ordinary hazard (Group 2) occupancies shall bc de- General. '"'ben loads are palletizcd. the usc of wood
fined as occupancies or portions of other occupancies where the or metal pallets, or listed pallets equivalent to wood. shall be
qU3.ntit}· and combwtibility of contents arc moderate to high, assumed in the classification of commodities.

2013 Editicn W
1~26 INSfAl..U\TION OFSPRlNKLER SYSTEMS Unreinforced Plastic Pallets. For Oass I through (I) Constructed partially or totally of Group B platties
ClaM IV commodities, when unrcinforced polypropylene or (2) Consi.sts of free-flowing Group A plastic materials
unrcinforccd high~eruity polyerhytcne plastic pallets are (3) Contains within itself or its packaging all apprttiable
U5C:d, the classification of the commodity unit .shall be in- amount (5 perceollo 15 percent b)' weight or 5 percent to
creased one das.s. 25 percent by volume) of Group A plas-tic.s Unreinforced polypropflene or un reinforced high- 5.6.S.4.2 The remaining materials shall be pennitt.c:d to be
dcnsitypol)'Cthylene plastic paJlc:u sball be marked with a per- metal, wood, paper, natural or .synthetic fiber.s, or Group B or
manent .symbol to indicate that the pallet i.s unrcinforccd. Group C plastics.

5.6.2.S· For Clau 1 through Cla.s.s IV commodities, when rein- 5.6.4* Classi6cation of Plastics, Elastomers, and Rubber. PIa.
forced polypropylene or reinforced high-dcnsity pol)'cthylcne tics, elastomers, and rubber shal.I be classified as Group ~
plS5tiC paUeu arc wed, the classification of the commodity Group B, or Group C.
unilshall be increased two c1asJc:.5 except for Oass IV commod-· Group A. The fonowing materials shall be classified as
ity, which shall be increased to a cnrtoncd unexpandc:d
Group A:
Group A plastic commodity.
(1) ABS (acry1onitrile-butadiene..styrene eopol}-mer) Pallets .shall be assumed to be reinforced if no per- (2) Aeetal (pol)formaldehyde)
manent marking or manufacturer's certification of noorein- (3) Aerylie (pol)meth)! melh.O'}ia'e)
forcemenl is provided. (4) Butyl rubber No increase in the commodity clauification mall be re- (5) EPDM (ethylene-propylene rubber)
quired for Group A plnstic commodities .stored on plastic pallet!!. (6) FRP (fiberglass-reinforced pol),ester)
(7) Natural rubber (if expanded) For e:ciling-only sprinkler protection, the require- (8) Nitrile-rubber (acrylonitriJe-butadiene-rubber)
menu of and shall not apply where plastic pal- (9) PET (thennoplastie polyester)
leta are wed and where the -'prinkler.system wes spray sprin- (10) Polybutadiene
klers with a minimum K·factor ofK·16.8 (240). (II) Polycarbonate
(12) Polyester clanomel'" The requirements of5.6.2.2 through shall not
(13) Polyethylene
apply to nonwood paUets that have: demonstrated afire hazard
(14) Polypropylene
that is equal to or leu than wood pallets and arc Ii"ted as such.
(15) Pol)~,>Tene For Class 1 through Oass IV commodities stored on (16) Polyurethane
plaltic pallets when other than wood, metal, or polypropylene: (17) PVC (pnlyv;nyl ehlnride - highly pwticized, with
or high-den.sity polyethylene plastic pallets are lISed, the clu- plasticizer content gr~ler than 20 percent) (rnrc1y
sification of the commodity unit shall be determined by spe- found)
cific te:sting conducted by a national testing laboratory or shall (18) SAN (styrene acrylonitrile)
be increa.sed two classes. (19) SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber)
5.6.'* Commodity CJa&ge6. Group B. The following materials shall be classified as
Group B:
5.6.'.1* aBBa I. A Cla.s.s 1 commodity shall be defined as a
noncombustible product that moe:t!I one ofthe foUawing criteria: (I) Cellulo.sic.s (cellulose acetate, cdlulose acetate bUt}T8te,
ethyl cellulose)
(1) Placed directly on wood pallets (Y) Chloroprene rubber
(2) Placed in single-layer corrugated cartons, with or without (3) Fluoroplartia (Eel FE - eth)iene<h1orotrifluoro-cthyfene
singte-thickne5S cardboard dividers, with or without pallets copol)'tner; EIFE eth)otene-tetrafluoroethylene--
(3) Shrink·wrapped or paper-wrapped as a unit load with or copol)"Iner, FEP - fluorinated eth)'lenc"Prop)iene copol)'-
without pallets mer)
(4) Natural rubber (not expanded)
5.6.'.2* Oass D. A Class D commodity shan be defined as a (5) N)!on (nylon 6, nylon 6/6)
noncombustible product that i" in slatted wooden crates, solid
(6) Silicone rubber
wood boxes, multiple-layered corrugated cartons, or equiva-
lent combusb'ble packaging material, with or without pallets. Group C. The following materials .shall be classified as
Group C;
5.6.$.3* C1.... U1.
(l) Fluoroplastica (PCrFE - potychlorotrifluorocthylene;
5.6.'.3.1 A 08.55 In commodity shall be defined as a product P'TF[ - pol)'tctrnBuoroclhylene)
&.shioned from wood, paper, natural fibers, or Group C pia... (2) Melamine (mc:1aminc fonnaldehyde)
tics with or without cartons, boxes, or crates and with or with· (8) Phenolic
out pallets. (4) PVC (pol)vinyl ehIoride - flexible - PVc. with plasticizer
5.6.'.3.2 A Qass ill commodity shall be permitted to contain content up to 20 percent)
a limited amount (5 percent by weight or volwne or less) of (5) PVDC (polyvinylidene ebloride)
Group Aor Group B pla5tic.s. (6) PVDF (pol)"inylidene fluoride)
(7) PVF (polyvin)l fluoride)* C1.... tv. (8) Urea (urea formaldehyde) A Class IV commodity shall be defined a.s a product,
with or without pallets, that meets one ofthe following criteria: I Group A plastics shall be further .subdivided as either
expanded or nonc:c.panded.

Ii) 2013 Edition

S\'STEM COMPONENTS AND HARD'VARE 1$-27 If a cartoned commodit)· is more than 40 percent Materials meeting the requirements of,
(b)" volume) e:\''Panded plastic. it .shaJJ be protected as a car- and shall not be required to be listed.
toned expanded plastic. Components that do not affect s}'5tem perfonnance Exposed commodities containing greater than such as drain piping. drain \-'ah'es. arid signs .shall not be re-
25 percent by volLUne e-xpanded plastic shall be protected as quired to be listed.
an exposed expanded plastic. The new materials or device.slisting ill3ttuction.s s.hall
5.6.5* Cla'!lsification of Rolled Paper Storage. For the pur- ideutif), and specif)' the existing .systcm components. includ-
poses ofthi.s standard, the classifications of paper described in ing the fluids cOlwe:red.. with which the new li.sted materials.. through shall appl)" and shall be wed to deter- deo.;ces. or components arc compatible.
mine the sprinkler s)'Stem de.sign criteria. This listing requiremcntshall also appl,. to chemical Heavyweight HeaV)"Weight c1ass.shaJl be defined or material modifications made to components listed in Table
30 as to include paperboard and paper stock having a ba5is and Table 6.4.1.
weight (weight per lOOO fe (92.9 m%)] of20 Ib (9.1 kg).
6.1.2 Reconditioned Componen18. Medium~ight Class. Mediumweight class shall be de~ The ~ of reconditioned ..ah~s and devices as re-
fined so as to include all the broad range of pape13 ha..;ng a
basis weight [weight per 1000 ft 2 (92.9 m 2 )] of 10 Ib to 20 Ib placement equipment in existing s)'Stems shall be permitted.
(4.5kgto9.1 kg). Reconditionedsprinklers shall not be penniued to be Lightweight Oass. Lightweight class shall be defined utilized on any new or existing s)'Stem.
.so as to include all papen; having a basis weight [weight per 6.1.3 Rated P~Sl5ure. Soj3tem components shall be rated faT the
1000 f,' (92.9 m')j of 10 Ib (4.5 kg). ma:umulTI s)'Stem working pressure to which tltc)· arc o."'POsed TIssue. but .shall not be ratc:d at Icss than liS psi (12.1 bar) for compo-
nent.s irutalled above ground and 150 psi (lOA 001") for compo- Tissue shall be defined so a.s to include the broad nent.s installed underground.
range of papers of characteristic gaul:)' texture. which. in some
cases. arc faid)' tran.sparent. 6.2 Sprinklers. For the purpose.s of this standard, tis.sue shall be 6.2.1 General. Onl}' new sprinklers shall be installed.
defined as the .soft. absorbent type. regardles.s of basis weight When a sprinkler has been removed for any reason. it
- specificall).. crepe wadding and the saniL'1.I")· clan including shall not be reinstalled.
facial tissue. paper napkins, bathroom ri.ssue, and toweling.
6.2.2* Sprinkler Identification. All sprinklers shall be penna-
nentl,. marked with one or two English uppercase alphabetic
characters to identify the manufacturer. immediatd)" followt=d
Chapter 6 was revised b)' a tentative interim amend- b)' three or four numbers. to uniquely identify t\ sprinkler as to
ment (TlA). Sec page 1. K-factor (orifice size) or orifice shape. deflector char.acteristic.
pressure rating, and thennal sensiti\-;t)·.
6.2.3 Sprinkler Discharge Characteristics.* General. Unless the requil'ements of
Chapler 6 Sysl.em Componenls and Hardware or arc met, the K-factor. relative discharge. and mark·
ing identification for sprinklers ha..;ng different K-factors
6.1 General. This chapter .shall provide requirements for cor- shall be in accordance with Table:
rect ~ of sprinkler s),stem components and hardware. Pipe Threads. Listed sprinklers h:.ning pipe threads
6.1.1* Listing. different from those .shown in Table shall be pennitted. Matc.rials or deo.;ces not .specifically designated by this K-Factors Grenter than K·28 (400). listed
standard .shall be used in accordance with all conditions. re- with nominal K-factors greate:r than K·28 (400) shall increase
quire:ments. and limitations of their .special listing. the flow b)' 100 perce.nt increment.s when compared with a AU .special listing requirements shall be included nominal K-5.6 (80) sprinkler.
and ide:ntified in the product submittal literature and installa- Residential Sprinklers. Residential sprinklers shall
tion instruction.s. be pe.nnitted with K-factors other than those specified in Unless the requirements of6.1.1.3., or Table
are met, all matc:rials and deo.;ccs cs.sential to sllcccs.sful s)'Stem CMSA and ESFR K-Faccors. ontrol mode .specific
operation .shall be listed.
application (CMSA) and carl). suppression fast.response Valve components (induding valve trim, inte:rnaI (ESFR) sprinkleu shall hm'e a minimum nominal K·factor
parts. gaskets, and the like) shall not be required to be indio ofK.II.2 (160).
..;duall)" listed. ESFR K-Faclor. ESFR sprinkler K.factor shall be se- Equipment as pcnnitted in Table and Table 6.4.1 lected as appropriate for the hazard (&e Chapur 12)
shall not be required to be listed.
6.2.4 Occupancy Limitations. Unles; the requirements of

I Nonmetallic pipe and fitting.s included in

Table and Table 6.4.1 shall be listed. or are met, .sprinklers shall not be listed for
protection of a portion of an occupancy classification.

201$ Editlcn W
1~28 INSTAllATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS Residential Sprinklers. Residential sprinklers .shall be Color identification shall not be: required for oma-
pcnniued to be listed for portiom of residential occupancies menta! sprinklers such as factol)"plated or factory-painted
as defined in .sprinklers or for recessed, flwh, or conc~tc:dsprinklers. Special SprinkJers. Special.sprinklers .shall be permit- The frame aons of bulb.type sprinkler.s shall not be
ted to be listed for protection ofa .specific construction feature required to be color coded.
in a portion oCan occupancy classification. (&~8.4.8.) The liquid in bulb-type .sprinklers shaU be color
6.2.5* Temperature Characteristics.
coded in accordance with Table 6.2..5.1. Automatic sprinklers shall have their frame arms, de-
flector, coating material, or liquid bulb colored in accordance 6.2.6 Special Coatmg..
with the requirements aCTable or the rcquiremenm of* Corrosion Resistant.,,, or A dot on the: top of the: deflector, the color of the Listed corrosion-resistant sprinklers .!hall be in-
coating material, or colored frame a.rma.shall be: permitted for .nalled in locations where chemicals, moisture. or other corro-
color identification of corrosion--resistant sprinklers. .sive vapor.s .sufficient to cawe corrosion of.such devicCti cxisL

Table 6.2.S.1 Sprinkler DiMcbarge CharacteriatiaJ IdentirlCation

Percent of
Nominal Nominal Nominal
K·Factor K-Factor K-Factor Range K-Factor Range &.5.6 Thread
[gpm/(psi)''''J [L/min/(bor)'I'J [gpm/(psi) ''''] [L/min/(bar)''''] Di9c:barge lype

1.4 20 \.~\.5 19-22 25 ~in. NPT

\.9 27 1.&.-2.0 26-29 33.3 ~in.NPf
2.8 40 2.6-2.9 38-42 50 ~in. NPT
4.2 60 4.~.4 57-S3 75 ~in. NPT
5.6 80 5.~.8 76-84 100 ~in. NPT
8.0 115 7.4-8.2 107-118 140 ~in.NPT
;t: in. NPT
I \.2 160 10.7-1 \.7 159-166 200 ~in.NPT
~ in. NPT
14.0 200 13.6-14.5 196-209 250 ~ in. NPT
16.8 240 16.0-17.6 231-254 300 ~in. NPT
19.6 280 18.6-20.6 272-301 350 1 in. NYT
22.4 320 21.~23.5 311-343 400 1 in. NPT
25.2 300 23.9-26.5 340-387 450 1 in. NPT
28.0 400 26.6-29.4 389-430 500 1 in. NIT

I adjwltd
Note:The nominal K.faclOr fordIy..()pe sprinkleD are wed forsprinkler selection. See for
dJ}'-l)pe sprinkler K-faClOI"I for h)'dr31dic calculation purposeA.
UJe of

Table Terllperature Ratings, Clos&i6cationllJ and Color Codinga

Temperature Rating
Temperature Glass Bulb
OF °C of °C Classification Color Code Colors

100 38 136-170 57-77 Ordinary Uncolored or Orange or red

150 66 176-225 79-107 Intc:nnediate White Yellow or green
225 107 250-300 121-149 Higb Bluc Bluc
300 \49 326-375 16~191 Extra high Red Pu'l'le
375 191 400-475 204-246 Very extra bigh Grecn Black
475 246 500-575 260-802 Ultra high Orange Black
625 329 650 343 Ultra lUgb Orange Black

ttl 2018 Editbn

SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND HARDWARE I$-29* Unle~ the rcquircmenu of are met., The sprinkler! shall be kept in a cabinet located
cOrTosion-resistant coatings shaJ I be applied onI)' by the manufac- where the temperature to which they are subjected will at no
turer of the sprinkler and in accordance with the requirenlents time exceed 100°F (38"'C).
of6. Where dt), sprinklers of different lengths are in- Any damage to the prolC'ctive coating occurring at stalled. spare dry sprinkler.'! shall not be required, provided
the time of installation shall be repaired at once ming only the that a means of retuming the sptem to seT\;ce is furnished.
coating of the manufacturer of the sprinkler in the approved The stock of spare sprinklers shall include all l)-pes
manner so that no part of the sprinkler will be exposed after and ratings installed and shall be as folloW3:
irntallation has been completed.
(I) For protected facilities lu",;ng under 300 sprinklers - no· Painting. fewer than si.... sprinklers
(2) For protected facilities ha\;ng 300 to 1000 sprinklers- Sprinkleu shall only be painted b)' the sprinkler
no fewer than 12 sprinklers
(3) For protected facilities having m'er 1000 sprinklers - no 'Where sprinklel"$ have had paint applied b,. other fewer than 24 !>prinklers
than the sprinkler manufacturer. thC')' shall be replaced with* One sprinkler wrench as specified b)' the sprinkler
new listed sprinkleu of the same characteristics. including manufacturer shall be: pro'\.ided in the cabinet for each type:: of
K~factor. thennal response, and water distribution. sprinkler installed to be wed for the removal and installation Where cover plato on concealed sprinkleu ha\>-c of !> in the S)'51em.
been painted b)' other th3J1 the sprinkler manufacturer. the A list of the sprinklers installed in the propert)· shall
cover plate shall be replaced. be posted in the sprinkler cabinet. Ornamental FiDisht'S.· The list .shall include the following: Ornamental finishes shall only be applied to sprin- (I) Sprinkler Identification Number (SIN) if equipped: or
klers and. if applicable. their concealed cover plates, by the the manufacturer. model, orifice. deflector t)-pe. thennal
sprinkler manufacturer. sensitivit)·. and pressure rating
(2) General description Sprinklers with ornamental finishes where utilized (3) Quantit)· of each t)-pe to be: contained in the cabinet
shall be specificall)·listed. (4) Issue or revision date of the list Protecti\'e Coverings. 6.3 Abo'\."eground Pipe and Tube. Sprinklel"$ prolC'cting spra)' areas and mixing rooms 6.3.1 General.
in resin application areas shall be prolC'cted against oveupray Pipe or lUbe shall meet or exceed one of the stan-
residue so that thC')' will operate in the e\'ent of fire. dards in Table or be in accordance with* ,",here protected in accordance with, cel-· Underground pipe: shall be: pennitted to extend
lophane bags having a thickness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or into the building through the slab or wall not more than 24 in.
leM or thin paper bags shall be used . (0.6 rn).
• Sprinkler! that have ken painted or coated shall be Sted pipe shall be in accordance with, or
replaced in accordance with the requirements of6. 6.3.4.

6.2.7 Escutcheons and Cover Plates. Copper tube shall be in accordance with 6.3.5. Nonmetallic pipe shall be in accordance with 6.3.7. Plates, escutcheons. or other devices wed to cover the
annular space around a sprinkler shall be metallic or shall be Brass pipe shall be in accordance with 6.3.7.
listed for use around a sprinkler. 6.3.2* Steel Pipe -'~ded or Roll-Groo\oed. ''''''hen sted pipe· Escutcheons wed with recessed, flwh-l)pe, or con- referenced in Table is used and joined by welding as
cealed sprinklel"$ shall be part of a listed sprin kler asse:mbly. referenced in 6.5.2 or b)' roll-grooved pipe and fittings as
referenced in 6.5.3. the minimum nominal wall thickness for Cover plates wed with concealed sprinklers shall be pressures up to 300 psi (20.7 bar) shall be: in accordance with
part of the listed sprinkler assembly. Schedule 10 for pipe sizes up to 5 in.. (125 rnm). 0.134 in.
(3.40 mm) for 6 in. (150 mm) pipe::, 0.188 in. (4.78 mm) for 8 in. The llSe of caulking or glue to seal the penetration or
and 10 in. (200 mm and 250 mm) pipe. and 0.330 in. (8.38 mm)
to affix the components of a recessed e!iCutcheon or con-
for 12 in. (300 nun) pipe.
1 cealed cover plate shall not be permitted. 6.3.3 Steel Pipe - Threoaded. \Vhen sted pipe referenced in
6.2.8 Guards. Sprinklers subject to mechanical injw),shall be Table is joined by threaded fittings referenced in 6.5.1 or
protected with listed guards. by fittings used with pipe ha\>ing cut grOO\-e5, the minimum wall
6.2.9 Stode of Spare Sprinklers. thickness shall be in accordance with Schedule 30 pipe [in sizes
Sin. (200 nun) and larger] or Schedule 40 pipe [in sizes less than A supply of at least six spare sprinklcl"$ shall be main- 8 in. (200 mm)] for pressures up to 300 psi (20.7l.:nr).
tained on the premises so that any sprinklers that have oper-
6.3.4 Specially llstoo. Steel Pipe. PrC$.Sur~ limitations and ....-all
1 ated or be:en damaged in any wa)' can be promptly replaced. thickness for sted pipe specialty listed in accordance with The sprinklers shall correspond to the types and tem- 6.3. i..8 shall be permitted to be in accordance with the pipe
perature ratings of the sprinklers in the property. listing requirements.

2013 Edition W

Table Pipe or Tube Materials and Dintensions be investigated for compatibilil)' wilh the nonmelallic piping
b)" a testing laborat0l)"
Materials Bnd Dimensions Standard· When nonmelallic pipe i.'I used in combination sys-
tems steel pipe that is not intemall)" coated with
Ferrous Piping
chemical corrosion inhibitors, no additional C'\,aluations shall
(Welded Bnd Seamless)
be required.
Spmficatioll far Blade and ASTM A i95
Hot.lJippcd Zi1f(;~C.oatl'd When nonmetallic pipe is used in combination.sys-
(CafoJallrud) WElded alld Seamless tems utilizing sted pipe. cutting oi15 and lubricants USC'd for
Sled Pips far Fire Pratte/ion Use fabrication of the sted piping shall ~ compatible with the
5pmficationfar Pi/N, Stl'6~ Blade ANSI/ASThI A 53 nonmetallic pipe materials.
alld Hol-DiPJxd, Zinc-Coated.
Welded Gild Smulless FirC'-'Stopping materials intended for usc on nonme-
Wnmght St«l Pipe ANSI/ASME B36.10111 tallic piping penetration.s shall be investigated for compatibil-
Spmficatio1l far ASHI A 135 it)'with the nonmetallic pipe materiak
Ell'~tric·&sistallci"- Wrldcd Stul Pipe Nonmetallic pipe listed for light hazard occupanciC!l
Copper Tube (Drawn, Seamless) shall ~ permitted to ~ installed in ordinary haz.."l.rd rooms of
Sp«ification far Stt11R/es.s Coppn-
ASTM B i5 . ,
otherwise light hazard occupancies where the room does not
exceed 400 ft~ (37 m ).
Sproficatioll far Sm lRl~ Coppn- ASHI B88 Nonmetallic pipe shall not be listed for portions of an
miter Tube occupanCJ classification.
Sproficatioll for Gmeml ASTM B251
RequimRmts fm- Wrought &cmll'S.J 6.3. 7.8· listed Pipe and Tubing.
CoptKr ami Copper-.-\IlU)' TI,he
Spmficationfar Liquid and Paste ASTM B 813 Other types of pipe or tu~ im·estigated for suitabil-
R!lX€S fo,-Soldm"lIg Appli£ations of il)' in automa.tic sprinkler installations and listed for this ser~
Copper alld CDpper-AllO)' Tube vice, including but not limited to CPVC and sted, and differ-
Bmzing Fi/ln Mdal (Qosnficahon AW, A5.8 ing from that prm;ded in Table shall be: pennitted
BC1tP-3 or BCttP-4j
where installed in accordance with their listing limitations,
Sold" M€1a/~ 5«#011 J: SoId€,- Atlo)'s ASTM B 32 including insL."\lIation insLruct101u.
Colltaining un Tha" 0.2% Lead Pipe or tu~ listed for light hazard occupanciC!l
and Having Solid"s TnR/NTaturrs shall ~ penniued to ~ installed in ordinar)'haz.ard rooms of
G,mlsr than "WO°F othetwise light hazard occupancies where the room docs not
.-tlloy Maim-au ASTM B 446 exceed 400 ft! (37 m.!).
CPVC Pipe or t\l~ shall not be listed for portions of an
Nomulallu Piping SfNCificaliollJor ASHI F442 occupanC)' classification.
Sp«ial Listed Chlori"aud Pof),vi"yl
chloride (CPVC) PipE &=nding of listed pipe and tubing shall be pennit-
Brass Pipe- ted as allowc::d b)' the I~ting.

Specification .10'- ScmRless Rid Bm.s~ ASTM B 43 Pipe and Tube- Bending.
Pif>' &=nding ofSdledule 10 sted pipe, or an)" sted pipe
of wall thicknes.s equal to or greater than Schedule 10 and
T)l>es Rand Lcoppcr tube, shall ~ penniued when bends arc
6.3.5· Copper Tube-. Copper tu~ as specified in the standards made with no kinks, ripplC!l, distortions, or reductions in di~
listc=d in Table shall have a wall thickness of Type K.. ameter or an)" noticeable deviations from round.
Type L. or Type M where used in sprinkler systems. For Schedule 40 and copper tubing, the minimum
6.3.6 Brass Pipe. BI'<l5S pipe specified in Table shall ~ radius of a bend shall be six pipe dianleters for pipe siz.c:.s 2 in.
pc=nnitted in the standard ""-eight in sius up to 6 in. (l50mm) for (50 mm) and smallc=r and five pipe diameters for pipe siz.e.s
pressurc=5 up to 175 psig (12 bar) and in the extra strong weight 2M! in. (65 rom) a.nd larger.
in sizes up to 8 in. (200 mm) for pre56uresup to 300 psig (20 bar). For all other steel pipe, the minimum radius of a
6.3.7· Nonmetallic P'lpe. Nonmetallic pipe in accordance wi th bend shall be 12 pipe diameters for all siz.e.s.
Table shall be investigated for suitabilit)· in automatic
sprinkler installa.tions mld listed for this ser.;ce. Bending ofl~ted pipe and tubing shall be pennit~
ted as allowed b}' the Listing. Listed nonmetallic pipe shall ~ installed in accordance
with il5listing limilations, induding installation instructions. Pipe and Tube IdentifICation. Manufacturer's installation instructions shall in~'" All pipe, including specially listed pipe allowed by
dude il5listing limitations., shall be marked along its length by the manuf:acturer
in such a w~ as to prope=rl)' identify the type of pipe.'" ",nen nonmetallic pipe is used 111 combination 5)~
terns sted piping internally coated with con-mion in~ The marking shall be visible on everyl piece of pipe
hibitors and nonmetallic piping, the Sled pipe coating shall over 2 ft (610 mm) long_

W2Ot3 Edition
SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND HARD\·...ARE 1:'>-31 Pipe identification shall include the manufactur-· "''hen nomnetallic fittings are wed in combination
er's name, model de.signation, or schedule. systenu utilizing non-internally coated steel piping and non-
metallic fittings. no additional evaluations arc required. Cut·
6.4 Fittingw.
ting oils and lubricants used for fabrication of the !lied piping
6.4.1 Fittings llsed in sprinkler S)'Steffi5shall meet or exceed the shall be compatible with the nonmetallic fitting materials.
standards in Table 6.4.1 or be in accordance ",ith 6.4.2 or 6.4.4. Fire-stopping materials intended for usc on nonme-
tallic fitting penetrations shall be investigated for compatibil-
itywith the norunetaUic fitting matcrials.
Tabl(' 6.4.1 Fittings Malerials and Dimensions
6.4.4· Other types of fittings investigated for suitabilit)· in au-
Materials and Dimensions Standard tomatic sprinkler installabolUl and listed for thi! senice, in-
cluding but not limited to CPVC and !ltcd. and differing from
Casl Iron that provided in Table 6.4.1 shall be pcrmitted when installed
in accordance with their listing limitations. including installa-
Cast /,.all Thrcad£d Fittings. aan 125 aud ASIIIE B16.4
tion instructions.
Cast bun P;pe Flanges ana Ranged Fiui11gs ASIIIE B16.1 6.4.5· Filting Pressure Limits.
Mall('able Iron Standard weight pattern cast-iron fittings 2 in. (50 mm)
Mallroble Iron Thrraaea Fittings. ASIIIE B16.3 in size and smaller shall be permitted where pressures do not
aass 150 and 300 exceed 300 psi (20.7 bar).
Steel Standard weight pattern malleable iron fitting! 6 in.
(150 mm) in size and smaller shall be permitted where prC"S-
Fact(1)--."-fadl' U'rollght Sted Bllthvdd ASIIIE B16.9
sures do not exceed 300 psi (20.7 bar).
BllttwekJing Ends fo,- Pipl', \laMs. f7mlges, ASIIIE B16.25 Fittings not meeting the requirements of and
and Fittings shall be extra-heavy pattern where pressures exceed
Sfxcification fm- Piping Fitti11gS of U'rOllgh t ASTIIIA234 175 p'; (12.1 bar).
Carbon Sted and illloJ Sted for Modemte Cast bronze threaded fittings in accordance with
ana Elevated T nR/urahll?S
ASTM B 16.15. Cast Bronu Thrrodi'lj Fittings. shall be permitted
Stm Pijx Flanges and f7angl'd Fitti1~ ASIIIE B16.5 where pressures do not exceed 200 psi (13.7 bar) for Class 125
Forg:d Steel Fiuings. Socha Wdd«i and ASIIIE BI6.11 fittings and 400 psi (27.6 bar) for Class 250 fittings.
Copper Listed fittings shall be permitted for s)'Stem pre.ssures
up to the limits specified in their listings.
U'rollght CopplT and Coppn- A.llo), Solder ASIIIE B16.22
]oint Prl'Ssmr FiUings 6.4.6· Coupliogs and Unioos.
Cast CLJpfNr Alloy SoldlTJoilll PrlSSlUr ASIIIE B16.18 Screwed unions shall not be wed on pipe Iaeger than
Fittings 2 in. (50 mm).
CPVC Couplings and unions of other than screwed-t)'Pe
Chlon'natM Pol..,vinyl Chlorid£ (CPl'C) ASTIII F 437 shall be of t)'pes listed specifically for use in sprinkler s}'Stems.
5p«ification 1m- Schl'duu 80 CPl'C
Thlradl'd Fittings 6.4.7 Reducers and Bushings.
S/xcificationforSchl'dule -10 CPVC SodU't ASTIII F 438 Unless the requirements of6.4.7.2 or are met.
TyJK FiUings a one-piece reducing fitting shall be used whereo.·er a change is
5p«ificationfm- Schl'dule 80 CPllC Sodtl't ASTIII F 439 made i.n the size of the pipe.
Type fj'uillgs Hexagonal or face bwhings shall be permitted in re-
Bronze Fittings ducing the size of openings of fitting,.; when standard fittings
Cast Brrmu Thrradl'd Fittings ASTIII B16.15 of the required size arc not a...· ailable. Hexagonal bushings as pennitted in shall be
permitted to be used.
6.4.2 In addition to the standards in Table 6.4.1. nonmetallic The requrremenl'l of6.4.7.1 and shall not apply
fittings shall also be in accordance with 6.4.4. to CPVC fittings.
6.4.$ NonmelaDie Fittings. Nonmet:illic fittings in accordance 6.5 Joining of Pipe and Fittings.
with Table 6.4.1 shall be investigated for suitabilil)' in automatic
sprinkJerinstallations and listed for this .service. Listed nonmetal~ 6.5.1 Threaded Ylpe and Fittings.
lic fittings shall be installed in accordance with their listing limi~ All threaded pipe and fittings shall ha....e threads cut to
tations. including installation instructions. ASME B 1.20.1. Pi/N Thrrads, Cf7ural Purpose (buh)..
6.4.$.• • \oVhen nonmetallic fittings are used in combination* Sted pipe with wall thicknesses less than Schedule 30
s}'stems utilizing internally coated steel piping and nonmetal· [in sizes 8 in. (200 mm) and larger1 or Schedule 40 (in sizes
lic fitting~, the steel pipeshall be inve.stigated for compatibility less than 8 in. (200 mm)1 shall only be permitted to bejoined
with the nonmetallic fittings b). a testing laboratory. Cutting by threaded fittings where the threaded assembly is in....esti-
oils and lubricarlt5 wed for fabrication of the sted piping shall gated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installati.ons and
be compatible with the nonmetallic fitting materials. listed for this service.

2013 Edition W
1:>-32 INSTAllATION OF SPRINKLER SVSTEMS Joint compolUld or tape shall be applied onlf to male Taw for longitudinal earthquake bracing .shall have
threads. minimum throat weld thickness not less than 1.25 times the
pipe wall thickness and welded on both ~idc.s of the longest
6.5.2 Welded Pipe nod Fittings.
di m ellS ion. General. When welding is perfonnC'd, the following shall appl;~ Wdding shall be permitted as a means of joining
sprinkler piping in accordance with through (I) Holes in piping for outIel5 shall be cut to the full inside
diameter of fitting.s plior to ~lding in place of the fittings,· Fabrication. (2) DisC5 shall be retriC\·ed. ",ben wclding.sprinklcT pipe. lhe pipe .shall be shop (3) Openings cut into piping shall be smooth bore. and all
welded unless the requirements 0£ or arc met. internal slag and welding residue shaJi be removed.
(4) Fittings .shall not penetrate the internal diameter of tlte 'Where the design specifications require an)' part of plplllg.
the piping system to be welded in place. welding of sprinkler (5) Steel plates shall not be welded to the ends of piping or
piping shall be permitted where the welding process is per- fittings.
formed in accordance with NFPA 51B and the mechanical fit-
(6) Fittings .shall not be modified.
tings required by 8.15.22 and 8.16.3 arc provided.
(7) Nuts. dips.. eye rods. angle brackets. or other fu.stener:s Tabs for longitudinal earthquake bracing shall be shall not be wdded to pipe or fittings. except as pennitted
permitted to Ix welded to in-place piping where the welding in and
process is perfonned in accordance with NFP.~ 51B. (8) Completed welds shall be free from cracks. incomplete Welding shall not be: performed where there is im- fusion. surface por05it)' ~ater than YI6 in. (1.6 mm) diam-
pingement of rain. snow. .sleet. or high wind on the weld area eter. and lmdercut deeper than 25 percent of the wall thick-
of the pipe product. ness or ~ in. (0.8 mm). whichevC'r is 1<=55.
(9) Completed circumferential butt weld reinforcement.shall Torch cutting and welding shall not be pennitted as not exceed ~i in. (2.4 mm).
a means of modifying or repairing sprinkler ~tems. Qualifications. Fittings. A welding procedure shall1:x: prepared and qualified .• * Welded fittings used to join pi~ shall1:x: listed fabri-
cated fittings or manufactured in accord.."l1lce with Table 6.4.1.
l7t the conlr.3clor or fabric.aJ.or lxfore an)' welding is done. Qualification of the welding procedure to be used Fitting.s referenced in shall be joined in
and the performance of all welden and welding operators
conformance with a qualified welding procedure as .set forth
in this section and shall be an acceptable product under this .shall be required and shall meet or exceed the requireJnen15
standard. provided that materials and wall thickness are com- of A\\"S B2.1, Sp«ifica tion fur Weldillg Procedure a lid PerfonRmlct!
patible with other .section.s of this standard. Qualification:, ASME Boila mId P1l'smTe lhscl Cod,~ Section IX.
..",relding and Brazing Qualificatiom"; or other applicablC' Fitting.s .shall not be required where pipe ends are qualification standard as required b)' the authorit;· ha..ingju-
buttwdded in accordance with the requiremen15 of risdiction, except as pennitted b)' 'When the pipe size in a rwt of piping is reduced, a Succes..sful procedure qualification of complete
reducing fitting designed for that purpose .shall lx: wed in
joint penetration groo"'e welds shall qual if}' partial joint pen-
accordance with the requirements of
etration (groove/fillet) welds and fillet welds in accordance '~knng Requiroments. with the provisions of this ~tandard. .• * Wdds between pipe and wdding outlet fittings shall Welding procedures qualified under standards rec-
be permitted to be attac.hed by full penetration welds. partial ognized by pre,\';ous editions of this standard .shall be pc::rmit-
penetration groove welds, or fillet welds. ted to be continued in use.* The minimum throat thickness shall lx: not less Contractors or fabricators shall be responsible for
than the thickness of the pipe, the thickness of the welding all welding they produce.
fitting. or ~6 in. (4.8 mm), whichever is least. Each contractor or fabricator shall have available to* CirQlmferentiaJ butt joints shall be cut., beveled.
the authorit}· havingjurudiction an established wriue::n qualit)"
and fit so that full penetration is achievable.
assurance procedure c::nsuring compliance with the rc::quirc::- Full penetration welding shall not be required. men15 of \'\'nere slipoon flanges are welded to pipe with a Records.
single fillet weld. the weld shall be on the hub .side:: of the
flange:: and the minimlUn throat wdd thic.kness .shall not be Welders or welding machine operators shall. upon
Ics.s than 1.25 times the pipe wall thickness or the hub thick- completion of each welded pipe, place their identifiable mark
ness, whichever is less. or label onto each piece adjacent to a weld. Face welds on the internal face of the flange .shall be ContTactors or fabricators shall maintain certified
pennitted as 3. "'dteT seal in addition to the hub weld required records, which shall be available to the mltl"writ)" having juris-
in diction. of the procedures used and the welders or welding

W2013 Edition

machine operators employed by them. along with their weld- 6.6* Hnngers. Hangers s.hall be in accordance with the require-
ing identification. ments of$cction 9.1. Recorcb .'!hall show the date and the results of pro- 6. 7 Valves.
cedure and pelfonnance qualifications.
6. 7.1 General.
6.5.3 Groove Joining Methods.
6. 7.1.1 Vah~ Pressure Requirements. When water pressures* Pipe. fittings. valvc..s. and devices to be joined with exceed liS psi (12.1 bar). "''';llvc", shall be used in accordance
grooved coupling.'! .shall contain cut, rolled. or cast grooves with their pressure ratings.
that are dimensionally compatible with the couplings. 6. 7.1.2 '·ah~Closure TIme. Listed indicating valves shall not* Pipe, fittings, ",,1\'('..5, devices, and couplillg5 that close in less tll:aJl 5 .seconds when operated at maximum pos-
conform with or are listed in compliance with standardized sible speed from the full}' open position.
groove specifications shall be considered compatible. Listed Indicating Valves. Unless the requirements of Other groo\'e dimensions and grooving methods, or arc met, all wlvcs controlling
shall be acceptable in accordance with connections to water supplies and to suppl}'pipes to sprinklers
s.haJl be listed indicating valves. Grooved couplings. including gaskets used on dry' pipe.
proclion. and deluge S)'!>tC"llu. shall be listed for drysel'"\ice. A listed underground gate valve equipped with a
listed indicator post-shall be permitted.
6.5.4* Brazed and Soldered Joints.
6. A listed water control valve as.sembl}· with a reliable Solder joints, where permitted. shall be fabricated position indication connected to a remote supervisoI')' station
in accordance with the methods and procedures listed in s.hall be perm ined.
ASTM B 828. Standard Pmctice for "'faking Copi/la,., Joilll"s by
Solden'ng ofCopp~'rand Copper-Alloy Tithe alld Fitti"gs. 6. A nonindicatingvalve . .such as an underground gate
vah<e with approved roadwa}' box. complete with Twrench. Unless the requirements of or are met, and where accepted by the authorit)· having jurisdiction. shall
joints for the connection of copper tube shall be brazed be penn illed. Solder joints shall be pennitted for exposed wet pipe 6. 7.2 Wafer-Type Valves. v,'afer-type valves with components
system.s in light hazard occupancies where the temperature that extend be}'ond the ,'31ve bod}' .shall be installed in a man-
c1as:sification of the installed sprinklers is of the ordinary- or ner that does not interfere with the operation of an)' s)'Stem
in termed iate-temperatu re cla.ssification . components. Solder joints shall be permiued for wet pipe .5)'3tems 6. 7.3 Drain ''ah''eS and Test Vah-es. Drain ,-a.lves and test "al"e5
in light hazard and ordinal)' hazard (Croup I) occupancies shall be approved.
where the piping is concealed, irrespecti ....e of sprinkler tem-
6. 7.4* Identification of 'nh·es.
perature ratings.
6. 7.4.1 A..I1 control. drain, and test connection valves .shall be* Soldering fluxes shall be in accordance with provided with permanentl)' marked weatherproof metal or
Table rigid plastic identification .signs. Brazing fluxes. if u.sed • .shall not be of a highly corro- 6. 7.4.2 The identification sign shall be secured with corrosion-
.si\'e t)'Pe. resistant wire. chain, or other approved. means.
6.5.5 Other Joining Methods. 6. 7.4.3 The control ,,'3lve sign shall identif)' the portion of the Other joining methods investigated for suitability in building sc::rved.
automatic sprinkler inslallations and listed for thi.s sen.;ce 6.* Sptems that have more than one control "a1"e that
shall b~ permitted where installed in accordance with their must be closed to work on a S)~tem or space .shall have a sign
listing limitations, including installation instructions. referring to existence and location of other \,31",e.s. Outlet Fittings. Rubber-gasketed outlet fitting.s that are 6.8 Fire Departmenc Connections.
used. on sprinkler S)'!>tel'J\S shall meet the follo",-ing requirements:
6.8.1* Unless the requirements of,, or
(I) Be installed in accordance with the listing and manufac- arc met, the fire department connection(s) .shall of two
turer'.s installation instructions 2 1h in. (65 mm) connections wing NH imemal threaded
(2) Have aU disks retrieved s",;vcl fitting(s) with "'25-7.5 NH standard thread," as speci-
(3) Have smooth bore5cut into the pipe, with all cutting resi- fied in NFPA 1963.
due removed
(4) Not be modified Where local fire department conneetion.s do not con-
fonn to NFPA 1963. the autllOrit}' havingjurisdiction shall be
6.5.6 End Treatment. permitted to designate the connection to be used After cutting,. pipe end.s shall have burrs and fins The usc of threadless coupling.s .shall be permitted
relnove-d. where required b)' the authorit)· havingjurisdiction and where
listed for such usc. Pipe used with listed fittings and ilS end treatment
.shall be in accordance with the fitting manufacturer's installa- A single-outlet fire deparunent connection shall be
tion instructions and the fitting's listing. acceptable where piped to a 3 in. (80 mm) or nnaller riser.

2013 Edition W

6.8.2 Fire department connections shall be equipped with Outdoor electric a1ann devices "hall be: listed for out-
approved plugs or caps, properly secured and arranged for door use.
ca.!}' removal by fire departments.
6.9.5 AJann Devtce Drains. Drains from alarm deviceuhaU be
6.8.' Fire department connections shall be of an approved arranged "0 that there will be no overflowing at the Blann
type. apparat:us, at domestic connections, or e1sc:where with the
.sprinkler drains wide open and under S)'Stem pressure:. (Ste
6.9 Waterflow Alarm Device•.
6.9.1 Gtlneral. \Vaterflow alnon devices shall be listed for the
service and .so consuuctc:d and installed that 9.1"1)' flow of water I 6.10* S;gno. (Reserved)
from a .sprinkler 5)'Stem equal to or greater than that from a
singte automatic sprinkler of the: smallest REactor installed on
the: S)'3te:m will result in an audible: alarm on the: premises within Chapter 7 System Requirements
5 minut.c:s nftcrsuch flow begiru and untiJ,such flow stops.
6.9.2 Waterflow Detection Devices. 7.1 \'\~t Pipe System&. Wet Pipe Systems. The alarm apparatw for a wet pipe 7.1.1 Pressure Gauges.
S}'Slcm shall consist of a listed aJann check ~-aJve or other listed
waterflow detcction alann device with the nc:ecs.sary attach-
ments required to give: an alarm. I An approvcd pres.sure gauge confonning to 8.17.3
IJhall be installed in each .!)'3tcm riser. Pre.uure gauges shall be installed above and below Dry P;pe Syst.....
cach alann check valve or .f)'3tem riser check valve where "uch The alarm apparatus for a dry pipe.!)':1t.c:m shall coo- devices arc prcscnL
mt of luted alann attachments (0 the dry pipe lr'alve. PrCS5ure gauges below check valves required by Where a dry pipe ..-alve iJ looted on dle .!)'lItem "ide "hall not be: required.
of an aIann vah.·e, connection of the actuating device of the
alarms for the dry pipe valve to the alarms on the wet pipe 7.1.2 Relief Valves.
5}"6tem shall be: pennittcd. UnlC':ll.!l the requirements of7.1.2.2 arc met, a wel pipe
6.9.2.~ Preoaction and Deluge Systems. The aIann apparatus .!)'3teJn IJhall be provided with a listed relief wive not les.s than
for deluge and prottion ¥tem.s shall consist of alarms actuated ~ in. (12 rom) in.!lize and "c:t to operate at 175 {12.1 bar)
independently by the dctJ::etion Sj~ and the Oow of or 10 (0.7 bar) in exce.s.s of the maximum 5Jslem prC':ll.!lure,
whichever is greater. Deluge and preactioll s)'StellUl acti..-ated by pilot
sprinklera "hall not require an independent detection .!)'3t.e:m Where auxiliary air reservoirs arc in.stnlled to absorb
alarm. pressure incren"e.s, a relief valve .!Ihall not be required.
6. 9.2.4* Paddle-Type Waterflow Devioee. Paddle-typc: waterflow
aJarm indicators shall be: installed in wetS)'StetrU only.
6.9.! Attachments -General.
I A relief valve per shall be: required dowmtJ'eam
of eheek valve. required by
7.l.S Auxiliary Systems. A wet pipe s)'Stem shall be: pennitted
to supply an auxiliary dry pipe, preaction, or deluge 8)'Stem,
6.9.!.I* An alarm unit!hall include a luted mechanical aJann,
provided the water IIUpply is adequate.
hom, or !ircn or a li.sted e1c:etric gong. bell, speaker, horn, or
lllren. 7.1.4 Heat tracing!'ihall not be wed in lieu of heated valve* Outdoor water motor-operatc:d or electrically opc:r·
aled bells shall be: weatherproofed and guarded.
I enclosures to protect the valve and.!lupPly pipe from freezing.
7.2* Dry Pipe Syst."",.
6.9.!.$ All piping to water motor-operated devices IJhall be 7.2.1 PressUrE' Gauges. Approved pre5l5Urc gauge.ll in accor·
gah-anized steel, brass, copper. or other approved metallic dance with 8.17.3 shall be connected as folloWJ:
corroslon-rc:si.stant material of not le55 than ~ in. (20 mm)
nominal pipe lJi:z.e. (I) On the water .side and air .!Iide of the dry pipe valve
(2) At the air pump .!Iupplying the air receiver where one: is
6.9.'.4 Piping between the sprinkler .!)'lItem and a preli5Ure- provided
actuated alarm-initiating device shall be: IJted, (3) At the air receiver where one is provided
brass, copper, or other approved memllic corrosiOI).resistBnt
(4) In each independenl pipe from air .supply to dry pipe $)'5tern
material of not leas than % in. (10 rom) nominal pipe size.
(5) At quick-opening devices
6.9.4* Attachments - Electrically Operated.
7.2.2 Sprinklers. The following sprinkler orientations and Electrically opemted alarm auaehmena forming part arrangements shall be permitted for dry pipe 5Y"tcms:
ofan auxiliary. central5lation, local protective, proprietary, or
(1) Uprigh"prinkJers
remote: station .signaling S)'5lCm shall be installed in accor·
(2)*Usted dry .prinklcn
dance with NFPA. 72.
(8) Pendent sprinklers and sidewall sprinklcn installed on re- Sprinkler waterilow alarm s)'Sterns that are not part of turn. bends, where the sprinklcn, return bend, and branch
a required protective signaling S)"tc:m shall not be required to line piping are in an area maintaine:datorabove40'"'F (4°G)
be .supervised and mall be installed in accordance with (4) Horizonml sidewall sprinklers installcd.!lo that water is not
NFPA 70, Artiele 760. trapped

~ 2013 Editbn

(5) Pendent sprinklcn an.d ~idewall ~prinklcI"5~ where the· S)'3tem size shall be such that initial water di:scharge
.sprinklcn and branch line piping arc in an area main- from the system trip tcst connection or manifold outlets is not
tained at or above 40°F (4"C). the water suppl)' is potable. more than the rna."timum time of water deliver)' specified in
and the piping for the dry: pipe ~tcm U: copper or CPVC Table starting at normal air pressure on the s)'Slem
.5pccificaJly listed for dry pipe applications and at the time of full}' opened test connection .
7.2.3* Size of Systems. \\ihell Oowis from four sprinklers. the test manifold
shall be arranged to simulate two sprinklel'!> on each of two
7 .2.~.1. The S}'31CIn capacil)' (volume) controlled b)' a dry pipe sprinkler branch lines.
valve shall be determined b}",,, or When flow is from three sprinklers, the test mani-
fold shall be 31T31lged to simulate two ~prinklers on the most
7.2.:U.l For cIr)' pipe S)'Stcms protecting d~)Jing lUlil portions remote branch line and one sprinkler on the nc=>.:t adjacent
of all)' OCCUp<U1C)', system size shall be .ruch that initial water is branch line.
discharged from the S)'Stem tcst connection in not moTC: than When flow is from two sprinklers. the tcst manifold
15 seconds.. .starting at the normal air pressure on the .system and
at the rime of full)' o~l1cd ins~ction tcst connection. shall be arranged to simulate two sprink1C=r:I on the most re-
mote branch line. 1.1 Dr}' pipe S)'Stems protecting d...."ClJing Wlit por~ When flow is from one sprinkler. the test manifold
liolls of any occupanq' shall not be penniuc=d to we the op~ shall be installed as per the requircments for a trip test con~
lions outlined in or nection in accordance with S)'!>tem sizc= shall be such that initial watc=r is dis~ A s)'Stem meeting the requirements of this section
char-gcd from the s)"Stem test connc=ction in not more than shall not be required to also meet the requirements of7.2.3.2
60 s<=conds. st.'lI"ting at the normal air pre.5surc= on the system or
and at the rime of full)" ope:nc=d inspc=ction test connection. Of}' pipe systems with water deliver)" timcs other than AS)'3tem size of not more than 500 gal (1893 L) shall, and shall bC" acceptable where listed b)'
be permitted without a quick-opening deY;ce and shall not be a nationally recognized testing laboratof}·.
rc=quirc=d to meet an)' specific wakr ddivc=ry requirement to Unless installed in a heated enclosure. check \·a.\",es
thc= inspc=ction test connection.
shall not bc wed to subdh.;de the dl"}' pipe s)'!>tems. As)'!tem size of not more than 750 gal (2839 L) shall When check \-alvc.! are wed to subdi,,;de dry pipe
be pe:rmittc=d with a quick-opening de\;cc= and shall not be systems in accordance with a hole ~ in. (3 mm) in
rc=quirc=d to mc=c=t an)' specific watc=r ddivc=ry requirement to diameter shall be drilled in the clapper of each check \'a.\ve to
thc= inspc=ction test connection. permit equalization of air pressure among the ",anOllS parts of Sy!.tc=m size shall be basc=d on dry pipe systems being the 5)~tem.
calculated for water ddivery in accordance with Where auxiliaI")' drains are not provided for each Dry Pipe S)'stem Water Delh·ery. subdi,,;ded section. an approved indicating drain vake super-
vised in the closed position in accordance with, con- Calculations for drJ pipe systc=m water ddivc=ry shall nected to a bn>ass around each check ,,-alve, shall be pro\<;ded
be basc=d on thc= hazard shown in Table as a mea.ns for draining the 5)'stem. Cridded dry pipe .systems shall not be insta.lled..
Table Dry Pipe System '",ter Delh~ry 7.2.4 Quid,·Opening Devices.
7.2.4. I A listed. quick-opening deY;ce shall bC" pemulled to hdp
Number of Most Maxinmln Time of meet the requirements of7.2.3.2. or
Remote Sprinklers Water' Delivery The quick-opening dC\;ce shall be 10C'"dted as close as
Hazard initial I)' Open (seconds) practical to the dry pipe ,,·aI\'e.
ught 1 60 To protect the restriction orifice and othcr operating
Ordinary I 2 50 parts of the quick-opening dC\;ce against submergence, the
Ordinary II 2 50 connection to the riser shall be above the point at which watcr
Extra I 4 45 (priming water and back drainage) is o."Pccted when the dry
Extra II 4 45 pipe vah'e and quick-opening de\;ce are set, except where de-
High piled 4 40 sign features of the particular quick-opening dC\;ce make
these n:quirements unnecessary. Where a valve is installed in thc conncction between a
dl"}' pipe sprinkler riser and a quick-opening device, it :shall bC" The calculation program and method shall be Hstc=d an indicating-type \·aI\,C that is .sealed, locked. or c1ecuic:a.lly
by a nationally recognized testing laboratorJ. supervised in the open position. For dl)' pipe systems protecting dwelling unit por- A check \'a!"'e shall bC" lnsCllled bC"tween the quick~
tions of an)' occupancy. the sprink1c=rs in the dwdling unit opening device and the intermediate chamber of the dry pipe
shall have a maximum water ddi\'el)' rime of 15 5Cconds to the valve, where the qu.ick~opcning device requires protection
singlc= Inost remote sprinkler. again.n submergence after S)'Slem operation. Rc=sidential sprinkJc=rs shall be listed for dt)· pipe If the quick-opening dC\;ce requires pressure feed-
applicatiolU. back from the intennediate chambel·, a "'alve type that will

2013 Editicn W

dead}' indicate whethcr it is opened or- dosed shall be permit- Air Supply Connections.
ted in place of that check "ah'C. Connection pipe from the air supply to the dry pipe Where a valve is utilized in accordance y,.;th i.2.4.6. valve shall not be less than th in. (15 nun) in diameter and
the \WVc shall be constructed $0 that it can be locked or scaled shall enter the S)'Stem above the priming W3tel" level of the dry
in the oJ>C'n po.sition. pipe valve. Antiflooding Device. A check valvc shall be irutalled in the air filling con·
nection. and 3. listed or approw:d shutoff valve of either the Unlos the requirement!> of arc met. a listed renewable disc or ball valve t}-pe shall be installed on the sup·
antiOooding dC'\icc shaJllx installed in the connection between pi)' side of this check vah'e and shall remain closed unless fill·
the dry pipe sprinkler riser and the quick-opening dC"oicc. iog the S)'Stem. A listed anriflooding device .shall not be required Relief lah-e. An approved relief valvc shall be pro-
where the quick-opening device has built-in antiflooding de- vided between the air suppl}" and the shutoff valve and shall be
sign fcaturc..5 OT the quick-opening device is listed or appro,,-cd set to relieve pressure no less than 10 p!i (0.7 bar) in excess of
without the of an anriflooding dc\>lcc. S)'3tem air pressure pl"O..;ded in and shall not exceed
the manufacturer's limitations.
7.2.5* Localion and Protection of Dry Pipe ''ah-e. Automatic Air Maintenance.
7.2.5.• * General. The dry' pipe "wvc and suppl)' pipe .shall be
protected against freezing and mechanical injury.* Unless the requiremenl$ of7 . are met,. where
the air suppl}' to a dl"}' pipe s)'Stem i5 maintained automatically. Valve Rooms.
the air suppl), shall be from a dependable plant s)'Stem or an Valve moms shall be lighted and heated. air compr<=S5or with an air receiver, and shall utilize an air
maintenance device spccificall)'listed for such service and ca- The source of heat shall be of a ~nnanently in- pable of controlling the required air pressure on, and ma.-o-
stalled type. mum airflow to. the dl"}' pipe s)'Stem. Heat tape shall not be wed in lieu of heated vahl'e Where the air compressor .ruppl)ing the dry pipe
enclosures to pmtect the dry pipe \'3.lve and supply pipe .5)'Stem has a capacitrless than 5.5 ft~/min (156 LJmin) at to psi
agailUt freezing. (0.7 bar), an air recovcr or air maintenance device shall not be Supply. The suppl)' for the sprinkler in the dry pipe required.
valve enclosure shall be either fmm the dry side of the .system The automatic air suppl), to more than one dry pipe
or from a wet pipe sprinkler S)'Stem that protects the area .5)'3tem shall be connected to enable individual maintenance
where the dry pipe valve is located. of air pressure in e:ach sy.stem. High \\ater Level Protedion. A check \'3Jve or other p0.5iti,,·e backflow prevc=:nlion
dC"'o;ce shall be installed in the air suppl}' to each s}'Stem to Where it is possible to reseat the dry' "<lIve afte:r ac-
prevent airflow or waterllow from one s)'Stem to another.
tuation without first draining the S)'3te:m. protection
occun"ence of water above the clapper shall be pennitted in System Air PrKSUre.
accordance with The syn:em air pressure shall be mainrained in accor- Low Differential Dry Pipe ,:ah~. Protection against dance with the instruction sheet fumishcd. with the dry' pipe
accumulation of W3ter above the clapper shall be prO\;ded for valve, or shall be 20 psi (1.4 bar) in exCti'i of the: calculate:d trip
low differential dl)' pipe val....e s in accordance with pressure of the dr)' pipe valve. based on the highest nonnal wate:r
pressure of the :!»'3tem supply. J-Ijgb Water Level De,;ce. An automatic high water
level signaling device or an automatic drnin shall be pelTTliued. The permitted rate of air leakage shall be as speci-
fie:d in 25.2.2.
7.2.6 Air Pre5l5ure and Supply. Nitrogen or Other Appro\'ed Gas. Where the te:rm ai,.is llsed throughout this standard.
it shaU also include the: use of nitrogen or other apprO\'ed gas.· 'Where nitrogen or other approved gas is used the
suppl}' shall be from a rdiable source. Maintenance of Air Pressure. Air or nitrogen or other
apprO\'ed gas pres.slll"e shall be maintained on dr)" pipe S)'3tems 'Where stored nitrogen or other apprO\."ed gas is
throughout the year. wed, the gas shall be introduced through a pressure: regulator
and shall be in accordance with· Air Supply. A low pressure alarm shall be pro,;ded on gas stor· The compres.sed air suppl)" shall be from a source age containers to notify the need for refIlling.
available at all times.
7.3 PA!'Rction Sytlter.ns aud Deluge Systems.· The air suppl)" shall have a capacit)· capable of re-
7.3.1· General.
storing nonnal air pressure in the S)'stc:m within 30 minutes.· All components of pnetffilatlC, hydraulic, or electrical The requiremenl$ of shaH not apply in re-
.5)'3tenu shall be compatible.
frige:rated spaces maintained below 5"'F (-15"'C), where nor·
mal system air pressure shall be pe:nnitted to be restored TIle automatic waler conll"Ol valve shall be prO'o;ded
within 60 minutes. with hydraulic, pneumatic. or mechanical manual means for

W 20t3 Edition

operation that is independent of detechon devices and of the (2) A non-interlock system, which admi~ water to .sprinkler
sprinkJet5. piping upon operation of detection dC\;ces or automatic
sprinklers Pressure Gauges. Approved pressure gaugcs confoml-
(3) A double interlock S)~tem. which admits water to 3prin-
ing with 8.17.3 shall be installed as follows:
kler piping upon operation of both detection devices and
(1) Above and below prcactlon \"ah..-c and below deluge ..-alw: automatic sptinkleu
(2) On air supply to prcaction and deluge valves Size of Systems - Single and Non-Interlock P~action A supply of spare fusible clements for hcaHC'spon.sive S,."Slem& Not more than 1000 automatic sprinklers .shall lx=
dcvicC'.s. not less than two of each tcmpcrntltrc rating. shall be controlled b)' anyone preaction valve.
maintained on the premises for replacement purposes. Size of Systems - Double Interlock Preoction Systems. H)"drauJic release s)'Stcms shall be designed and in-
stalled in accordance with mallufactllTcr's requirements and The S)'!tem size controlled b)' a double interlock
listing fo. height limitations aoo\>""C ddugc ..a1vcs or deluge preaction val....e .shall be detennined b)' either
valve actllalo~ to prc\-cnt water column. Location and Spacing of Releasing Devices. 7.$. A system size for double interlock preaction S)'S-
tems of not more than 500 gal (1893 L) shall be permitted and I Spacing of releasing devices, including automatic shall not be required to meet an)' specific water deli"'cT)' re-
sprinklers used as releasing devices. shall be in accordance quircment to the trip test connection.
with their listing and manufacturer's specifications.
7.$. The S)'!>tem size for double int.erlock preact.ion The release S)'3tem shallser....e all areas that the pre- s)"Stems shall be designed to deliver water to the system test
action s)'5tem protects. connection in no marc than 60 second.s. starting at the nor- 'Where thennal activation is utilized. the activation mal air pressure on the s)'Stem. with the detection sptem
temperdture of the release S)'!tem shalllx= lower than the acti- activated and the inspection test connection fully opened
vation temperature of the sprinkler. si m ultaneousl}·. DevK:es for Test Purposes and Testing Apparatus. 7.$. The S)'StCtn size for double interlock preaction 5)<3-
terns shall be based on calculating water deli....ery in accordance- Where detection devices installed in circuits are lo- with, anticipating tlmt the: detection ~tem acti..ation and
cated where not accer.5ible for testing. an additional detection sprinkler operation will be &imultaneow.
device shall be provided on each circuit for test purposes at an
acce.nible location and shall be connected to the circuit at a 7.$.*1l1C S)'Stcm size for double interlock preaction S}'S-
point that~;11 ensure a proper test ofthe circuiL tems shall lx= designed to ddiver water to the S)'Stem trip tcst
connection or manifold outle~ in not more than the m;u.;- Testing apparatus capable of producing the heat or mum time of water ddiveT)' specified in Table start-
impulse necessaJJ to operate an)" normal detection de\;ce shall ing at the nonnal air pressure on the system. with the detec-
be flU"llished to the mo.ner of the propcTt)· ~;th each installation. tion S)'stem acti....ated and the- irupection trip test connection ,",bere explosive vapors or materials are present., or manifold opened simultaneousl)'.
hot water. steam. or other methods of testing not an 7.$.2.3.2 A listed quick-opening de...i ce shall be permitted to be
ignition source shall be used. wed to help meet tlle requirements of 7.3.2.:3.1.3.
7.3.1. 7.4" Aseparnte additional indicating control valve, super- and
vised in accordance with, shall be p~itted to be in- 7.$.2.4* Supervision.
stallc=d in the riser asscnblyabove a preaction or deluge valve to
pennit fuIl function trip testing as required by NFPA25, without 7.$.2.4.1 Sprinkler piping and fire detection devices shall be
flooding the system. 3ulomaticall)' supervised where more than 20 sprinklers arc
on the s)"5tem. Location and Protection ofS)'Stern \\\a.ter Control Valves.
7.$.2.4.2 E.xceptas pennitted b)' mror nitrogensupe.r- System water control vah--es and suppl), pipes shall
vising prC'56ure for preaction S)'SlCffiS shall be il15talled in con-
lx= protected against freezing and mechanical injury.
fonnance with the dry pipe S)'SlC:tn air presmre and supply mles \al..-e Rooms. of 7.2.6. \'3.lve rooms shall lx= lighted and heated. 7.$.2.4.$ TIle rdiefval...cs required b)' 7.2.6 shall be pcnniucd
to be omiuc=d for the l)pe of prcaction s)"5te:rn described in The source of heat shaii be of a permanently in- (1) when the air prC'56ure is supplied from a source that is
stalled type. not capable of developing pressures in excess of 15 psi (1.0 bar).$ Heat tracing shall not be used in lieu of heated All preaction system types desc.ribed in
valve enclosure rooms to protect preaction and deluge valves
and (3) shall maintain a minimum supe-rvising air or
1 and supply pipe against freezing.
nitrogen pressure of 7 psi (0.5 bar).
7.3. 2 P~nction Systems. Sprinklers. The following sprinkler orienta.tions and Preaction systems shall be one of the following types: arrangements shall be pennitted for preaction S)'!tems:

(1) Asingle i.n.terlock S)"5tem, which admits water to sprinkler (1) Upright .sprinkleT$
piping upon operation of detection de...; ces (2)*Listed dry .sprinklers

2013 Edition W

(8) Pendent sprinklers and .sidewall .sprinklers installed on re- Dry pipe valves shall be cro.s.s<onnected througb a
turn bends, where the: sprinklers, return bend, and branch 1 in. (25 mm) pipe connection to permit .simultaneolLS trip-
line piping arc in an area mainmincd at or abo\-e 4O"'F (4°C) ping of both dry pipe valves.
(4) Horizontal sidewall .sprinklers, installed so that water i.s The 1 in. (25 mm) cro.s5<onneetion pipe shall be
not trapped
equipped with an indicating valve so that either dry pipe val"'e
(5) Pendent .sprinklers and sidewall sprinklers, where: the
can be .sbut off and worked on while the other remain.s in
sprinklers and branch line piping arc: in an area main- •
tained at or above 40°F (4°C), the water .supply is potable,
and the piping for the preaction .system is copper or The check valves between the dr)' pipe ...a1ves and the
CPVC .specifically liste:d for dry pipe applications common feed main shall be equipped with !h in. (15 mm)
b)ptwes .so that a loss of air from leakage in the trimmings of a System Configuration. Preaccion S)"Stcms of the type dry pipe valve: will notcawe the valve to trip until the prcs.sure
dc:.scnbcd in (3) and all prcaction systems protecting in the feed main i1l reduced to the tripping point.
storage:: occupancies, excluding mLsccllaneow .storage, shall
not be gridded. An indicating valve .shall be ilUtalled in each of these
b)-pa.ue.s so that either dr)' pipe valve can be completely
7.3.'- Systems. lated from the malo riser or feed main and from the other dry
7.!1.3.1 The detcction devicd or S)l3tenu shall be automati- pipe ,,'alve.
caUy.supc:rviscd Each combined dry pipe and preaction.system .sball Deluge ~tcnu .shall be hydraulically calculated be provided with lined quick-opening devices at the dry pipe
7.4 Combined Dry Pipe and Preactioo Systems for Piers, Te...
7.4.4 SubdivUl.ion ofS)'Stem Using Chedc: Vah'E!8.
minals, and Wbarves. Where more than 275 .sprinkler.s are required in a
7.4.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 7.4, design .single fire area, the .sy.stdn shall be divided into sections of
and installation requirements for piers, tenninn~ and 275 sprinkJer.s or fewer by means of check valw:.s.
wharves shall be in accordance with Section 22.22. Where the S)""4tem is installed in more than one fire
7.4.2· General area or story, not more than 600 .sprinkler.s shall be .rnpplied
through any one check valve.· Combined automatic dry pipe and preaction .!)'3t:emJ
shall be so constructed that failure of the detc:<:tion system Each .section shall have a 1!4 in. (32 mm) drain on the
shall not prevent the S)"4tem from functioning as a conven- .5)'3tem .side of eac::h check valve .supplemented b)' a dry pipe
tional automatic dry pipe .syslc:111. .!)'3t.em auxiliary drain. Combined automatic dry pipe and preaction .!)'3tems Section drain lines and dr)' pipe 3)$tCl1l auxiliary drains
shall be so const:ructed that failure of the dry pipe 5)'3tem of .sball be located in heated areas or inside heated abinets to en-
automat1c sprinklers .sball not pre:vc:nt the dete:ction .!)'3tem close drain valVCl and au.'t.iliary drain.s for each section.
from properly functioning as an automatic fire alarm .syst.e:m.
7.4.5 lime limitation.
7.4.2.~ ProvisiofU shall be made for the manual operation of The .sprinkler system shall be so constructed and the
the detection ")'3tem at locations requiring not more than number of.'lprinkler.s controlled .shall be $0 limited that water
200 ft (61 m) of travel. .shall reach the farthest .sprinkler within a period of time not Sprinklers. The follawing types of .sprinklers and ar· e.xcceding 1 minute: for each 400 ft (122 m) of common feed
rangements shall be permitted for combined dry pipe and main from the time dle hcat-responsive S)'Stem operates.
preaction S)"te:ms: The maximum time pc:nnitted.shall not exceed 3 min-
(I) Upright sprinkJm u....
(2)*Listed dry sprinklers 7.4.6 Syriem Test Connection. The end section shall have a
(3) Pendent sprinklers and sidc:wall sprinlt1cn installed on re- .syslcm test connection as required for dry pipe S)'Sterru.
turn bends, where both the sprinklers and the retwn
bends are located in a heated area 7.5 Multi-Cycle S)1JleDl5.
(4) Horizontal sidewall .sprinkle13. installed so that water i.s 1.5.1 All multi<yde l5)"tcms .sball be specificaUy tested and
not trapped listed as .system.s.
7.4.3 Dry Pipe Vah'es in Combined Systems. 1.5.2 All multi<yde systems .sball be installed in compliance
with the manufacturer's in.rtal1ation instructiON. Where the .system consist!; of more than 600 .sprinklers
or bas more than 275 .sprinklers in any fire area, the entire
5). .cm ,hall be controlled through two 6 in. (150 mm) dry Section 7.6 was revised by a tentative interim amend·
pipe valves connected in parallel and shall feed into a com- ment (TlA). See page 1.
mon feed main.· Where parallel dry pipe valves are required by, I 7.6" Annf...... Systems.
these valves .sball be checked againat each other. 7.6.1· General.
7.4.3.$ Each dry pipe valve .sball be provided with a listed The we ofantifrec:xe solutiON .sbaD be in confonnity
tripping de",ice actuated by the detection .system. with state and local health regulations.

~ 2013 Editbn
SYSTE.M REQUIREMENTS 1$-39 Antifreeze shall not Ix wed in £SFR $)'$tCtn5 vah'C'$ shall be installed as illustrated in Figure or Fig-
the ESFR sprinkler is listed fOJ" we with the antifrccz.c solution. ure Where pendent sprinklcu arc u riJizcd, the ""'aler .shall A means shall be provided to perform a full forward
be drained from the entire s,"$lcln after hydrostatic tc.sring flow test in accordance with
with water.· 'Where the connection betWeen the antifreeze S)'Stem The requirements of shall not appl,. where and the wet pipe S)''Stc:m incorporates a baddlow prC"\'Cntion de-
the s}"S(cm is h)'drostaticallJ' tested with properly mixed anti- vice. and the conditioru of arc not mel, a listed e),'pansion
freeze solution. chamber shall be provided to compernatC' for thennal expansion
of the antifrcezc solution as illustrated in Figure 'Where antifreeze S}'5tcms arc remote from the sJstcm
risc,l", a placard .shall be mounted on the S)'31cm riser that indi-
cates the number and location of all remole antifreeze S)'31Crns Only close control valw
:mppJicd by that ruer. Yltlan conducting forward
flow lest of backflow Fill cup Cf' filling A placard shaJJ be placed on the antifreeze s)'Stcm prewnl9r connection
main valve that indicates the manufacture t)FC and brand of
the antifreeze .solution, the concentration b)' volume of the Backflow prwenter
antifreeze solution used. and the "-olume of the antifreeze so- with control vaNes
lution used in the S)'3tem.
7.6.2* Antifreeze Solutions.
~* Except as permitted in antifreeze solutions
shall be listed for use in sprinkler systems.
Means for conducting I
forward flow test of /
backflow pr9V9nter
chamber Premixed antifreeze solutions of propylene glycol
shall be permitted to be used v.;th ESFR sprinkler.s where the
ESFR sprinkler.s are listed for such we in a specific application.
Hoatod area
7.6.3 Arrangement of Supply Piping and Valo.-es. 'Where the connection between the antifreeze system
and the wet pipe system does not incorporate a backflow pre- FIGURE AITOD~ment of Supply Piping with Back·
vention det;ce. and the conditions of i.6.3.5 are not met. pip- flow Device.
ing and val· shall be installed as illustrated in Figure i.6.3.I. VVhen determining the size of the exparuion cham-
Filling cup ber. the precharge air temperature and precharge air pressure
shall be included.
Water supply
- - Water The:size of the expansion chamber shall be ~uch
that the maximum S)':5tem pressure does not exceed the rated
pressure for an}' componolts of the antifreeze system.
12 in. (305 mm) A listed ~ in. (12 mm) relief valve :shall be permitted
in lieu of the c:.xparuion chamber required in, pro"ided
Drq> Awr<Mld ~ the antifreeze S)':5tem volume does not exceed 40 gal (151 L) as
5h indicating .~ illustrated in Figure
0·5 m) va"'" ~
minimum .g~ Unhoatad aros
Hoatod aroa 0- The requirements of paragraphs, and
J _ _ _ _ _ _c_>;=;> '---"
8 "
-.-'"- .shall not apply where the following three conditions
are met:
(1) The antifreeze system is provided with an automatic pres-
., ,
, ,~-~
• • • _ . . . . . . . _J • • •
sure pump or other det;ce or apparatus to automatically
Check valve •Pitch to drain maintain a higher pressure on the s)'Stem side than on the
{~in. (0.8 mm)
hole in c1aWQ~ supply :side of the water .suppl)· check valve separating the
antifreeze S)':5tem from the water .supply.
Norm: (2) Provision is made to automatically solution to prC'-
1. Chock vaN9s are permitted to be omitted 'hl1ere sprinklers ar9 vent overpre.ssurization due to thennaJ expansion of the
below 1hel9lJ91 of valw A. solution.
2. The 'h.R in. (0.8 mm) hole in the chock valve clapper is naooed 10 (3) Provision is made to automatically supply premixed solu-
allaN for expansion of the solution during a temperature risa. thus
preventing damage to sprinklrars. tion as needed to restore S)':5tcm pressure due to thermal
FIGURE Arrangenlent of Supply Piping and Val,,"eS.* A drain/tcst connection shall be installed at the most
remote ponion of the s)'Stem.* ,",bere the connection between the antifreeze s)'Stem For S)'StCt1U with a capacity larger than 150 gal (567.8 L),
and the wet pipe system incorporates a backflow pret'ention an additional test connection shall be pro,,;dcd for et'C.ty 100 gal
device, an.d the conditions of are not met, piping and (378.5 L).

20t3 Edition W

kler portion of the system. following recoguizcd engineering

Fill cup or· Hydraulic Characteristics. PipingS}'3tcrru for attached
Illhng COI'~Ctjon
heating and cooling equipment shall have alL'\.;liaI)' pumps or
Backhow prewnler
'nil oonllot valves ~ an arrangeIDent made to return water to the piping 5Y3tem in

Walel supply *\ c#r - 4 - '1-.

order to ensure the following:
(1) Water for sprinkleni shall not ~ required to p~ through


-n 12m. (205 mOll

heating or cooling equipment.
(2) At least one direct path shall e"ist for waterflow from the
*'---- -~
0,01' rn
Unhealed area
spri n kler w;tter supply to eveI}' sprinkler.
(3) Pipe sizing in the direct patll shall be in accordance with
SH 5 the design requirements of this stand.'\rd.
p.5m) Heated area "~o •
~o (4) No portions of the sprinkler piping shall have less than the
mlnlrn.Jffi J:;. •."
sprinkler S)'Stcm design pressure. regardless of the mode of

n operation of the attached heating or cooling equipment.
u -,
(5) There shall ~ no loss or outflow of water from the s)'Stem

CMCI< \'(\Ivo /
-~'ldc ~
.:. '.
------:.. ..-:--"
PilCh 10 drain
due to or rend ri ng from the operation of heating or cool~
iog equipment.
(6) Shutoff ..-ah"C:s and a means of drainage shall be pro..;ded
If.u In. (0.8 mm)
hOlo in cl<lppor
Onllf'l ·,al\'6
on piping to hearing or cooling equipment at all points of
connection to sprinkler piping and shall be inst<"\lled in
Notes: such a manner as to make possible repair or removal of
1. CI'lOCk vatvo can bO omlltGd whoro sprlnl<kH$ arc an)' auxiJiatJ component without impairing the sc....;ce-
bolcw the lovC'I of "'DI"o A abilil)' and response to the sprinkler $)'5tem.
2. Tho %f' in. (0.8 mOl) hokJ 10 the check \';Jlve ct..'lppor is needed 10
allow tOf €Xpilnsfon 01 tho sciulion dUling a tompomluro rise. Ih S (7) All auxiliary components. including the strainer, shaH be
plcOJCntJog to sprinklers. installed on the auxilial)' equipment side of the shutoff
FIGURE Arrangement of Supply Piping with Relief WaterTemperatu~.
Valv(' and Backflow Device. Maximum.

7.7 Automatic Sprinkler Systems with Non-Fire Protection In no case shall maximum watcr temperature
ConnectiolUl. flowing through the sprinkler portion of the system exceed
120"F (49"C).
7.7.1 Cin:ulatiog Closed-Loop S)"SlelllB. 2 Protective: control dC"\ices listed for this purpose S)'Stem Components. shall be installed to shut down heating or cooling systems A circulating dosed-loop S)'3tem is primarily a sprin- when the temperature of water flowing through the sprinkler
kler sptem and shall compl)' ",;th all prO',isions of this stan- portion of the system exceeds 120°F (49°C).
dard such as those for control val ....e s, area limitations of a S)'.s- '''''nere the watcr temperature c:::xceem 100°F
tern, alanns, fire department connections, sprinkler spacing. (37.s°C). intennediaJ:e or higher temperaturC'--filted sprinklers
and so forth, except as modified b)' Section 7.7. shall be used. Piping; fittings, ....a lves, and pipe hangers shall meet Minimum. Precautions shall be taken to ensure that
the requirements specified in Chapter 6. temperatures ~Iow 40°F (4°C) are not penrutted. Unle5S the requirements of7. are mel, a di- ObstnJCtion to Discbarge. Automatic sprinklers shall
e1ecrric fitting shall ~ installed in the junction where dissimi- not be obstructed by atL'\:iliary dC'\;ces, piping. insulation. and so
lar piping materials are joined (e.g., copper to steel). forth. from detecting fire or from proper distribution ofwa1er. Dielectric fittings shall not be required in the junc- Signs.
tion when= sprinklers are connected to piping. Caution signs shall ~ attached to aU \·al\·es control· Other auxiliary de,,;ces shall not be required to ~ ling sprinklers.
listed for sprinkler service; however. these devices. such as The caution sign. shall be worded as follows:
pumps, circulating PlunpS, heat exchangers, radiators, and lu-
minaires, shall ~ presSUl"e rated at 175 psi or 300 psi (12.1 bar This valve controls fire protection equipmenL Do not
or 20.7 bar) (rupture pres5ure of five times rated water sy.'Item close until after fire has been extinguished. Usc
working pre-ssure) to match the requin::d rating of sprinkler auxiliaI)' valves when nece5.';3.J"y to shut off suppl)' to
system components. alwliaI]' equipment. Auxiliary devices shall incorporate materials of con- CAUTION: Automatic alann can be sounded if this \-a.I...e is
struction and be so constructed that thc=), will their closed
phylYcal integril)' under fire conditions to avoid impainnent to Water Additi,,'@s.
the fire protection system. Materials added to water .shall not ad...ersel)' affect AlL'tiliar)' devices, where hung from the building the fire-fighting properties of the water and shall be in confor-
strUcture. shall be supported independently from the sprin- mil)' \\-;tll any .state or local health regulations.

W2013 Edition
SYSTEM REQUDU:MENTS 1$-41 Due care and caution ~hall be given to the usC" of 7.8.4 System Components.
additives that can remove or suspend .scale from older piping Drain VAlves. Each system of ouuide .sprinklers shall
have a separate drain vah'e installed on the 5)'Stem side of each Where additives arc necessary" for proper system op- conttol .."a1ve. except where an open sprinkler, top-fed system
cntlion. due care shall be taken to ensure that additivC'S arc is arranged to facilitate drainage.
replenished <tftcr aJann testing or whenever water i5 removed Check Vahes.
from the S)'5tcm.* Where sprinklers are installed on two adjacent sides '\alernow Detection. of a building. protecting two .separate and distinct ex- The .suppl)· of water from sprinkler piping through POSlUes. with .separate control ..-alva for each :lide. the end
auxiliary devices. circulatory: piping. and pumps .shall not lm- lincs shall be connected with check vah'es located so that one
del" an)' condition or operation. transient or .static. cause false sprinkler around the comer will operate.
.sprinkler waterflow signals. The intennediate pipe between the two check va.ln·s A sprinkler waterflow signal.shall not bc impaired !ohall be arranged to drain.
when water is discharged through an opened sprinkler or* As an alternate solution. an additional sprinkler
thl'"Ough the s)'5tcm test connection while al1xili~uJ equipment shall be installed on each .$)~tem located around the corner
is in any mode of operation (on. off. transient. stable). from the- .splcm invo).,'ed
7.8 Outside Sprinklers for Protection Against Exposure Fires S)"'5tem AlTangement. Where one- exposure- affects two
(Exposure Protedion Sprinkler S)""5tems). sides of the protected structure. the !o)'s'tem shall not be subdi-
vide-d between the two sides but rathe-r shall be arra.nge-d to
7.8.1 Applications.
operate as a .single s)'5tem. Exposure protection sprinkler 5)'!tems shall be per-
7.8.5 Pipe and Filtings. Pipe and fittings installed on the exte-
miued on building.s and structures regardless of whether dle
rior of the- building or structure- shall be corrosion resistant.
building's interior is protected b)' a sprinkler s)'Stem.
7.8.6 Strainers. A listed :ltrainer .shall be provided in the- riser \Vhere exposure protection systems are required.
or fe-ed main that supplies sprinklers having nominal K-factors
th~ shall be installed to provide protection of ",indov.."S and
smaller than K-2.8 (40).
othe.r openings within masollT)' walls. complete protection of
walls. protection of roof.s, or any combination thereof. 7.8.7 Gau~ Connections. A listed pressure gauge- confonn-
ing with shall be installed immediately ~low the con-
7.8.2 \\~ter Supply and Control. trol ...alve- of each system. Unles.s the requirements of7 's.2.2 are met. sprinklers 7.8.8 Sprinklers.
installed for protection against exposure fires shall be sup-
plied from a standard water supply as outlined in Chapter 24. A single line of sprinklers is permitted to protect a
ma.ximum of two .stories of wall area or two IC'\'els of ...e-rtically 'Nhere approved. other supplies, such as manual aligned windoW'S where- architectural fe-aturcs are: rufficientl)· or pumps or fire deparnnent connections, shall be per- flwh to allow rundown.
mitted to supply water to sprinklers for e..xposure protection. 'Where window sills or similar features result in re- 'Where fire deparnnent connections are used for wa- cesscs or projections exceeding 1 in. (25.4 mm) in depth.
ter supply. they shall beso located that the)' will not be affected separate sprinklers shall be pro..ided for each window on each
by the exposing fire. Icvel, regardless of wheth~ protection is being provided for
windows or completc walls.
7.8.3 Control. For wall protection .$)'Stems. sprinklen shall be lo- Each s}'stem of outside sprinklen: shall have an inde-
cated 6 in. to 12 in. (152 mm to 305 mm) from the wall surface
pendent control val...e.
and within 6 in. (152 mm) of the top of the wall. with maxi- ManualJ)' controlled open sprinklers shall be used mum spacing of 8 ft (2.44 m) or as indicated in the sprinkler
onl)' where constant supervision is present. lisring for exposure protection wc. Sprinklers shall be of the open or automatic type. For protection of window and similar openings, listed
window sprinklers shall be positioned within 2 in. (50.8 mm)
Paragraph was revised by a tentative interim of the top of the window sash in accordance with Table
amendment (llA). See page I. 'Nhere exposure protection sprinkle.r systems are in-
stallcd, listed cornice sprin,k1er.s shall be used to protect com-
bustible cornices exceeding 12 in. (305 mm) in depth.
7 .8.~.4 Automatic sprinklers in areas subject to freezing shaU
be on dry pipe s)'Stems confonning to Section 7.2 or antifreeze COnlice shall be installed in each bay
systems confonning to Section 7.6, or be dry sprinklers of an fonned by cornicc features and shall be spaced up to a ma.-u-
adequate length connected to wet pipe systems located in mum distance of 10 ft (3.05 m) apart. with deflectors 8 in.
heated areas. (203 mm) below the underside of thc roof sheathing. Automatic 5)'!tenu of open sprinklers shaH be con- Open spray sprinklers (upright. pendent. or sidewall)
trolled by the operation offire detection devices designed for shall be pcnniued for application in roof protection when in-
the spccific application. stalled in accordance with ordinal)' hazard Group I protection

2013 Editicn W

Table Position of Window Sprinklen;* Control '~al"-e. An indicating.type control val"'e for op-
erational testing of the system shall be provided on each sprin-
NominAl kler riser outside of the refrigerated space.
Nominal K·Factor
Width of
from Window* Check ,,,he.
(ft) U.s. Metric (;0.) Unless the requirements of arc met, a
check ,,-a.lve with a %2 in. (2.4 mm) diameter hole in the dap-
Up to 3 2.8 40 7
per shall be installed in the sy:">tem mer below the test vah'e
>3 to 4 2.8 40 8
required in
>4 to 5 2.8 40 9
5.6 80 12 Check valves shall not ~ required where dr), pipe or
>5 to 7 11.2 160 12 preaction valves are used and designed to complctcl)' drain all
Two 2.8 40 7 water above the scat and that are listed for imtallation without
>7 to 9.5 14.0 200 12 priming water remaining and where priming water is not used
Two 2.8 40 9 in the S)'3tem riser.
>9.5 to 12 Two 5.6 80 12* Air or Nitrogen Supply Piping.
ForSI units. 1 fI = O.3048m. The air or nitTogen suppl)" plpmg entering the
freezer area shall be as sL'\ted in and 7.9.2. i.I.2. Air Suppl)'. The supply piping shall be equipped

areas and discharge criteria. with dcflectoT.S aligned para.llel to
with two easily removable supply lines at least 6 ft (1.9 m)
the ~Iope and positioned a minimum 18 in. (457 mm) above the
long and at least I in. (25 mm) in diameter as shown in
roof swface.
Figure (a) or Figure (b). Uprighlsprinkler.s positioned as ridge pole .sprin-
klers .shall be permitted with their deflectors horizontal and N"ltrogen Supply. The suppl)' piping shall be
minimum 6 in. (152 mm) above the: ridge. with their ma.xi- equipped ",,;th a single easH)' removable supply line at least 6 ft
mum spacing and protection areas detcnnincd in the plan (1.9 m) long and at least I in. (25 mm) in diameter.
\iew mther than along the .slope. Each suppl)' line shall be equipped with contTol
7.9* Refrigerated Spaces. valves located in the warm area.

7.9.1 Spaceti Maintained at Temperatun?sAbove 32°F (<rC). Onl), one air supply line shall be open to supply the
"'here temperatures are maintained above 32°F (O°C) in refrig- system air at an)' one time.
erated spaces, the r~uirements in this section shall not appl)·. Fi~ Detection for Pnmclion Release.
7.9.2* Spaces :Maiotnilled at Temperatun!'S Below 32°F (O°C). Detectors for P~aclion Systems. General.* The release ~tem shall be designed to opernte 'Where sprinkler pipe pa.s~s through a wall or floor prior to sprinkler operation, unless detectors meet the re-
into the refrigernted space, a section of pipe arrangt=d for re- quirements of7.
moval shall be provided immediately inside the space.
(A) Detectors .shall be electric or pneumatic fixed tempera- The remm-a.ble length of pipe required in
ture tJpe with temperature ratings less than that of the
shall be a minimwn of30 in. (762 mm).
.sprinklcrs. LowAirPreslrureAJamt.
(8) Detection devices shall not be rate-of-rise type. Unle:ss the requirements of are met, a low
air preMure alann to a constantly auended location shall ~ 'Wherc the system is a double interlock preaction
installed. system or single interlock prcaction antifreeze s)'Stem. detec-
tion de'\oice.s shall be pennitted to be any type specifically ap- Sptems equipped with local low pressure alanns proved for use in a refriger..:tted area if installed in accordancc
and an automatic air mainte:nance device shall not ~ re- with their listing rcquirements and NFPA 72
quired to alarm to a con.stanLly attended location. Detector Location at Ce.iling. Piping Pilcb. Piping in refrigerated .spacC5 .shall be in-
stalled with pitch as outlined in Under smooth ceiling.s, detectors shall be :spaced
not exceeding their listed :spacing.* Air or Nitrogen Supply. Air or nitrogen supply for
s),stems shan be one of the following: For other than :smooth cciling.s. detectors shall
not exceed one-half of the listed linear detector spacing or full
(1) Air from the room of }OWC.5t temperattu'e to reduce the
moisture content allowable sprinkler spacing, whichever is greatcL
(2) Air compres.sor/dryer package listed for the application Detector Location in Racks.
utilizing ambient air
(3) Compressed nitrogen gas from cylinders u.sed in lieu of Unless conditions in arc met, one IC\·c1 of
compressed air detectors :shall be itutalled for each level of .sprinklers.

W 2013 Editbn
SYSTEM RJ!QUlR£MENTS lil-43 Detector,s shall be installed venically within one (3) Separate detection ~tem.s shall be in.rtaUed for ceiling
.storage level of the rack sprinkler" and as follows: sprinkler systems and in-rack sprinkler 5)'Stcms.
(l) Det.eetorsshall be located in the tnulSverse flue in.single-row (4) Where S)'3lcm i.s double interlock preaction type, ceiling
racks and in the longitudinal flue in doubJe-row racb. detection sy.stem .!ball opcrntc 5Otcnoid valves on both
(2) For multiple-row racks, detectors .shall be located in ei- ceiling and in-rac.k pn:acrion sy.!tcms.
ther longitudinal or trans,lcr,se flue: .space and ahall be
within 5 ft (1.5 m) horizontally of each .sprinkler.

Haated area Refrigerated apace

Bypass tor
systam testing

Riser :!;--... Chock va"'"

InstaIkld in
horizontal plpo

AJ rcorT'IJr9SS0r
and tank
Fro9Z9r alrintake


Rofrigorated spaca
90 in.
(7&2 mm)
soctions of ppg_ f+-4l
Namally open
control valve

Otack valve with 'Y.K in. __..~
(2.4 mm) holo in c1appgr ..
OryJpreaction valve -
Main control- ..


AX corrprsssor·_.(L--l==== =::l r...."" airlntako

and lank

~ Airpr9S5Uf9
~ Air supply sourc<I
@ Wa....
Air pressure
supply sou"",
EIeVlltion Vlow
1. Chock va"'" wnh ¥.a in. (2.4 mm) hot. in clapper not ,squirsd npfims wats, not ussd.
2. Supply air to bs connsctsd to top or sldoat systom ppg.
3. Each removable air line to be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) diameter and a minimum
of 6 tt (1.8 m) long.

FIGURE 7 . Refrigerator Area Sprinkler System U5ed to Minimize the Chances of Developing Ice Plugs.

201S Edition Ii

H&ated 8r98 RetrigGr8tGd space Check velve

Easily removed
seeticn of pipe
TO~ing,_\ 1··~-CmtrolvaNe - .....
sprnders ~

Normally open I
control valve
Low air alarm -o.....-Law air alarm

Check valve wnh
%: in. (2.4 mm)
t . . .~
hole in Clapper
Check V/ /l
.~ Check valve with (2.4 mm) __,.
Preaaion va~ E hole in dSRler
Contra IIlIIva /' E Preaction vaNe --...
Water suWty CD
,<.0-- Conlrol valve
Water St.f)pIy ..
Checi< valva " "
.--tl------1 FIGURE Vah"€' Arrangement.

corrpressor Sprinklen or automatic spra), nozzles in ducts, duct
and tank Freezer air intake coilaI'!>. and plenum chamber.'! .5hall not be required where all
"" cooking equipment is :served b)'lisled grease extractors. Unless the requirements of are met. stan-
dard sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles shall be so located
Notes: as to provide for the protection of cooking equipment and
1. Chock vallJ'e with %: in. (2.4 mm) hole in clapper not required if prime cooking .5urfaces.
water nollJS9d.
2. Each removable air line is to be installed a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) Hoods containing automatic flre-extinguishing sys-
in diameter and a minimum of 6 ft (1.8 m) tong. tems are protected areas; therefore. these hoods an~ not con-
.'Iidered obstructions to m·erhead sprinkler s)'Stems and shall
FIGURE (b) P~actioD System Arrangement. not require floor coverage underneath. Cooking equipment below hoods that contain auto-
matic fire-extinguishing equipment is protected and shall not
require protection from the o ....e rhead sprinkler S)·stem. Single Detection System for Ceiling and In··Rack
Sprinklers. Cc=iling detection only shall be permitted where all 7.10.3 Sprinkler and AutomaticSpray Nome Localiotl- Ducts.
of the following conditions are mel: Unless the requirements of or are
(1) Maximum storage height is 35 ft (10.7 m). met, exhaust ducts shall have one sprinkler or automatic spra)·
(2) Maximwn ceiling height is 40 ft (12.2 m). nozzle located at the top of each vertical ruer and at the mid-
(3) Maxim urn hazard of storage is Class ITI. point of each offset.
(4) No solid shelves are present.
(5) One preaction valve is used for both ceiling and in-rack Sprinklers or 3U[omatic spra)· nozzles shall not be
sprinklers protecting the .'lame area. with separate indicat- required in a vertical riser located outside of a building. pro-
ing control valves and check valves pro...i ded downstream vided the riser doe.s not expose combustible material or pro-
as shown in Figure vided the intenor of the building and the horizontal distance
(6) I::>e:tectors at the ceiling are spaced at a maximum of one- between the hood outlet and the ....ertical risel' is at least 25 ft
half the listed detector spacing but not less than the .'Iprin- (7.6 m).
kler spacing. Unless the requirem~nts of are met. hori-
zontal exhawt ducts s.hall have sprinklers or automatic spray
7.10 Conuuercial-T)-pe Cooking Equipment and Ventilation. nozzle devices located on 10 ft (3 m) centers beginning no
more than 5 ft (1.5 m) from the duct entrance.
7.10.1 General. In cooking areas protected by automatic
sprinklers, additional sprinklers or automatic spray noz:z.les Sprinklers or automatic spray nozzle..s shall be re-
shall be prmided to protect commercial-type cooking equip- quired in ducts.
ment and ventilation sptems that are do.igned to carry away
grease-laden vapors unless otherwise protected. Where ducts do not exceed 75 ft (22.86 m) in
length and the entire exhaust duct is protected in accordance
7.10.2* Sprinklers and AUlomatic Spray Nozzle-s. v.ith NFPA 96. sprinkler(.'I) or automatic sPI"'a)' nozz.le(s) shall
not be required. Unless the requirements of are met, stan-
dard sprinkler'S or automatic spray nozzles 'Shall be so located A sprinkler(s) or an automatic spray no:ale(s) in
as to prmide for the protection of exhaust dUClS, hood ex- exhaust ducts subject to freezing shall be properly protected
hawt duct collars, and hood exhawt plenum chambers. against freering by approved means. (Su

W 2013 Editbn

7.10.4 Sprinkler Bnd Automatic Spray Nome Location - 7.10.9 Indicating ''8lve6. A listed indicating valve shall he in-
DUd Collar. stalled in the water supply line to the .sprinklers and spra),
nonle.s protecting the cooking and ventilating sptem. Each hood exhaust duct collar .shall have one sprin-
kler or automatic Spr3)" nozzle located I in. mjnimurn to J 2 in. 7.10.10 Strainers. A listed line strainer shall be installed in the
maximum (25 mOl minimum to 305 mOl ma.ximum) above main water .suppl), preceding sprinkleu or automatic spra)'
the point of duct collar connection in the hood plenum. nonles having nominal K-factor.s smaller than K-2.8 (40). H<>O<h that have listed fire dampers located in the duct 7.10.11 Tesl Connection. A system test connection shall be
collar shall be protected v.-ith a .sprinkler or automatic .spray provided to verify proper operation of equipment specified in
nome located on the discharge 5idc of the damper and shall be
50 positioned as not to interfere' with damper operation. •
7.11 Addith'fC'S and Coatings.
7.10.5 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle Location -
7.11.1 Additives to the water supply intended for control of
Exhaust Plenum Chambers.
microbiological or other corrosion shall be listed for use Hood exhaust plenum chambcn shall have one: within fire sprinkler s)'5tems.
sprinkler or automatic spra)" nome centered in each chamber
7.11.2 Internal pipe coatings, excluding galvanizing. in-
not exceeding 10ft (3 m) in length.
tended for control of microbiological or other corrosion shall Plenum chambers greater than 10 ft (3 m) in length be listed for use within fire sprinkler S)'stems.
shall have two spl'"inklers or automatic sprn~' nozzles evenly
spaced. l'.;th the ma:\:imum distance between the two spl'"in-
klers not to exceed 10 ft (3 m).
Chapler 8 Installation Requirements
7.10.6 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle Temperature
I Ratings and K·Factors. 8.1* Basic Requi~ments. Where the exposed temperature is expected to be 8.1.1 *' 111(: requirements for spacing, location. and position of
300cr (149°C) or less. sprinklen or automatic spray nozzles sprinklers shall be based on the following principles:
being wed in duct, duct collar. and plenum areas shall be of
the extra high-temperatUl'"e classification [325°F to 375°F (I) Sprinklers shall be installed throughout the premi-Ses.
(163°C to 191 0 C)J. (2) Sprinklers shall be located so as not to exceed the ma..."t-i-
mum protection area per sprinkler. When we of a tempernture-measuring dC\-;ce indi- (S)*Sprinklers shall be positioned and located so as to prO\;de
cates temperatures abo\'e SOOOP (l49°C). a sprinkler or auto- satisfactory performance with respect to activation time
matic spray nozzle of higher classification shall be tued. and distribution.
(4) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from areas Sprinkler.s or automatic spray nozzles being used in
specificaltyallowed b)' this standard.
duct, duct collar. and plenum areas shall ha\>'e orifices with
(5) 'When sprinklers are specifically tested and test results
K-factor.s not less than K-I.4 (20) and not more than K-5.6 (80).
demonstrate that dC\;ations from clearance requirements
7.10.7 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray NozzJe. Access shall be to structurn..l members do not impair the ability of the
prO\;ded to all sprinklers or automatic spra~' nozzles for ex- sprinkler to control or suppress a fire, their positioning
amination and replacemenL and locating in accordance with the test results shall be
7.10.8 Cooking Equipment. (6) Clearance between sprinklers and ceilings exceeding the General. Cooking equipment (such as deep fat fry'- maximums .specified in this standard shall be pennitted.
ers. ranges. griddles, and broiler.s) that is considered to be a provided that tests or calculations demonstrate compa-
source of ignition shall be protected in accordance with the rable sensiti";l)' and pcrfonnance of the sprinklers to
provisiolU of 7.10.1. those installed in confonnance with these sections.
(7) Furniture, such as portable wardrobe units, c:a.binets, tro- Deep Fat Fryers. phy cases, and similar features not intended for occu- Asprinkler or automatic spray nozzle used for pro- pancy. does not require .sprinklers to be installed in them.
tection of deep fat fryen shall be listed for that application. This type of feature .shall be permitted to be attached to
the finished sLJucture. The position,. arrangement. location, and water (8 )*Sprinklers shall not be required to be installed within
suppl), for each sprinkler or automatic sprn)' nozzle shall be in c:lectrical equipment,. mechanical equipment. or air han-
accordance with its listing. dling units not intended for occupancy. Fuel and Heat Shutoff. 8.1.2* S)'5tem vahes and gauges shall be accessible fOI' opera-
tion. inspection. tests. and maintenance. The operation of any cooking equipment sprinkler
or automatic spra), nozzle shall automatic:all)' shut off all sources 8.2 Sy.o;IeOl Protection Area Li.mitatioDs.
offucl and heat to all equipment requiring protection.
8.2.1 The maximum floor area on any one- floor to be pro- An)' gas appliance not reqltiring protection but tected by sprinklers supplied by an.)' one sprinkler system riser
located lU'l,der ventilating equipment shall also be shut off. or combined s),stem riser shall be as folloWll: All shutdown devices shall be of the t)pe that re- (I) L;ghthaza<d-52.000ft' (4831 m')
quires manual resetting prior to fud or power being restored. (2) O<dinMyhaza<d - 52.000 ft' (4831 m')

2013 Editicn W

(3)*ExtTa hazard - H),draulicaU)" calculated - 40,000 ftz 'V.'nere maximum ceiling temperaturC3 exceed IOO"'F
(3716 m') (3S 0 C) • .sprinklel's with temperature ratings in accordance
• (4) Storage - High.pilcd storage (ao> defined in and with the ma...:imum ceiling temperatu.e..'l of Table .shall
storage coveTed by other NFPA standards - 40,000 n z be used.
(3716 m') High-tempcranare sprinklers .shall be pennined to be
8.2.2 The flooT area occupied b)" mczxa.oioc.$ .shall not be wed throughout o.dinary and extra hazard occupancies. stOI'-
included in the area limits of8.2.1. age occupancies. and as allowed in thi.s .standard and other
8.2.' \o\'ncre single 5)'StC1nS protect cxtra hazard. high-piled NFPA codes and st'Ulda.ds.
storage. or i!itoragc co....eTed b;' other NFPA standards. and ordi- Sprinklers of intelTnediate- and high-temperatu.e
n3t'}' or light haxaxd aTC<lS. the c.'\:tJa hax.\rd or :r.toragc area cover-
classifications shall be inst:dled in specific locations as re-
age shall not exceed the floor area specified for that hazard and
the totBl area coverage .shall not CX"ceed 52.000 f~ (4831 m ).
, quired by

8.2.4 Multiple buildings attached .". canopies. co...ercd· TIle following practices .shall be obsen'ed to pro\ide
brccZCW'a)'3. common roofs, or a common wall (5) shall be per- sprinklers of other than ordinaf)<·temperature classification
mitted to be supplied 1»- a single fire .sprinkler mer. unless other arc determined or unless high-
temperature sprinklers arc wed throughout. and tempera- The ma....imum S)'Stcm si:z.c .shall com pi)' wilh 8.2.1. ture selection shall be in accordance with Table
8.2.5· Detached Buildings. Table and Figure Unless the .equi.ements of appl)'. detached (1) Sprinklers in the high-temperature zone shall be of
buildings.•egardles.5 of separation distance. that do not meet the high-temperature classification. and sprinklers in
the criteria of 8.2.4 shall be provided with separate fire sprin- the intennediate-tempernture zone shall be of the
kler s)'Stems. intennediate-tem perature c1assi Cication. When acceptable to the authorit)'· having jurisdiction. (2) Sprinklers located within 12 in. (305 mm) to one side o.
detached strucntres shall be pennitted to ~ rupplied b)' the 30 in. (762 mm) above an uncovered steam main. heat-
fire sprinkler S)'3tern of an adjacent building. ing coil. or radiator shall be of the intermediate-
temperature c1a.ssification.
8.3 Use ofSprinkJers.
(3) Sprinklers within 7 ft (2.1 m) of a Iow-pressure blowoff
8.3.1 General. valve that discharges in a large room shall be of the
high-temperature classification.
8.3.1..· Sp.inklers shall be installed in accordance with their
listing. (4) Sprinklen under glass or plastic sk)'lights exposed to the
direct ra)'5 of the sun shall be of the intennediate- The requirements of shall not apply where temperature classification.
construction features o. other special situations require un- (5) Sprinklen in an Ulwentilated, concealed .space, under
usual water distribution. and listed sprinklers shall be permit- an un insulated roof, or in an un\'entilated attic shall be
led to be installed in position.s other than anticipated b)' their
of the intennediate-temperarnre classification.
listing to ac.hieve specific results.
(6) Sprinklers in unventilated .show windows having high-· Upright sprinklers shall ~ installed with the frame powered electric lights near the ceiling .shall be of lhe
arms parallel to the branc.h line, unless specifically listed for intermediatc-temperarnre cla.ssification.
othc=r orientation. (7) Sprinkler.!! protecting commercial-type cooking equip- Where solvent cement is used as the pipe and fittings ment and ventilation systems shall be of the high- o. ex-
bonding agent, sprinklers shall not be imt:aJled in the fittings tra high-temperature classification as determined by usc
prior to the fittings ~ing cemented in place. of a temperature-measuring de'\;ce. (Su 7.10,6.) Protedh"e Caps and Straps. (8) Sprinklers protecting residential areas installed near
specific heat SOurCC3 identified in Table shall• • Protective caps and straps shall be removed using be installed in accordance with Table
means that are in accordance with the manufacrnrer's instal- (9) Ordinal)·-tempcrab.tre .sprinklers located adjacent to a
lation in5tructiom. heating duel that cfucharges air that is less than 100°F· Protective: caps and straps shall be removed from all (:~8°C) are not required to be separated in accordance
sprinklers prior to the time when the sprinkler 5)"stem is with Table
placed in service. (10) Sprinklen in walk~ n type coolers and freezers with auto-
matic defro.sting shall be of the intcrmcdiate-temperanlre Protective caps and straps on all upright sprinklen
classification or higher.
or on an)' sprinklen installed more than 10 ft (3 m) above the
floor shall be permitted to be removed from sprinkler.s imme- In case of occupanC}' change ilwol\ing temperature
diately foUO\Ot;ng their installation. change, the sprinklers shall be changed accordingl),.
8.3.2 TemperatuJ'e' Ratings.* The minimum tcmpernntre rating of ceiling sprin-
8.3.2.• * Unles.5 the requirements of,, o. klers in gC'Ileralstorage, rack storage, rubber tire .storage. roll are met, ordinar)'. and intennediate-tempc:ratttre paper storage, and baled cotton storage applications .shall be
sprinklers shall be wed throughout buildings. 150°F (66·C).

W 2013 Editbn

Table TeDlpernture Ratings of Sprinklers Based on Distance (rom Heat Sources

Ordinary-Temperature Intermediate-Temperature

Type of Heat Condition Rating Rating R.,ting

(1) Heating ducts

(a) Above Morc than 2 ft 6 in. 2 ft 6 in. or less
(b) Side and below More than 1 ft 0 in. 1 ft 0 in. or less
(e) Diffuser An)' distance except as .shown under DowlIu'llJrj discharge: C)~indcr
lntcnncdiate--Temperature Rating with 1 ft 0 in. radius from
cohmln edge eXlcnding 1 ft 0 in.
below and 2 ft 6 in. above
Horizontal di5£ha rge: ScmiC)'lindc:r
or cylinder with 2 ft 6 in.
radius in direction of flow
extending I ft 0 in. below and
2 ft 6 in. above
(2) Unit heater
(a) Horizontal discharge Discharge side: 7 ft 0 in. to 20 fl 7 ft 0 in. rndiw cylinder
o in. radiw pic-5hapc:d extending 7 ft 0 in.
C)~indcr (ue Figure l1bo~ and 2 ft 0 in.
extending 7 ft 0 in. above and below unit heater
2 ft 0 in. below heater: also
i ft 0 in. radiw cylinde. mo.e
than 7 ft 0 in. above unit
(b) Vertical downward 7 ft 0 in.•adiw CJlinde. 7 ft 0 in. radius cylinder
disc.harge (Im- extending upwa.d from an e>.:tending from the top
spn'lIklns below Imit e1evarion 7 ft 0 in. above unit of the unit heater to an
heatt!l; 5£e Figure heater- elevation 7 ft 0 in. above unil heater
(3) Steam mains
(a) Above More than 2 ft 6 in. 2 ft 6 in. or less
(b) Side and below More than I ft 0 in. I ft 0 in. or less
(c) Blowoff val"'e More than 7 ft 0 in. 7 ft 0 in, or less

ForSlunits. I in. =25.4 mm; I fI =0.3048 m.

I Table Temperature Ratings of Sp' in Specified Locntions

Ordin8r')LTemperature Intermediate-Temperature Higb-Tempernture

Location Rating Rating Rating

Skjl;ght> Glass or plastic

Attics Do not use Ventilated or unvt:ntilated
Peaked roof: metal or thin boards, Ventilated Unventilated
concealed or not concealed.
insulated or un insulated
Flat roof: metal, not concealed Ventilated or unventilated Note: Fo. uninsulated .oof,
climate and insulated or
uninsuLated occupanc)' can
necessitate intermediate
sprinklenl. Check on job.
Flat roof: metal, concealcd, insulated Ventilated Unventilatcd
or uniruulated
ShO\'<' windows VentiJated Unventilatcd

Nou~: A check of job oondilion by meam oflhennomelers might be nece»3.ry.

2013 Editlcn til


Table Temperature Ratings ofSprinkJers in Specified Residential Areas

MininlUI1.1 Distance from Minimum Distonce from

Edge of Source to Edge of Source to
Ordinary-Temperature Intermediate-Temperature
Sprinkler Sprinkler

Heat Source m. mm m. mm

Side of open or recessed fireplace 36 914 12 305

Front of receMed fireplace 60 1524 36 914
Coal- or wood-burning sto\'e 42 1067 12 305
Kitchen range 18 457 9 229
Wall o\'en 18 457 9 229
Hot air flues 18 457 9 229
Un insulated heat ducts 18 457 9 229
Unin.mlated hot water pipes 12 305 6 152
Side of ceiling- or wall-mounted 24 607 12 305
hot air diffusen
Front of wall-mounted hot air 36 914 18 457
Hot water hcatc:r or [unlace 6 152 3 76
Light fL'\:ture:
OW-250W 6 152 3 76
250 W-499 W 12 305 6 152

8.3.3 Thermal Sensitivity.· Sprinklers in light hazard occupancies.shall be one of
the following:

High- (1) t)pe as defined in

8=0.5774 x A (2) Residential sprinklers in accordance with the require--
t.mperat..... zone C= 1.1547xA
1+--7 ft 0 in.---I menu of8A.5
(3) Standard-response sprinklers used for modifications or
Unit heater additions to existing light hazard s)'5tems equipped wilh
.standard-response sprinklers

I·e \
(4) Standard-response sprinklers wed where indi....idual
standard-response sprinklers arc replaced in existing light
, 0 , hazard 5)'st:erns
~ ''';'}-acre sprinklers are installed, all

sprinklers within a compartme=:nt shall be qu.ick-response=: un-

Airflow .5
8 _

less otherwise permitted in Where there are no listed quick-response sprinkler.s

0:( -= 1 -+ 5 ft 9o/,e in.

1 °lr:::::
N .-
in the temperature range required, standard-re.sponse sprin-
k1e-n shall be permitted to be wed.


8 fl: Ph-in.
_ 'When existing light hazard S}'!tem.s are com'erted to
we quick-response or residential sprinklers. all sprinklers in a
zono compartment shall be changed.
I", 8.3.4 Sprinklers with K-Factors uss than K-5.6 (80).
- - -- ./
llt'1 8 \
- - - - -'1 -ft 6"~6in. Sprinklers shall have a minimum nominal K-factor of
51 units; 1 in. = 25.4 rom; 1 ft = 0.31 m.
I 5.6 (80) unless otherwise permitted b)' 8.3.4. For light hazard occupancies not requiring as much wa·

ter as is discharged b)' a sprinkler wilh a nominal K-factor ofK-5.6
FIGURE aDd lntennooiate- (80) operating at 7 psi (0.5 bar), sprinkle=:rs ha'\ing a smaller ori-
Temperature Zones at Unit Heaters. fice .shall be: pcm-liued.. .subject to the following rc..striction.s:

(I) The splcm shall be h)draulically calculated.

(2) Sprinkler.s with nominal K.factors of less than K-5.6 (80)
shall be irutalled only in wet pipe sprinkler S)'5tem:s or in
accordance with the limitations of or

W 2013 Editbn

(3) A listed strainer shall be provided 011 the suppl)' side of Open sprinklers sllall be installed in accordance "';th
sprinklers with nominal K-factor5 of leS!'. than K-2.8 (40). all applicable requirement.s of this standard for their aut~
matlc counterpart. Sprinklcuwith nominal K-fuclOrs oflcss than K-5.6 (80)
mall be pcnnittcd to be in-stalled in confonna:ncC" with J 1.3.2 for 8.4.5 Residential Sprinklers.
protection against exposure fire$.· Residential!lprinklen shall be permitted in dwelling Sprinklcn with nominal K·factors of K-4.2 (57) shall units and their adjoining corridors, provided the)' arc in·
be pcnniltcd to be ilutalled on dry pipe and pre-action S)'3tcms stalled in confonnance with theil" listing.
protecting light hazard occupancies where piping is corrosion Residential sprinklcn .shall be used ani)' in wet S)'So-
resistant or intcmall}' galvanized. tems unlos specificall)" listed for usc in dry .5)'3tcms or preac-
tton .5)'3lcms.
8.3.5 Thread Siu Limitations. Sprinklers having a K-faclor ex-
ceeding K-5.6 (80) and having Yo! in. (15 mm) National Pipe Where residential sprinklers are installed in a com-
Thread (NP'I) shall not be installed in new sprinkler !»'SICtns. partment as defined in 3.3.6, all sprinklers within the compart·
ment.shall be residential.spri 11 klers.
8.4* Application of Sprinkler Types. Sprinklers shall be se-
lected for use as indicated in this section and shall be posi~ 8.4.6 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers.
tioned and spaced as described in Section 8.5. ESFR sprinklers shall be used onl), in wet pipe s)'Stems
unless specificall)'listed for usc in dr), sysleln.5.
8.4.1 Standard Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers. ESFR sprinklers shall not be permitted to protect Upright and pendent spra)' sprinklers shall be permit- storage on solid shelf racks unless the solid .shclve5 arc pro-
ted in all occupancy hazard c1aMifications and building con- tected in accordance with 16.1.6 or 17.1.5 as applicable to the
struction t}pes. type of storage. Quick-response sprinklers shall not be permitted for ESFR sprinklers shall not be permitted to protect
use in extra hazard occupancies under the density/area de- storage with open top conminers.
sign method. ESFR sprinklers shall be installed only in buildings
8.4.2 Sidewall Spray Sprinlders. Sidcwallsprinklers .shall only where roof or ceiling .slope above the sprinklers does not ex-
be installed as follow.s: ceed a pitdl of2 in 12 (a rise of2 units in a nUl of 12 units. a
roof slope of 16.7 percent).
(1) Light hazard occupancies with smooth. horizontal or· ESFR sprinklers shall be pe-mlitted for usc in buildings
.sloped. flat ceiling.s
with unobstructed and noncombustible obstructed construction.
(2) Ordinary' hazard occupancies with smooth. flat ceiling.s
where specificall)'listed for .such use Where depths of me solid strllctural members
(3) To protect areas below overhead doors (beams. stem. and so forth) exceed 12 in. (305 mm), ESFR
sprinklers shall be installed in each channel fonned b,.. the
8.4.~ Extended Coverage Sprinklers. E.xtended co,,-erage solid suuctural members.
sprinklers .shall only be installed as follow:s: lYlinimum sprinkler spacing and area of cO\'erage
(1) Unobstructed construction consisting offlat, .smooth ceil- shall compl)' wilh the requirements of8.12.2 and 8.12.3.
in~ with a slope not exceeding a pitch of I in 6 (a rise of
2 wli ts in a run of 12 wli ts, a roof slope of 16.7 percen t) Draft Curtains.
(2) Unobstructed or noncombustible obstructed construc- Where ESFR sprinkler s}'Stems arc insralledadjacem
tion. where specifically listed for such use to sprinkler s)'Stems with !Standard-response sprinklers. a draft
(3) Within tJ1.LSSes or barjoists ha,,;ng web member.s not greater curtain of noncombwtible cOnMrucnon and at Ie-alit 2 ft (0.6 m)
than I in. (25.4 mm) maximum dimension or where lnlSVS in depth shall be required to separate the two arC3.5.
arespaeed greater than 7~ ft (2.3 m) on center and where A clear aisle of at least 4 ft (1.2 m) centered below
the ceiling slope does not exceed a pitch of I in 6 (3 rise of
the- draft curtain !lhall be maintained for separation.
2 units in a nm of 12 units. a roof sl01X' of 16.7 percent)
(4) Extended coverage upright and pendent sprinklers in- Ratings. Sprinkler temperature ratings
.stalled under smooth. flat ceilings that have slopes not for ESFR sprinklers shall be ordinary unless 8.3.2 requires
exceeding a pitch of 1 in 3 (a rise of 4 units in a run of intennediate- or high-temperature rating.s.
12 units, a roof .slope of 33.3 percent), where specifi- Occupancy and H97.Rrd. ESFR .sprinklen de-signed to
cally liste:d for such we
meet an)' criteria in Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 shall be
(5) Exte:nded coverage sidewall sprinklers installed in accor-
permitted to protect light and ordinary hazard occupanc.ies.
dance with in slopes exceeding a ceiling pitch of
2 in 12 where listed for such use 8.4.7 Control Mode S~cirlC Application (CMSA) Sprinklen.
(6) In each bay of obstnlcled construction consisting of .solid CI\iSA sprinklers shall be permitted to be wed in wet.
structural members that extend below the deflector of the dry', or pt"eaction s)'5tems and shall be installed in accordance
sprinkler with their listing.
8.4.4 OpeD Sprinklers.· Galvanized Pi~. Open sprinklers shall be permitted to be used in del- Where steel pipe is used in preaction and dl}' pipe
uge systems to protect special hazards or cxposw'es or in other systems. piping materials .shall be limited to imernalty galva-
speciallocatiom•. nu.ed steel.

2013 Edition W
1:>-50 INSTAllATION OF SPRINKLER SVSTEMS Black sled pipe shall be pcnniued when dlC S)""tem The minimum barrel length shall ~ measured from
is installed in frcczcn where the nir temperature is below 32°F the face of the fitting to which the dl)' sprinkler is installed to
(O°C) and the air supply is C'ither nitrogen or a listcd rcgC'nC'~ the inside surface of the iluubtion. wall. or ceiling leading to
tive air dryer. the cold space. whichever is dosest to the fitting. Nongalvanized fittings shall be permitted.* Where dt)" sprinL:Jer.s arc connected to wet pipe ~prin­
klcr systems protecting insulated freezer .stnlcture,s, the clear-
8.4.7.~ Temperature Ratings. ance space around the sprinkler barrcl.shall be scaled.
8.4.7.:U Unless the requirements of, or 8.5 P05ition~ Location, Spacing~ and Use of Sprinklt'r5. arc mct,.sprinkler temperature raringsshall be thc.samc
ro: those indicated in Table and Table or 8.5.1 General.
those wed in largc-scaJe fire testing to dc-tennille the protection Sprinklers shall ~ located. ~paced. and positioned in
requirements for the hazard involved. accordance with the requirements of Section 8.5. Sprinklers of intcnncdiatc- and high·lcrnperaturc 8.5.l.2 Sprinklers shall be po~itioned to provide protection
rntings shall be installed in specific locations as required by of the area. consistent with the overall objecti~.s of this -stan-
8.3.2. dard by controlling the positioning and allowable area of CO\"-
erage for each .sprinkler. In .storage occupancies. ordinary. intennediate. or
high tcmperaturt='-rated .sprinklcB shaH be used for wet pipe The requirements of8.5.2 through 8.5.7 -shall appl)' to
~)'5tems. all.sprinkler t)pcs Wlless modified by more reslricti\"C 1U1e.s in
Section 8.6 through Section 8.12.
8.4.7.~.4 In ~torage occupancies. high temperature-rated
sprinklers .shall be llsed for dry pipe S)'3tems. 8.5.2 Protection Arens per Sprinkler. Occupancy and Hazard. Determination of Protection A~a of eo,,·erage. Quick-response CMSAsprinklen designed to meet The protection :area of covetage per sprinkler (AJ
any criteria in Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 shall ~ permit- shall ~ determined:as follows.:
ted to protect light and ordinary haz:ard occupancies. (1) Along branch lines as follows: Standard-response CMSA sprinklers designed to (a) Detem1ine distance ~tween ~prinkler5 (or to wall or
meet any criteria in Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 shall ~ obstntction in the case of the end .sprinkler on the
pennitted to protect ordinal]" hazard occupancies. branch line) upstream and downstream
(b) Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the
8.4.8 Speaal Sprinklers. wall or the d.i.stance to the next ~prinkle:r
(c) Define dimension as S* Special 5prinklers that are intended for the protec-
tion of specific hazards or construction features .shall be per- (2) Between br.=mch line:s as follows:
mitted where such devices have been evaluated and listed for (a) Determine perpendicular distIDce to the sprinkler on
perfonnance Wlder the following conclitions: the adjacent branch line (or to a wall or obstruction in
the case of the last branch line) on each side of the
(1) Fire tests related to the intended hazard branch line on which the ~u~ect 5prinkler is positioned
(2) Distribution ofthe spra)' pattem with respect to wetting of (b) Q1005e tJle larger of either twice the di.stance to the wall
floors and ",,-ails or ohstnJ.ction or the distance to the no.'1. sprinkler
(3) Distribution ofLhe spTa), pattern with respect to ob.tructions (c) Define dimension as L
(4) Evaluation of the thennal sensitivity of the sprinkler
(5) Perfonnanee under horizontal or .sloped ceilings The protection area of cm"Cl"age of the sprinkler shall
(6) Area of design be established by multiplying the S dimension b)' tJu:: L dimen-
(7) Allowable clearance to ceilings sion,:as foUows.: Special sprinklers shall maintain the following charac- A, = SxL

teristics: Maximum Protection Areoa of CO\'erage.
I (1) K-factor size shaU ~ in accordance with 6.2.3. The maximum allowablc protection area of CO~I"·
(2) Temperature ratings shall be in accordance with
Table age for a ~prinkler (AJ shall be in accordance with the value
(3) The protection area of coverage shall not exceed indicated i.n the section for each type or st)'le of sprinkler.
400 ft% (36 m:.'!:) for light hazard and ordinary hazard The ma..c imum area of coverage of an)' sprinkler
occupancle.J. shall not exceed 400 ft~ (36 m~).
(4) The f?rotecti,?n area of coverage sl~all 1.1Ot exceed
196 ft~ (l? m~) for extra hazard and high-piled storage
8.5.3 Sprinkler Spacing.
occupancle.J. Maximu.m Distan~ Between Sprinklers.
8.4.9 Dry! Sprinklers. The maximum distance permitted between sprin.
klers shall be based on the centerline distance between adja.* Where dry sprinklers are connected to wet pipe sprin-
cen t sprinklers.
kler s)'stem.!> protecting area5 subject to freezing temperature.s.
the minimum exposed length of the b..'UTd of the dry sprinkler The maximlun distance shall be mcasUl"cd along
shall be in accordance with Table (a) or Table (b). the slope of the ceiling.

W2013 Edition

I Tab)", 8.4.9. l(a) Exposed Barrel uogtbs for Dry Sprinklers (U.S. Customary Units)

Ambient Temperature Exposed Minimum Exposed Barrel Minimum Exposed Bar~1

to Di5Cbarge End of Sprinkler Length when Exposed to 50°F Length when Exposed to 6WF
("1') (in.) (In.)

40 0 0 0
30 0 0 0
20 4 0 0
10 8 I 0
0 12 3 0
-10 14 4 1
-20 14 6 3
-30 16 8 4
-40 18 8 4
-50 20 10 6
-60 20 10 6

I Table (b) Exposed Barrel Lengtbs for Dry Sprinklers (Metric Units)

Ambient Tempet"Rture Minimum Exposed &l1Te1 Minimum Exposed Barrel

Exposed to Dischargt' End of Length when Exposed to Length when Exposed to 10°C Minimum Exposed Barrel Length
Sprinkler C°C) 4·C (nun) (0101) when Exposed to 16°C (mOl)

4 o o o
-I o o o
-; 100 o o
-12 200 25 o
-18 300 80 o
-23 360 100 25
-29 360 150 80
-34 400 200 100
-40 460 200 100
-46 510 250 150
-51 510 250 150 The maximum distance permitted between sprin- Minimum DistanCE' Between Sprinklers.
klers .shall comply with the value indicated in the applicable A minimum distance shall be maintained between
section for each type or style of sprinkler.
sprinkler.s to preve:nt operatjng .sprinklers from wetting adja- Maximum Distance from Walls. cent sprinkler.s and to pre:vcnt.skipping of sprinklers. The distance fmOl sprinklers to walls shall not ex- The minimum dist:mce permitte:d between sprin-
c-=:ed one-half of the allowable maximwn distance between kler.s shall campi)' with the ''alue indicated in the applicable
sprinklers. section for each type or st}1e of .sprinkler.
8.5.~.2.2The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be 8.5.4 Deflector Position.
measured perpendicular to the wall.* Distance Below Ceilings.
8.5.~.2.3 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be
measured to the wall behind furniture, such as wardrobes, The distance:s between the sprinkler deflector and
cabinets. and tToph)' cases. the ce:iling above .shall be sdected based on the l}pe of sprin-
kler and the l)pe of constntction.
8.5.~.2.4 The distance from the "..all to the sprinkler shall be
mC35un:::d to the wall when sprinklers are=- space=-d ncar windows Corrugated Metal Deck Roofs.
and no additional floor space: is created. For corrugated mel:ll deck roofs up to 3 in.
8.5.~.3 Minimum Distance from Walls. (76 mm) in depth. the dislaDce shall be measured to the .sprin-
kler from the=- bottom of the deck. The minimum dist3Itce pc:nnilled between a sprin-
kler and the wall shall comply with the \>-a.lue indicated in the For decks deeper than 3 in. (76 mrn). the distance
applicable section for each type or style of sprinkler. shall be measured to the highest point on the deck.
The distance from the waH to the sprinkler shall be For ceiling.s that have insulation installed direcu)"
measured perpendicular to the wall. underside of the ceiling or roof structure, the deflec-

201$ Editicn W

tor distance shall be mCa5ul'"cd from the bottom of the inslll~ 8.5.6 Clearance (rom Deflector to Storage.
cion and shall be in accordance with or* Unless the requirements of,,, or For insulation that is installed dirC'ctly against the arc met, the clearance betwce:n the deflector and the top
ceiling or roof .structure and is installed flat and parallel to !.he of storage or contents of the room shall be 18 in. (457 min) or
ceiling or ooof .structure, the deflector distance .shall be mC'~ greateo.
surcd to the underside of the irnularion. Where other standards specif)' greater clearance to For insulation that is installed in a manner that storage minimums. the)' shall be followed.
c<tuM's it to deflect OT .sag down from the ceiling or roof struc- A minimum clearance to storage of36 in. (914 mm)
tUTe, the ddlcclo. distance shall be measured as half of the
shall be permitted for special sprinklen.
distance of the deflection from the ilUulation high point to
the insulation low point. A minimum dearance to storage of IC'S3 than 18 in.
(457 mm) between the top of storage and ceiling sprinkler
(A) If the deflection or !o3g in the insulation excC'cds 6 in. deflectors shall be permitted where proven b}' successful large-
(152 mm). the deflector distlllcc shall be measured to the scale fire tests for the particular hazard.
high point of the insulation. The clearance from the top of storage to sprinkler
(B) The ddlecto. shall not be positioned above the low point deflectors shall be not less than 36 in. (914 mm) where rubber
of the inrulation. rires are stored.* Heat collecton shall not be used as a means to assist 8.5.7 SkyI;g1,ts.
the activation of a sprinkle.. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from sk)'- Deflector Orientation. Deflectors of sprinklers shall lights not exceeding 32 ftz (3 m~) in area. regardless of hazard
be aligned parallel to ceilings. roofs. o. the incline of slain. c13!6ification. that are separated b}' at least 10 ft (3 m) horizon-
8.5.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge. L-ul)' from any other unprotected sk'Ylight or unprotected ceil-
ing pocket. * Performance Objecth-e. Sprinklers shall be loc3tedso
as to minimize obstructions to as defined in 8.5. 7.2 Sk)~ighls not exceeding 32 ft:! (3 m:!) shall be permit-
and, o. additional sprinklen shall be p.O\.ided to en- ted to have a plastic cover.
sure adequate cove.age of the haza.d. (See F;gtl~ A.85.5.i.) 8.6 Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklen.* Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Devel- 8.6.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall appl)' to
opment. standard pendent and upright spray sprinklers except as Continuous o. noncontinuow obstructions less than modified in Section 8.6.
or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkleo deflecto. that 8.6.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Standard Pendent and
prevent the pattern from fully developing shall compl)' "",ith Upright Spray Sprinklers). Determination of Protection Area of eo\o'erage. Sprinkle.s shall be positioned in accordance with
the minimum distances and special .equi.ements of Section Except as pennilted b), the protection
8.6 uuough &ction 8.12 so that they :ue located sufficiently area of covcrage per sprinkler (A.) shall be determined in
away from obstructions such as truss webs and cho.ds. pipes. accordance with
columns, and fixtures. TIle requirements of shall not apply in a* Obstnlctions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from small room as defined in 3.3.21.
Reaching Hazard. Continuous o. noncontinuous obstructions The:: protection area of coverage for each sprin-
that interrupt the "''ater discharge in a horizontal plane more kler in the small room shall be the area of the room divided by
than 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a man- the number of sprin.klers in the room.
ner to limit the distribution from reaching the protected haz..
ard shall complywith Maximu.m Protection Area of CO\lemge. * Sprinklers shall bc installed under fixed obstruc-* The m3...umurn allowable protection area of covel'-
tions ove.r 4 ft (1.2 m) wide. age for a sprinkler (A) shall be in accordance with the value
indicated in Table (3.) through Table (d). Open grate flooring over 4 ft (1.2 m) in width •
shall require:: sprinkle.. protection below the grating. In an)' case, the ma.:umurn area of co....erage of a
sprinkler shall not excee::d 225 ft:! (21 m:!). SprinkJe::TS shall not be required under obstructions
8.6.3 Sprinkler Sparing (Standard Pendent and UprightSpra)'
that arc not fixed in place. such as conference tables.
Sprinklers).* Sprinklers ilUtalled under open gratings shall be of Maximum Distance Betvr-een Sprinklers. The maxi·
the intermediate level/rack storage type or othetwiSl" shielded
mum di.stance permitted between sprinklers shall comply with
from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.
Table (a) through Table (d). Closets. In all c1o.sets and comparunenLS.. including Maximunl Distan~ from Walls.
those c1or.cts hOl1$ing mechanical equipment. that are not
larger than 400 ft) (11.33 m) in size, a. single sprinkler at the The distance from sprinklers to walls shall not ex·
highest ceiling space shall be sufficient without regard to ob- ceed one-half of the allowable distance between splinklen as
strUctions or minimum distance to the wall. indicated in Table (a) through Table (d).

W 20t3 Edition

Table Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers for Light Hazard

Protection Area Maximum Spacing

Construction Type SyvtemType rr m' C, m

Noncombustible unobstructed Hydraulically alculated 225 20.9 15 4.6

Noncombustible unobstructed Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
Noncombustible obstructed Hydraulicallyalculated 225 20.9 15 4.6
Noncom bustiblc obstructed Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
Combustlblc: unobstructed with no Hydraulically alculatcd 225 20.9 15 4.6
exposed members
Combusbolc unobstructed with no Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
exposed members
Combusu"bJe unobstructed with Hydraulically alculated 225 20.9 15 4.6
exposed members 3ft (0.91 m)
or more on center
Combustible unobstructed with Pipe schedule 200 18.6 15 4.6
exposed members 3 £t (0.91 m)
or more on center
Combustible Wlobstructed with All 1!lO 12.1 15 4.6
members le.u than 3 ft (0.91 m)
on center
Combu4tiblc with All 168 15.6 15 4.6
exposed members 8 ft (0.91 m)
or more on center
Combustible obstructed with All 1!lO 12.1 15 4.6
mcmben le.u than 3 £t (0.91 m)
on center
Combustible concealed spaceJ in All 120 11.1 15 4.6
accordance with para1ld to the parallel to the
slope .slop~
10 8.05
perpendicular perpendicular
to the slope· to the .dope•

·See 8.6..

Table Protection AreM and Maximum Spacing Table (c) Protec6on Areas and Maximum Spot:ing
of Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers for of Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers for Extra
Ordin.')' Haur<! Hau.,j

Protection Maximum Protection Maximum

Are. Spacing Are. Spacing
Construction Syatem ConstnJetion
Type Type Ct' m' ft m Type System Type Ct' m' C, m

All All 180 12.1 15 4.6 All Pipe 90 8.4 12" 8.7"
All HydnluliaUr 100 9.8 12" 8.7"
8.6.~.2.2 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be density
mc:a.rured pc:rpcndioolar to the wall. ~0.25
All Hydnluliallr 1!lO 12.1 15 4.6
8.6.S.2.'* The requirements of8. shall not apply where
wails arc angled or irregular. and the maximum horizontal with
distance between a .sprinkler and any point of Ooor area pro- density
tected by that sprinkler shall not exeeed 0.75 times the allow-
able di.stance permitted between sprinklers, provided the
maximum perpendicular distance is not c."<ceeded. -In buildings where solid suuct:ura.l member& creale b8)'1 up LO 25 (t
(7.6 m) wide,maximum spacing between sprinklers ispermined up LO
8.6.S.2.4* The requirements of8. .shall notapplywithin 12 ft 6 in. (S.8 m).
.small rooms as defined in 8.8.21.

2013 Editkln IiJ


Table Protection Areas Dnd Maximum Spacing mum of I in. (25.4 mm) and a ma.,;mum of 12 in. (305 mm)
ofStaudard Pendent and Upright Spray Sp-inklers for throughout the area of coverage of the sprinkler.
High-Piled Storage The requirement.s of shall not apply
where ceiling-type sprinklers (concealed. reces.sed, and flwh
Protection Maximum t)pcs) have the operating dement above the ceiling and the
Are. Spacing deflector located nearer to the ceiling where installed in ac-
cordance with their listing.
Type S)"'Sh•.rn Type ft 2 m2 ft m The requirements of8.6.4.1.I.l shall not apply for
All Hydraulically 100 9.3 12* 3.7* light and ordinary- hazard occupancies with ceilings of non-
calculated combustible or limited<ombustible construction.
v.;th dcnsit}..
(A) Where a vertical change in ceiling dC'\oation within the
All Hydraulically 130 12. I 15 4.6 area of coverage of the sprinkler creates a distance of more
than 36 in. (914 mm) between the upper ceiling and the sprin-
kler deflector, a vertical plane extending down from the ceiling
v.;th dcnsit)·
at the change in cle\Gtion shall be considered a wall for the pur-
pose ofsprinkler spacing as-shown in Figure 8.6.4.I.I.3(A).
-In buildings where solid structum.I members create b3)"S up to 25 ft
(7.6m) wide. maximum spacing between sprint.lersi!> permiued up [0
12f16in. (3.8m). Maximum Sprinklers shall be pcnnitted to be located not
I- y,S

more than 9 ft (2.7 m) from an)' .single wall. fL Sprinkler spacing limitatiorn: of 8.6.3 and area
limitations aCTable (a) shall not ~ exceeded. , Under surface.s. the horizontal distance shall
be measured at the floor level from the wall, or the inler.;ec- X
tion of the cunred .surface and the Door to the nearest sprin-
kler .shall not be greater than one-half the allowable distance
lx:tween .sprinklers.
8.6.3.~ Minimum Distances from \\3lk. Sprinklers.shall be lo-
cated a minimum of:l in. (102 mm) from a wall. ~~ I Minimum Distances Between Sprinklers. Maximum I Unless the requirements of, or
""-Y.zS • are met, .sprinkler.s shall be spaced not less than 6 ft "' Vertical plane treated as wall
(1.8 m) on center. for sprinkler spadng SprinkJenshall be penniued to lx: placed le.s.s than 6 fI
(1.8 tn) on center where the following conditions are 53li:rJied: X> 36 in. (914 mm)
(1) Baffles shall Ix: arranged to protect the actuating de- S = maximum a1bwable distanoo
beM'gen sprinklers
(2) Baffie.s shalllx: of solid and rigid material that willsta)· in FIGURE Vertical Change in Ceiling Elevation
place before and during .sprinkler operation. Greater' Than ~6 in. (914 mOl).
(3) Baffies shall be not less than 8 in. (203 mm) long and 6 in.
(152 mm) h;gh.
(4) The tops of baffles .shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in.
(51 mm and 76 mm) above the ddlector.s of upright (B) Whe:re the distance between the: upper ceiling and the
sprinklers. sprinkler deflector is less than or equal to 36 in. (914 mm), thc
(5) The bottoms ofbaffie.s shall extend downward to a level at .sprinkler.s shall be permitted to be spaccd as though the ceil-
least even with the deflector.s of pendent sprinklers. ing was flat, pro....ided the obstruction rulc-s are obse.rved as
.shown in Figure In-rack sprinklen shall be permitted to be placed
less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center. Obstructed Construction. Under obstnJcted con·
stn.lction, the sprinkler deflector shall be located in accor-·le sprinklers protecting fur storage vault.s dance with one of the following arrangeme:nts:
shall be pennitted to be placed less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on ceo ter.
(I) Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes
8.6.4 Deflector Position (Standard Pendent and Uprigbt of 1 in. to 6 in. (25.4 mrn to 152 mm) below the structural
Spray Sprinklers). member.s and a maximum distance of 22 in. (559 mm) Distance Below Ceilings. below the ceiling/roof deck
(2) Installed with the deflector.s at or above the bottom of the Unohfitruch~d ConstnJction.
structural member to a maximum of 22 in. (559 mm) Under unobstmctcd corutruction, the distance below the ceiling/roof deck where the sprinkler ij in-
between the .sprinkler deflector and the ceiling shall be a mini- jtalled in conformance with

W 2013 Editbn

I...~ S ·I..---- _
, ,
x S SS in. (9'4 mm)
S = maxhooOl altowatie distance
b9tw99n sprinklers
FIGURE Vertical Change in Ceiling Plevation
Less Than or Equal to 36 in. (914 mm). ;j L
Peak Iin91
(3) INtallcd in each bay of obstructed construction, with the
dc:flc:ctors located a minimum of 1 in. (25.4 rom) and a
maximum of 12 in. (305 rom) below the ceiling L
(4) In.stnllcd with the ddlcaon within the horizontal planes
1 in. to 6 in. (25.4 mm to 152 rom) below composite wood
joi.sts to a maximum di.nance of 22 in. (559 mm) below
the ceiling/roof deck. only where join cbannclJ arc fll'c· Measurad on stOP9 ----~
slOpped to the full depth of thejOLm with makrial c:quiva.
lent to the web construction .so that individual channel
areas do not exceed 300 ft.! (27.9 m!) FIGURE]) Sprinklers at Pitebed Roof, Branch
(5)*In5taHcd with defleclors of sprinklers under concrete tcc Lines Run Up Slopes.
construction with stems spaced le&!l than 7Mit ft (2.3 m) but
more than 3 fl (0.9} m) on Centers, regardless of the
depth of the tee, located at or above a horizontal plane
1 in. (25.4 mm) below the bottom of the sterns of the tee.! Under saw·toothed roofs, sprinkler.s at the highest
and complying with Table
elevation shall not exc.eed a distance of 36 in. (914 mm) mea- Peaked Roon and Ceilings. sured down the .dope: from the peak.'.1 UOldS the requirements of8. or Under a .ncc:ply pitched .surface, the dist'Ulce from
are m~ sprinklers under or near the peak of a roof or cdling the peak to the deBectors "hall be pc:nnitted to be increased to
.shall have deflectors located not more than 86 in. (914 mm) ver·
maintain a horitontal clearance ofnot leu than 24 in. (610 mm)
tiadly down from the pm as indicated in Figure (a)
from other "truClurnl member" as indic.ated in Figure
and >>gure 8.6.4. U.I (b). Sprinklers Under Roof or Ceiling in Combustible
Conoealed Space. of Wood Joist or Wood Truss <::Onstruction
with Members Less lban 3 ft (0.91 m) on Center and Slope
Having Pitcb of 4 in 12 or Greate~ Sprinklers "hall be p0si-
tioned in accordance with Figure and the require--
ments of8. through


Peak ling ,

+---- Measurod on slopo ----+

FIGURE Sprinkl.... Und.r Pit.bed Roof with OGURE Horizontal OeanlOce for Sprinkler at
Sprinkler Directly Under Peak; Branch Lines Run Up Slopes. Peale of Pitched Roof.

2013 Edition W

Paragraph 8.6A .1.4.2

Row of eprink'ers required within 12 in.
h:lrizontaHy and between 1 in. and 12 in.
down from the bottom of the top chord memba

Additional sprinldelB spaced Additional sprinklers spaced

along slope 8S required _ , aklng sbpe a8 required
1 in. to 12 in

Paragraph 8.6.. Paragraph 8.6A.1.4.3

Sft minimum' ---~~;;;~~~?' "::::::~~;;;(--~5 ft minimum"

Ceiling to space below

Roof or ceiling combustible
concealed apace

For 81 units, 1 in. = 26.4 mm; 1 ft= O.:Jl48 m.

"The 5 ft minimum dimenson is meeEllred from the intersection of the upper and lower truss chords
or the 'M)od rafters and c~ling pilt8.

FIGURE Sprinklers Under Roof or Ceiling in Combustible Concealed

Spaces ofWoodJoisl or Wood Tm515 Construction with Members LeSl5 Than
3 ft (0.91 m) on Center and Slope Having Pitch of 4 in 12 or Greater. Sprinkler.s under a. roof or ceiling in combustible 12 or greater shall not apply when the e::\.-posed combustible
concealed spaces of wood joist or wood truss construction wi th sheathing in the roofor ceiling space: are constructed of prC'SSllre
memlx-rs less than 3 ft (0.91 m) on center and 3slopc haying a impregnated fire-retardant tnatcd wood as defined b)' NFPA 703.
pitch of 4 in 12 or greater shaJllx- quick-response. Double Joist Obstructions. Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in combustible
concealed spaces of wood joist or wood truss con.struction with Unless the n=quiremenl5 of are met,
memlx=:rs less than 3 ft (0.91 m) on center and aslope haying a where t¥.·o sets ofjoists arc under a roof or ceiling, and no Ooor-
pitch of 4 in 12 or grt:lteT shall be installed so that a row of ing is over the lower set, sprinklers shall be installt=d. abm~ and
sprinltlers is installed ",;!hin 12 in. (305 mm) horizontally of be:low the lower set ofjoists where a clearance of 6 in. (152 rom)
the peak and between 1 in. and 12 in. (25.4 mm and 305 mm) or more is between the top of the lower joist and the boltom of
down from the bottom of the top chord mem~r. the upper joist as indicated in Figure Sprinkler.s under a roof or ceiling in combustible Oprln joists

concealed spaces of wood joist or wood truss construction with 6 in. (152 mm)
memlx=:rs less than 3 ft (0.91 m) on center and a slope haying a
pitch of 4 in 12 or greater shall be installed so that the sprin-
Itlers installed along the eave are located not less than 5 ft
(1.52 m) from the inter.section of the uppe:r and lower truss
chords or the wood rafters and ceilingjoists. Sprinkler.s under a roof or ceiling in combustible less than 6 in. No ceiling
concealed spaces of combustible woodjoist or wood trws con- I+-' (152 mm) --'1+---4-Ya S or flooring
structionwith members less than 3 ft (0.91 m) on center and a below on~
slope having a pitch of 4 in 12 or grt:llcr, and using standard
sprn)' sprinkler.s, where the dimension perpendicular to the
FIGURE AlTangement of Sprinklers Under Two
slope: exceeds 8 ft (2.4 m). shall have a minimum prCS,5ure of
Mis of 0 pen Joists - No Sbeathing on LowerJoists.
20psi (1.4 bar). The special reqwrcmenu of and Sprinklers shall be pennitted to be omitted from
for sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in combustible concealed ~Iow the lower set of joists where: at least 18 in. (457 mm) is
spaces of wood joist or wood trus:s construction with mc:mber.s maintained between the: sprinltler dc:flector and the top of the
tess than 3 ft (0.91 m) on center and aslopc having a pitch of 4 in lowe:rjoist.

til 2013 Edition

INSTALlATION REQUIREMENTS 1$-57 Deflector Orientation. Table Positioning of Sprinklers 10 Avoid

Obstructions 10 Discharge [Standard Spray Unless the n:quirc:mc:nts of or atc Upright/Standard Sp"ay Pendent (SSU/SSP)]
met. dcflcctol"5 of sprinklcn> shall be aligned parallel to ceil-
ing3. roofs. or the: incline of stairs.
Maximum Where sprinklers arc installed in the peak below a Allowable Distance
sloped ceiling or roof .surface. the sprinkler shall be installed of Deflector Abo'~
with the deflector horizontal. Bottom of
Distance from Sprinklers 10 Obstruction (B) Roofs having a pitch not exceeding 2 in 12 SKle of Obslruction (A) (in.)
(16.7 pcrcent) arc considered horizontal in the application of and sprinklers shall be pc:nnittcd to be installed with Less than 1 ft o
deflectors horizontal. 1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. 21>
1 ft 6 in. to le5$ than 2 ft 31>
8.6.5 ObstructiOI" to Sprinlder Discharge (Standard Pendent 2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 51>
and Upright Spray Sprinkle['5). 2 ft 6 in. to leM than 3 ft 710 Perfonnance Objective. 3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 910
3 ft 6 in. to than 4 ft 12 Sprinklers shall be located so M to minimize ob- 4 ft to less than 4 ft Gin. 14
structions to discharge as defined in and, or 4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 161.
additional sprinkJen; shall be pro\ided to en.rure adequate 5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 18
coverage of the hazard. 5 ft6 in. to less than 6 ft 20
6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 24· Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply""';th one of G ft 6 in. to less than 7 ft 30
the following arrangements: 7 ft to less than 7 ftG in. 35
(1) Subsection, Table and Figure
For 51 units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm: I fI = 0.3048 m.
shall be followed.
Note: For .0\ and B, refer to FIgure 8.6.5. 1.2( 3.).
(2) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on
sides of obstntctions not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width.
provided the distance from the centerline of the obstruc-
tion to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allow- ~
able distance permitted between sprinklers. Ceiling
(3) Obst:n.lctions located against the wall and that are not
over 30 in. (762 mm) in width shall be pennitted to be
protected in accordance with Figure (b).
(4) Obstructions located against the wall and that are not
over 24 in. (610 nun) in width shall be penniued to be
protected in accordance lolr;th Figure The
maximum distance between the sprinkler and the wall B
shall be measured from the sprinkler to the wall behind
the obstruction and not to the face of the obstTucrion. Obstruction Obstructions to Sprinkler Discha~ Pattern Develop-
A General. Continuow or noncontinuous obstructions less E~V8tlon V'toW
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector
that prevent the pattem from full)' developing shall comply FlGURE Posilioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Ob-
Mm stnrtion to Discharge (SSU/SSP). Regardlc=s.s of the rules of8.6.5.2, solid continuow
obstruCtiOIU, where the top of the obstruction is level with or· For light and ordinar), hazard occupancies• .struc-
abm-c=: the plane of the deflector, shall meet thc applicable tural member.s onl), shall be cOlUidered when appl)ing the
requirements of requirements of* Minimum Distance from Obstructions. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on op-
posite sides of the obstruction where the distan.ce fmm the
(A) Un1c.s.s the rcquircments of through centerline of the obstntcnon to the splinklen docs not excced
arc met, sprinklen shall be positioned aw<l)' from obstructions a one-half the allowable dutance between sprinklen.
minimum distancc of th~c times the maximwn dimension of
thc obstnlction (c.g., structural member.s, pipe, colwulU, and Sprinklers .shall be permitted to be located one-
fixturcs) . half the distance between thc obstructions where the obstnlc-
tion consuls of open trusses 20 in. (0.51 m) or grC3.ler apart
(B) The ma'timum c1car dutancc rcquircd .shall be 24 in. [24 in. (0.61 m) on center], pmvided thalall tn.15S members
(609 mm) in accordancc with Figurc are not greater than 4 in. (102 mm) (nominal) in lolridth.

2013 Edition W
1$-58 INSTAllATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS The requirements of shalt not apply to

$prinkler$ positioned with respect to ob5tnlctions in accor-
Coiling dance with Sprinklers shall be: permitted to be placed with-
B outregard to the blades of ceiling fans less than 60 in. (1.5 m)
in diameter, provided the plan ..;CW of the fan is at least 50 per-
cent open. Suspended or Floor-Mounted ''ertical Obstmdions.
The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, fre-=standing
partitions, room dividers.. and$imilar owtructions in light haz-
ard occupancies $hall be in accordance with Table
and Figure In light hazard occupancies, pri....a cy curtain.s, aJI
$hown in Figure, shall not be cornidered ob.'!ltruction.s
A:i!: (0- 8 in.) +8 where all of the following arc met:
(I) The curtains are $upporled by fabric mesh on ceiling
¥ltIere: Os 30 in. (0.8 m)
(2) Openings in the mesh are equal to 70 percent or greater.
(3) The mesh extend! a minimum of 22 in. (559 mm) down
Elovatlon Vlow
from ceiling.
FIGURE 8.6.5.I.2(b) Ob.tnxtion Against m.u (SSUfSSP). Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler DischargE' from
Reaching Hazard. Continuow or noncontinuous owtructiorn that in-
s teITupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than
• • 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to
limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard Cailing or roof $hall comply with The requirements of .'!lhall also appl)' to ob-
.stn.lctions 18 in. (457 mm) or less below the .'!lprinkler for light
and ordinal")' hazard occupancics.

18 in. minimum
(no maximum) I Sprinklen $hall be installed under fixed owtruc-
nons over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide. Sprinklen .'!lhall not be required below owtruction.s
that arc not fixed in place, !ouch as conference tables. Sprinklen installed under open gr.a.tings shall be of
the intermediate levd/rack .storage l)pe or shidded
Cbstruction from the discharge of ovc=-rhead .sprinklers.
8.6.6 Clearance to Storage (Standard Pendent and Upright
Spray Sprinklers). The clearance belwc=-en the deflc=-ctor and the top of
.storage:mall be 18 in. (457 mm) or greater. The 18 in. (457 mm) dimension $hall not limit the
height ofshdving on a wall or shdy;ng against a wall in accor-
dance with 8.6.6, 8.7.6, 8.8.6, and &ction 8.9.
FIGURE 8.6.5. 1.2 (c) Obotructiou Against Walls (SSU jSSP). Where shd..;ng is in.stalled on a wall and is not di-
recti)' below sprinklen, the shelve.s, including storage thereon,
shall c=-xtend above the Icv·e.t ofa plane located 18 in. (457 mm)
below ceiling $prinklcr deflectors. Sprinkler.s .shall ~ pennittcd to be on Shd..;ng. and an)' storage thereon, directly below
the centerline of a trws or bar joi5t or directly above a beam, the sprinklers shall not extend above a plane located 18 in.
pro..i.dc:d that the t.r\1$$ c.hord or beam dimension is not morc (457 rom) below the cdling .sprinkler deflectors.
than 8 in. (203 mm) and the sprinkler deflector is located at
least 6 in. (152 rom) above the structural member and where 'Where other Mandards specU)' greater c1car:a.nce to
the: sprinlder is pO$itioned at a distance three times greater $torage minimum" they .shall be followed.
than the maxi-rot.un dimension of the wC'b mcmbeu away from 8.6. 7 Ceiling Pockets (Standard Pendent and Upright Spray
the wc:b m~bc:r$. Sprinkle..). The requiremc:nts ofB. .shall not sppl)' to 8.6. 7.1- Except as pro..;ded in and, spru"lkler.s
sprinkler s),stem piping 1C5$ than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter. shall be required in all ceiling pockeu.

W 2013 Edition


Sprinkler OPQ" WEb steel

or wood truss


Plan View of Column EklYation View ofTruas

A ~3Cor3D
AS 24 in. (610 mm)
(USQ dimension Cor D, 'tltlich9V9r is greater1

FlGURE8. Minimum Distance from Obstruction (SSU/SSP).

Table Suspended or Floo~Mounted ObstnJCtions

in Light Hazard Occupancies Only (SSU/SSP)
Ceiling or roof
Minimum Vertical
Distance Below

Horizontal Distance (A) Deflector (B) (in.)
6 in. 01'" leu 3
More than 6 in. to 9 in. 4
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 6
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 8
Morc=: than 15 in. to 18 in. 91,
More than 18 in. to 24 in. 121>
More than 24 in. to 30 in. 151>
More than 30 in. 18
For 51 units. 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Note: For .4 and B. refer to Figure B. FIGURE Suspended or Floof'oMounted Obstruction
in ligbtHazard Occupancies Only (SSUjSSP).

8.7 Sidewall Standard Spray Spnolden:. Sprinklers shall not be required in ceiling pockets
where all of the following are met: 8.7.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall appl)' to
sidewall standard spray sprinklers except as modified in Sec-
(1) The total volume of the unprotected ceiling pocket does tion 8.7.
not exceed 1000 ft!> (28.3 m S ).
(2) The:: de::pth of the:: unprotected ceiling pocket does not 8.7.2 Protection A~as per Sprinkler (Standard Sidewall Spra)'
exceed 36 in. (914 mm). Sprinklers).
(3) The:: ~tire floor under the unprote::cted ceiling pocket u Determination of Protection AJ'E'8 of Co\-erage.
protected by sprinklers at the lower ceiling devarion. The prote::ction area of coverage per sprinkle:r (A,)
(4)*The:: total size of all unprotected ceiling pockets in. the
shall be detennined as follows:
same compartment within 10 ft (3 m) of each other does
not exceed 1000 ft!> (28.3 m S ). (1) Along the wall as follows:
(5) The unprotected ceiling pocket has noncombustible or (a) Determine the dutance between sprinL:.len along the
limited-combustible finishes. wall (or to the end wall or obstruction in the case of
(6) Quick.response sprinklers are urilized throughout the the end sprinkler on the branch line) upstream and
comparnnenL downstream
(b) ChOO5e the larger of either ty,;ce the distance to the Sprin.kle:rs shall not be required in skylights arid simi- end wall or the efutance to the next sprinkler
lar pockets in accordance with 8.5.7. (e) Define dimelUion as S

2013 Edition W

(2) Across the room as folio,",,"!>: ,"'bere sidewall spray sprinklers are installed on I:\0oI0
(a) Dctcnnine the distance from the waD Oli which the opposite walls or side..s of bays, the ma.ximum width of the
sprinkler is installed to the wall oppositC' the sprin- room or bay shall be: permitted to be up to 24 ft (7.32 m) for
klers or to the midpoint of the room where sprinklers light hazard occupancy or 20 ft (6.1 m) for ordinar)" hazard
arc installed on two opposite wails (SCI: (JmJ occupanC)', with spacing as required by Table
(b) Define dimension as L Sidewall spray sprinklers shall be permitted to be
installed on opposing or adjacent walls. provided no sprinkler The protection area of the sprinkler .shall b<- C"ltab- is located within the ma.ximum protection area of another
li.shcd b)' multiplying the S dimcl15ion by the L dimension. as sprinkJer.
folloW!>: Where sidewall standard spra)· sprinklers are in~
A, =SxL stalled to protect areas below overhead doors within ordinary
hazard occupanC)' spaces or rooms, protection area and maxi~ Maximum Protection Area of eo\"erage.
mum sprinkler spacing for light hazard as specified in Table The maximum allowable protC'ction area of coyer- shall be permitted under the overhead doors.
3gC' for a sprinkler (A,) shall be in accordance with the "-aluC'
indicated in Tablc8. Maximum Distance from \\'alls. The dist.'Ulce from
sprinklers to the end walls shall not exceed one--half of the In any case. the maximum area of coverage of a aUowable distance pennitted between sprinklers as indicated
sprinkleI'" shall not excC'cd 196 ft Z (18.2 m~). in Table
8.7.' Sprinkler Sp.ying (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). Minimum Distance from Walls.
8.7.'.1 Maximum Distance Between SprinUers. Sprinklers shall be located a mlmmum of 4 Ill. The maximum distance pennitted between sid~all (102 mm) from an end wall.
sprn)' sprinkler" shall be based on the centerline distance be--
tween sprinklers on the branch line. The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be
measured perpendicular to the wall. The maximum distance bdween sidewall .spra),
sprink.lers or to a wall shall be measured along the slope of the Minimum Distnnce Be\weo('n Sprinkler&. Sprinklers,shall
ceiling. be spaced not less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center unless required
by or unless the sprinklers are separated b)' baffles Where "idewall spray sprinklers are installed along
that comply with Ihe following:
the length of a single wall of rooms or bay3, the)' "hall be
spaced in accordance with the ma.ximum spacing provisions of (I) Baffles shall be arrnnged to pmtect the actuating de-
Table ments. SideY.-a.l1 sPl"a)' sprinklers shall not be itl5talled back-to- (2) Baffles shal1 be of solid and rigid matelial that will stay in
back withoul bdng separated by a conrinuow lintel or soffit. place before and during sprinkler operation.
(3) Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (203 mm) long and 6 in. I The maximum widlh of the lintd or soffit shall (152 mm) h;gh.
not exceed 16 in. (400 mm). (4) The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. The maximwn .....; dth of the lintel or soffit can (51 mm and 76 mOl) above the deflectors.
exceed 16 in. (400 mm) when a pendent sprinkler is installed (5) The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a le\'el at
wlder the lintel or soffit. least even with the deflectors.

Table I Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler)

Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard

Nonconlbustible Noncombustible
0' 0'
Conlbustible Limited- Limited-
Ceiling Combustible Combustible Combustible
Finish Ceiling Finish Ceiling Finish Ceiling Finish

Maximwl1 distallCe 14 14 10 10
along the ",,-aD (S) (ft)
MaxinlUm room widdl 12 14 10 10
(L) (fl)
MaxinllUl1 protection 120 196 80 100
area (ft%)

ForSI uniu. 1 fI = 0.S048m; 1 ft i = 0.0929 mI?

W2Ot3 Edition

8.7.4 Deflector Position from Ceilings and '\taUs (Standard Table Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid
Side",,-all Spray Sprinklers). Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) Distance Below Ceilings and from \\1\Us.
Maximum Allowable Ceilings. Distance of Deflector
Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler to Abo\o'e Bottom of Unless the requirements of arc met, Side of Obstruction (A) Obstruction (B) (in.)
.sidewall sprinkler ddlectou shall be located not mOTC' than
6in. (152 mm) or less than 4 in. (102 mm) from ceilings. Less than 4 ft Not allowed
4 £t to less than 5 ft 1 Horizontal.sidcwall.sprinklcn shall Ix pcnnittcd 5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 2
to be located in a zone 6 in. to 12 in. (l52 mm to 305 mm) or 5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 3
12 in. to 18 in. (305 mm to 457 mm) belOW" noncombustible 6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 4
and Iimited-eombustiblc ceilings where listed fOT such use. 6 ft 6 in. to le.s.s than 7 ft 6 Walls. 7 ft to less than 7 ft 6 in. 7
7 ft 6 in. to ICM than 8 ft 9
8,7.4,1.2.1* Vertical sidewall sprinkler ddleclor5 shall be lo- 8 ft to less than 8 ft 6 in. I1
cated not more: than 6 in. (152 mm) or Jess than 4 in. 8 ft 6 in. or greater 14
1 (102 mm) from the wall f!'"Oln which the" are projecting. For 51 units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; I ft = 0.3048 m. Horizontal sid<='Wall sprinkler deflectors shall be NOle: For.o\ and B. refer to Figure 8.7.!>.1.3.
located no more than 6 in. (152 mm), and shall be pcnnitted
to be located with their deflectors leS5 than 4 in. (102 mm),
from the wall on whic.h they are mounted. Lintels and Soffits. \there soffits used for the installation of sid~1

.sprinkleB exceed 8 in. (203 mrn) in width or projection from the
wall. additional sprinklen shall be installed below the soffit.* 'Where soffits wed for the installation ofsidewall
sprinklers arc less than or equal to 8 in. (203 mm) in width or
projection from the wall. additional sprinklers shall not be Obstruction
required below the soffit when the sidewall sprinkler on the
soffit is ",,;thin 4 in. (102 mm) from the bottom of the soffit.* Asid~lsprinklershall be pcnnitted to be in-

stalled under a soffit when both the minimum distance from
the sprinkler deflector to the bottom of the soffit and maxi-
mum distance from the sprinkler deflector to the high ceiling
is maintained. Wall Defledor Orientation.

Eloll8llon Viow Deflectol"3 of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to
ceilings or roofs. FlGURE Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruc-
tion (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). Sidewall sprinklers, where installed under a sloped
ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12, shaU be located at the
high point of the slope and positioned to discharge downward
along the slope. Obstructions projecting from the same wall as the
one on which the sidewall sprinkler is mounted shall be in
8.7.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Stalxlard Sidewall accordance with Table Figure
Spray Sprinklers). uolated obsuuctions projecting from the same Perfonnance Objedh·e. wall :as the one on which the sidewall sprinkler is motUlted
shall be located a minimmn of 4 in. (102 mm) from the side- Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- wall sprinkler.
StruCtiOIU to diKharge as ddined in and, or
additional sprinklcn shall be prO\ided to ensure adequate Sprinklers shall be pennittC'd to be spaced on oppo-
coverage of the hazard. site sides of obstructions than 4 £t (1.22 m) in width where
the distance from the centerline of the obstruction to the Side:wall sprinl.:leB shall be installed no closer than sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allowable distance bC"-
4 ft (1.2 m) from light fi.'tttares or similar obsu-uctions. tween sprinklers. The cmtance bet.wccn light fixtures or similar ohnnlc-* ObslnlCuons on the wall 0pP05ite from the sidewall
tions located morc than 4 ft (1.2 m) from the sprinkler shall be in sprinkler shall be pennitted where the obstruction is up to 2 ft
confonnit)· with Table and Figure (0.6 m) deep and 2 ft (0.6 m) wide.

20t3 Edition til


Table Positioning ofSprinklen to Avoid fu:tures). The maximum clear distance required.shall be 24 in.
Obstructions Along Wall (Standard SidewaU Spray (610 rom) and shall be positioned in accordance with Figure
Sprinklers) 8.7.. where obmuctions ore present.

Maximum Allowable The requirements of8. shall not apply to

Distance of DeOector 'prinlcler.f)"tem piping less than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter.
Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler Above Bottom of The requirements of shall not apply
to Side of Obstruction (A) Obstruction (B) (in.) where sprinkler' are positioned with respect to obstructions in
accordance with,, and
4 in. to less than 6 in. 1
G in. to less than 1 fl 2 Sprinkler' shall be: pc:nnitted to be placed without
1 ft to lc:lU than 1 ft. 6 in. 3 regard to the blade:.! of ceiling fans less than 60 in. (1.5 m) in
I ft 6 in. to leu than 2 ft 4~ diameter, provided the plan view of the fan is at least 50 per-
2 ft to I... thon 2 ft 6 in. 5* cent open.
2 ft 6 in. to len than 3 ft 7
3 ft to less than 3 ft. 6 in. 8 Suspended or Floor-Mounted ''ertical Obetructiou.
3 flG in. to less than 4 ft g~ The distance from 'prinkler, to privacy curtains, fre~ding
4 ft to lc:s.s than 4 ft 6 in. 10 partitions, room divider" and,imiJar ob&truction.s in light ha:z.-
4 ft 6 in. to leu than 5 fl 11~ ard occupancies ,hall be in accordanee with Table
5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 12* and Figure 8.7..5.2.2.
5 ft 6 in. to leu than 6 ft 14
6 ft to leas than 6 ft 6 in. 15 In light hazard occupancies, prn'8C)' curtailU, as
6 fl6 in. to leu than 7 ft 16~ ,hown in Figure, shall not be considered ol»trucbOfU
7 ft to less than 7 ft 6 in. 171l. where all of the following are met:

For 51 unlu, 1 in. = t5A ~ I ft = 0.3048 m. (1) The c:urtains are ,upported by fabric mesh on ceiling
Note: For A and B, refer to Figure traek.
(2) Op~nin&'5 in the mesh are equal to 70 percent or greater.
(3) The extends a minimum of 22 in. (559 mm) down

&om ceiling.

C<liing 8.7.5.S- Obstructions that Pre\o'ellt Sprinkler DilllCharge from

• Sidowall
Reaebing Ha%anI.
8.7.5.S.1 Continuow or noncontinuous Ob&tructiOIU that in·
on waD terntpt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than
18 in. (457 nun) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to
Obstruction limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard
,hall comptywith this ,«tion.

A 8.7.5.S.2 SprinkJen ,hall be installed under fixed obstruc-

tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide .such as duets. decks, open grate
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doon.
EJe... ation View
8.7.5.S.S Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions
FlGURE8. Positioning of Sprinkler toA"-oid Obmuc> that are not fixed in place such as conference table.s.
000 Along Wall (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).
8.7.6* Clearance to Storage (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprin-
klers). The clearance between the deflector and the top of
.storage shall be 18 in. (457 mm) or greater. Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattetn De'\o'"elop-
8.8 Extended eo.....&'" Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinkl....
ment. Gen....I. 8.8.1 General. All requirementJ of Section 8.5 ,ball apply to
c::et:ended coverage upright and pendent ,prinlders except as Continuous or noncontinuow obstructions less modified in Section 8.8.
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the ,prinlder deflector
chat prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 8.8.2 Protection Areas per Sp-inkler (Extended Coverage Up-
with this section. right and Pendeot Spray Sprinklen). Regardlou of the rules of this section, solid con- Determination of Pro tection Area of Co\oerage.
tinuous obslrUcriom shall meet the requirements of8.
and 8.7.5.l.3. The protection area of coverage (A) for extended
coverage ,prinlders ,hall be not leu than that prC4cribed by· Uol... the rcquircmen.. of8. or8. the lis ling.
are met, ,prinl.:Jen ,hall be positioned away &om obstructions a
minimum distanee of three times the maximum dimension of listing dimensions ,hall be even-numbered .square
the obstruction (e.g., tt\W webs and chords, pipe, columns, and protection areas as shown in Table

W 2013 Editbn



Obs1ruClicn 1__ -0"-----,·1

Plan View of Column ElGvatton Vlow of Pipe Conduit or Ught Fixtul'G

A ~ 24 in. (610 mm)
(USQ dirT19nsion Cor D, ....tlichewr is gre819r)

FlGURE 8.7 . Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler).

Table Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstmctions ~

(Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Ceiling

~/<::J - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , . -
OCa.lpancies Only

Minimum Vertical
Distance Below I~ ~·I___'L_B
Horizontal Distance (.4.) Deflector (B) (in.)

6in.orl~ 3 Obstruction

Mort:: than 6 in. to 9 in. 4
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 6
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 8
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 91>
More than 18 in. to 24 in. 121>
~ Wall
More than 24 in. to SO in. 151>
Mort:: than 30 in. 18

For 51 uniu. 1 in. = 25.4 mm. ~ Roar

Note: For.4. and B. rcler 10 Figure B.
Ekwation VI9W

FIGURE 8. Sus~nd.ed or Floor-Mounted Obstruction Detennination of the protection area of coverage and (Sta1xlard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Ooeu-
sprinkler spacing for sprinklers listed for extended coverage ex- pancy Only.
tra hazard or high-piled storage shall be pennitted to be spaco::l
in accordance with the requirements of8.5.2 and 8.5.8 and shall 8.8.3 Sprinkler Spacing {Extended Co\'eroge Upright and
not exceed 14 ft (4.3 m) maximum spacing and 196 ft'! (18.2 m:!) PendeDt Spray Sprinklers).
maximum arc:a. per sprinklt::r or 15 ft (4.6 m) maximum spacing
and 144 fr (13.4 m~ ma'C.imum area pO' sprinkler. 8.8.3. I Maxmmm Distance Between Sprinklel"/i. The maximwn distance permitted bt=lWeen ~prin­ MaxinlUffi Protection Area of Co...- ernge.
kIers shall bt= based on the centerline distance between sprin-* The maximum allowable area. of co\'t=rage for a klers on the branch lint:: or on adjacent branch lines.
sprinkler (AJ shall be in accordance with the value indicated The ma."(.imum distanct:: shall be: measured along
in Table Ule slope of the ceiling. In an)' case, the maximum area of co\'erage of a The ma"-lmum distance permitted betwt::en sprin-
~prinlcJc.r shall not t=Xcet::d 400 ft t (37.2 rot). klers shall comply with Table

2013 Editicn til


Table Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Extended Co'-"ernge Upright and Pendent Spray SprinkJers)

L;gh. Hazard Ordinary Haurd Extra Ha:tIlrd High.P....l ed Storage

Protection Protection Protection ProtECtion

Area Spac;ng Area Sparing Area Spacing A",a Spacing
Construction Type (f.') (f.) (f.') (ft) (ft') (f') (f.') (ft)

Unobstructed 4lJ0 20 400 20

324 18 324 18
256 16 256 16
196 14 196 14 196 14
144 12 144 15 144 15

Obstructed 400 20 400 20

noncombwrible (when 324 18 324 18
specificaUy listed for 256 16 256 16
such usc) 196 14 196 14 196 14
144 12 144 15 144 IS

Obstructed comb\utiblc N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
For SI uniu. I fl = 0.9048 m: 1 ft2 = 0.0929 mi'. Maximum Distnoce from Walls. mum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm)
throughout the area of cove:rage of the sprinkler. 111e distance fmm .sprinklers to walls shall not ex-
ceed one-half of the allowable distance permitted between The requirements of 8.8.4.l.1.1 shall not apply
sprinklen as indicated in Table where ceiling-type sprinklers (concealed, recessed. and flwh
t)pes) have the operating element above the ceiling and the The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be deflector located nearer to the ceiling where installed in ac-
measured perpc=ndicuJar to the wall. cordance with their listing. \o\'bere walls are angled or irregular. the maximum The requirements of shall not apply
horizontal dulance between a sprinkler and an" point of floor where sprinklers are listed for use under other ceiling con-
area protected by that sprinkler shall not exceed 0.75 times struction features or for different distances where the}'shall be
the allowable distance pennitted between sprinklen;. pennitted to be installed in accordance with their listing.
8.8.3.~ Minimum Distance from Walls. Sprinklers shall be lo- The requirements of8. shall not apply for
cated a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) from a wall unless listed light and ordinal'}' hazard occupancies with ceilings of non-
for distances less than 4 in. (102 mm). combustible or limited<ombustible construction. Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. (A)* Where a vertical change in ceiling de'\'3tion within the
area of coverage of the sprinkler creates a distance of more Unless the requirements of are met, sprin- than 36 in. (914 mm) between the uppe::r ceiling and the sprin-
klersshall be spaced not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center. kler deflector, a vertical plane e.xtending down from the ceil- Sprinklers shall be pennitted to be placed less than 6 ft ing at the change in elevation shall be considered a wall for
(1.8 m) on center where the following conditions are satisfied: the purpose of sprinkler spacing.
(B)* Where the distance between t.he upper ceiling and th~
(I) BafIles shall be arranged to protect the actuating de-
sprinkler ddlectoris less than or equal to 36 in. (914 mm).lh~
sprinklers shall be p~rmitted to be spaced as though the ceil-
(2) Baffles shall be of solid and rigid material that will stay in
ing ~re flat. provided the obstruction rules and ceiling
place before and during sprinkler ope::ration.
pocket rules are observed.
(3) Baffles shan be not less than 8 in. (203 mm) long and 6 in.
(152 mm) high. Obscructed Construction. Under ob5tructro construc-
(4) The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and :3 in. tion. the sprinkler deflector .shall be located in accordanc~ with
(51 mm and 76 mm) above the deflectors of upright one of the following a.rnmgements:
sprinklers. (1) Installed with the deflecton within the horizontal planes
(5) The bottom.s ofbaffics shall extend dOWJl"""aTd to a leve:l at of 1 in. to 6 in. (25.4 mm to 152 mm) below the structural
least even with the deflectors of pendent sprinklers. memben and a maximum distance of 22 in. (559 mm)
8.8.4 Deflector Position (Extended Coverage Upright and below the cdling/roof deck
(2) Installed with the deflectors at or above the bottom of the
Pendent Spray Sprinklers).
.stru.ctural member to a ma.ximum of 22 in. (559 mm) Distaoce Below Ceilings. below the ceiling/roof deck where the sprinkler is in-
stalled in conformance with Unobstructed Construction.
(3) l.nstalled in each bay of obstructed construction, with the Under unobstnlcted construction, the distance deflecton located a minimum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a
between the sprinkler deflector and the ceiling shall be a mini· ma.ximum of 12 in. (305 mm) below the ceiling

W2013 Edition

(4) Installed in accordance with their listing where sprinklcn Table Position of Sprinklers to Avo'd ObslrUctions
arc listed for usc under other ceiling corutruction fca- to Discharge (h...ended Coverage Upright and Pendent
tures or for different dulanco Spray Sprinklers)* Peaked Roofs nnd Ceilings. Sprinklers uncler or ncar Maximum Allowable
the peak of n roof or ceiling .shall ha\'C dcflccton located not Distance of Defle<:tor
more than 3 ft (0.9 m) vertically down from the peak in accor- Distance- [rom Sprinklers to Above Bottom of
dance with Figure (a) and Figure (b). S'de of Obstruction (A) Obstruction (B) (in.) Deflector Orientation. Deflectors of .sprinklers .shaH
be aligned parallel to ceiling.s or roou.
Less than I ft o
1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. o
8.8.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Disd18rge (Extended Cover- 1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft I
age Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 2 ft to Icss than 2 ft 6 in. I
2 ft 6 in. to les.s than 3 ft I Pe,rfonnance Objecti..-e. 3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 3
3 ft 6 in. to leu than 4 ft 3 Sprinklers shall lx located so as to minimize ob- 4 fl to less than 4 £t 6 in. 5
.stTuctions to discharge as defined in and, or 4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 7
additional .sprinklers .shall be prmidcd to ensure adequate 5 ft to less than 5 ft6 in. 7
cO"'erage of the hantrd. 5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 7
6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 9* Sprinklers .shall be arranged to complywith one of 6 ft 6 in. to less than 7 ft II
the following arrangements: 7 ft to less than 7 ft6 in. 14
(1) Sprinklers shall be in accordance with, Table 7 ft 6 in. to less than 8 ft 14
8 ft to less than 8 ft6 in. 15, and F;gure
S ft 6 in. to Ic.s.s than 9 ft 17
(2) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on
9 ft to less than 9 ft 6 in. 19
.sides of obstruction.s not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width
9 ft 6 in. to le.s.s than 10 ft 21
provided the distance from the centerline of the obstruc·
tion to the .sprink.len does not exceed one-half the allow- For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 nnn: I fI = 0.3048 m.
able distance permitted between .sprinkler.s. Note: For.o\ and B, refer to Figure
(3) Ob5tn1ctions located the wall and that are not
o\'er 30 in. (762 mm) in width shall be pc=nniued to be
protected in accordance with Figure (b).
(4) Ob.stntctions located against the wall and that are not ~
o\'er 24 in. (610 mm) in v.;dth shall be JX=nniued to be C9lling
protected in accordance with Figure The
mID.;mum dutance between the sprinkler and the wall
.shall be measured from the sprinkler to the wall behind
the obstruction and not to the fnce of the obstruction. Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Develop-
ment. B General. Ct>struction Continuow or noncontinuous obstructions le.s.s
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the.sprinkler deflector
that prevent the pattem from full)' developing shall comply A
-';!h 8.8.52. Regardles.s of the rules of this .section, solid con- Ekwation V't9W
tinuow obstructions .shall meet the applicable requirements
of 2. FIGURE Posiuon of Sprinkler to Avo'd Obstruc-
tion to Discharge (Exteocled Coverage Upright and Pendent$$ Unless the requiremenu of through Spray Sprinklers). are met, sprinklers .shall be positioned away from ob-
sU'Uction.s a minimum distance: of four times the maximum di-
mension of the obstruction (e.g., tru.5.5 web.s and cho~ pipe,
columns., and fixtures). The ma."imwn clear distance rc:quirc:d
.shall be 36 in. (914 mm) in accordance with Figure Sprinl.:.lers .shall be permitted to be located one-
half the distance between the obstructions where the obstnlC· SprinkJe:u shall be permitted to be .spaced on op- tion. ofwood bar joists 20 in. (0.51 m) or greater apart,
posite sides of the obstruction where the distance from the provided that the top and bottom chords of the wood barjoist
centerline of the obnruction to the: .5prinl.:.lers docs notexcee:d are not greater than 4 in. (102 mm) (nominal) in width and
one-half the allowable distance between $prinlo:.1ers. bar member.s do not exceed 1 in. (25.4 rom) in width.

2013 Edition W

• •
~ Y Coiling or roof


~ 18 in. minimum
(no maximum)
A:2: (0- 8 in.) +8
~ Obstruction
~er9: Os 30 in. (0.8 m)
~ 1+----"24.:..:i,,,n.",max=-'+j
~ No additional
Elovatlon Vlow
Wi protection is

FIGURE ObstructioDs Against Walls (Extended

~ Wall
Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Spri.lllders).
FIGURE Obstructions Against Walls (Extendoo
Coverage Upright and Pendent Spra)' Sprinklers). Sprinkler.s .shall b~
pennitted to be installed on
the centerline of n truss or bar joist or directly above a beam.* Sprinklen shall be pennitted to be placed without
pro..ided that the tnus chord or beam, dimension is not more regard to the blade! of ceiling fans Ie!s than 60 in. (1.5 m) Ul
than 8 in. (203 mm) and the sprinkler deflector is located at diameter, prmided the plan view of the fan i.s at least 50 per-
least 6 in. (152 mm) above the .structural member and where cent open.
the .sprinkler is po.sitioned at a distance fOUT times greater Suspended. or Flool'-Mounted. Yer-tical Obstructions.
than the maximum dimension of the web member.s away from
The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains. freestanding
the web memben.
partitions. room dividers, and .similar obstructions in light haz- The requirements of .shall not sppl)' to ard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table
sprinkler s)"stem piping 105 than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter. and Figure The n~quirements of8. .shall not sppl}' to In light hazard occupancies. pri"'aC)' curtains, as
sprinklers positioned with respect to obstructions in accor- .shown in Figure, shall not be considered obstructions
dance with where all of the following are met:


Sprinkler Opon _ _1

• or wood truss


Plan View 01 Column EJovatkm View ofTruss

A $ 36 in. (914 mm)
(Use dimensicn Cor D, YItlich9ler is greater)

FIGURE Minimum DWanc:e from Obstruction (Extended. Coverage Upright and
Pendent Spray Sprinklers).

W 2013 Edition

Table Suspeoded or Floo~MountedObstructions Sprinkler.s installed under open gratings .shall be of
(Exteoded Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinkle",) the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded
in Light Ha.zan:l Occupancies Oaly from the cli.scharge of overhead .sprinlden.
8.8.6- Clearanee to Storage (Extended Coverage Upright and
Minimum Vertical Peodent Spray Sprinklers).
Distance Below
Hori.:r..ontal Distance (A) Deflector (B) (in.) The clearance between the deflector and the top of
storage shall be 18 in. (457 rom) or greater.
6in. or lc:as 3
More than 6 in. to 9 in. 4 Where other standards spccif).. greater clearance to
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 6 storage minimums, they .shall be followed.
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 8 8.8.7 Ceiling Pockets (Extended Coverage Upright and Pen-
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 9l-i1 dent Spray Sprinklers).
More than 18 in. to 24 in. 12l-i1
More than 24 in. to 30 in. 15l-i1 Except as provided in and 8.8.7.S, sprinltlcn
More than 30 in. 18 shall be required in all ceiling pockcm. Sprinlder.s .shall not be required in ceiling pockets
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 rom. where all of the following are met:
Note: for A and refer to Ftgun!
(1) The total ,,"Olume of the unprotected ceiling pocket docs
not exceed 1000 fr (28.3 m S ).

(2) The depth of the unprotected ceiling pocket does not
exceedMin. (QI4mm).
Calling or roof (3) The entire floor under the unprolccted ceiling pocket L.

:l prolccted by .sprinkler.s at the lower ceiling elevation.

(4)*The total size of all unprotected ceiling pocl:.ets in the
same compartment within 10 ft (3 m) of each other docs
_ _.....!:.AC--o·1
_E not exceed 1000 fts (28.3 m S ).
(5) The unprotected ceiling pocket has noncombwcible or
limited-combust1ble 6nithes.
(6) Quick--response sprinkler.s are utilized throughout the
8.8.7.S Sprinklers .shall not be required in .sL-ylighta and .simi--
lar!l in accordance with 8..5.7.
8.9· Extended Co,~rage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers.
8.9.1 General. All requirement.! of Section 8.5 shall apply to
Elovalion Vlow extended coverage sidewall spray .sprinldenl except as mocfi..
fied in Section 8.9.
FIGURE SU4pended or Floor-Mounted ObflmctiOD
8.9.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Extended Co,~rage
(Extended Coverage Upright 8%ld Pendent Spray Sprinklel"fli)
SMiewall Spray Spriolde..).
10 Light Hamrd Oocupaney ODly. Detennination of Protection Area of Coverage. The protection area of cO"'ernge per sprinkler (A..)
for extended coverage sidewall sprinkler" .shall be not las
(I) The curtains are lJupported by fabric mesh on ceiling
than that prescribed by the listing.
(2) Openirtgl' in the mesh are equal to 70 percent or greater. Listing dimen.sions shall be in 2 ft (0.61 m) incre-
(3) The mesh extends a minimum of 22 in. (559 mm) down ments up to 28 ft (8.5 m).
from ceiling. :Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. Obstnxtions that Prevent Spri.nkler Discharge from The maximum allowable protection area of cover-
Reaching Hazard.
age for a .sprinltlcr (A) shall be in accordance with the value Continuous or noncontinuous obstructioru that in· indicated in Table
terrupt the water dUcharge in a horizontal plane more than In any case, the maximwn area of coverage of a
18 in. (457 rom) bc:low the.sprinkler deflector in a manner to
limit the cli.stribution from reaching the protected hazard
sprinkler .shall not exceed 400 rr
(87.2 m%).
shall comply with 8.9.3 Spriokler Spacing (Exteoded Co_age Sid"""" Spray
8.8.5.S.2 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc-
tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate: Manmum Distance Between Sprinklers.
flooring. cutting tables, and overhead doon. The maximum distance permitted between .sprin-
8.8.5.S.3 Sprinklen shall not be required under obstructions klc:r.s shall be based on the centerline distance between .sprin-
that are not fIXed in place such as conference tables. klen on the branch Hne along the wall.

2013 Edition W

Table Protection Area. and Maximum Spacing for Extended Coverage SidewaU Spray

lightHlUaro Ordinary Hazard

Protection Area Spacing Protection Area SpACing

Typ" ft' m' ft m ft' m' ft m

Unobstnlctcd. 400 37.2 28 8.5 400 37.2 24 7.3

nat Whcrc sprinklen: arc installed along the length of a '\~lls.
single wall of rooms 01" ba}-'S. thc)· shall be spaced in accordance
with the ma.ximum spacing pmvisions afTable• * Sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not
more than 6 in. (152 mm) or less th.'\n 4 in. (102 mm) from
8.9.'.1.3 Sidewall :sprinklcn: shall not be in.stalled back·to- walls on which th<=)' arc mounted.
back without being separated b)' a continuous lintel. soffit. or
balIIc. Horizontalsidcwallsprinklers shall be permitted
to be located with their deflector.s less than 4 in. (102 mm) Sidewall sprink.lcn shall be: pc=nnitted to 1><= installed from the wall on which the)" are mounted.
on opposing or adjacent walls. prmided no -sprinkler is located
within the maximum protection area of another sprinkler. Lintels and Soffits. Maximum Distance from Walls. The distance from• * Where soffits wed for the inst.:"\llation of sidewall
sprinklers to the end walls .shall not exceed onc-half of the .sprinkler.s are less than or equal to 8 in. (203 mm) in width or
allowable distance permitted between sprinkler.s as indicated projection from the wall. additional sprinklers shall not be
in Tabl~ required below the soffit when the side:wa.ll sprinkler on the Minimum Distance from Walls. .soffit is within 4 in. (102 mm) from the bottom of the soffit. Sprinkler.s .shall be located a mlllimum of 4 Ill.* A sidewallsprinkl~r .shall be permitted to be in-
(102 mm) from an end wall. .stalled under a .soffit when both the minimum distance from
the .sprinkler ddlcctor to the bottom of the soffit and the The distance from the wsll to the sprinkler shall be
max:imum distance from the sprinkler deflector to the high
measured perpendicular to the wall.
ceili ng arc mai n tained. Mioimum Distance Be~'een Sprinklers. Sprinkler.;* Soffits and Cabinets in Residential Areas/
sha.lI be not locat~d within the ma.~imum protection area of
any other .sprinkler unless required by or .separated Occupancies. Where soffits are used for the installation of
by baffles that compl)' with the following: .sidev.-all sprinklers. the sprinklers a.nd soffits shall be installed
in accordance wi th, or
(1) BafIle.s shall be arranged to protect th~ actuating ele-
ments. Where soffits exceed more than 8 in. (203 mm) in
(2) Bafile.s shall be of solid and rigid material that will sta)' in width or projection from the wall. pend~nt .sprinklcrs shall be
place bt=fore and during sprinkler operation. install~d under the soffit.
(3) Bafile.s .shall be not less than 8 in. (203 mm) long and 6 in. Sidewall .sprinklers shall be permitted (0 be in-
(152 mm) high.
(4) The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. .stalled i.n the face of a soffit located directly O\~r cabinets.
(51 mm and 76 rom) abo\'(: the ddlector.s. without requiring additional sprinklers below the soffit or
(5) The bottoms ofbaffie.s shall eXlend down"""3rd to a level at cabinets. where the soffit does not project horizontall)" more
least even with the ddl~clors. than 12 in. (305 mm) from the wall.

8.9.4 Deflector Position from Ceilings and Walls (Extended 'Where sidewall sprin.k.l~rs are more than :3 ft
Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). (0.91 m) above the top of cabincts, the sprinkler shall be
permitted to be installed on the wall above the cabinets Distance Below Ceilings and from '\illls to Whim
where the cabinets are no greater than 12 in. (305 mm)
Sprinklers Are Mounted.
from the wall. Ceilings. Defleccor Orientation. Unless the requiremenu of arc mel.
side:wa.ll sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than Deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to
6 in. (152 mm) nor lcss than 4 in. (102 mm) from ceilings. ceilings or roofs. Horizontal sidewall .sprinklers shall be pennitted Sidewall sprinklers. where installed under a sloped
to be located in a zone 6 in. to 12 in. (152 mm to 305 mm) or ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12, shall be located at the
12 in. to 18 in. (305 mm to 457 mm) below noncombustible or high point of the slope and po.sitioned to discharge downward
limited-combustible ceilings where Ii.sted for such usc. along the slope.

W 2013 Editbn
INSTALlATION REQUIREMENTS 1~9 Sidewall .sprinkJcrs specifically listed for other ceil-

ing configurations :iliaJ1 be pcnnittcd to be installed in accor-
dance with the luting requirements.
8.9.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Extended Cover-
age Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). Pecfomtance Objedh-e. Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob-
$tructioru to discharge 35 defined in and or
additional sprinkler.> .shall be pro\idcd to ensure adequate
co\"erage of the h:<uard. Sidc.-wall sprinklers .shall bc instal led no cl05cr than
8 ft (2.4 m) from light fixtures or similar obstructions. The distance between light fixtures or similar ob~
structioJU located morc than 8 ft (2.4 m) from the sprinkler
shall be in confonnance with Table and Figlll'c Wall
Elevation View
Table Positioning of Sprinklers to A·..oid
FIGURE Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Obstruc-
Obstructions (Extended eo'\"E!t"ag(' Sidewall Spray Sprinklers)
tion (Ext('nded Co,~~ Sidewall Spray Sprinklers).

Maximum Allowable
Distance of De fled or Table Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid
Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler to AbO\~ Bottom of Obstructions Along Wall (Extended Co'\-ernge Sidewall Spray
Side of Obstruction (A) Obstruction (B) (in.) Sprinklers)
I...e1s than 8 ft Not allowed
8ft to le.s5 than 10ft I Maximum Allowable
Distance of Deflpctor
10 ft to less than 11 ft 2
Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler Above Bottom of
11 ft to less than 12 ft 3
to Side of Obstruction (.4.) Obstruction (B) (in.)
12 ft to less than 13ft 4
13 ft. to leM than 14 ft 6
14 fl to leM than 15 ft 7
Less than 1 ft 6 in. o
1 ft 6 in. to les.s than 3 ft I
15 fl 10 le.s5 than 16 ft 9
3 ft to less than 4 ft 3
16 ft to leM than 17 fl II
4 ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 5
17 fl 01'" gI"~3Iel'" 14
4 ft 6 in. to les.s than 6 ft 7
Fol'" 51 units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; I fI = 0.3048 m. 6 ft to I~ss than 6 ft 6 in. 9
Note: Fol'" ... and B. I'"efel'" to Figure: B. 6 ft 6 In. to less than i ft 11
7 ft to l~ss than 7 ft 6 in. 14

For SI units, I in. = 25.4 mm: 1 ft = 0.3048 m. Comlnuow obstructions pl"Ojecting from the same NOle: For ... and B. refel'" 1.0 Figure 8.9.!i.IA.
wall as the one on which the .sidewall ,sprinkl~1'" is mount~d
,shall be in accon!ance wilh Table and FigUl"e Sprinklers,shall be pennitted to be spaced on oppo- Regardless of the rules of this section, solid con-
,site sides of obstructions les.s than 4 ft (1.22 m) in width whel'"e tinuous obstntctions shall med the requirements of8.
the di,st:ance from the centedine of the obstruction to the and
,sprinklers doc,s not exceed one-haJf the allowable distance be·
tween sprinklers.* Unless the requirem~ts of through are mel, sprinkler.; shall be positioned away fTOm* Ob,st:ru.ctions on the wall opposite from lhe sidewall
obstructions a minimtun distance of four timc.s the ma.:'(.imum
,sprinkleI'" ,shall be pennitted whe:I"C~ the obstruction is up to 2 ft
dimension of the obstruction (e.g.. trt..1SS webs and chords.
(0.6 m) deep and 2 ft (0.6 m) wide.
pipe, columns, and fixtures). The maximum c1GU" distance ObstnJctions to Sprinkle.r Discharge Patl('rn Denlop- I'"equired shall be 36 In. (914 mm) from the sprinkler.
ment. SidC'Wall sprink1~r.s shall be positioned in accor· Geoet'aJ. dance with Figure when obstructions arc present. Continuow 01'" noncontinuous obstructions lc,ss The requirements of8. and
than or equal 10 18 in. (457 mm) below the ,sprinkleI'" deflector
that prevent the pattern from full)' developing shall comply notappl)'where sprinklens arc positioned with respect to obstruc-
with this section. tions in accordance with and

2013 Edition til


Table Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions
(Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard
Ceiling Occupancies Only

• Sid....11
Minimum ADowable
Distance Below
on wall
Horizontal Distance (A) Deflector (B) (10.)
6 in. or leu 3
More than 6 in. to 9 in. 4
A MOTC than 9 in. to 12 in. 6
MOTe than 12 in. to 15 in. 8
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 9\>
Elevation View More than 18 in. to 24 in. 12~
More than 24 in. to 30 in. 15H!
FIGURE POI5itioning of SprinltlE'r to A,'Oid Obstruc- More than 30 in. 18
tion Along '\811 (Extetxled Coverage SicW'aU Spmy Sprinklers).
For 51 unitllo. 1 in. = 21'>.4 mm.
Note: For A and B. refer to Figure


Sprinklgr Oootruetion


Plan Vlow of Column EJovat:lon View of Plpg Conduit or Ught Flxtul'Q
A 2::4Cor4D
A:!> 36 in. (914 mm)
(Use dimgnsbn CaD, which9V9r is grea:tgr)

FIGURE8. Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Extended Coverage Sidewall). The requirements of8. shall not appl)' to* Obstructions tbat PI'E''\-ent Sprinkler Discbarge from
sprinkler s.)'Stem piping less than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter. Roacbing Haum!.* Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed without Continuow or noncontinuous obstructions that in-
regard to the blades of ce:iling fans les.s than 60 in. (1.5 m) in tefTUpt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than
diameter, provided the plan view of the fan is at least 50 pe:r- 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to
cent open. limit the distribution from reaching the protected ha.mrd
shall comply with this section. Suspended or Floor-Mounted Vertical Obstructions.
The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtaim, freestanding Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc-
partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light haz- tions 4 ft (1.2 m) wide, such as duels. decks. open grate
ard occupance.s shan be in accordance with Table flooring, cutting tables, and overhead. doors.
and Figure Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions* In light hazard occupancies, privaC). curtains. as that arc not fixed in place. such as conference tables.
shown in Figure, shall not be considered obsU'uctiolU 8.10 Residential Sp-inklers.
where all of the following are met:
8.10.1 Reserved.
(I) The curtains are supported by fabric mesh on ceiling track.
(2) Openings. in the mesh arc equal to 70 percent or greater. 8.10.2* Ustings.
(3) The mesh extends a minimwn of22 in. (559 mm) down Areas of co\-'Crage shall be in accordance with the
from ceiling. manufacturer's listing.

ttl 2013 Edition


~ The maximwn discmce.shall be measured along the

slope ofule ceiling as .shown in F'tgUre and Figure
~ CEiling 8.IO.3.5(b).
~ 11--. ----:.A'----_ _------.,·I---''-B

~ wan

~ Floor
~~ L

Elovatfon VIow

FIGURE Suspended or Floor-Mounted ObrlnlCtiOD L

(Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) in light Hazard Oc-
cupancy Only.
<1---- Measured on sfop9 ----+

8.10.$ Distances Between Sprin.kJers.
8.10.$.1 Maximum distances between .!IprinkJerB .!IhnJl be in ncURE Maximum DiMance Between Sprinklers
accordance with the: manufacturer's listing. with Sloped Ceilings - Arrangement ~
8.10.~.2 The dutance betw«n the .Iprink.ler and the: wall
.shall not e.xceed half the: maximum allownble dutance be·
tween sprinklers per the manufacturer'.!! luting.
3 ft (O.9m)
8.10.$.3 The minimum distance between sprinklen within a
compartment shall be a ft (2.44 ro), unless the listing or the
sprinkler requira a greater distance, unleu required by, or unleu separal.ed by baffies that comply with
the: foHowing:
(I) Baffles shall be ananged to protect the actuating de:·
ments. Soction
(2) Baffles .shall be of .solid and rigid material that will stay in
place: before and during .sprinkler operation.
(3) BaffieuhaU be nOlleas thanS in. (203 mm) long and 6 in.
I-s+s...j I,
(152 mm) high. ;j
(4) The tops of baIDes shall extend between 2 in. and 8 in.
(51 rom and 76 mm) above the deflectoQ of upright
Paak linG I L

(5) The bottonu ofbafflc:s sball extend downward to a level at I, L
least even with the deflectoQ of pendent .sprinklers. Rcsidentialsidewall sprinklers.shall be permitted to be
installed on opposing or adjacent wall:s, provided no sprinkler is I
located within the maximum protection area of another sprin- M...sured on stop. - - - -...
kler or unless separated by bafIles that comply with the following:
(1) Baffles WJ.l be arranged. to protect the actuating dements.
(2) Baffles shall be ofsolid and rigid material that will stay in nGURE 8.1O.S.5(b) Maximum Diatance Between Sprinklers
place before and during sprinkler operation. with Sloped Ceilings - Arrangement B.
(3) Bafflesshall be notles.s than 8 in. (203 mm) long and 6 in.
(152 mm) high.
(4) The tops of baffies shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. Where sprinklen are installed along .sloped colings.
(51 mm and 76 rom) above the deflectors. the sprinklers.shall maintain the minimum listed spacing. but no
(5) The bottoms ofba.fJ1e.s .1ball extend downward to a level at less than 8 ft (2.44 m), mca.surcd in the plan view from onc.1prin-
least e\'C:n with the deflectoD. klcr to another a.s shown in Figure and Figure

2013 Edition m
U ...'12 INSTA1.L'\TION OFSPRlNKL£R SYSTEMS, or unl... ,ep""'t<d by balIJ.,. that comply vnth the 8.10.4.S Where .soffits used for the installation ofsidewall.sprin-
following: klen exceed 8 in. (203 mOl) in width or projection from the wall,
additional sprinkleD.shal1 be installed below the soffit.
(1) Baffles shall be arranged to protect the actuating de:-
ments. Residential horizontal sidewall sprinkler deflc:cton
(2) Baffies shall be of solid and rigid material dtat wi11.stn), in shalt be located no more: thnn 6 i.n. (152 rom) from the wall on
place before and during .sprinkler operation. which they are mounted unless listed for greater dist'ance.s.
(3) Baffles .sban be not IC!l5 than 8 in. (203 mm) long and 6 in. The distance from sprinklers to the end walls .shall
(152 mm) high. not exceed one-half of the allowable distance pennittcd be-
(4) The lOpS of baffles .shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. tween sprinklers as indicated in the sprinkler listing.
(51 mm and 76 mm) above the deflectors of upright
.sprinklers. :Minimurn Distance from Walls•
(S) The: bottoms ofbaflle.s shall extend downward to a level at Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in.
lea.n even with the: deflector" of pendent sprinklers. (102 mm) from an end walt. The distance from the wall to the .sprinkler.shall be
measured perpendicular to the wall.
8.10.5 Residential.sprinklen installed in confonnance with
this standard shall follow the sprinkler obst:ruction rules of
8.10.6 or 8.10.7 as appropriate for thei.r instaUarion orienta·
tion (upright, pendent, or sidewall) and the obstruction crite-
ria specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions.
8.10.6 Obstructions to Spinkler Discharge (Ree:identiaJ Up-
right and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). Performance Objective.
Minimum listed spacing Sprinkler.s shall be located so as to minimize ob-
btJJ not klSS than 8 ft (2.44 m)
StructiON to discharge as defined in and, or
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate
cm'erage of the hazard
ElGvatJonViGw Sprinklers shall be arranged to compty with one of
the following arrangements:
FIGURE 8.10.$.6(8) Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers
with Sloped Ceilings -Arrangement A. (1) Sprinklers .shall be in accordance with, Table, and P;gure 8.1O.6.I.2(a).
(2) Sprinkler.s shall be pennittcd to be spaced on opposite
sides of Ob!t:ructiON not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width,
provided the distance trom the centerline of the ob.struc~
tion to the sprinklers doe.s nOl exceed one-half the allow-
able distance pc:nnitted between 5prinkler.s.
(3) Obst:ructions located against the wall and that are not
o\>'er 30 in. (762 mm) in width shall be permitted to be
protected in accordance with Figure,2(b).
(4) Obstruction, that are locatd against the wall and that are
not over 24 in. (610 mm) in width sball be permitted to be
Minimum listed spacing protected in accordance with Figure The
but not less 1han 8 ft (2.44 m) ma.'Cimum distance: between the sprinldcr and the wall
shall be measured from the sprinkler to the wall bc:hind
the ob.stnlction and not to the face of the obstruction.

EJovation VlGw Obstructions to Sprinkler Discbllrge Pattern Devel-

FIGURE 8.10.S.6(b) Minimum Distance Between Sprinklera
with Sloped Ceilings - Arrangement B. General. Continuous or noncontinuous obstroction.s le.s.s
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mrn) belOW' the sprinkler deflector
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply
8.10.4 Deflector Position from Ceilinp and 'VaIl". with Pendent and upright sprinklcn shall be positioned Rcgardle5S of the rules of this section, solid con·
so that the: deflectors arc: 1 in. to 4 in. (25 mm to 102 mm) tinuous obstructions sball meet the applicable requirements
from the ceiling unless the luting allows a greater distance. of 8.1 0.6. 1.2. Sidewall sprinklen sball be positioned 50 that the· Unless the requirements of8. through
deflectors are within 4 in. to 6 in. (102 mm to 152 mm) from are met. sprinklers sball be positioned aw8)' from
the ceiling unless the luting allows greater distances. obstructiON a minimum distance of four times the maximum

W 2013 Edition

Table PMitioniog of Sprinklers to Avoid

ObmuctiODS to Discharge (Residential Upright and Pendent
Spray Sprioklers)

Maximmn Allowable
Distance of Deflector B
Distance from Sprinklers to Above Bottom of
Side of Obmuction (A) ObelJ'Uebon (B) (in.)
Less than 1 ft o
1 ftlo Jess than 1 ft 6 in. o o A
1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 1
2 ft to Jess than 2 ft 6 in. 1
2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft 1
3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. S
3 ft 6 in. to leM than 4 ft S
4- ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 5 waJ iA·(O-O.2m)+B)
4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 7 whe!o:Os 30 in. (0.& m)
5 ft to Jess than 5 ft 6 in. 7
S ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 7
6 fllO less than 6 ft 6 in. 9 e"".uon V10w
6 ft 6 in. to leas than 7 ft. 11
7 ft and gr~ter 14 FIGURE ObotrocHona Again" \\!ill (Re";den-
tial Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers).
For 51 unitJ. I in. = 25.4 nun; I fl = 0.5048 m.
Note: For A and B. refer to Ftgun!

• s ,

181n. minimum
(no maximLm)


FIGURE Poaiooning of Sprin1<1er to Avo;d 01>-

&truction to Di&chatge (Residential Upigbt and Pendent
Spray Sprinklers).
FIGURE Obstructions Ag1Una. Wlill (M........
ment. for RePdential Upigbt and Pendent Spray Sprinklers).
dimension of the obstruction (e.g., webs and chords,
pipe, columns. and fixtures). The maximum clear distance
required shaJJ be 36 in. (914 mm) in accordance with Figure
8.10.6.U.5. are not greater than 4 in. (102 mm) (nominal) in width and Sprinklen .shall be pennittc:d to be spaced on web membcn do not exceed 1 in. (25.4 mm) in width.
opposite sides of the obstruction where the distance from the U Sprinld••uhall be I'emuttcd to be imtaIIcd on the
centerline of the obstruction to the .sprinklers does not exceed
on~haJf the aHowable distance between sprinklcn.
centerline ofa tn.w or barjoist or dircctlyabove a beam provided
thai: the tnw chord or beam dime::Nion is not more than 8 in. Sprinklen shall be pcnnitted to be located one- (203 mm) and the sprinkler deflector i.s located at Jeast 6 in.
half the d.i.stance between the obstructions where the obstruc- (152 mm) abo\'e the.struetural member and where the sprinkler
tion consists of open t.rwlses 20 in. (0.51 m) or greater apart is positioned at a distance four times gre:au:r than the maximum
[24 in. (0.61 m) on eenter], provided that all tnw memben dimension of the web members away from the web mcmben.

201S Edition W

Sl>nnkkir (Jpon _ _ 1

• or wood truss


PIlIn View of EIovallon View o!Tr....

AS 36 in. (914 1Ml)
(Us. dimen~cn CorD. ""iell..,.r Is gr••t9lj

FIGURE8. Minimum Distance from Obetruction (Residential Upright and Pendent

Spray Sprinklers). The requirements of8. .shall not apply

to sprinkJersysletn piping leu than 3 in. (80 mm) in diameter. CeDing or roof The requirement» of8. .shall not apply

to .,prinkJc:rs positioned with respect to obstruCtiOIU in acc:or·
dance with
I· -I* Sprin.klers shaD be pennitted to be: placed with-
out regard to the blades of a ceiling fan, provided the plan
...; ew of the fan is at least 50 percent open. SlUpended or Floo....Mounted ':erotical Obttruo-
tions. The dislBnce from sprinklers to privacy curt'aim, &ee-
standing partitions, room dividers, and similarobstruc:tions in
light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table and Figure Floor

Table Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obmuction. P1GURE Suspended or Ploor-Mounted Obstruc>
(Residential Upright and Peadent Spray Sprinklers) in Light tion (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray SpinJden) in
Hazard Oocupancie. Only Usb' Hazan! Occul"'0CY On!>'

Minimum Vertical
Distanoe Below
8.10.6.S- Obstrucliooa that Prevent Sprinlder Dixharge from
Horizontal Distanoe (A) Deflector (B) (in.)
RooclUng HazanI.
Gin. or leu 3 8.10.6.S.1 Continuow or noncontinuous obstructions that
More than 6 in. to 9 in. 4 interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 6 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to
Morc than 12 in. to 15 in. 8 limit the distnbution from reaching the protected hazard
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 9~ .hall complywith
Morc than 18 in. to 24 in. 12~
More than 24 in. to 80 in. 15~ 8.10.6.S.2 Sprinkler.s .shaU be installed under fixed obstruc-
More than 30 in. 18 tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as stair.s and landings.
8.10.6.S.3 Sprinkler.s .shall not be required under obstruc-
For 51 units, 1 in. = 25.4: mm. tions that are not fi.'tCd in placc.
Note: For A and B. refer to Figure Sprinklcl"3 installcd under open gratings shall be
.shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.

!iJ 2013 Edklon


8.10.7 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Residential Side- OWtTUCtiOlU projecting from the same waH as the
llt"81l Spray Sprinkle",). one on which the sidewall sprinkler is mow1.ted shall be in
accordance with Table and Figure PerConnance Objedive. Sprinklen .shall be located M) a5 to minimize ob-
.strucbOD$ to discharge as defined ill and, or-
additional .sprinklers .shall be pro\ided to ensure adequate Table Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid
coverage of the hazard. Obstructions Along WaD (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) Sidewall sprinklers.shall be installed no c1wcr than
8 £1 (2.4 m) from light fixtures or .similar obstructions. Maximum AlJo~"Bble
Distance from Sidewall Distance of Deflector The distance bct'Ncen light fi.xtllTC5 or similar ob- Above Bottom of
Sprinkler to
structions located more than 8 £t (2.4 m) from the sprinkler Side of Obstruction (A) Obstruction fB) (in.)
.shan be: in confonnance with Table and Figure
8.10.7.l.3. Less than 1 ft 6 in. o
1 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft I
3 ft to less than 4 ft 3
4 ft to le!iS than 4 ft 6 in. 5
Table Positioning of Sprinklers to A..."Oid
4 ft 6 in. to Jess than 6 ft 7
Obstn.JctioDS (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers)
6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 9
6 ft 6 in. to Jess than 7 n II
Maximum Allowable 7 ft to less than 7 ft 6 in. 14
Distance of Deflector
Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler AbO\~ Bottom of For SI units,. 1 in. = 25.4 mm: 1 fI = 0.3048 m.
to Side of Obstruction (.4) Obstruction (B) (in.) Note: For A and B. refer to Figure
I...ess than 8 ft Not allowed
8 ft to le.s.s than 10 ft 1
10 ft to le.s.s than 11 £t 2
11 ft to 1e.s.s than 12 ft 3 Ceiling
12 ft to le.s.s than 13 ft
13 ft to le.s.s than 14 £t
14 ft to le.s.s than 15ft
7 B
• Sidewall
15 ft to leM than 16 ft 9 on wall
16 ft to le.s.s than 17 ft II
17 ft or greater 14 Obstruction

For SI uniu. 1 in. = 25..4 mm: 1 ft = 0.3048 m.

Note: For A and B. refer to Figure A

Eltwadon View

FIGURE Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Db-

stnJCtion Along Wall (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers).* Soffits and Cabinets. 'Whe::re soffiu are:: used for the
installation of sidewall sprinklers. the:: sprinklcrs and soffits
shall be installed in accordance with,,
or Wher~ soffits o:ce::ed more than 8 in. (203 mm)
in width or projection from the wall, pc:ndent.sprinklers shall
be in.stalled under the:: SOffiL Sidewall sprinklers .shall be permitted to be:: in-
:'>tailed in the face of a soffit located directly oyer cabinets,
Wall without requiring additional .sprinkler.s below the soffit or
cabinets, where:: the soffit doc::s not project horizontally more
Elevation V10w than 12 in. (305 rom) from the:: wall. Where sidewall sprinklers arc more than 3 ft
FIGURE Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Ob.. (914 rom) above the top of cabinets, the .sprinkler shall be per-
struction (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers). mitted to be installed on the wall abo....e the cabinets where the
cabinet.'! arc no greater than 12 in. (305 mm) from the walL

20t3 Editicn W
1!>-76 INSTAllATION OFSPRJNKLER SYSTEMS* Obsuuctlol1S on the wall opposite from the side- Table Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruetions
wall sprinkler shall be pennittcd where the obstruction is up (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard
to 2 ft (0.6 m) decp and 2 ft (0.6 m) wide. Occupancies Only Obstructions 10 Sprinkler Disc.harge Pattern Dev&
Distance Below General. Horizontal Distance (A) Deflector (B) (in.) Continuous or noncontinuous obSlnlCriOns Ic:!oS
6 in. or le$5 3
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the spTinkJcT deflector
More than 6 in. to 9 in. 4
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 6
with this scction.
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 8 Regardless of the niles of this .section. .solid con~ More than 15 in. to 18 in. 9'h
tinuollS obstructions shall meet the requirements 0£8.1 O. 7.1.2 More than 18 in. to 24 in. 12 th
and More than 24 in. to 30 in. 15 th* Unle55 the requirements of8. A through More than 30 in. 18 arc met • .sprinklcr.s shall be positioned awn)' from
For SI uni~. 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
obstructions a minimum distance of four times the ma.ximum
Note: For.o\ and B. refer to Figure S.IO. 7.2.2.
dimension of the obstruction.
(A) The maximum clear dist:ulce required shall be 36 in.
(914 mm) from the sprinkler (e.g.. trus.s ",,-cbs and chords.
pipe. columns. and fl.xture..s).* Obstructions that Prevent Spri nkler Discharge from Sidcwallsprinklers shall be positioned in accor- Reaching Hazard.
dance with Figure when obstructions are present. Continuow or noncontinuous obstructions that The re=-quirements of and interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than
shall not apply where sprinklers are positioned with re.spect to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to
obstructions in accordance with and limit the distribution ITom reaching the protected hazard The requirements of shall not apply shall comply wi th this section.
to sprinkler system piping than :3 in. (80 mm) in diameter. Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc-· Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed with- tions O"o'er 4 ft (1.2 m) wide, .such as duels, stairs, and landings.
out regard to the blades of a ceiling fan, provided the plan
\iew of the fan is at least 50 percent open. Sprinklers shall not be required wlder obstruc-
tions that are not fixed in place. Suspended or Floor-Mounted 'wtic:al Obstructions.
The distance=- from sprinklers to privacy curtains. free-oStnnding Sprink.lers installed under open gra.tings shall lK'
partitions, room dhiders, and similar obstructions in light hazard shielded from the discharge of oV(:.rhead sprinklers.
occupancies shall be in accordance with Table and Fig-

~ Ceiling ~
~ ~
~ ~
n ~ ~
~ Ot6ttuetion
c ~ Gooo ~
~ ~
~ I·
~ ·1
~ ~
Plan Vlow of Column El9vation Viow of Plpg Conduit or Light Fixtunit
A So 36 in. (914 mm)
(Usa dim9ns;on C ex D. whichavar is great9r)

FIGURE Mjnimum Distanc~ from Obstruction (R~sid~ntial SKiewall Spr-inkJers).

W2013 Edition

~ Table Protection Areas and 'P.faximum Spacing for

CMSA Sprinkl....
~ C<;jling

~I<J--------­ M.aximum

~ Protection Area Spac:mg

~ 11--. A:.:....- --:·I---''-B

Cons.truction Type ft' m' ft m

~ Noncombwtible 130 12.1 12 3.7

Obstruction unobstructed

Noncombwtible 130 12.1 12 3.7

Combwtible 130 12.1 12 3.7
~ Wal unobstructed
Combwtible 100 9.3 10 3.1
Rack .storage 100 9.3 10 3.1
~ Floor combustible
~~ obIJtructed
Rack..nomge 100 9.3 12 3.7
Elovatfon Vlow unOWtnlcted and
FIGURE Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obobuo- ohnructed
tion (Residential Sidewall SprinkJers) in light Hamrd Occu-
paoey Only.
8.11.3 Sprinkler Spacing (CM&\ Spnokl....).· Maximum Di.lance Between Sprinklers.
8.10.8 Ceilmg Pockets. Under unobstructed and obstructed noncomb~ Sprinklers shall be required in all ceiling pockc:t1. tible construction and unobstructed combustible consttuc~ The: requirement of shall not apply where cion, the dUtance between sprinkler.s shall be limited to not
an of the: following requirements are met:: more than 12 ft (3.7 m) between .sprinkler.s, as shown in Table
(l) The total volume: of the: unlrotec:ted ceiling pocket does
not exceed 100 ft$ (2.83 m ). Under obstructed combusb"ble coo.suuetion. the
maximum di.stance .shall be limited to 10 ft (3 m).
(2) The: depth of the unprot.e<:t.ed ceiling pocket does not
exceed 12 in. (305 mm). Maximum Distance from \Valls. The distance from
(3) The: entire floor ofthc: Wlprolect.ed ceiling pocket ill pro- sprinklcrs to wails .shall not exceed one-balf of the allowable
tected by the sprinklers at the lower ceiling dewtion. distance pennitted between .sprinklers as indicated in Table
- (4) The interior finish of the unprotect.ed ceiling pocket i.s
noncomhwtibJe or Jimitdkombwtiblc construction.
8.11.3.S Minimum Distance from Wan•. Sprinklel'3 .shall be lo-
8.11 CMSA Sp-inklers. cated a minimum of4 in. (102 nun) from a wall
8.11.1 General. All requiremen13 ofSection 8.5 .shall apply to Minimum l)ittaDce Betv.-eeD Sprinlden. SprinkJen
CMSAsprinkJer.s except as modified in Section 8.11. shall be .spaced not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on centcr. CMSA pendent .sprinklen shall be installed in accor- 8.11.4 Deflector Position (CMSASprinkJers).
dance with Section 8.5 and the manufacturer's installation in·
.structions in lieu of the requiremenb in Section 8.11.· DUJtance Below CeiJinga.
8.1104.1.1 Unobstructed Construction. Under unobstructed
8.11.2· Protection Areas per Sprinkler (CMSASprinklers).
cowttuction, the distance between the.sprinkler dc::flector and Determination of Protection Area of CO\lera~. The the ceiling .shaD be a minimum ofG in. (152 rom) and a man.
protection area of coverage per sprinkler (A) shall be detcT· mum of8 in. (208 mm).
mined in accordance-with Obstructed Con5tnJctioo. Under obstructed COl'). Maximum Protection Area of Co'~rage. 5trUction, the sprinkler deflector shall be located in accor-
dance with one of the following arrangements: The maximum allowable protection area of cover·
age for a sprinkler (AJ .shall be in accordance with the ..alue (l) Installed with the deflectors located a minimum of 6 in.
indicated in Table (152 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (305 rom) from the In any case, the maximum area of coverage of any ceiling.
(2) Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes
.sprinkler shall not exceed 130 ftt (12.9 mt).
1 in. to 6 in. (25.4 mm to 152 rom) below wood joist. Minimum Protection Area of Coverage. The mini· composite wood joist, .solid obstructed noncombusb"ble.
mum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler or solid obstructed limited combustible construction, to a
(II.) ,hall be not less than 80 ft' (7.4 m'). maximum di.stance of22 in. (559 mm) below the ceiling/

2013 Edition li)


roof or deck. Where CMSA .sprinklers arc iwtnJled under

open wood joist construction, their minimum operating
pre.uurcshaU be 50 p5i (3.4 bar) for a K-l1.2 (160) .sprin-
kler or 22 psi (1.5 bar) for a K-16.8 (240) .sprinkler in
accordance with and
(3) Installed with deflectors of sprinkIcns tmdcr concrete tee
construction with stems .spaced IC5$ than 7 £1 6 in. (2.3 m)
but morc than 3 £t (0.9 m) on ccnters, regardless of !.he B
depth of the tee. located at or abo\"e a horizontal plane
I in. (25.4 mm) below the bottom of the .stems of the Ices
and in compliance with Table 8.1l.5.1.2.
Obstruction Deflector Orleontation. Deflectors of sprinklers shall
be aligned parallel to ceilings or roofs.
8.11.5" Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (CMSA Spri& A
kJe",). Perfonnanoe Objective.
FIGURE Po.sitioning of Sprinkler to AvoXl Ob- Sprinkler.!l shall be located.!lo as to minimize ob- struction to Discharge (CMSASprinkJers).
stnactions to discharge as defined in and or
additional sprinklers .!Ihall be provided to ensure adequate
co\'C'rage of the hazard. Sprinklers shall be arranged to compl)' with Regardless of the ndes of thi3: se=:ction, solid con-, Table, and Figure tinuow obstructions.!lhall meet the requirements of8.ll.5.1.2
or8.· Unle5S the requirements of or 3
are met, for obslructiorn 8 in. (203 mm) or less in width, as
Table Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid .shown in F"tgUre, sprinklers shall be pmitioned such
Obstructions to Discharge (CMSA Sprinklers) that thq are located at least a distnnce three times greater than
the maximum dimension of the obstruction from the sprinkler
Maximum Allowable (e.g., webs and chord members, pipe, columns, and fixtures).
Distance of Def1e.ctor Branch Lines. Upright sprinklers shall be
DiBtanoe from Sprinkler to AbO\"e Bottom of
rioned with respect to branch lines in accordance with one of
Side of ObstrudioD (A) Obstruction (B) (in.) the following:
Les..s than 1 ft o (1) Upright .!IprinL:len; .!Ihall be permitted to be attached di-
1 ft to les..s than 1 ft 6 in. 1\0\ recll)'to branch lines less than or equal to 4 in. (100 mm)
1ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 3 nominal in diameter.
2 ft to lCS5 than 2 ft 6 in. 5\0\ (2) Upright.!lprinkler.s shall be permitted to be offset horizon-
2 ft 6 in. to less tha.n 3 ft 8 tall)' a minimum of 12 in. (305 mm) from the pipe.
3 ft to less than 3, ft 6 in. 10 (3) Upright.sprinklen .!Ihall be permitted to be supplied by a
3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 12 mer nipple (sprig) to de'\'ate the sprinkler deflector a
4 ft to lesJ than 4 ft 6 in. 15 minimum of 12 in. (305 rom) from the centaline of any
4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 18 pipe over 4 in. (100 mm) nominal in diameter.
5 ft to lesJ than 5 £t 6 in. 22 •· Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from
5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 26
6ft 31 Reaching Hazard. Continuow or noncontinuous obstructions that
For 51 uniu. 1 in. = 25.4 mm; I ft = 0.3048 m. intelTIlpt the water di..scharge in a horizontal plane below the
Note: For.4. and B. refer to Figure .sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from
reaching the protected hazard shall compl)' with Sprinkler.s shall be positioned with respect to fluo- The requirements of8. shall not apply ",nere rescent lighting fL'ttures, ducts. and obstructions more than
sprinklers are position~ on opposite: sides of the obstruction. 24 in. (610 mm) wide and located entire=:1y below the=: sprinklen
so that the minimum horizontal distance from the nearside=: of Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Devel- the obstruction to the ce=:nte=:r of the .!Iprinklcr is not less than
opment. the=: value .!Ipecified in Table and Figure=: General. Sprinklen installed unde=:r open gratings shall be
.!Ihidded from the=: discharge=: of overhead sprinklers. Continuous or noncontinuow obstIUctiorui less
than or equal to 36 in. (914 mm) below the .!IprinL:ler deflector Where=: the=: bottom of the=: obstruction is located
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 24 in. (610 mm) or more below the=: sprinkle=:r ddlecton. the
w;th following .!Ihall occur:

ttl 2013 Editbn



-.-- n Sprinkler


Plan View of ElowUon View ofTruss

A 2: 3Cor aD
(USe dimensioo Cor D. 'I'ItIich9l9r is greaten

FIGURE 1tfmimum Distance from Obstruction (OISA Sprinklen).

Table Obstruction Eotin!'1y Below Sprinkler (2) The orntruction width shall meet the following requir~
(CMSA Sprinklers) ments:
(a) The obstruction shall be limited to a maximlun width of
DistaDCE' of Deflector 24 in. (610 mm) in accordance with Figure
Minimum Distance to Side of AbO\~ Bottom of (b) Where the orntnlction is greater than 24 in. (610 mm)
Obstruction (£1) (A) Obstruction (B) (in.) wide, one or more lines of sprinklers shall be installed
below the obstruction. than 6 in. II'
(3) The obstruction exteruion shall med the following r~
G in. to 1C!>5 than 12 in. 3
12 in. to leM than 18 in. 4 quirements:
18 in. to le..s.s than 24 in. 5 (a) The obstruction .shall not extend more than 12 m.
24 in. to les5 than 30 in. 51' (305 mOl) to either side of the midpoint between
30 in. to les.s than 36 in. 6 sprinklers in accordancc with Figul·c
(b) 'Where the extensions of the obstruction exceed
For 51 units. 1 in. = 25.4 mm: I ft = 0.3048 m. 12 in. (3050101). one or more lines of sprinklers shall
NaIll?: For.4. and B. refer to Figure be installed below the obstruction.
(4) At least 18 in. (457 mm) clearance shall be maintained
between the top of storage and the bottom of the obstruc-
tion in accordance with Figure
Ceiling In the .special case of an ob.struction running par-
allel to or directl}· below a branch line, the following shall
24 in. (610 mm) or mOfe occur:

I- -j 8 (1) The sprinkler shall be located at least 36 in. (914 nun)

above the top of the obstruction in accordance ...r ith Fig-
/0000\ ure
(2) The obstruction shall be limited to a maximum width of
Pipe, conduit, 12 in. (305 mm) in accordance with Figure
orfix1lJre (3) The obstruction shall be limited to a ma:umwn extension
of 6 in. (152 mm) to either side of the centerline of the
branch line in accordance with Figure
FIGURE Obstruction Ellti~ly Below Sprinkler
(ClIISA Sprinkl....). 8.11.6 Clearance to Storage (CMSA Sprinklers). The clear-
ance between the ddlector and the top of storage shall be
36 in. (914 mm) or greater.
8.12 Early Suppftssion F ast-R.esponse Sprinkle.m.
(1) Sprinklers shall be positioned so that the obsln.tction is
ccntC':rcd betwC'cn a.djacent .sprinklcn in accordance with 8.12.1 Ge.neraI. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall appl}'
Figure except as modified in Section 8.12.

2013 Edil:ion W

• Ceiling

24 in. (610 mm)

I" maximum "I >24 in. (610 mm)

s12 in. Cgnt9fline

"-'S (305 mm "S
Not less
than 18 in.
(457 mm) S

Top of storage

FIGURE8. Obstruction More- Than 24 in. (610 mm) Below Sprinklers (CMSA Sprinklers).

~* Deviations from the ma.ximum sprinkler spacing

Ceiling .shall be permitted to eliminate ob.structions created b)' SITuC-
turnl elements (such as trusses, bar joists, and wind brncing) by
mo~ing a .sprinkler along the branch line a maximum of I ft
(0.31 m) from its allowable spacing, provided cO~'erage for
that sprinkler doC.$ not exceed 110 ft% (10.2 m%) per sprinkler
Not less Not 19ss where all of the following conditions are met:
than 36 in. Gin. ttBn 36 in.
(914 mm) (152 mm) (914 mm) (1) The a~'erage actual floor area protected by the moved

maximum sprinkler and the adjacent sprinklers shall not exceed
Ct>struction Obstruction
100 ft' (9.3 m').
(2) Adjacent branch line.s shall maintain the same pattern.
(3) In no case shall the distance between sprinklers exceed
12 fl (3.7 m).

I 12in.
.. (305 rom) Jo
I .I 12 in.
(305 mm}'1
I Deviations from the ma.ximum sprinkler spacing
.shall be penniued to eliminate obstructions created b)' struc-
maximum maxImum turnl elements (such as trusses, bar joists, and wind bracing) by
mo\-mg a single branch line a ma..c imum of 1 ft (0.31 m) from
FIGURE Obstn.lchon More Than 36 in. (914 mm) its aIIowable spacing. pro~ided coverage for the sprinklers on
Below Sprinklers (CMSA Sprinklers). that branch line and the sprinklers on the branch line it is
mo"ing awa)' from does not exceed 110 ft! (10.2 m%) per sprin-
8.12.2 Proteoction Areas per Sprinkler (Early Suppression kler where all of the following conditions arc met:
Fast-Response Sprinklers).
(1) The average actual floor area protected by the sprinklers DelenninatioD of Protection A.rI!'a of Coverage. The on the moved branch line and the sprinklers on the adja-
protection area of coverage per ,sprinkler (A) .shall be detc=:r~ cent branch lines shall not exceed 100 ft! (9.3 m!) per
mined in accordance with sprinkler.
(2) In no case shall the distance between spl"inklers exceed Maximum Protection Area of Coverage.
12 ft (3.7 m). The maximum allowable protection area of cO\'C'rw (3) It .shall not be permitted to move a branch line where
age for a sprinkler (..0\) shall be in accordance with the value there arc mewed sprinklers on a branch line that exceed
indicated in Table8. the maximum sprinkler spacing. UnlC.$s the requiremenu of arc mel, the Minimum Prol@cbon Area of Cov@rag@. The mini~
maximum area of coverage of any sprinkler shall not exceed mum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler (A.)
100 ft' (9.3 m'j. •
shall not be than 64 ft-• (6 m-).

W 2013 Editbn

Table Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing ofF.SFR Sprinklers

Cemng;Roof Heights Up to SO fl (9.1 m) CemngIRoofHeigbts 0 .... SO fl (9.1 m)

Protection Area Spacing Protection ArN Spacing

Construction Type ft' m' ft m ft' Ql' ft m

Noncombustible 100 9.3 12 S.7 100 9.S 10 S.I

Noncombustible obstructed 100 9.S 12 S.7 100 9.3 10 3.1
Combustible unobstructed 100 9.S 12 S.7 100 9.3 10 3.1
Combusu'ble obstructed N/A N/A N/A N/A Maximum Distance from WaDs. The distance from

8.12.3 Sprinkler Spacing (Early Supl"""'oion F....Re'PO.... sprinklers to walls .shall not exceed one.-half of the allowable
Sprinklers). distance pennitted between sprinklers as indicated in Table
8.12.$.1 Maximum Distance Between SpinkJers. The maxi~
mum distance between sprinklers "hall be in accordance with Minimum Distance from WllJa. SprinLders $hall be
the following: located a minimum of4 in. (102 mm) from a wall.
(1) 'W"here the .storage: height is less than or equal to 25 ft Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. Sprinklers
(7.6 m) and the: ceiling height is lc:Js than or equal to shall be $paced not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center.
30 f1 (9.1 m), the distance between sprinklc:n shall be
8.12.4 Deflector Position (Early Supp~5l5ion Fast.Response
limited to not more than 12 ft (3.7 m) betwecn sprin-
klers as.shown in Table:
(2) Unlc:$s the requirements of8.12.3.1 (3) or (4) arc Distance Below Ceilings.
met, where the: storage: height exceeds 25 fl (7.6 m) and Pendent sprinklers with a nominal K-factor ofK-14
ceiling height exceeds 30 ft (9.1 m), the distnnce between
(200) .shall be po.ntioned &0 that deflcctor.s are a maximum
.sprinklers shall be limited to not more than 10 f1 (3 m)
14 in. (356 mm) and a minimum 6 in. (152 rom) below the
between sprinklers.
(3)*Regardless of the storage or ceiling height alTallgement.,
deviations from the maximum .sprinkler spacing .shall be Pendent .sprinklers with a nominal K·faclor of
permitted to eliminate obstructions created by structural K-16.8 (240).mall be that deflecton an:: t\ maxi-
elements (such as trwses, barjouu, and wind bracing) by mum 14 in. (356 mm) and a minimum 6 in. (152 mm) below
moving a sprinkler along the branch line a maximwn of the ceiling.
I ft (o.:n m) from its allowable spacing, provided covcr~
age for that .sprinkler does not exceed 110 rr (10.2 m t ) Pendent .sprinklers with a nominal K-faclor of
K·22,4 (S2O) and K-25.2 (360) $ball be positinned 50 th.t de-
where all of the following conditiON are met:
flectoR are a maximum 18 in. (457 mm) and a mi.nimum 6 in.
(a) The average actual floor area protected by the moved (152 mm) below the ceiling.
sprinklerand the adjacent sprinklen.shalll'lot exceed
100ft' (9.3m'). Upright .sprinLdc:rs with a nominal K-faclOr ofK-14
(b) Adjaca'lt branch lines shall maintain the same pauem. (200) shall be that the deflector i.s 3 in. to 12 in.
(e) In no case: shall the distance between sprinklen ex· (76 mm to 305 mm) below the ceiling.
eecd 12 (S.7 m). Upright sprinklc:n with a nominal K..f8ctor of K.16.8
(4) ""nere branch lines are parallel to tn.wes and bar jouu, (240) shall be positioned 50 that the deflector i.s 3 in. to 12 in.
deviatioru from the maximum sprinkler .spacing .shall be (76 mm to 305 mm) below the ceiling.
permitted to e1i.minate ohstructions created by structural
dements (such as~. bar joists, and wind bracing) by \lYith obstructed construction, the braneh lines
mo"ing a single branch line a maximum of 1 ft (o.:n m) shall be permitted to be in.stalled acro3S the beams, but.spnn.
from its allowable spacing, provided coverage for the klen shall be located in the bays and not under the beam.s.
sprinkler.s on that branch line and the sprinklen on the Deflector Orientation. Deflectors of sprinklers shall
branch line it is moving away from does not exceed 110 fr be aligned paralld to ceilings or roofs.
(10.2 m t ) per .sprinkler where aU of the following eondi.
tions are met: 8.12.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Early Suppre..
sion Fast·Respon&e Sprinkler.).
(a) The average actual floor area protected by the
sprinklers on the mo"·ed branch line and the sprin. Obstructions at or Near Ceiling.
kler.s on the a~acenl branch lines shall not exceed Sprinklers .shall be arranged to comply with Table
lao ft' (9.S m ) per sprinkler. and Figure for obstructions at the eeiling,
(b) In no cue shall the distance betv."CCn sprinkler.s ex·
such as beams, ducls.light3, and lOp chords of trusses and bar
eeed 12 ft (S.7 m).
(c) It.shall notbe permitted to move a branch line where
there arc: moved .sprinkler.s on a branch line that ex· The requirements of $hall not apply
ceed the maximum sprinkler spacing. where sprinkler.s are .!paced on oppolite .sides of obstructions

2013 Edition W

Table Positioning ofSprinklen: to Avoid (3) Additional .sprinklers .shall not be required where sprin·
Obstructions to Discharge (£SFR Sprinklers) klen arc positioned with rC'.'lpectto the bottom of obstnlC·
tions in accordance with
Maximum Allowable (4) Additional sprinkler.s shall not be required where the o~
Distance of Deflector .stntction is 2 in. (51 mm) or less in width and is located a
Distance from Sprinkler to Above Botlom of minimum of2 ft (0.6 m) below the elevation of the sprin·
Side of Obstruction (A) Obstruction (B) (in.) ller dcl1ector or is positioned a ffiinimmn of I ft (0.3 m)
horizontally from the sprinkler.
LC'5.S than 1 ft o (5) Sprinkler.s with a special obstruction allowance .shall be
I ft to lcss than 1 ft 6 in. 11> installed according to their listing.
1ft 6 in. to le.5s than 2 ft 3 Continuous Obstructions Below Sprinklers.
2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 51>
2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 £t 8 Genernl Continuous Obstructions. Sprinkler.s .shall
3 ft to )(55 than 3 ft 6 in. 10 be arranged with respect to ob.stTuctions in accordance with
3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 12 one of the following:
4 ft to les,s than 4 ft 6 in. 15
4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 18 (I) Sprinkler.s shall be installed below continuous ob.struc-
5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 22 tions, or thC')' shall be arranged to comply with Table
5 fiG in. to less than 6 ft 26 for horizontal ob.structions entircl},' below the
6 ft 31 elevation of sprinklen that restrict sprinkler di.scharge
pattern for two or more adjacent .sprinkler.s .such as ducu,
For SI units. 1 in. = Z5A mm; I ft = 0.3048 m. lights. pipes, and con~)'on.
Note; For A and B. refcr to Figure (2) Additional.sprinklen shall not be required where th~ 01>-
.stnlction is 2 in. (51 mm) or leM in width and is located a
minimum of2 ft (0.6 m) below the elevation of the sprin-
kler dcl1ector or i.s positioned a minimum of I ft (0,3 m)
horizontall)' from the sprinkler.
(3) Additional.sprinkler.s shall not be required where th~ 01>-
.struction is 1 ft (0.3 m) or lC'.'Is in ~-idth and located a
minimum of I ft (0.3 m) horizontall)' from the sprinkler.
(4) Additional.sprinklcr.s shall not be required where the 01>-
.stntction is 2 ft (0.6 m) or lC'.'Is in width and located a
minimum of 2 ft (0.6 m) horizontall)' from the sprinkler.
B (5) Ceiling sprinklers .shall not be required to comply with
Table whcr~ a row of sprinklen is installed un-
der the ob.stntction.
Ct>struction Bottom Chords of Bar Joists or Open Trusses.
ESFR.sprinkler.o shall be positioned a minimum of 1 ft (0.3 m)
horizontall)' from the neal'C'.'It edge to an)' bottom chord of a
A bar joist or open trU.5S. The requirements of shall not appl)'
FIGURE Positioning of Sprinkler to Avoid Ob- where upright sprinkler.s arc loca.ted over the bonom chords
struction to Discharge (ISFR Sprinklers). of bar joists or open u-u.sses that are 4 in. (102 rom) maximum
in width. Open Gratings. Sprinklers installed Wlder open

gratings shall be of the intennediate le,d/rack storage type or
los than 24 in. (610 rom) wide. provided the distance from
otherwise shielded from the discharge of o~rhead sprinkler.s.
the centc=rline on the ooo:tructions to the .sprin.kJ.ers does not
ex.ceed one-half the aJlO\..rable distance between sprinklers. Overhead Doors. .spray sprinklen
shall be permitted to be utilized under overhead doors. Sprinklers with a .special obstruction allowance
shaH be: installed according to their listing. SpeciaJ Obstruction Allowance. Sprinklers with a* Isolated Obstructions Below ElevatioD of Sprin- .special obstruction allowance .shall be installed according to
klers. Sprinklers.shall be arranged with respect to obSU-UCri01U their listing.
in accordance with one of the following: 8.12.6 Clearance to Storage (Early Suppl'Hl'li01\ Far>t-Response
(1) Sprinklers .shall be in.stalled below isolated noncontinu. The clearance between the deflcctor and the top
ow obstructions that TC'.'Itrict only one .sprinkler and arc of storage .shall be 36 in. (914 mm) or greater.
located below the elevation of sprinklers such as light fix· 8.13 In·Rack Sprinkl@rs.
tura and unit heaters.
(2) Additional sprinklers .shall not be required where the 01> 8.13.1 System Size. The area protected b)' a .singlc s)'Stem of
.stnlction is 2 ft (0.6 m) or less in width and the sprinkler is .sprinkler.s in racks shall not exccc-d 40,000 ft:l: (3716 m t ) of
located horizontally I ft (0.3 m) or greater from the ncar· floor area occupied by the racks. including aislC.$. regardless of
on edge of the obstruction. the number oflevcls of in-rack sprinkler.s.

ttl 2013 Editbn


8.13.2 Type of In-Rack Sprinklers. single leveJ of pilot line detectors and between additionallC'\'-
cis of pilot line detectorsshall not exceed 17 ft (5.2 m). Sprinklers in rac.ks shall be ordinary-temperature
$tandard· or quick-rcspomc das.sificRtion with a 8.14.8 The mmumUffi distance between pilot line detectors
nominal K-factot of K-5.6 (80). K-8.0 (115), or K-11.2 (160), installed outdoonshall not exceed 8 ft (2.5 m).
pendent or upright. The horizontal distance between pilot line detectors Sprinklcn with intenncdiatc- and high-temperature installed outdoon on a given level shall be permitted to be
ratings shall be used ncar heal $ourca; as required b)' 8.3.2. increased to 10 ft (3 m) when all of the following conditions
8.13.3 In-Jt.' Sprinkler Water Shields. are met:

8.1 '.~.l In-Rack Sprinkler Water Shields for Storage of Class (I) The devation of the 6rst IC'\'CI docs not exceed 15 ft (4.6 m).
I Through Class IY Commodities. \oVatet shields shall be pT<r (2) The distance between additional IC'\'c!s does not exceed
.."idcd dircctl)· above in-rack sprinklers. or listed intcnnediatc 12 ft (3.7 m) .
1C'\'d/rnck .storage sprinkJcl"!>sh<'lU be lIsed where there is mOTC (3) The pilot line actuators are staggered vertically.
than one Icn:!' if not shielded by horizontal barricrs. (SCI: &c- AJtenlate vertical spacing of pilot line detectors dif·
tio1l G.3.)
fering from those required in shall be pennitted In-Rack Sprinkler Water Shields for Plastic Storage. where installed in accordance with their listing.
'Where in-rnck sprinklers are not shielded b)' horizontal barri~
8.14.9 Pilot line detectors located in opcn-5ided buildings
ers. water shields shall ~ pro\'ided above the sprinklers, or
shall follow the indoor spacing rules.
listed intermediate Ie'\·el/rnck storage sprinklers sha.1I ~ used.
8.13.4 Location, Position, and Spacing of L...Rack Sprinklers. A row of pilot line detectors spaced in accordance
The location. position. and spacing of in-rack sprinklers shall with lhe outdoor pilot line detector spacing rules shall be lo-
compl)' with the requirements in Chapters 12 through 20 as cated along the open sides of opeJ1-sided buildings.
applicable. 8.14,9.2 Pilot line detectors locat'ed under open gratings Minimum Distance- Between In-Rack Sprinklers. In- shall be spaced in accordance with the outdoor rules.
rac.k sprinkJel'3 shall ~ permitted to be placed less than 6 ft Where two or more adjacent water spray s)'Slems in
(1.8 m) on center.
one fire area are controlled by separate pilot line detector
8.13.5 Obstructions 10 1D-Rack Sprinkler Discharge. In-rack systems, the detectors on each s)'Stem shall be spaced indepen-
sprinklers shall not be required to meet the obstruction crite- dentl)· as if the dividing line between the s)'Stems were a wall or
ria and clearance from storage requirements of Secrion 8.5. draft curtain.
8.14 Pilot Line Detectors. Where pilot line detcctors are installed in water cool-
ing tower applications, the)" shall be in accordance with Sec-
8.14.1 Pilot line detecto~ and related components including tion 22.21.
pipe and fittings shall be corrosion resistant when im.talled in
areas exposed to weather or corrosive conditions. 8.14.10 Pipe suppl)ing pilot line detectors shall be pennittcd
to be supported from the same points of hanger a.ttachment a..s
8.14.2 'Where subject to mechanical or physical damage, pilot
the piping sy.stcm it scn:cs.
line detectors and related detection s)'Stem components shaU
be protected. Pipe suppl)'ing pilot line detectors shall not be re-
8.14.3 \"t'nere spray sprinklers are wed as pilot line detecton, quired to mC'et the requirements of9.3.5.
tht:y shall be installed in accordance with Section 8.14 and the 8.15 Special Situations.
spacing and location rules of Section 8.6, except that the ob-
struction to water distribution rules for a.utomatic sprinklers 8.15.1 Concealed Spaces.
shall not be required to be followed. Concealed Spaces Re-quiring Sprinklu Protection. Where located under a ceiling. pilot sprinkJel'3 shall be Concealed spaces of exposed combustible constru.ction shall
positioned in accordance with the requirements of Section 8.6. be protected b)' sprinklers e:li:cC'pt in concealed spaces where
sprinklers are not required to be installcd by
8.14.4 The temperature rating ofsprnysprinklers utilized as
through and 8.15.6.
pilot line detectors shall be selected in accordance with 8.3.2.
8.14.5 Ma.umum horizontal spacing for indoor locatioN* ConcealedSpaceos Not RequiringSprinkier Protectiou.
shall not exceed 12 ft (3.7 m).* Concealed spaces of noncombustible and limited-
8.14.6 Pilot line detectors shall be penniued to be spaced combustible construction with minimal combwtible loading
more than 22 in. (559 mm) below a ceiling or deck where the having no access shall not require sprinkler protection.
ma.ximum spacing between pilot line detectors is 10 ft (3 m) The space shall be considered a concealed spa.ce
or less.
even with small openings such as those used as retunl nir for a Other maximum horizontal spacing differing from plenum.
those required in 8.14.5 shall be pennitted where installed in Concealed spaces of noncombustible and limited-
accordance with their listing.
combustible construction with limited access and not pennit-
8.14.7 Pilot line detectors located outdoors, such as in open ting occupanc)' or storage of combustibles shan not require
process structures, shall be spaced such that the cle\-arion of a sprinkler protection.

2013 Edition W
1:1-84 INSTAllATION OFSPRlNKLER SYSTEMS The space shall be considered a concealed .space Ve:rtical pipe: ch~c.s under 10 ftZ (0.93 m Z ) .• where
even with small openings :'ouch as those wed ~ rctum air for a pro"ided in lTlultifioor buildings where: the chases arc fir-
plenulU. C5toppcd at each floor using materials equivalent to the floor
COfUlTuction. and where such pipe chases shall contain no Concealed spacd formed by studs or joists with
sources of ignition. piping shall be water-filled or noncombus-
10$ than 6 in. (152 mm) between the inside or ncar edges of
tible and pipe penetrations at each floor shall be: properly
the studs or joists shall not require sprinkJet protection. (&e
sealed and shall not rcquirc sprinkler protection.
F'It'''' I. ) Exterior columns under 10 ftz (0.93 m Z) in area. Concealed spaces formed by bar joisls with less
fonned b}' studs or wood joist supporting exterior canopies
than 6 in. (152 mm) between the roof or Ooor deck and ceil·
that are full)' protected with a splinkler ~tem. shall not re-
ing shall not require sprinkler protection.
quire sprinkler pl"Otection.* Concealed spaces fonned by ceiling.s auached dj.· Concealed spaces formcd br noncombustible or
rectly to OT within 6 in. (152 mm) of wood joist or .'Iimilar solid limited-combustible ceilings suspended from the bottom of
member construction shall not require .sprinkler protection. wood joists. composite wood joists, wood bar joists, or wood* Concealed spaces fonned ~. ceilings attached to trusses that have insulation filling all of the: gaps between the
composite wood joist construction either directl,. or onto bottom of the tnlSSes or joists. and where sprinklers are
metal cha.nnels not exceeding 1 in. (25.4 mm) in depth, pro- present in the space above the insulation within the trwses or
..ided thejoist channels are firestopped into volumes each not joists. shall notrcquire sprinkler protection,
exceeding 160 ft~ (4.53 m~) using materials equivalent to the TIle heat content oftile facing, substrate. and sup-
web construction and at least 31h in. (90 mm) of batt insula- port of the insulation material shall not exceed 1000 Btu/ft~
tion is installed at the bottom of the joist channels when the (1l.356I;l/m').
ceiling is attached utilizing metal channels. shaU not require
sprinkler pl"Otection.* Concealed spaces formed l:7t
noncombwtible or
limited<ombustible ceilings suspende:d from the: bottom of Concealed spaces filled with noncombustible insu- woodjoiMs and composite woodjoists with a maximum nominal
lation shall not require sprinkler protection. chord width of 2 in. (50.8 mm). where joist spaces arc full of
noncombustible batt insulation witll a ma.:cimum 2 in, (50,8 m) A maximum 2 in. (50 mm) air gap at the top of
air space between the roof dcc.king material and the top of the
1 the space shall be permitted bau insulation shall not require sprinklers, Concealed spaces within wood joist constmction
and composite wood joist construction ha..;ng noncombus- Facing that meets the requiremenu for noncom-
tible insulation filling the space from the ceiling up to the bustible or Jimited<ombustible material cmmng the surface of
bottom edge of the joist of the 1"00f or floor deck. pl"O"ided the bottom chord of each joist and 5ccured in place pCI'" the
manuf3Cturer's recommc=ndatiorn shall not require sprinklers,
that in composite wood joist construction the joist channels
are firestopped into volumes each not exceeding 160 ft~ (4.53 Soffits, Eaves, O"'erhangs, and Decorath-e Frame
m~) t.o the full depth of the joist with material equivalent to
the web construction, shall not require sprinkler protection.
I FJernents. Combustible soffits. caves. overhangs. and dcco- Concealed sr,aces over isolated small rooms not rati...' C frame elO11ents shall not O":cecd. <I ft 0 in. (1.2 m) in ....idth,
exceeding 55 ft~ (5.1 m ) in area shall not require sprinkler Combustible soffits. caves. overhangs. and deco-
protecuon. rative frame elements shall be draftslopped. with a material Concealed spaces where rigid materials are wed eql1.i..alent to that of the soffit. into \'Olwnes not exceeding lGOfr
and the exposed surfaces have a flame spread index of 25 or (4.5 m').
less. and the materials have been demonstrated not to pl"Opa- Combustible soffits. caves, 0 ..-c:rhang5, all.d deco-
g3.te fire more than 10.5 ft (3.2 m) when tested in accordance rative: frame demc:.nts shall be separated from the interior of
with ASTM E84, Standard Te.t.Mahod of Sill/au Buming Chamc- the building by walls or roofs of noncombwtible or limited-
f17utiCJ of Building MalnlaloS. or ANSljUL 723. Standard for Tut combustible corutntction.
forSurfaa Buming Cha¥adm·dic.sof Bllild;'1g !I·falmaloS, extended
for an additional 20 minutes in the form in which thcry- are Combustible soffits. eaves, 0 ..'Crhang5.
and deco-
installed. shall not require sprinkler protection. rative frame dements shall ha\'C no openings or unprotected
penetrn.Lions directly into llie building.* ConcealedspacC5 in which the e"-'Posed materials Concealed Space Design Requirements. Sprinklers
are constructed entirely of fire retardant-treated wood as de-
in concealed spaces having no access for storage or othc:.r
fined by NFPA 703 shall not require sprinkler protection.
shall be installed in accordance willl the requirements for Noncombustible concealed spaces h;;ning ex- light hazard occupancy.
posed combwtible insulation where the heat content of the Heat-Producing Devices with Composite Wood Joist
facing an.d substrate of the insulation material does not cx-
Constnx:tion. 'Where heat-producing dC\iccs such as funlaces
ceed 1000 Btu/ftt (11.356 k]/m%:) shall not require sprinkler
or process equipment are located in the joist above a
ceiling atl3ched directl)' to the underside of composite wood
8.15. I. 2.13 Concca.led space.s below insulation that is laid di- joist construction that would not otherwise require sprink.ler
rectiyon top of or within wood joists or composite wood joists protection of the spaces. thejoist channel containing the heat-
used as ceiling joists in an otherwise sprinklered concealed producing dC\icC5 shall be sprinklcred by installing spdnkJers
space. with the ceiling attached directly to the bottom of the in each joist channd. on each side. adjacent to the heat-
joists. shall not require sprinkler protection. producing dC\ice.

W2013 Edition
INSTAllATION REQUIREMENTS I :I-4l5 Localized Protection of Exposed Combustible Con- 8.15.3 Stairwny.s.

sb"uction or Exposed Combuslibl(>fi. When otherwise noncom- Combustible Construction. Sprinklers shall be in-
bustible or limitcd<ombll$tiblc concealed spacc.s that would
stalled beneath all stairways of combusrible construction.
not require sprinkler protC'ction have locaJiu:d exposed com-
b\LStiblc constnlCtlOn, or contain localized areas of exposed Sprinklers shall be itutalled at the top of combus-
combustiblc.5. the combustibles shall be pennitlcd to be pro- tible st.' shafts.
tccted as follows:· Sprinklcn .shall be installed undcr the landing.s at
(1) If the exposed combustibles arc in the vertical partitiorn each floor le~J.
or walls around all or a portion of the enclosure. a single Sprinklcn shall tx installed txneath the lowest in-
row of:sprinklen>5paccd not o\:er 12 ft (3.7 m) apart nor terrncdiate landing.
morc than 6 ft (1.8 m) fmm the inside of the partition
shall be pcnnittcd to protect the surface. The fin.t and last Noncombustible Construction.
sprinklcr:s in such a row shall not be over 5 ft (1.5 m) from In noncombusrible stair shafts having noncombus-
the ends of the partitions.
tible .stairs with noncombustible or limited-eombusrible fin~
(2) If the: exposed combwtibl~arc in the horizontal plane. the
ishes. sprinklers shall be installed at the top of thc shaft and
area of the combustible5 .shall b<= pennittcd to tx protected
under the 6rst acces5ible landing 3bo~ the bottom of the
with .sprinkJen on a light hazard spacing. Additional sprin~
kJenshall be installed no more than 6 ft (1.8 m) outside the
outline of the area and not more than 12ft (3.7 m) on cen~ \\'hcre noncombustible stair shafts arc divided b)'
ter along the outline. \\/hen the outline re:tunu to a wall or walls or door.s. sprinklers shall tx pro\ided on each side of the
other obstrucrion. the last sprinkler .sh..~l not be more than separatIon.
6 ft (1.8 m) from the wall or obstruction. Sprinklers .shall be installed beneath landings or Sprinkler.> used in horizontal combustible con- stairwap where the area b<=neath is used for storage.
cealed .spaces (with a slope not exceeding 2 in 12) with com- Sprinkler.s shall be permitted to b<= omitted from
bustible wood tnlS5. wood joist construction. or bar joist con- the bottom of the stairwell when the space under the sbir.s at
.struction having a combustible upper surface and where the the bottom is blocked off so that storage cannot occur.
depth of the space is less than 36 in. (914 mm) from deck to
deck or with double wood joist construction with a ma.ximum Sprinkler.s shall be permitted to be omitted from
of 36 in. (914 mOl) between the top of the bottomjoist and the exterior stair towers when the e:\.""terior walls of the stair tower
bottom ofthe upperjoist shall be listed for such use. are at least 50 percent open and when the stair tower is en-
tirel)' of noncombustible construction.
8. I 5.1.6. I Sprinklen specifically listed to pro'o;de protection
of combustible concealed spaces described in 8.15. 1.6 shall be· Stairs Two or More An.-as. 'When sbirs ha\'e
permitted to be used in accordance with where the openings to each side of a fire waJl(s), sprinklers shall be in-
.space is less than 12 in. (305 mOl) from deck to deck. stalled in the .stair shaft at each floor landing with multiple
opemngs. Sprinkler.s specifically listed to provide protection of
combustible concealed spaces described in S.15.1.6 shall be 8.15.4· 'ertical Openings.
permitted to protect composite wood joist construction ",;th a· General. Unless the rcquirements of8.15.4.4 are meL
ma.ximum of 36 in. (914 mm) between the top of the bottom where moving stairwa)-s. staircases. or similar floor opening.s arC'
joist and the bottom of the upper joisL unenclosed and where sprinkler protection issen-IDg as the alter-
native to enclomre of the vertical opening, the floor openings
S.15.2 Vertical Shafts.
involved. shall be protected b)' closd}' .spaeedspl;nklcrs in combi- General. Unless the requirements of S. or nation with draft stops in accordancc with and are met, one sprinkler shall be installed at the top of Draft Stops. Draft stops shall mecl all of the foHow-
.shafts. ing criteria: Noncombustible or limited-combustible=, nonacces- (I) The draft stops shall be located immediatdy adjacc.nt to
sible vertical duct shafts shall not require sprinkler protection. the open ing.
(2) The draft stop.s shall be at least 18 in. (457 mm) deep. Noncombustible or limited-combustible. non.'l.C-
(3) The draft stops .shall be of noncombustible or limited-
cessible vertical electrical or mechanical shafts shall not re-
combustible matcrial that will stay in place beforc and
quire .sprinkler protection.
during sprinkler operation.· Sbafts with Combustibl~Surfaces. Sprinklers. \Vhere vertical shafu have combustible surfaces. Sprink.lers shall be spaced not more than 6 ft (1.8 m)
one sprinkler .shall be insmlled at each alternate floor level. apart and placed 6 in. to 12 in. (152 mm to 305 mm) from the \o\'here a shaft having combustible surfaces ill draft stop on the side aWRy from the opening.
trapped, an additional sprinkler shall be installed at the top of '''''here sprinklers arc clo.ser than 6 ft (1.8 m),
each trapped section. baffles .shall be prmided in accordance widl Accessible Shafts with Noncombustible Surfaces. Larg~ Ope.mngs. Closel)' .spaced sprink.lel'5 and draft
"Vhere accessible vertical .shafts have noncombustible .sur- stops arc not required around large opcnings such as
faces, one sprinkler .shall be installed ncar the bottom. found in shoppingmalls,attium buildings. a.nd similarstrl.lctllrCS

2013 Edition W

where all adjoining le\'els and spaces arc protected by automatic Sprinklers .shall be permitted to be omitted from
sprinklC'~ in accordance with this standard and where the o~ .space.! under ground floors, exterior docks. and platfontU
ings have all horizontal dimcruioru: bcf\oo,'C'cn opposite edges of
20 ft (6 m) or greater and an arca of 1000 fr (93 In ) or greatCf.
where all of the following conditions exist:
(l) The space is not acce!5.'Sible for .storage purposcs and i:l
8.15.5 FJe,... tor HoistwB)"s and Machine Rooms. protected against accumulation of wind-borne debris.
8.15. .5•• * Sidewall sprn)" sprinklers $hall be imtaUed at the bot· (2) The space contains no equipment .sudl as cOn\·e)'Or.> or
tom of each dC'\ator hoistway not more than 2 fl (0.61 m) fuel-fired heating units.
above the floor of the pit. (3) The floor over tile space is of tight constnaction.
(4) No combustible or flammable liquids or materials that The sprinkler required at the bottom of the eleva lor under fire conditions would convert into combustible or
hoisMay b)' shall not be required for cncl<»cd. non· flammable liquids arc processed. handled. or .stored on
combwtiblc dC'\ator shafts that do not contain combwtiblc the floor above the space.
h)-draulic fluids.
8.15.7* Exterior Projections.
8.15.5.~ Automatic firc:sprinkJen.shall not be required in dC\3-
tor machine !'"Ooms. elC'\"ator mnchincr)'spaces. control spaces. or Unless the requirements of, or
hoistwn)'S of traction e1C\-aton: irnt3lled in accordance with the arc met, sprinklers shall be it'l.'ltalled lUlder exterior
applicable pro\isions in NFPA 101. or the applicable building projections exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width.
code. where all of the following conditions arc met:· Sprinklen shall be perrniued to be omitted where
(1) The elevator machine room. machinery space. control the exterior projections arc cOrultnlcted with materials that
room, control space. or hoistwa)' of traction elevator is arc noncombustible, limited<ombustible, or fire retardant-
dedicated to elevator equipment only. treated wood as defined in NFPA 703.
(2) The elevator machine room. machine room. machinery Sprinkler.s .shall be permitted to be omitted from below
space. control room, control space. or hoi!ttW3yoftraction the o:terior projections of combustible construction, provided
c1C"o'3ton arc protected by smoke detectors. or other auto- the o:poscd finish material on the e:'l.:t.er1or projections arc non-
matic fire detection. installed in accorclancewith NFPA 72 combwtible. limited-combustible. or fire retarcl.\\Ilt-treated
(3) The e1C\'ator machinery·.spaee. control room. control space. ¥r'OOd as defined in NFP.~ 703, and the exterior projections con-
or hoistway of traction e1evator.s is separnted from the re- l3in onl)' sprinklercd concealed spaces or all)' of the following
mainder of the building b)' walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ unsprinklered combustible concealed spaces:
ceiling assemblies having a fire re$istance rating of not less
than that specified by the applicable building code. (I) Combustible concealed spaces filled entirely with non-
(4) No materials unrelated to e1C"o'ator equipment arc permit- combustible insulation
ted to be .stored in e1e\'ator machine rooms. machinery (2) Light or ordinal)' hazard occupancie.s where noncombus-
spaces. control rooms, control spaces. or hoistwa)"S oftrnc- tible or limited<ombustible ceilings are directl)· attached
tion elevators. to the bottom of solid wood joists so as to create enclosed
(5) The elevator machineI'}' i.s not of the hydraulic type. jout spaces 160 ft~ (4.5 m!') or less in volume. including
.space below insulation that i.s laid direcu)'on top or within· Automatic sprinklers in e1C"o-ator machine rooms or the ceiling joists in an sprinklered attic (sa
at the tops of hoistwnp shall be of ordinary'- or intermediate-]
temperature rating. (3) Concealed spaces O\'er isolated small exterior projections· Upright, pendent. or sidewall spray .sprinkler.s shall not exceeding 55 ft! (5.1 m!) in area
be installed at the top of elevator hoistwa)"S. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from The .sprinkler required at the top of the c1C'V3tor hoist- e:xterior exit corridors when the exterior walls of the corridor
W3)' by shall not be required where the hoistw3y for pas- are at least 50 percent open and when the corridor is entirely
senger elevators is noncombwtible or limited<ombustible and of noncombustible construction.
the car enclosure materials meet the requirements of ASf\,fE* Sprinklers shall be installed under exterior projec-
A17.1. Safety C:xi£ for Efrvaiors and fra/mars. tions greater than 2 ft (0.6 m) wide O\'er areas where combus- Combustible Suspension in FJ~"8tors. tibles arc .stored. Sprinklers shall be installed at the top and bouom of 8.15.8 Dwelling Unirs.
e1C\"a1or hoistwa)S where dev::ltors utilize combustible suspension Bathrooms.
means such as noncircular elaslomenc-coaled or pol;ucethanC'-
coated steel belts.· Sprinklen .shall not be required in bathrooms that
arc localed withil~ dwdlin~ u.nits of hotels and motds, that do The sprinklen in the e1C"o'3tor hoistway shall not be not exceed 55 ft· (5.1 m-) 111 area., and that have walls and
required when the suspension means provide not less than an ceilings of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials
FT-I rating when tested to the vertical burn test requirements with a IS-minute thennal barrier rating, including the walls
ofUL 62. F1~xib!£ Cord.s alld Cab&-s. and UL 1581, Rift:Tl':"U Stan- and ceilings behind an)' .shower enclosure or tub.
dard.fDr £Ironcal Wiru. Cab&-s, and F&-xible (Anis. •· Closets and Pantries. Sprinklers are not required in
8.15.6 Spaces Under Ground Floors, Exterior Docks, and
clothes closets, linen closets., and pantries within dwellitlg
lmits in hotds and motels where the area of the space does not UnJe!5.'S the requirements of nrc met, sprin- exceed 24 ft.! (2.2 m!), lhe least dimension docs not exceed
klersshall be installed i.l"l sp:'lces under all combustible ground 3 ft (0.9 m), and the walls and ceilings arc surfaced with non·
floors and combustible exterior docks and platforms. combw.tible or limited<ombw.tible materials.

W2013 Edition

8.15.9* Hospital Oodles Oosets. Sprinklcrs shall not be TC- I I I iii

quin:d in clothes closets of patient sleeping rooms in hospital!
H-1 ZS H-1 H-1 ZS f-- Incomplete
where the area of the doset dOd not excc-cd 6 ft% (0.55 m=).
prmidcd the distance from the .sprinkler in the patient sleep-
-'0 --1 H-1 H-1 f-+-l - wrtical
ing room to the bad. wall of the doset docs not exceed the ~ --1 H-1 H-1 f- -1 t- - divider
H-1 f--
m<U.-lmurn di.stallcc permitted b)' H-1 H-1
8.15.10" LibraI')' Stack Areas and Record Storage. Where books f-+-l f-+-l f-+-l I
or records arc .stored in fixed open book shelvcs, .sprinkler" "--1 :zs H-1 H-1 :zs H-1 r- Ventilation
.shaH be imtallcd in accordance with one of the foJlO\o'r;ng:
(1) Sprinklc~ shall be pe:nnittcd to be installed without re-
gard to aisles where clearance between sprinkler deflec-
i --I--1
r- cpenings
ton and lOpS of stacks is 18 in. (457 mm) or morc. c1J --1 H-1 H-1 H-1 f--
(2) ''''here the 18 in. (457 mm) clearance betv.-ecn .sprinkler de- f-+-l f-H f-+-l I
fleetoD and toJll ofstacks cannot be maintained. sprinklcn
.shall be installed in e'\"Cf)' aisle and at C"o"ery tier of.stacks with
H-1 ZS H-1
H-1 H-1
distance between .sprinklers along aislcs not to exceed 12 ft
(3.7 m) in accordance with Figure 8.15.10(a). -~ --1 H-1 H-1 H-1 f--
(3) 'Where the 18 in. (457 mm) clearance between sprinkler de-
f1ectoD and tops of stacks cannot be maintained and ",i,ere t -~ ,H-1
"'~rtical.shelfdhiden are incomplete and allow water distri-
bution to adjacent aisles. sprinklcrsshall be permitted to be FIGURE 8.IS.IO(b) Sprink~rs in Multitier BookstRcb with
omitted in alternale aisles on each tier. and where ventila- Incomplete Vertical Dividers.
tion openings are also prO\ided in rier Ooon, sprinklers shall
be staggered vertically in accordance with Figure 8.15.1O(b).
8.15.11 Eledrical Equipment. Unless the requirements of are met, sprin- 8.15.12* Industrial Ovens and FurmK:es.
kler protection shall be required in electrical equipment rooms.
8.15.13 Duct Protection. Duet protection shall be required to
8.15.U.2 Hoods or shields installed to protect important meet the requirements of 8.15.12 where required b), the au-
electrical equipment from .sprinkler discharge shall be non- thority havingjUlisdiction or the applicable referenced code
combwtible. or standard.
8.15.U.3 Sprinklers shall not lx= required in electrical equip- Sprinkler Location.
ment rooms where all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The room is dedicated to electrical equipment only. Unless the requirements of or
(2) Onl)' dry-t}pe electrical equipment is 115ed arc mel, ducts shall ha~ one sprinkler located at the
(3) Equipment is installed in a 2-hour fire-rated enclosure top of eadl vertical riser and at the midpoint of each offset..
induding protection for penetrations.
(4) No combustible storage is permitted to be stored in the Sprinklen shall not be required in a vertical riser
room. located outside of a building. prmided the riser does not ex-
pose combustible material or provided the interior of the
building and the horizontal distance between the hood outlet

l' , , , , , , , and the vertical riser is at least 25 ft (7.6 01).

--1 :zs f- -1 ZS 1- -1 ZS f- -1 :zs f-- Horizontal exhaust ducts shall ha~ splinklcrs lo-
'=--1 f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 1-- Comp
cated on 10 ft (3 m) centcr5 beginning no more than 5 ft (1.5 m)

" --1 f- -1
:c f- -1 f- -1 ,- from the duct entrance.
--1 f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 f-- ""
divider Protection Against Freezing. Sprinklers in exhall5t
, , , ducts subject to freezing shall be proped}' protected against
t:.--1' ZS f- :zs 1-
freezing. (Sft:
-1 -1ZS f- -1 ZS f-.; Floor 0
~--1 f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 ( f-- either
s Sprinkler Access. Access shall be prO\ided to all
sprinklers for inspection.. testing, and maintenance.
8--1 f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 t- - or with
0 verIDati
~--1 f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 f-- tll",ings'" Strainers. A listed line strainer shall be installed in
, , the main water suppl), preceding sprinklers having nominal

t-~ :zs f- :zs K-factors smaller than K-2.8 (40).

-1 ZSf- -1 :zs f- -1 f--
8.15.14· Opeo-GrKl Ceilings. Opc.'ll.-grid ceilings shall only be
~ --1 f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 1- -
to il1.5talled beneath sprinklers where one of the following is met:
--1 f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 f--
--1 f-- (I) O~-grid ceilings in which the openings arc V" in.
f- -1 f- -1 f- -1 (6.4 mm) or largc:r in the least dimension, where the
thicmes5 or depth of the material does not exceed the
FIGURE 8.15.IO(a) Sprinklers in Multitier Bookstacks ",;th least dimension of the opening. and where such openings
Complete Vertical Dividers. constitute 70 percent of the area of d,e ceiling mat~ial.

20t3 Edition W

The spacing of the sprinklcu Ol..-cr the opcn~rid ceiling 8.15.18 Stair Towers. Stair towers. or other corutruction with
mall then com pI)' with the following: incomplete floors. if piped on independent risers, shall be
(a) In light hazard occupancic.5 where sprinkler spacing treated as one area with reference to pipe size.5.
(either spray or olckt}..Jc sprinkJcrs) is less than 10 ft 8.15.19 Return Bends.
x 10 ft (3 m x 3 m), a minimum clearance of allcast
18 in. (457 mm) .shall be provided between the .sprin- Unless the requirements of 8.l5.19.4, or
kler deOcctou and the upper surface of the opcn-grid arc met. retum bends shall be used where pende,nt
ceiling. Where spacing is greater than 10 ft x 10 ft .sprinkler.! are .supplied from a raw water source, a milt pond,
(3m x3m) but Icss than 10ft x 12 ft (3m x 3.7 m). a or open·top re.5en'Olrs.
clearance of at least 24 in. (610 mm) .5hall be pro- Renlrn benw shall be connected to the top of
vided fTom spra)' .sprinkJcr.s and at least 36 in. branch tineoS in order to avoid accumulation of sediment in
(9) 4 mm) from old-style sprinklers. Where spacing is the drop nipples in accordance with Figure 8.l5.19.2.
greater than 10 ft x 12 ft (3 m x :t i m), a clearance of
at least 48 in. (1219 mm) shall be provided.
(b) In ordinal]' hazard occupancies. open-grid ceilings
shall be pcnnittcd to be installed beneath spra,· .sprin~
klers on I)'. Where .sprinkler spacing i.s las thun lOft Ceiling/
x 10 ft (3 m )( 3 m), a minimum clearance of at least
24 in. (610 mm) .shall be provided between the .sprin-
kler deflectors and the upper .surface of the open-grid
ceiling. Where spacing is greater than 10 ft )( 10 ft
(3 m)( 3 m). a clearance of at least 36 in. (914 mm)
shaH be provided
(2) Other types of open-grid ceilings shall be permitted to be
installed beneath sprinklers where they are listed for such
service and an~ installed in accordance with instructions
contained in each package of ceiling material.
8.15.15 DropOut Ceilings.
~ Drop-olll ceilings shalllx: pernlitted to be installed
lx:neath .sprinklen where ceilings are li.sted for that ser.;ce
and are installed in accordance with their listings. V Dr0p-0ul ceilings shall not be installed below Fl G URE Return Bend Arrangement.
quic.k-response or extended co....erage sprinklers unless spec.ifi-
cally listed for that application. Drop-out ceilings .shall not be considered ceilings Return lx:nds shall not be required for dduge S)'S-
within the context of this standard. terns.* Piping installed above drop-out cdling'S shaH not Return benw shall not be required where dry pen-
be considered concealed piping. dent sprinklens are used.* Sprinklers shall not be in.stalled lx:neath drop-out Renun benw shall not be required for wet pipe
ceilings. .s)'stems where sprinklens with a nominal K-fuctor of K-l1.2
8.15.16 Old-Style Sprinklers. (160) or larger are used.
8.15.20 Piping to Sprinklers Below CeiHngs. U nlas required by or, old-sl)'le
sprinklers shall not be used in a nC\O,' installation.* In new insl3llations e:\.'pected to ruppl)' sprinklers be-
low a ceiling. minimum 1 in. (25 rom) outlets shalllx: provided.* Old-style .sprinklers .shall be installed in fur storage
vaul u.* In nc=w installations. it shalllx: permitted to prO\.ide
minimum I in. (25 mm) outlets with hexagonal bushings to Use of old-style sprinklers shall be permitted where
accommodate sprinklers attached directly to branch line fit~
construction featurc.s or other special .situations require
rings to allow for future s)"Stem modifications.
unique water di.stribution. When .5)'3tem.s are revamped to accommodate
8.15.17 Stag...
added ceiling.s, sprinkler outlets utilized for new annovcr or Sprinklers .shall be installed under the roofatlhe ceil- drop nipples shall have hexagonal bushings remO\:ed
ing. in sp3Ce5 lmder the .stage either containing com bustible ma- Re\-"tlnlpmg of Pipe Sdledule Systems.
teriab or constructed of combustible matc:rials, and in all adja-
cent spacc.s and drc.s.sing rooms. storerooms, and workshops. When pipe schedule systems arc revamped. a
nipple not exceeding 4 in. (100 mm) in length .shall be pcrmit~ Wbere pro.scenium open ing protection is required,
ted to be installed in the branch line fitting.
a deluge system shall be pro....ided with open sprinklers located
not more than 3 ft (0.9 m) awn)" from the stage side of the All piping other than the nipple permitted in
proscenium arch and spaced up 10 a ma:timum of6 ft (1.8 m) and shall be a minimum of I in.
on center. (Sl'£ CJtapfn ) 1 ford~igll rnleria.) (25 mm) in diameter in accordance with Figure

W 2013 Editbn
INSTALlATION REQUIREMENTS 1~9 \\ol,C1"l it is necessary,' to pipe two new ceiling sprin-

Main ceiling
kleD from an e:tisting oudet in an overhendS)'3tcm, a.t'l)' bushings
shall be removed and the we of a nipple not exceeding 4 in.
(100 mm) in length and of the same pipe thread.size as the e:tist.
Reducing elbow ing outlet shall be pcnnitted, provided that a hydraulic calcul~
tion verifies that the design flow rate win be achieved. Where an annover u attached to connect to a
4 in. (100 mm) sprinkler, the usc of pipe nipples leM than 1 in. (25 mm) in
I~' maximum lergth diameter shall not be permitted where .seismic design is re-
quired on the S)'Stem.
8.15.21 Dry PIpe Unde.ground.

o Where neceoUar)' to place pipe that will be w,der air

presmre underground.. the pipe shall be protected against
corrosion. Unprotected cast-iron or ductile-iron pipe mall be
permitted where joined with a gasketedjoint listed for air ser-
FIGURE Nipple and Reducing FJbow Supplying vice underground.
Sprinkler Below Ceiling. 8.15.22* System Subdivision. Where individual floor/zone
control valves are not pro,"ided.. a flanged joint or mechanical
coupling shall be used at the riser at each floor for connections to When it i.s necessary to pipe two n~ ceiling sprin-
piping floor areas in exCCM of 5000 ft':! (465 m 1.
klers from an ex-isting outlet in an overhead system, the lLse of
a nipple not excc::eding 4 in. (100 mm) in length and of the 8.15.23 Spaces Above Ceilings.
.same piJX= thread .size as the emting outlet shall be JX=rmiuecl,
provided that a h)'drnulic calculation verifies thal the design flow Where spaces have ceiling.s that arc lower than the
rate will be achieved in accordance with Figure rest of the area, the space abo,"·e this lower ceiling shall be
sprinklered unless it complie!l with the mles of for
allowable unsprinklered concealed spaces.

Main CQiling Where the space above a drop ceiling is .sprinkJeltd,
the .sprinkler ~tem shall confonn to the rules of 11.1.2 and Sec-
tion 12.3.
/* Where there is a noncombwtible space above a

r- V
[4 in (100 mm)
noncombwtible or limited<ombustible drop ceiling that is
sprinklered becawc it is open to an adjacent sprinklered
space on onl)' one side and where there is no possibilitJ for
maximum length]
Drop storage above the drop ceiling. the sprinkler .5)'3tC1T1 shall be
nipple (
0 Branch ling permitted to cxtend only as far into the .space as 0.6 times the
square root of the design area of the sprinkler .system in the
adjacenl space.
RaduCQ r--...: Suspended The sprinkler S)'Stem .shall extend at least 24 ft
I ceiling (7.2 m) into the .!IIpace abO\'e the cc=iling.
\,l 8.16 Piping InstaUation.
Ceiling plate
\I 8.16.1 Val.....

FIGURE Sprinklers in Concealed Space aDd Be-* Cootrol ValVE!'"s.
low Ceiling.* General. Each .sprinltlc=r sy.stcm .shall be pmvided with a Wberc:an armover is attached to connect to a listed indicating valve in an accessible location. so located as to
sprinkler, the usc: of pipe nipples le.s.s than 1 in. (25 mm) in control aU automatic sources of water supply.
diameter shall nol be permitted where seismic design is re·
quired on the $)'$tem. 1.2 At least one listed indic.ating valve shall be in-
stalled in each .source of water sup pi)•. Revamping of Hydraulic Design Systems. The require menu of shall not apply When hydraulically designed s)"Stems are re· to the fire deparnnent connection, and thc=re .shall be no ,hut.
vamped, any existing bu.shing .shall be remO'<ed and a nipple off valve in the fire department connection,
not exceeding 4 in. (100 mm) in length .shall be permiued to
be installed in the branch line fitting.* Supen,ision.* Calculations .shall be provided to verify that the \~Ivc.s on connections to water .supplies, sectional
system design flow rate will be achieved. control and isolation ..-alvcs, and other val~ in suppl)' pipes to

2013 Edition W

sprinkler\"> and other fi.xcd wutc..--lX'ucd fire suppression S)'3letnS* Pumps. 'When a pump is located in a combustible
shall be r>upcrviscd by one of the following methods: pump howe or exposed to danger from fire or falling walls, or
when a lank discharge.s into a private fire service main fed by
(1) Central station. proprietary. or remote station signaling
• another supply. either ti'e check vah'e in the connection shall
be localed in a pit or the control \WVe shall be of the post·
(2) Local signaling $cnicc that will cause the sOlUlding of an
indicator l.)'Pe located a safe distance outside buildings.
audible signal at a cons land)' attended point
(3) Valvcslockcd in the corrcct position
(4) Valvcslocatcd within fenced enclosures under the control
of the owner, scaled in the open position. and inspected
I* Control "uh'e Accessibility. All control valves .shall
be located where accCMible and free of ob3tructioru. Control Vah~ Identification. Identification s-igm
weekly as part of an approved procedure
.shall be provided at each vah'e to indicate itt function and Floor control valves in higlNisc buildings and what it controls.
"<lIves cOlltrolling flow to sprinkle", in circulating cloJ:cd loop Pressure·Reducing Valves.
s)'Stcmsshali comply with (1) 01'" (2). In portiom of .5)'l5tem3 where all components arc The requirements of 8. J shall not apply
not listed for pressure greater tllan 175 psi (12.1 bar) and the
to underground gate \'a1,,'cs with roadwu)' boxe5.
potential exists for normal (nonfire condition) water prcs.sure \\'here control val...cs are installed ovcrhead. they in excess of 175 (12.1 bar). a listed pre.ssure-reducing \':U\'e
shall be: that the indicating feature is visible from .shall be: irutalled and set for an outlet pressure not exceeding
thc Ooor below. 165 psi (11.37 bar) at the maximum inlet pn~,ssure. A listed backflow prevcntion assembly shall be: PrCMUTe gauges .shall be installed on the inlet and
permitted to be considercd a control valve. provided both outlelsides of each prcssure-reducing \·ah·e.
control valvcs are listcd for fire protection ~tem use and an* A listed relief valve of not less than ~ in. (13 mm)
additional control \a1ve shall not be required.
in 3izc 3hall be provided on the discharge side of the pre.Mure-* Check 'ah·es. reducing vah'e 3et to operate at a pressure not exceeding the
rated pressure of the components of the s)'5tem. \¥here there is more than one source ofwdter
supply. 3. check valve shall bc installed in each connection. A listed indicating valve shall be: provided on the
inlet .side of each pressttrC'-reducing valve. unless the pl'C.Mure- A listed backflow prevention device .shall be: con- reducing valve meet3 the listing requirements for usc a.s an
sidercd a check valve. and an additional check valve .shall not indicating valve.
be: required. Means shall be provided downstream of all pressure- \o\obere cushion tanks are used with automatic
reducing valves for flow tests at sprinkler S}'3tem demand.
firc pwnps, no check valve is required in the cushion tank
connection.* Post-Indicator Valves. Check valves shall be installed in a \-ertical or \¥here post-indicator valves arc used, the)' shall be
horizontal position in accordance V.itll their listing. set so that the top of tile post is 32 in. to 40 in. (0.8 m to 1.0 m)
above the final grade.* \Vhere a single wet pipe sprinkler system is
equipped with a fire department connection. the alann valve Post-indicator valves shall be: properly protected
is considered a check val\'e, and an additional check valve shall against mcchanical damage where needed.
not be required. The requirements of 3hall not apply to* Control Vah'eS witb Check Vahres. wall post-indicator valves. In a connection ser\fing a.s one .source of supply. 'alves in Pits.
listed indicating ...a 1Ve5 or post-indicator valve.s shaU be in- General. \Vhere it is impractical to provide a post-
stalJed on both sides of all check valves required in
indicator valve. valve.s 3hall be permitted to be: placed in pits The=: cit)· sc=rvices control \a1vc (non-indicating with pennission of the authority having jurisdiction.
control valve) shall be pennitte=:d to .serve as the supply .side* Valve Pit Construction.
control \a1ve. When used ...w"e pits shall be of adequate 3lze The requirements of shaU not apply
and accessible for inspection. operation. tcsting, mainte-
to the check valve located in the fire department connection
nance. and removal of equipment contained tllerein.
piping. and there shaU be no control in the fire depart-
ment connection piping. Val\'C pits shall be constmcted and arranged to
prope:rl)' protect the installed equipment from movement of TIle requirements of shall not apply
earth. freezing. and accumulation of water.
where the city connection .senres as the onl), automatic source
of suppl), to a wet pipe sprinkler s),stem; a control valve is not Poured-in-place or precast concrete, with or
required on the s),stem side of the check valve or the alann without reinforcement, or brick (all depending upon soil con-
check vah-e. ditions and size of pit) shall be: appropriate materials for con-
struction of \wve pits,* Control Vahres for Grn\;ty Tanks. Gravity tank.-!
shall have listed indicating valves installed on both sides oCtile Other approved materials shall be: permitted to
check ..-alve. be used for valve pit construction.

W2013 Edition
INSfALLATION REQtJlREMENTS 1:1-91 \\-be_re the water table is low and the 50il is porow, 8.16.2.'.3 Dry Pipe and Pn!'action S)'I:lIems in Refrigerated Ar-
c:nuhed stone or gra\"ehhall be pennitted to be used for the floor eas. Branch line-3 shall be pitched at least ~ in. per to ft
of the pit. (Sa Figu"A.8.J 7.2(b)lora sugg.-.rttd ammgnnml.j (4 mm/m), and Inaitu shall be pitched at least l-i in. per 10 ft
(4 mm/m) in refrigerated areas.
8.16. Valve pits located at or ncar the base of the riser
of an ele\o<lted tank shall be designed in accordance with Chap-* System, Main Drain, orSe<:tiooal Drai,n Connections.
ter 9 of NFP.-\ 22.* ProvisiollSshallbe made to proper I)' drain aU parts' lah,"e Pit Marking. The location of the vah-e .shall be of the .system.
c1earl)' marked. and the cover of the pit .shall be kept free of Drain connectioru for S)'llterns .nlppl), risel'3 and
ohstrllCtiOns. mains shall be sized as shown in Table Floor Control '~lve AMeenblies.
Table Drain Size
8.16.1,5.1* Multistory building.s exceeding two stories in height
.shall be prmided l'.;th a floor control val,,-e. check ...-al\"e. main Riser or MAin Size Size of Drain Connection
drain \a1~. and flow .switch for isolation. control, and annuncia- (;n.) (;n.)
tion of water flow on each floor level.
Up t02 ¥.a or larger The floor control valve. check "'<llve. main drain 2'h. 3. 3\\ I v.. or larger
\"3],,·e, and flow switch required b)' shall not be re- 4 and larger 2 onl),
quired where sprinklers on the top 1<=1o·c1 of a multistol')' build-
ing arc supplied b)' piping on the floor below. For SI units. I in. = 25.4 rom.' The floor control valve. check \'3I\.-e. main drain Where an interior sectional or floor control valve(s)
\"a],,·e. and flow switch required 1»' shall not be re-
is provided. it .shaJl be provided with a drnin connection having a
quired where the total area of all floors combined docs not
minimtUll .size as shown in Table to drain that portion
exceed the .system protection area limitatioru: of 8.2.1.
ofthe s)'St'em controlled b)' the sectional "'3hoe.* In-Rack Sprinkler System Control '"alves. Drains shall discharge outside or to a drain con- Unless the requirements of or neclion capable of handling the now of the drain. [Su Fig-
are met. where sprinklers are installed in racks. separate indi- "" A. 8.17. 4. 2(b). J
cating control val\"e!> and drains shall be provided and ar- For those drains serving pressure-reducingval\·es.
ranged so that ceiling and in-rack .sprinklen can be controlled the drain. drain connection, and all other downstream drain
independently. piping shall be sized to permit a flow of at least the greatC'S( Installation of 20 or fewer in-rack sprinklers sup- s)'Stem demand supplied 1»' the pressure-reducing ..a1ve.
plied by an)' one ceiling sprinkler system .shall not require a TIle connections required b)' shall be
.separate indicating control "a1ve. permitted to be used as main drain connections.' The separate indicating "a1vcs .shall be )J(=nnitted 7 Where drain connections for floor control \a1\~s art::
to be arranged as .sectional control valves supplied from the tied into a common drain risc=r, the dr.:ain riser shall be one pipe
cc=iling sprinkler .system where in-rack sprinkler.s are required size larger dOWllStream of each size drnin connection t)ing into it.
and the racks including the adjacent aisle!> occupy 8000 ft::! Where subject to freezing. a minimum 4 ft (1.22 m)
(750 m::!:) or less of the area protected by the ceiling.sprinklen.
ofo.-posed drain pipe shall be in a heated area between the drain
8.16.2 Drainage. valve and the exterior wall when drain piping exknds through
the wall to the outside.* General. AU .sprinkler pipe and fittings shall be in- Atu..iliary Drains.
stalled so that the system can be drained Auxiliaty drains shall be pro..ided where a change Wet Pipe Systenls. in piping direction prevents drainage of s)'Stem piping On wet pipe s)'Stems. sprinkler pipes shall be per· through the main drain ,,'dive.
miued to be installed le~1. Auxiliary Drains for Wei Pipe S)"Stems and Preac-
tion Systems in AR!as Not Subje<:t to Fn!'ezing. Trapped piping shall be drained in accordance
w;th 8.1 6.2.5.* \\'here the capacity of isolated trapped sections
of pipe is 50 gal (189 L) or more, the auxiliary drain shall Dry Pipe and PJ'e'action S)"stems. Piping shall be consist of a val\"e not smaller than 1 in. (25 mm). piped to an
pitched to drain as stated in through acce5.';ible location. Dt')· Pipe Syst~ms in NODJ'e'frigerated Areas. In my Where the capacity of isolated trapped sections
pipe s)stem, branch lines shall be pitched at least l-i in. per 10 ft of pipe is more than 5 gal (18.9 L) and less than 50 gal (189 L).
(4 mm/m), and mains shall be pitched at least Y.& in. per 10 ft the alLuliary drain shall consist of a ..a1\oe ¥. in. (20 mm) or
(2 mm/m) in areas. larger and a plug or a nipple and cap.
8.16. 2.3.2 Preadion Systems. In preaction s)'!items,. branch Where the capacity of trapped sections of pipes
lines shall be pitched at least ~ in. )J(=r 10 ft (4 mm/m). and in wetrystems is less than 5 gal (18.9 L). one ofthe following
mains shall be pitched allenst Y. in. per 10 ft (2 mm/m). arrangements shall be provided:

2013 Editicn W

(1) An auxiliary drain shall consist of a nipple and cap or plug Di.scharg~ of Drain lalves.
nollos than Ih in. (1.5 mm) in size. * Direct interconnectiotU shall not be made be-
(2) An auxiliary drain .shall not be required for trapped sec-
tions ICli$ than 5 gal (18.9 L) where the 5)~lC'm piping call tween sprinkler drains and SC'WC'I'S.
be drained by removing a single pendent sprinkJcr. 8.l6.2.6.2 The drain duchargeshall conform to an)' health or
(3) Where flexible couplings or other easily separated con- water department regulations.
nections arc wed. the nipple and cap or plug shall be
pcnniucd to be omiUed. Where drain pipes arc buried underground, ap·
proved corrosion·resistant pipe shall be: used. lie-in drains shall not be required on wet pipe 5)'&
terns and pn:action 5)3tClnS protecting nonfreezing environments. Drain pipes shall not terminate in blind "paces un· Auxiliary Drains for Dry Pipe Systems and Preae- der the building.
tion Systems. 8.l6.2.6.5 Where exposed to the: atmosphere. drain pipes Auxiliary' drains located in areas subject to freez- shall be: fitted with a tlllTled..d,own elbow.
ing shall be accessible. Drain pipe3 shall be arranged to a\'oid exposing Au..x iliary drains located in areas maintained at an)' of the water·filled portion of the "prinkler s)'Stem to freez-
freezing tcmpernturc.s shall bc accessible and shall consist of a ing conditions.
\'3lve not smaller than I in. (25 mm) and a plug or a nipple
and cap. 8.16.3 Provision for Flushing S)'5t~ms.'.3 \\-here the capacity of trapped sections of pipe is 8.16.3.l All sprinkler S)'3tems shall be arranged for flwhing.
less than 5 gal (18.9 L). the 8LL"tiliary drnin shall consist ofa valve
not smaller than ~ in. (13 mm) and a plug or a nipple and cap. Readil)' remo\-able fittings "hall be pro'\ided at the
end of all cross maim. ALL-c:iliary drains are not for pipe drops suppl)ing
dry pendent sprinklers installed in accordance with 7.2.2. All maillSshall tenninate in 1V.. in. (32 mm) or
larger pipe.* '\'nere the capacity of isolated trapped sections
of system piping is more than 5 gal (18.9 L). the am::iliary All branch lines on gridded s)~tems shall be: arranged
drain shan comist of two 1 in. (25 mm) \-a1ves and one 2 in. to facilitate flushing.
)( 12 in. (50 mm x 305 mm) condensate nipple or equi\'3lent.
accessibl), located in accordance y,.ith Figure or a 8.16.4 Protection of Piping.
device list.ed for this senice. Protection of P"lping Against Fn!e7iog.

Dry system* , ....n ere any portion of a .5)~tem is subject to freez-
auxiliary ing and the tcmperatllres cannot be: reliabl)' maintained at or
drain above 40~ (4°C). the system "hall be: installed as a dr)' pipe or
1 in. (25 mm) valve preaction system.
8.l6. The requirements of shall not appl)'
where alternate methods of freeze prevention are pTO\ided in
accordance with one of the methods described in
through Unheated areas "hall be pennittcd to be protected
2 in.)( 12 in. (50 mm)( 305 mm) b)' antifreeze S)'3tems or by other S)l3tetnS specifically listed for
nipple or equivalent
the Where aboveground wate.r~filled suppl)' pipes. ris-
ers. S)"Stem risers, or feed mains pass through open areas, cold
roonu, passageways, or other areas exposed to tempcranues
below 40°F (4°C). the pipe shall be permitted to be protected
agaillSt freezing by iJlSuiating coverings. froM-proof casings. or
other means of maintaining a minimum temperature between
1 in. (25 mm) valw 40"F and 120"F we and 48.9"C).

1 in. (25 mm) nipple and cap or plug Listed heat~tTacing systems shall be pe:nnitted in
accordance with and
FIGURE Dry Syst~n:l Auxiliary Drain. 8.l6. Where used to protect branch lines, me hcat~
tracing S)"Stcm shall be specifically listed for use on branch lines.. Tie~in drains shall be provided for multiple adja-
cent trapped branch pipes and shall be onl), I in. (25 mm). 8.l6.4.l.4.2 Electric supcnision of the hcat..crncing5)"Stem shall
TIe-in drain lines shall be: pitched a minimum of~ in. per 10ft provide positive confinnation that the circuit is energized.
(4 mrn/m). \Vatcr·filled piping shall be: pennittcd to be in- S)'~tems with low point drains shall have a sign at "talled in areas where the temperature is less than 40"'F (4°C)
the dr)' pipe or prcaction \-a1ve indicating the munbe:r of low when heat loss calculation" pcrformcd b)' a professional engi-
point drains and the location of each individual drain. neer veril)' that the 5)'Stem will not freeze.

W 2013 Editbn
INSTAllATION REQUIREMENTS 1$-93* Protection of P"rpingAgninst Corrosion.* Attadlnlenis - Mecbanacnlly OpE-rated. * 'Where col'"tOJ:ivc conditions arc known to exist due For all l)'Pes of sprinkler systems employing water
to moisture or fumc.$ from corro:r.ivc: chemicals or both,.spedaJ motor~perated alarms. a listed ¥.& in. (20 mm) strainer shall be
l>PCS offiuings, pipes, and hangen that resist corrosion shall installed at the alann outlet of the waterflow detecting device.
be used. or a protective coating shall be applied to allunpro-
(cclcd exposed surfaces of the sprinkler s}'S(cm. Where a retarding chamb<=r is used in connection
with an alarm valve. the strainer shall b<= located at the outlet* Whcrcwatcr supplies or environmental conditions of the retarding chamber lUlless the retarding chamber is pn,
aTe known to have unusual cOlTosi...c properties. piping .shall vided with an approved integral strainer in its outlet.
have a cOrTosion resistance ratio (eRR) of I or morc, and the
system shall be treated in accordance with 24.) .5.* Alarm Attachments - Hig~RiseBuiklings. When a
fire must be fought intemall)' due to the height ofa building.' Where corrosive conditions exist or piping is ex- the following additional alarm apparatus ..shall be pro\-ided:
pO$cd to the weather. COrTosion-resistant t)pes of pipe. fittings,
and hangcu or protective conosion-resistant coating.s shall be (1) E."'lch..sprinkler .!)5tem on each floorshall be equipped with a
used. 5Cprarate waterflow dC\ice. The waterflow dC'\ice ..shall be con-
nected to an alarm .5)'Stem in such a manner that operation Where sted pipe is used lUldergTound the pipe
of one sprinkler will actuate the alarm S)'Stcm, and the loca-
.shall be protected agail15t corrosion.
tion of the operated Dow dC\-ice: shall be indicated on an
I 8.16.4.S* Protection of Piping in Hazardous Areas. annunciator and/or register. The annunciator or
8.16.4.S.1 Private service main aboveground piping shall not shall be located at grade le~1 at the normal point of fire
department access.. at a consland)' attended building secu-
pass through hazardous areas and shall be that it is
rity control center. or at both locations.
protected from mechanical and fire damage.
(2) Where the location within the protected buildings where Private sen-ice main aboveground piping shall be supen-isory or alarm signals arc recci\'ed is not under con-
permitted to be located in hazardous areas protected by an stant supervision by qtL."'llified pe,rsonnel in the employ of
automatic sprinkler s)'Stem. the owner, a connection shall be prm-ided to transmit a
8.16.5 Protedion of Risers Subject to Me-ehanical Damage. signal to a remote centrnlstation.
Sprinkler to mechanical damage shall b<= protected (3) A distinct trouble signal shall be pro..ided to indicate a
by sted posts, concrete barriers. or other apprO'o'ed means. condition that will impair the satisfactory operation of the
sprinkler system.
8.17 System Attadlmenis. Sprinkler Waterflow Alarm for I...Rack Sprinklers.
8.17.1* Sprinkler ..yarms/Waterflow Alarms. See Section CA. Local '",ternow Alarms. A local waterflow alarm
8.17.2* Fire Departme-nt Connections.
.shall be provided on C"o'ery ..sprinkler S)'5tem having more than
20 .sprinklen.* Unles.s the requirements of are mel. a fire
department connection shall be provided as described in Retarding De..;ee-s. On each alarm check vaI ....e used
under condiriom of variable water pressure, a retarding de- 8.17.2 in accordance with Figure
..-ice shall be installed. The following s}·stems shall not I"equire a fire depart- Alarm B}-pas8 Te-st Connections. ment connection: Alarm, dry pipe, preaction, and deluge 'l3.1\-'eS shall (I) Buildings located in remote areas that arc inaccessible for
be fitted with an alarm byp3S5 test connection for an electric fire deparunent support
alarm .switch, ""3ter motor gong. or both. (2) wge-capacit), deluge .!)':5tcms exceeding the pumping ca-
pacity of the fire department The alarm b)"pas.s test connection for alarm, dry (3) Single--stol")' buildings not exceeding 2000 ft~ (186 m:!) in
pipe. preaction, and deluge valves shall be made on the water area
suppl)" side of the S)'3tem and prO'o-ided with a control valve and
drain for the alarm piping.* Size. The size of the pipe for the fire department
connection shall be in accordance with one of the following: The alarm bypass test connection for alarm valves
at the riser shall be permitted to be made on the S)'3tem side of (I) Pipe size shall be a minimum of 4 in. (100 mm) for fire
• •
an alann valve. engtne connecuons. A check valve shall be installed between the inter- (2) Pipe..siz.c shall b<= a minimum ofG in. (150 nun) for fire
medi:llc chamber of a dry pipe valve and the waterflow alarm boat connections.
device so as to prevent flow from the alarm bypass test connec- (3) For h)'Ciraulically calculated S)'5tcms. the fire department
tion from entering the intermediate chamber of a dry pipe connection shall be penniued to be less than 4 in.
valve during an alarm test ....ia theaJann bypass test connection. ( 100 mm) and no less than the size of syste.m riser. where
• •
servlIlg one .!)':5tetn ruer. Indicating Control '~I\oes.* Arrnnge-nlE'nt. See Figure Where a control valve is installed in the connec-
tion to prc.ssurc-typc contactors or w::ltcr motor-operated* The fire department connection shall be on the
alarm dC\-ices, it shall be of the indicating type. s)'Stem side of the water supply check valve. Such vaJ\'csshall b<= scaled. locked. or electrically The: rrre department connection ..shall not be at-
5upen.--iscd in the open position. tached to branch line piping.

2013 Edition W

1 in. to 3 in. (25.4 mm to 76.2 mm) Asign shall also indicate the pressure required at
waterproof mastic the inlets to deliver the gteatestsystem demand. The sign requ.ired in shall not be re-
quired where the S)~em demand pressure is less than J 50 psi
Fira Fire department connections .shall not be con·
department nected on the suction side of fire pumps.
connection Fire department connections shall be property
.supported. lah-es. A listed check vah·e shall be in.stalled in each fire
-ll=lll!! IU 111-
Chocl< ~1,,~1'~111~ , department connection and .shall be located in an acce.ssible
H9ader ""Iva location.
in valve 1I1
I "
~ The.e shall be no shutoff valve in the fire depart-
ment connection piping.

c* Drainage. The piping between the check ..-ah'e and
the outside hose coupling shall be equipped with an appro"'ed
II automatic drip in areas subject to f.eezing.
II 8.17.3 G-auges.

'~"'~",= '" "" "''' ~ "."" "'"I':::.' ~

Automatic drtp
:: := III
'!: ~ HI A pressure gauge with a connection not smalle. than
Y.l in. (6 mm) .shall be installed at the s)'Stem main drain. at
each main drain associated with a floor control va...·e. and on
the inlet and outlet .side of each p'e!>sure-.educing ..·a1..·e.
FIGURE Fire Department Connection. Each gauge connection shall be equipped with a
shutoff valve and provisions for draining. The required p'e!>sure gauges shall be approved and The fire department connection shall be permit- shall ha..'e a ma.ximum limit not less than twice the normal
ted to be connected to main piping on the 5)'!Iilem ilser\'cs. S)'Stem working pressure at the point where installed. For single systems., the fire department connection Gauges.shall be installed to permit removal and shall
shall be installed :u folloW!: be located where thC)· will not be subject to freezing.

(1) Wets)'stem - on the 5)',stem side of 5)'3lem control. check. 8.17.4 System Connections.
and alarm valves (5E£ Fig-ureA-S. J6. J.I)* Main Drain Test Conneclions.
(2) Dry .syst~ - between the S)'3lem control valve and the
dry pipe valve Main d.ain lesl connections shall be provided at
(3) Preaction 5)'3tem - between the preaction vahtc and the locatioru that will permit flow tests of water supplies and
check valve on the system side of the preaction valve conneCllons.
(4) Deluge .system - on the sr-'lem side=: of the deluge val....e ThC)' shall be so installed that the ..-alve can be Fo. multiple systems, the fire department connec- opened wide for a sufficient time lo assure a proper test with-
tion .shall be connected between the suppl)" conrrol valve!> and out cawing water damage.
the system con rrol wh:es. 8.17 .4.1.3 Main drain connections shall be sized m accor-* The requirements of8. and shall dance with and
not apply where the fire department connection is connected* \\'et Pipe Syslems.
to the undergrolmd piping. An alarm test connection not less than 1 in. \¥here a fire department connection .se.....;ccs only (25 mm) in diameter. terminating in asmooth bore conosion-
:a. portion of:a. bu.ilding, a sign shall be att:ached indicating the resistant orifice, giving a flow equal to o. less than one sprin.
portions of the building !iCr....ed.. kler of a type ha..;ng the .smallesl K-facto. installed on the
particular system. shall be pro..;ded to test each waterflow* Fire department connections .shall be located at
alarm dC"r;ce for each sy.;letn.
the nearest point of fire deparnnent apparatw accessibility or
at a location approved by the authority hnvingjurisdiction. The test connection valve shall be accessible. Signs. TIle discharge shall be to the outside. to a drain con·
nection capable of accepting rull flow under S)stt.".m pressure. or Each fin department connection to sprinkler
to another location where water damage will not rc.ru1t.
s)stemsshall be designated b)" a sign hav:ingraised or engraved
lette~ at least 1 in. (25.4 mm) in height on plate or fitting The alarm test cormection shall be pe:nnitted to be
reading sen;ce design - for example, AUTOSPKR., OPEN installed in any location on the fire sprinkler system down·
SPKR., AND STANDPIPE. .sn-eam of the waterflow alarm.

W 2013 Editbn
INSTAllATION REQUIREMENTS 1$-95* Dry Pipe Systems. (1) When now u from four sprinklers. the trip manifold
shall be arranged to .simulate two sprinkler, on each of A trip tcst ronnection or manifold not less dlaJl 1 in. two .sprinkler brnnch lines.
(25 mOl) in diatnctcr, tcnninating in a smooth bore cotTosion- (2) When flow u from three sprinklers, the test manifold shall
rcmtant orifice. to provide a flow cqujl,.wcnt to one sprinkler ofa be arranged to simulate two ,prinklers on the most re-
type installed on the particular systcm. shall be installed. mote branch line and one 'prinklcr on the next adjacent The trip tcst connection or manifold shall be 10- branch line.
cau:d all the end of the most distant sprinkler pipe in the (3) When flow is from two .sprinkler.s. the test manifold .shall
upper slor)" and shall be equipped with an accessible shutoff be arranged to simulate two ,prinklers on the most re-
valve and a plug not lC$s than 1 in. (25 mm). of which at least mote branch line.
one shall be brass. (4) When flow is from one sprinkler, the test manifold shall
• be instaJled as per the requirements for a trip test connec- In lieu ofa plug. a nipple and cap shall bcacccptabic. tion in accordance with through \\'hen the capacit}, (volume) of the dC)' pipe system Deluge Systems. A test connection shall not be re-
has been determined in accordance with, quired on a deluge S)'Stem. or a trip test connection shall be permitted to
proyidc a flow cqui..·aJcnt to one .sprinkler in accordance with* Backflow Devices. thmugh * BackfJow P~vention
Valves. Means shall be pro- 'Nhen the capacity (volume) of the dI')' pipe system vided downstream of all backIlow prC'\o'ention valves for flow
has been determined in accordance y,.;th the following tests at sJstem demand.
shall appl)': Retroocth-e [nstaDation. \"/hen backflow preven-
(I) ,",ben flow i.s from four sprinklers. the trip test manifold tion devices are to be retroactively in.stalled on existing S)'S-
.shall be arranged to simulate two sprinklers on each of teInS, a thorough hydraulic anal)~is, including revised hydrau-
two sprinkler branch lines. lic calculations. n~ fire flow data. and aU necc=ssary sptem
(2) Wben flow is from three sprinklen.. the test manifold .shall modifications to accommodate the additional friction 10:15,
be arranged to simulate two sprinklers on the most re- shaH be completed as a part of the irulallation.
mote branch line and one sprinkler on the next adjacent
branch line. 8.17.5 Hose Connections.
(3) When flow is from two .sprinklers. the test manifold .shall
be arranged to simulate two sprinklers on the most re- Small [I 'h in. (38 mm)] Hose Connections. See Sec-
mote branch line. tion C.5.
(4) '"'ben flow u from one sprinkler. the test manifold .shall * \A/here required . .small [I ~ in. (40 mm) l hose con-
be: instaJled per the requirements for a trip test connec- nections shall be installed.
tion in accordance with through Valves shall be available to reach all portions of Prt>oclion S)"5Iems.
the area with 100 ft (30.5 m) of hose plw 30 ft (9.1 m) of hose A test connection shall be provided on a prea.ction stream distance.
S)'3tem using supenrisory air. 'Nhere the building is protected throughout b)" The connection used to control the level of prim- an appro....ed automatic sprinkler s)'Stem. the presence of
ing 'W3ter shall be considered adequate to test the operation of Ph in. (38 mm) hose lines for use by the building occupants
the alarms monitoring the supcn.isoT)· air pressure. shall not be: required. subject to the approval of the authoril)'
hav;ng jurisdiction. For double interlock preaction srstems. a trip test
connection or manifold not less than 1 in. (25 mrn) in diam- Where appro....ed by the aUlhorit)" ha\;ngjurisdic-
eter, tenninating in a smooth bore corrosion-resutant orifice tion. the location of valves shall be permitted to exceed the
to provide a f10wequivalent to one sprinkJer of a type installed distances sJX=cified in
on the particular S)'3tem . .shall be installed. The hose connections shall not be required to meet For double in.terlock preaction s)'Stems, the trip the requirements ofOass n hose S)'3tetnS defmed by NFPA 14.
test connection or manifold shall be located on the end of the
most distant sprinkler piJX= in the upper story and shaD be Hose connections shall be supplied from one of
equipped with an accc=ssible shutoff \'al\'e and a plug not les.s the following:
than 1 in. (25 mm), of which at least one shall be brass.
(1) Outside h)'drants Inlicu of:a. plug. a nipple and cap r.haIl beacceptnble. (2) Separate piping S)'Stc:m for small hose connections 'When the capacit)" (volume) of the double inter· (3) \'ah'ed hose connections on sprinkler risen where such con-
lock preaction S)'3tem has been detennined in accordance nections are made upstream of all :sprinkler control wlves
with,, or, a trip test connec· (4) Adjacent sprinkler s)'Stems
tion shall be pennitted to provide :a. flow equi\'alent to one (5) In rack storage areas, the ceiling sprinkle.r system in the
sprinkler in accorclaJ1ce with through same area (as long as in-rack sprinklers arc pro\;ded in
the same area and are separatd)' controlled) ,",nen the capacit)" (volume) of the double inter· (6) In nonstor:age occupancies that are not a part of a stand.
lock preaction S)'3tem has been detennined in accordance pipe S)"lem, ceiling sprinkler piping in the same area as
with the follm..;ng .shall appl)": Ule hose connection

2013 Edition W
1~6 INSTALlATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS* Hooe connecnolU used for fire purposes oluyshall (4) Hanger components .shall be: ferrous.
be permitted to be connected to wet pipe sprinkler .sy.stems (5) Detailed ca1culatiolU shall be submitted, when required
only, subject to the fol1awing re.nrictions: b)' the reviewing authority, showing .sLTC55eS dc:vdoped in
(1) Hose connection '.1 supply pipes shall not be connected to hangers, piping, and fittings, and .safety factors allowed.
any pipe smaller than 21h in. (65 mm) in diameter. Shared .support structure.s shall be certified b)' a n:gi~
(2) The: requirements of .shaJl not apply to h).. tered professional en.gineer in accordana: with and
draulicaU,. designed loops and grids, where: the minimum 9. 1. l.3.
.flZC pipe between the hooc connection's supply pipe: and The design of a .shared support structurc: shall be:
the source shall be pcnnittcd to be 2: in. (51 mm).
based on either or
(3) For piping .serring a.singlc hose connc:etio~ pipe shall be
a minimum ofl in. (25.4 mm) for horizontal runs up to Sprinkler pipe: and other di.stribution systems
20ft (6.1 m), a minimumofl \4 in. (33 rom) forthc entire shall be pcnnitted to bc: supported from a shared support
run for nln.s between 20 ft and 80 ft (6.1 m and 24.4 ro), structure designed to support fIVe timc:s the weight of water-
and a minimum of 1 ~ in. (38 mm) for the entire run for filled sprinkler pipc: and other supported distribution systems
runs greater than 80 ft (24.4 m). For piping .serving mul- plus 250 lb (114 kg), based on the allowable ultimate stre.u.
tiple hose: connections, runs shall be a minimum ofllA! in. 2 Sprinkler pipe and other distnbution S)'Stc:mS.shall
(38 mm) throughout. be pennitted to be: supported. from a shared support structure
(4) Piping.shaJl beat least 1 in. (25 mm) for vertical runs. designed to support five times the weight of the water-fiUedsprin-
(5) Where the residual pre.uure at a Ilh in. (38 mm) oudeton kler pipe plus 250 Ib (114 kg), and one and onc:-half times the
11 hose connection exceeds 100 p3i (6.9 bar), an approved weight ofaD other supported di'!ltriburion S)'St.c:J'nS.
prc.sJurc:-regulnting device shall be provided to limit the
residual pressure at the outlet to 100 psi (6.9 bar). The building structure shall not bc: considerc:d a
(6) Where the static prc:s.sure at a 1 ~ in. (38 rom) hose con- .shared .support structure.
nection exceeds 175 PJi (12.1 bar), an appro""c:d pressure-· Thc: requirements of shall not apply to
regulating device shall be provided to limit static and re- 9.2.l.3.3.
sidual prc:.uures at the outlet to 100 p3i (6.9 bar). that are incompatible with the fire: sprin- Hose Cono@ctiona for Fi~ Depal"tment Use. kler S)~tc:ms based on vibration, thennal expansion and con- In buildings of light or ordinary hn:z:ard occupancy, traction, or other factors shall not share support structures.
2~ in. (64 rom) hose: ...ah·es for fire dcparunent usc: shall be Where wnter-bMed fire protection ~tems are re-
pcnniued to be attached to wet pipe sprinkler s)''Stc:m rUeD. quired to be protected against damage from earthquakd,· The following restrictions shall apply: hangC:D shall abo meet the requirements of9.3.7.
(1) Each connection from a standpipe that is part ofacombined wting.
.5)'$lc:m to a sprinkler S)'Slem shall have an individual control UnI"" penn;tte<! bj. or, the eom-
valve and check valve: of the same QU: as the connection. poneou of hanger a.uemblid that direetl)' attach to the pipc:
(2) The minimum siz.c: of the Ner shall be 4 in. (102 mm) or to the building structure .shall be listed.
unless hydraulic calculations indicate that a $JTlallcr size· Mild .steel haugen fonned from rods shall be: per~
riser will satisfy sprinklcr and hwe stream allowances.
(3) Each combined sprinkler and standpipe riser shall be mitted to be not listed.
c:quippcd with a riser control valve to pennit isolating a'· Fastcner.s as specified in 9.1.3. 9.1.4, and 9.1.5 shall
riser without interrupting the supply to other risers from bc: penniue:d to be not Listed.
the: same .source of supply. (For fire deparlnunt ccnn«tions Olhc:r fasteners shall be pennitted as pan of a
sn1Jin.gsfandpijJe and sl"inJUr S'J"fnu, nferto &aion 6.8.) hanger assembly that haa been tested, listed. and installed in
accordance with the listing requirements.
Chapter 9 Hanging, Bracing, and Restraint Componeot Material.
of System Piping Unless pennitted b)' or, hangc:r.s
9.1 Hangers. and their components .shall be ferrow.
9.1.1* General Nonferrous components lhat have bc:cn proven by
fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application, that are Unleas the requirements of9.1.1.2 arc: met, types of
listed for this purpo:sc, and that are in compliance with the
hangen shall be in accordance with the requirements of Sec-
other requirements of this .section .shaD be: acceptable.
tion g.1.' Holes through solid structural members shall be Hangen certified by a registered profcssional engi-
pennitted to serve as hangers for the support of 5)'Stc:m piping
neer to include all of the following shall be an acceptable al-
provided such holes are permitted by applicable building
ternative: to the requirements of Section 9.1:
codes and the spacing and support pro,"isions for bangers of
(1) Hangers shaU be designed to .support five times the this standard are .satisfied.
weight of the water-HUed pipe plw 250Ib (114 kg) at each
point of piping support.*n-a.,...,
(2) These points of support shall be adequate to support the For trapeze hangen, the nurumum size of steel
sy.stem. angle or pipe span between purJins or joist.s shall be .such that
(3) The .spacing between hangers shall not exceed the ..-alue the section modulus required in Table 9.1.1. 7.1 (a) docs not
given fOT the type of pipe as indicated in Table (a) exceed the available section modulus of d,e trapeze member
or Table (b). from Table (b).

W 2013 Editbo

I Table 9.1.1. 7.1 (8) Section Modulus Required for Trapeze Members (in.')

Nominal Dla~tef" of Pipe Ik-Ing Supported - SdK'dule 10 Steel

Spa.o (rt) I 1.2S 1.5

• '.S g '.5 • 5
• 8 I•

1.5 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.10 O.ll 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.26 0.34
2 .• 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.20 0.24 0.S4 0.15
2.5 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.30 0.36 0.50 0.69
g.o 0.16 0.1i 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.31 0.36 0.51 0.67
3.5 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.00 0.78
4.0 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.25 .. ,
0'- 0.30 0.32 0.34 0..11 0.48 0.&1 0.89
4.5 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0,46 0.54 0.7i 1.01
5.0 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.37 0.10 0,43 0.51 0.00 O.M 1.12:
5.5 0.30 0.31 O.gS 0.34 0.37 0..11 0.44 0,47 0.56 0.66 0.94 1.23
6.0 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.'11 0,44 OA8 0.51 0.61 0.71 1.02 I.S4
6.5 0.35 0.36 0.g8 0.'11 OA4 0,48 0.52 0.56 0.66 0.7i 1.11 1.15
7.0 0.S8 0.39 0.'11 OA4 0,47 0.52 0.56 0.60 0.71 0.83 1.19 1.56
7.5 0.'11 OA2 OA4 0.47 0.51 0.55 0.00 0.64 0.76 0.89 1.28 1.68
8.0 OA3 0.45 0.47 050 0.54 0.59 0.63 0.68 0.82 0.95 1.36 I.'ro
8.5 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.67 0.71l 0.87 1.01 1.45 1.90
'.0 0.'19 0,50 0.53 0.56 0.61 0.66 0.71 0.7i 0.92 I.Oi 1.53 2.01
95 0.52 0.53 0.56 0.00 0.64 0.70 0.75 0.81 0.97 1.13 1.62 2.12
10.0 0.54 0.56 0.59 0.63 0.&1 0.74 0.79 0.85 1.02 1.19 1.70 2.23
10.5 0.57 0.59 0.62 0.66 0.71 0.78 0.83 0.90 1.07 1.25 1.79 2.35
11.0 0.00 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.74 0.81 0.87 0.94 1.12 I.S1 1.87 2.16
11.5 0.63 0.54 0.68 0.72 0.78 0.85 0.91 0.98 1.17 1.37 1.96 2.57
12.0 0.00 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.81 0.89 0.95 1.02 1.22 1.'13 2.04 2.68
12.5 0.&1 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.85 0.92 0.99 1.07 1.27 1.49 2.13 2. 'ro
13.0 0.71 0.73 0.77 0.81 0.88 0.96 1.03 1.l1 1.33 1.55 2.21 2.90
135 0.71l 0.76 0.80 0.85 0.9} 1.00 1.07 1.15 1.38 1.61 2.30 3.02
14.0 0.76 0.78 0.83 0.88 0.95 1.03 1.11 1.20 1,43 1.67 2.38 3.13
14.5 0.79 0.81 0.86 0.91 0.98 1.07 Ll5 1.24 IA8 1.73 2.'17 3.24
15.0 0.02 0 .... 0.89 0.'14 1.02 l.l1 1.19 1.28 1.53 1.79 2.56 3.35
15.5 0.84 0.87 0.92 0.97 1.05 l.l4 1.23 1.32 1.58 1.85 2.54 3.46
16.0 0.87 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.08 l.l8 1.27 1.37 1.63 1.91 2.73 3.58

,.• ,.•
Nominal Diameter of Pipe Being Supponed -Schedule 40 Stecl
Span (ft) I 1.25 I.. , g
• 5 6 8 10

1.5 0.08 0.09 0.09 O. 1 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.22 0.30 0,41
2.0 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.24 0.29 0040 0.55
2.5 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.25 0.90 0.43 0.56
g.o 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.25 0.27 0.30 0.36 0.'13 0.00 0.82
3.5 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.26 0.2'1 0.32 0.35 0,42 0.51 0.70 0.96
4.0 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.29 0.33 0.36 0,40 0,48 0.58 0.80 1.10
4.5 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.33 0.37 OAI 0,45 0.54 0.65 0.90 1.23
5.0 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.93 0.37 0.'11 0,45 0.49 0.60 0.72 1.00 1.37
5.5 0.30 0.31 0.33 0.36 OAO 0.45 0.50 0.54 0.66 0.79 1.10 1.51
6.0 0.33 0.34 0.36 0.39 OA' 0.4'1 0.54 0.59 0.72 0.87 1.20 1.64
6.5 0.36 0.37 0.40 OA2 0.48 0.54 0.59 0.64 0.78 0.94 1.31 1.78
7.0 0.38 0,40 0.49 0,46 0.52 0.58 0.63 0.69 0.84 1.01 1.41 1.92
7.5 0.41 0.43 0.46 0,49 0.55 0.62 0.68 0.74 0.90 1.<>3 1.51 2.06
8.0 OA' 0,46 0.49 052 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.79 0.96 1.16 1.61 2.19
8.5 0.'17 0.48 0.52 0.56 0.63 0.70 0.7i 0.84 1.02 1.23 1.71 2.33
'.0 0,49 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.66 0.74 0.81 0.89 1.08 1.90 1.81 2.47
9.5 0.52 0.54 0.58 0.62 0.70 0.78 0.86 0.94 1.14 1.37 1.91 2.60
10.0 055 057 0.61 0.65 0.74 0.82 0.90 0.09 1.20 1.45 2.01 2.74
10.5 0.58 0.00 0.64 0.69 0.7i 0.86 0.95 1.04 1.26 1.52 2.11 2.88
11.0 0.00 0.63 0.67 0.72 0.81 0.91 0.99 1.09 1.32 1.59 2.21 3.01
11.5 0.63 0.66 0.70 0.75 0.85 0.95 I.().I 1.14 1.38 1.66 2.31 3.15
12.0 0.66 0.&1 0.73 0.78 0.88 0.99 1.<>3 1.19 1.44 1.73 2041 3.29
12.5 0.69 0.71 0.76 0.02 0.92 1.09 1.13 1.24 1.5 1.81 2.51 3.43
13.0 0.71 0.74 0.79 0.85 0.96 1.07 1.17 1.29 1.56 1.88 2.61 3.56
135 0.74 0.7i 0.82 0.88 0.09 1.11 1.22 1.34 1.62 1.95 2.71 3.70
14.0 0.7i 0.80 0.85 0.91 1.03 1.15 1.26 1.39 1.68 2.02 2.81 3.84
14.5 0.80 0.83 0.88 0.95 1.07 1.19 1.31 1.43 1.74 2.1 2.91 3.97
15.0 0.02 0.86 0.91 0.98 1.10 1.24 1.35 1.48 1.8 3.01 4.11
15.5 0.85 0.88 0.94 1.01 1.14 1.28 1.4 1.53 1.86 2.24 S.1I 4.25
16.0 0.88 0.91 0.97 1.05 1.18 1.32 1.44 1.58 1.92 2.31 3.21 4.39

2013 Editicn til


Table 9.1.1. 7.I(b) A,""Rilable Section Modulus of Conlnlon The ring, "trap, or c1C\is imtallcd on a pipe trapeze
Trapeze Hangers (in. s ) shall be manufactured to fit the pipe size of the trapeze member.
9.J.1.7.7 Holes for bolts shall not exceed ¥u; in. (1.6 mm)
Pipe greater than the diameter of the bolt.
on. n1m (in. s ) Angles (;n.) Modulus (in.~ 9.J.l.7.8 Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut. Support of Non-S)'Stem Components.
Schedule 10
I 25 0.12 I~ x 1'h)( 0/1, 0.10 9.1.l.8.1* Sprinkler piping or hangers shall not be used to
lV. 32 0.19 2)(2)(V8 0.13 .support non-S)~tem compOneJlts.
1\. 40 0.26 2xllhxYJ, 0.18
2 50 0.42 2x2xYt6 0.19 Sprinklc:r piping shall be pennitted to utilize shared
21> 65 0.69 2x2xV.. 0.25 .support structures in accordance with
3 80 1.04 2~)( 1~)( Yt, 0.28 9.1.2 Hanger Rods.
31. 90 1.38 2Y2 x 2 x Yt, 0.29 Unless the requirements of are mel, hanger
4 100 1.76 2x2xY!, 0.30
rod .size shall be the .same as that appro\'ed for we with the
5 125 3.03 21h x 21h x Yt, 0.30
hanger assembly. and the size of rods shall not be less than that
6 150 4.35 0.35
given in Table
21h )( 21h x Y'. 0.39
3x2xYJ6 0.41
Table Hanger Rod Sizes
Schedule 40
1 25 0.13 :3 )( 21h )( YJ, 0.43
lV. 32 0.23 3x3xYt, 0.44 Pipe Size Diameter of Rod
11> 40 0.33 21h )( 21h x 0/1, 0.48
on. mm on. 111m
2 50 0.56 3x2xV.. 0.54
21. 65 1.06 21h)(2)(~ 0.55
21h x 21h)(
* 0.57
Up to and
including 4
100 9.5

4 100 3.21 3x3)(0/I, 0.71 5 125 12.7

5 125 5.45 2'h )( 2'h x 'h 0.72 6 150
6 150 8.50 3~)( 2'h x Y.. 0.75 8 200
.3 x2~ x
* 0.81
0.83 10 250 15.9
31h x 21,2 x Yt, 0.93 12 300
3x3x'Vl, 0.95
4)(4 x V.. 1.05
3x3xlh 1.07
4x3xYu 1.23 Rods of smaller diameters man indicated in
4x4xYt, 1.29 Table shall be permitted where the hanger assembly
4x3x¥.s 1.46 has been tested and listed b)' a testing laboratory and in-
4)(4)(% 1.52 stalled within the limits of pipe sizes expressed in individual
5x31hxYt, 1.94 listings.
4x4xlh 1.97 VVhere the pitch of the branch line is 6 in 12 or
4)(4 x % 2.40 great.c:r. a reduction in the later.a.1 loading on branch line
4x4)(0/. 2.81 hanger rods shall be done b)' one of the following:
6x4x¥.s 3.32
6x4xlh 4.33 (1 )·Second hanger installed in addition to the required main
6x4xo/. 6.25 hangers
6)(6)(1 8.57 (2) latc:ral sw"o/ brace assemblies on the mains
(3) Branch line hangen utilizing an articulating structural
For 51 units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; I ft = 0.3048 m. attachmellt
(4) Equivalent means providing support to the branch line
hanger rods V-Hooks. The size of the rod material ofU·hooksshall A.ny other siz.e.s or shapes giving equal or greater not be less than Uu'lt given in Table
scction modulus shall be acceptable. Eye Rods. All angles shall be inst:lllcdwith the longer leg \'CrricaJ. TIle size of the rod material for~ rods shall not be
9.1.1. 7.4 The trapcl.c mt::mber .shall be .secured to prevent than specificd in Table
slippage. Ere rods shall bc secured with lock washers to pr~·
",,"ent latcral motion.* All components of each hanger assembly that attach
to a trapeze member shall conform to and be sized to 'Where eye rods arc fastened to wood structural
support the sll5pended sprinkler pipe. members, the C)'e rod shall be backcd with a largc flat wa"iher

W2013 Edition

Table V-Hook Rod Si:tes Holes for p0.5t.instaUed anchors wed in the vertical
position shall be drilled to provide uniform contact with the
Pipe Size Hook Material Diameter dlidd over its entire circumfercnce. The depth of the post·inMalled anchor hole .shall not
m. m. mm
be than specified for the l)'Pe oLshicid used.
Up to and 50 7.9 Po",-der-Dri\-"ell Studs.
including 2 Powdcr·driven stum, welding studs. and the tools
21h to 6 65 to 150 9.5 wed for installing these de\;ces shall be li.sted. Pipe size. installation position. and construction
8 200 12.7 material into which the)' are installed shall be in accordance
with individual listings.* Rcpre.scntativc sarnple,s of concrete into which .studs
Table Ew
, Rod Sizes are to be dri"en ,shall be tested to determine that the .studs ....; ll
hold a minimum load of i50 lb (341 kg) for 2 in. (50 mm) or
Diameter of Rod smaller pipe: 1000 Ib (454 kg) for 21h in .. 3 in., or 3~ in.
(65 mm. 80 mm, or 90 mm) pipe: and 1200 Ib (545 kg) for
Pipe Size With Bent Eye With Welded Eye 4 in. or 5 in. (100 mm or 125 111m) pipe.

m. onm m. mm m. mon Increaser couplings,shall be attached dircctl)· to the

powder-dri....en studs.
Up to and 100 9.5 9.5 Minimum Boh Size for ConcNtt.'.
including 4 The size of a bolt wed with a hanger and in-
5 125 !<\ 12.7 !<\ 12.7 stalled through concrete shall not be less than specified in
200 "
19.1 "" 12. i

Table Minimum Bolt Size for Concreie

bearing directl)· against the structural member. in addition to
the lock washer. P"lpe Size Size of Bolt Threaded Se<:tions of Rods. Threaded .sections of rods •
m. mm m. Inrn
shall not be formed or bent.
I 9.1.~* Fasteners in Concrete. Up to and 100 Yo 10
induding 4 Unless prohibited b)' or,. the use of listed
inserts ~t in concrete and listed post-installed anchor.s to support 5 125 13
h.."Ulgers shall be permitted for mains and branch lines. 6 150
9.1.~.2 Post-installed anchors shall not be used in cinder con- 8 200
crete, except for branch lines where the post-installed anchors
10 250 % 15
are alternated with through-bolts or hangers attached to beams.
9.1.~.3Post-installed anchors shall not be wed in ceilings of 12 300 Y. 20
gypsum or other similar .soft material. Unless the requiremen15 of are met. post-
installed anchors shall be installed in a horizontal position in Holes for bolts shall not exceed 'A6 in. (1.6 mill)
the sides of concrete beams.
greater than the diameter of [he bolt.
9.1.~.5 Post-installed anchors shall be pcnniued to be installed Bolts shall be prO\.;ded with a flat washer and nul.
in the vertical po6ition under any of the following conditions:
9.1.4 Fasteners in Steel.
(1) \'\oben wed in concrete having gravel or crushed .stone
aggregate to support pipes 4 in. (100 mm) or less in diam-· Powdcr-dri\'en studs, welding studs, and the tool5
eter wed for installing these de\;cc=s shall be li,stc=d
(2) 'When post-iru;:talled anchors are altema[ed with hangers Pipe size.. installation position. and COl1StJl.lction ma-
connccted dircctly to the strucntral members, such a.s
tc=rial into which they arc installc=d shall be in accordance with
trlLsses and girders, or to the sides of cono-ete beams [to
individual listings.
support pipe 5 in. (125 mm) or largcr]
(3) Wben post-installed anchors arc .spaced not over 10 ft Increaser couplings shall be atl..'\c.hc=d directly to the
(3111) apart [to support pipe 4 in_ (100 mm) or larger] powder-driven studs or welding .studs.
9.1.~.6 Holes for post-installed anchors in the .side of beam.s Welding studs or other hanger pans shall not be at-
.shall be above the centerline of the beam 01" above the bouom tached by welding to sted less than U.S. Standard. 12 gauge
reinforcement steel rods. (2.78 onon).

2013 Editicn til

1:1-100 INSTAllATION OFSPRJNKLER S\''STEMS Minimum Bolt Sin for St~1. Table Screw Dimensions for Ceiling Flanges and
U-Hooks The :r.iu of a bolt used with a hanger and installed
through .sted shall not be less than specified in Table
Pipe Size

m. mm Two Screw Ceiling Flanges

Table ~fjnimUnl Bolt Size for Steel
Up to and 50 Wood screw No. 18 x 1 ~ in.
including 2 or
PiJX>Si:te Size of Bolt Lag screw ~6 in. x llh in.
10. mm m. mm
Three Screw Ceiling nan~s

Up to and 100 ¥. 10 Up to and 50 ,"Vooo screw No. J8 x J ~ in.

including 4
including 2
5 125 I> 12 21> 65 L"lgscrew%in. x 2 in.
6 150 3 80
8 200 31> 90
10 250 % 15 4 100 L"lg screw V2 in. x 2 in.
12 300 ¥. 20 5 125
6 150

8 200 L"lg screw % in. x 2 ill. Holes for bolts .shall not exceed ~6 in. (1.6 mm) Four Screw Ceiling Flanges
greater than the diameter of the bolt.
Up to and 50 ,,,,rood screw No. 18 x I ~ in. Bolts .shall be prmided "";111 a flat loVaShcr and nut. including 2
9.1.5 Fasteners in Wood.
21> 65 Lagsc~%in.x I~~in. Drhre ScN'ws. 3 80 Drive .screws .shall be used only in a horizontal posi- 31. 90
tion as in the side of a beam and ani), for 2 in. (50 mm) or
smaller piJX'.
4 100 Lag screw ~ in. x 2 in.
5 125 Ori·.c screW3 shall ani)' be wed in conjw1Ction ....; th 6 150
hangers that require two points of attachments.
8 200 Lag screw % in. x 2 ill. Ceiling Flanges and UHooks witb ScreW1t. UnlesJ the requiremen1.5 of9. or are U·Hooks
met. for cdling flanges and U-hooks. scra.- dimensions shall
not be le~ than those given in Table Up to and 50 Drive scrcw No. 16 x 2 in.
including 2 When the thiclme.s.s of planking and thiclme:s.s of
flange do not pennit the we of screws 2 in. (50 mm) long. 21> 65 Lag screw % in. x 2~ in.
screw! l~ in. (45 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers 3 80
spaced not OVeI" 10 ft (3 m) apart. 31> 90 When the of beams or joists does not per-
mit the use of screws 2lh in. (60 mm) long. sucvo"s 2 in.
4 100 lag screw ~ in. x 3 in.
(50 mm) longshall be permitted with hangen spaced not o\'er
5 125
lOft (3 m) apart.
6 150 Boh or Lag SCTeW. 8 200 lag screw ~il in. x 3 in. Unless the requirements of9. are me4 the w.c
of bolt or lag screv.· wed with a hanger and insl3.lled on the side of
the beam shall not be less than .specified in Table Holes for bol1.5 shall not exceed !Il6 in. (1.6 mm) Where the thic.kne~ of bearru or joists does 110t per- greater than the diameter of the bolt.
mit the use of scrCW3 2lh in. (64 mm) long, scrCYt"S 2 in. Rolts shall be provided with a Oat washe.r and nut.
(50 mm) longshall be permitted with hangen spaced not o\'er
10 ft (3 m) apart. Wood Screws. Wood scr~ shall be in.stalled with a
screwdriver. All holes for lag screws shall be pre-.drilled y~ in.
(3.2 mm) less in diameter than the ma..ximum root diameter Nnlls. Nails shall not be acceptable. for fastening
of the lag screw thread. hangers.

W2013 Edition

Table Minimum Bolt or Lag Screw Sizes for Side of Thble Minimum Plank ThiCknesSES and Beam or
Beam Installation J0;'" Wodlbs

LoDgtb of Lag Nominal

ScrewUoed Width of
Size of Bolt or witbWood Nominal Plank Beam or Joist
Pipe Size LagSerew Beams P'rpe Si.ze Thickness Face

m. mm ...

rom ...

mm in. mm 00. rom 'D. mm

Up to and 50 % 10 2~ 64 Up to and 50 3 76 2 50
including 2 including 2

2M! 6 65 to 150 ~ 12 3 76 2'A 65 4 102 2 50
3 80
8 200 'rio 15 3 76 3'A 90
4 100 4 102 3 76

9. ].5.6 StteWlI in Side ofTunber orJoists. Screws in the &ide of a timber or joist shall be not
)c,g than 2K in. (64 rom) from the lower edge where &uppon· Toggle hangcnshall be permined only for the&u~
ing branch line5 and not le5s than 3 in. (76 mm) where sup-
port of pipe 1 ~ in. (40 rom) or &maller in size under coliniP main lines.
of hollow tile or metal lath and plaster. The requirements of9. &hall not apply to 2 in. Storage Racb. Where &prinkler piping is installed in
(51 mm) or thic:kc:rnailing strips resting on top ofsted beamJ.
storage racks, piping shall be 5upportc:d from the storage rack. Coac:h Screw Rods. structure or building in accordance with all applicable provJ..
sions ofScctions 9.2 and 9.3. MiDimum CoaehStteW Rod Size.. The size of coach
$O"C'W row shall not be leas than the requirement:! of 9.2.1.'* Building StructUft!o.
9.2.1.'.1 Unlc:!'il!I the requiremenu of appl)~ .sprin-
kler piping shall be substantially .supported from the building
Table 1t{'mimurn Coac:h Screw Rod Size
structure, which mwl support the added load of the water-
filled pipe: plw a minimum of 250 Ib (114 kg) applied at the
Diameter of Minimum point of hanging, except where permitted b).,
Pipes;.., Rod Penetration 9.2.l.3.3, nnd
in. Inm ...

mm in. mm 9.2.1.'.2 Trapeze hanger.s .shall be wed where necessary
transfer loads to appropriate &tructural members.

Up tonnd 100 % 10 3 76
including 4 9.2.1.S.S* Flexible Sprinkler HOle Fittings.
9.2.1.'.3.1 Listed flexible sprinkler hOoSe fittings and their an.-
I..n<gc, than 4 100 NP NP NP NP choring components intended for usc in installations con-
NP: Not permitted.
necting the .sprinkler ~tc:m piping to .sprinklers shall be in-
stalled in accordance with the requirements of the listing.
including any installation instructions. The minimum plank thickness and the minimum
width of the lower face of beams or joists in which coach 9.2.1.'.3.2 Wben in.sta1led and supported by .swpended ceil-
screw rods are used .shall be not lem than that $pecified in ings, the ccilingshaU mectASTM C 635, Stondordspmjicooon
Table for tA~ MOllll!od'ur4, p,rjonnamce, ond TtfSti<ng of Metal Suspmsion
s,stnu for Acoustical Tile and J.a,-In Pam:l Cdlil¥:S. and shall be Coach 5O'e'W' rods shall not be wed for support of installed in accordance with ASTM C 636. Slandom Practiufor
pipes larger than 4 in. 000 mm) in diameter. Installation ofMrlal Ceiling Sw/Jell.sion SJ&tnM for Acoustirol Til4 All holes for coach screw rods shall be predrilled and 1A)-.fn Ponds.
~ in. (3.2 mm) less in diameter than the maximum root diarn·
9.2.1.'.S.S* Where flextble .sprinlder hose fitring.s exceed 6 ft
eter of the wood $crc:w thread. (1.83 m) in length and are rnpportcd by a .swpended ceiling
9.2*1n&tallation of Pipe Hangen. in accordance with, a hangcr(.s) attached to the
structure &hall be required to ensure that the maximum un-
9.2.1 Genotal. 5Upported length does not exceed 6 ft (1.83 m). Ceiling SheatlUng.* Where fleXIble sprinkler hose fittings are used to* Unlcm the requirements of9. are met, sprio. connect sprinkler:! to branch lines in nupended ceilings. a
klcr piping .shall be supportc:d independently of the ceiling labcllimiting relocation of the sprinkler shall be provided on
sheathing. the anchoring component.

2013 Edition W
1:1-102 INSTAllATION OF SPRJNKLER S\''STEfloIS Mem! Deck.* Minimum Number of Hangers. .• * Branch line hangcn; att..'lchcd to metal deck shall be Unless the requirements of through
pcnnittcd only for the: .support of pipe 1 in. (25 mm) or are met, there shall be not lC'ls than one hanger for
smaller in size. by drilling or punching the vertical portion of each section of pipe.
the metal deck and using through bolts.* Unle:s.s the requirements of9. are met. where
sprinkleu are spaced less than 6 ft (1.8 m) apart, hangeo The distance from the bottom of the bolt hole to
spaced up to a ma.'\":imum ofl2 ft (3.7 m) shall be permitted.
the bottom of the vertical member shall be: not less than % in.
(9.5 mm). For welded or mechanical outlets on a continu·
OlU section of pipe, hanger spacing shall be according to "''here sprinkler piping is in.stalled below ductwork. Table (a) 0' Table (b).
piping shall be supported from the building structure or from
the ductwork supports. provided such suppotl'l: aTC capable of* Starter lengths less than 6 ft (1.8 m) shall not re-
handling both the load of the ductwork and the load .specified quire a hanger. unlC'S5 on the end line of a sidefeed system or
in .....· here an intermediate cross main hanger has been omitted.* A single ",ection of pipe shall not require a hanger
9.2.2* Maximum Distance Between Hangers. when the cumulati~ distance between hangers on the branch The maximum distance between hangers shall not line doC'S not exceed the spacing required b)' Table (a)
exceed that specified in Table (a) or Table, and Table (b).
except where the provision.s of 9.2.4 apply. Clearance to Hangers. The distance between a hanger
and the centerline of an upright sprinkler shall not be le&s The maximum distance between hangers for listed
than 3 in. (76 mm).
nonmetallic pipe shall be modified as specified in the indi-
..idual product listings.* Unsupported Lengths.

9.2.3 Location of Hangers on Branch Lines. For steel pipe, the unsupported horizontal length
between the end sprinkler and the last hanger on the line shall Subsection 9.2.3 shall apply to the support of steel not be greater than 36 in. (0.9 m) for I in. (25 mm) pipe.
pipe or copper tube as specified in 6.3.1 and subject to the 48 in. (1.2 m) for I Y" in. (32 mm) pipe, and 60 in. (1.5 m) for
pro..isions of9.2.2. B~ in. (40 mm) or larger pipe.

Table (a) Maximum Distance Between Hangers (ft-tn.)

Nominal Pipe Size (in.)

y, 1 IV.. 11'1 2 2V2 3 31'1 4 5 6 8

Sted pipe except threaded NA 12-0 12-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0
Threaded light......all steel NA 12-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 NA NA NA NA NA
Copper w~ 8-0 8-0 Ill-O 10-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0
CPVC 5-6 6-0 f>.6 7-0 &-0 9-0 I~ NA NA NA NA NA
Ductile-iron pipe NA NA NA NA NA NA 15-0 NA 15-0 NA 15-0 15-0

NA: NOl appHcable.

Table (b) Maximum Distance Between Hangers (m-tnnl)

Nominal Pipe Size (mOl)

20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 200

Steel pipe except threaded NA 3.66 3.66 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57
Threaded lightwall sted NA 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 NA NA NA NA NA
Copper tube 2.44 2.44 3.05 3.05 3.66 3.66 3.66 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57
CPVC 1.68 1.83 1.98 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05 NA NA NA NA NA
Ductile-iron pipe NA NA NA NA NA NA 4.57 NA 4.57 NA 4.57 4.57

NA: NO! applicable.

W2013 Edition
HANGING. BRAQNG. AND RESTRAINT Of SYSTEM PIPING 1l-103 For coppeT tube, the ullsupported horizolltal For ecoss maitu in sted pipe S)'3tenu in ba)'S ha"ing
length between the end sprinkler and the last hanger on the two branc.h lines. the intennediate hange,r shall be pennitted
line shall not be greater than )8 in. (457 mm) for) in. to be omitted. provided that a hat1ger attached to a purlin is
(25 mm) pipe, 24 in. (6JO mm) for I y." in. (32 mm) pipe, and installed on each branch line located a5 ncar to the croSj main
30 in. (762 mm) for 1 ~ in. (40 mm) or larger pipe. as the location of the purl in permits. \Vhere the limits of and arc ex- The remaining branch line hangeu shall be in-
ceeded. the pipe shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler stalled in accordance with 9.2.3.
and shall be .supported b)" an adclitional hanger. For cr05S mains in steel pipe systems only in bay1 hav-· Unsupported ungth with Maximum Pressure Ex-
ing three branch lines. either side or center feed. one (only)
ceeding 100 psi (6.9 bar) and Branch Line Aho'~ Ceiling Sup- intennediate hanger shaD be pem1itted to be omitted. pre>
plying Sprinklers in Pendent Position Below Ceiling. vided that a hanger attached to a purlin is ilUL"liled on each 'Where the ma.ximuJn Marie or flowing pl"OSure. branch line located as near to the crOS! main a5 the location of
whichever is greater at the sprinkJCT. applied other than through the purlin permits.
the fire department connection. exceeds )00 (6.9 bar) and a
branch line abo,,""C a ceiling 5upplics.sprinklers in a pendent posi- The remaining br-anch line hangen shall be in-
tion below the ceiling. the hanger <WoiCTUbl)' supporting the pipe stalled in accordance with 9.2.3.
.suppl)ing an end .sprinkler in a pendent po.sition shall be of a For ct05S mains in steel pipe systems onl)' in bray3 hav-
type that pte'\'Cnts upward mo,-ement ofthe pipe. ing four or more branch lines. either side or center feed. two The unsupported length between the end sprin- intennecliate hangers shall be permitted to be omitted. pre>
kler in a pendent position or drop nipple and the last hanger vided the maximum distance between hangel'S docs not ex-
on the branc.h line shall not be greater than 12 in. (305 mm) ceed the distances .specified in 9.2.2 and a hanger attached to
for steel pipe or 6 in. (152 mm) for copper pipe. a purl in on each branch line is located as ncar to the cr05S
main as the purlin permits. \Vhen the limit of9. is exceeded. the pipe
shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and supported by At the end of the main. intennediate trapeze hangers
an additional hanger. shall be installed unless the main is extended to the next frnm-
ing member with a hanger imtalled at this point. in which The hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a e""ent an intermediate hat1ger shall be permitted to be omitted
t)"pe that prevents upward movement of the pipe. in accordance with and* Unsupported Armo,'er Length.* A single section of pipe shall not require a hanger The cumulati,,""C horizontal length of an unrupportecl when the cumulative distance between hanget5 on the main
amlO'o'Cr to a sprinkler, sprinklCT drop. or sprig shall not exceed docs not exceed the spacing required b)' Table (a) and
24 in. (610 mm) for sted pipe or 12 in. (305 mm) for copper Table (b).
9.2.5 Support of Risers.* Unsupported Armo,'er Length with Maximum P~­
sure Exceeding 100 psi (6.9 bar) and Branch line Above Ceil- RisCTS shall be supported b)' riser damps or by hangers
ing Supplying Sprinklers in Pendent Position Be.low Ceiling. locatC'd on the horizontal connections within 24 in. (610 rom) of
the centerline of the riser. Where the maximum static or flowing pre:56urc,
whichever is greater at the .sprinkler,. applied other than Riser damps supporting risers b)' means of set screws
through the fire department connection. exceeds 100 psi shall not be used.
(6.9 bar) and a branch line above a ceiling supplies sprinklers
in a pendent position below the ceiling. the cumulative hori-* Riser damps anchored to walls using hanger rods in
zontal length of an unsupported armover to a sprinkler or the horizontal position shall not be permitted to \'erticall)' sup-
sprinkler drop shall not exceed 12 in. (305 mm) for sted pipe port risers.
and 6 in. (152 mm) for copper tube. Multistory Buildings. The hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a
type: that prevents upward roO'o'ement of the pipe. In mtl1tistolJ buildings. riser supports shall be pre>
vided at the lowest level, at earn alten1ate level abo"'e, abO\!e* \\'aU-mounted sidewall sprinklenl shaU be restrained and below offsets, and at the top of the rise.r.
to prevent movement.* Supports above the lowest lC\·d shall also restrain Sprigs. Sprigs 4 ft (1.201) or longer shall be restrained
the pipe to prevent movement b)'all upward mnlSt flex-
against lateral mO'o'emenL
ible fittings arc wed.
9.2.4 Location of Hangers on Mains. 'Where risers are supported from the ground, the Unless the requirements of,,, ground suppon shall constitute the first level of riser support. or arc met. hangers for mains shall be in accor-
dance with 9.2.2, between each branch line. or on each 5Cction Whel"e ate offset or do not rise from the
of pipe, whichevC't is the le:56er dimension. ground, the first ceiling levd above the offsct shall constitu{c
the first 1C\·eI of riser supporL For welded or mechanical outlets on a continuous
section of pipe. hlmger spacing shall be according to Table Distance between supports for risers shall not exceed (a) or Table (b). 25 ft (7.601).

2013 Editicn W

9.2.6* Pipe Stands. (2)*On the vertical portion of the tie·in where the ue--in
. .
Incorporates a nscr Pipe Mands shall be sized to support a minimum of
fh-'"C times the "'""eight of the water·6l1cd pipe plus 250 Ib (114 kg).* Flexible Couplings for Drops. Flexible coupling' for
drops to hose lines, rack 'prinklers, mezzanine.'!, and free- The pipe stand base .shall be secured b}' an approved
I method.
'tanding stnacture.'! shall be: installed regardless of pipe siu.!! as
9.2.6.~ Whcrr pipC' ~tands arc urilittd.lhc),shall bc appro\"ed. (I) \\'ithin24 in. (610mm) of the top of the drop
9.3 Protection of Piping Against Dama~ "''here Subject to (2) \o\'ithin 24 in. (610 mm) above the uppennost drop sup·
'Earlhquak~s. port atbchment. where drop supports are provided to the
.stnlcture, rad. or mezzanine
9.3.1* General. (3) \\'ithin 24 in. (610 mm) above the bottom of the drop
whe.e no additional dl"Op support i.s p.ovided \¥here watcr·based fire protection 5)'stcms are re-
quired to be protected damage from earthquakes, the 9.3.3* Seismic Separation Assembly.
requirements of Section 9.3 shall apply, unless the require- An appmvc:d seismic separation assembl)·.shall be in·
ments of arc met.
stalled whe.e sprinkler piping, regardless of size. crosses build· Alternative: methods of providing earthquake: protec- ing seismic separation joinlS at goound level and above.
tion of sprinkler S)'3tems b=u:cd on a seismic anal)'3is certified Sei-smic separntion assemblies shall consist of flexible
by a I"cgistcred pl'"Ofc!6ional engineer such that system perfar·
fittings or flexible piping so as to allow mO'/ement rufficic:nt to
mancc ",,;11 be at least equal to that of the building stntcture
accommocL'lte closing of the separation, opening of the sepa-
unde. expccted seismic fo.ces shall be permitted.
ration to twice its nOlTTlal size. and mO\'ement relative to the Obstructions 10 Sprinklers. Braces and restraints shall separation in the other two dimensions in an amount equal to
not obstruct sprinklers and shall comply with the obstruction the separation distance.
nales of Chapter 8.* The seismic separation assembly shall include a four-
9.3.2* Couplings. way brace upstream and downstream within 6 ft. (1.8 m) of the
seismic .separation assembly. Listed flexible pipc couplings joining grooved end pipe
shalllKo provided as flexure joints to allOVw' indhidual se:ctions of Bracing shall not be: attached to the seismic separa-
piping2!-2 in. (65 mm) or larger to move differentiall)' with the tion assembly.
indnidual sections of the building to wh ich it is auached. 9.3.4* Clearance. Couplings shall be arranged to coincide with struc- Clearance shall be: prmided around all piping extend-
turalseparations within a building. ing through walls. floors, platfonns, and founcL'ltions. includ- Sptems ha\ing morcflexible couplings than required ing drains. fire department connections. and other auxiliary
by this section shall be pl"Ovided with additional no."ay bracing plpmg.
as requin:d in Unless the requirements of thoough
arc met, where pipe passes through holes in platforms. foun- The flexible couplings shall Ix: installed as folloW3:
dations, walls. or fioo.s, the holc:s shall be: sized such that the
(1 )*"Vithin 24 in. (610 mm) of the top and bottom ofall risen. diameter of the holes is nominally 2 in. (50 mm) larger than
unless the pl"Ovisions are met: the pipe for pipe I in. (25 mm) nominal to 3Y2 in. (90 mm)
(a) In risers less than 3 ft (0.9 m) in length, flexible cou- nominal and 4 in. (100 mm) large. than the pipe for pipe 4 in.
plings arc pennitted to be omiued. (100 mOl) nominal and large •.
(b) In risen 3 ft to 7 ft (0.9 m to 2.1 m) in length, one 'Where clearance is provided by a pipe sle(:"\.·e. 3. nomi-
Oexible coupling is adequate. nal diameter 2 in. (50 mm) larger than the nominal diametc.r
(2) Within 12in. (305mm) above and within 24 in. (610mm) of the pipe shall be: acceptable for pipe sizes 1 in. (25 mm)
bdow the Ooor in multistory buildings through 3~~ in. (90 mOl). and the clearance provided by a pipe
(3) On both sides of concrete or masonry walls within I ft sleeve of nominal diamete. 4 in. (100 mm) larger than the
(305 mm) of the waU surface. wlloros clearance is pl"O"ided nominal diamete. of the pipe shall be: acceptable for pipe sizes
in accordance with 9.3.4 4 in. (100 mm) and larga.
(4)*Within 24 in. (610 mm) of building expansion joints
(5) \\1ithin 24 in. (610 mm) of the top of drops exceeding No clearance shall be required for piping passing
15 ft (4.6 m) in length to portions of systems supplying through g),'P5wn board o. equally frangible construction that
more than one sprinkler, of pipe size is not required to have a fire resistance rating.
(6) Within 24 in. (610 mm) above and 24 in. (610 mm) below No clearance shall be required if flexible couplings
any intermediate points of support for a riser or other arc located within 1 ft (305 nun) of each side of a wall. Ooor.
vertical pipe platfoml, or foundation. When the fle:dble coupling below the floor is above No clearance shall be required where horizontal pip-
the tie-in main to the main suppl)ing that floor, a flexible COt... ing passes perpendicularl)' through succel\6ive .snlds or joists
piing shall be prmidcd in accordance with one of the foUowing: that form a wall or floor/ceiling assembly.
(I )... On the horizontal portion within 24 in. (610 mm) of the No clearance shall be required wherc nonmetallic
be·in where the tie--in is horizontal pipe has be:en demonstrated to h3\'(' inherent fle):ibilit)· equal

W2013 Edition

to or greater than the minimum provided b)' flexible cou- Table Allowable Horizontal Load on Brace
plings located within 1 ft (305 mm) of each side ofa wall, floor, Assemblaes Based on Weakest Component of BracE' Assembly
platfonn. or foundation. Where required. the clearance shall be filled with a Brace Angle Degrees
from Vertical AJJownble Horizontal Load
flexible material that is compatible v.;th the piping material. CleaI1lncc from structural mernbcn not penetI1lted 30 to 44 Listed load rating di\;ded by 2.000
or used. collecrivdy or independently. to support the piping 45 to 59 Listed load rating di\ided b)' 1.414
shall be at leas:t 2 in. (50 mm). 60 to S9 Listed load di\;ded b)' 1.155
90 Listed load rating No clearance shall be required where piping is sup-
ported by holes through .structural member:s ~ penniued by
9.3.5* SWll)' Bracing. Component Materinl. General. Unless pennilted by, components of swa)'
brace assemblies shall be ferrous. The S)'stem piping shall be braced to resist both
lateral and longitudinal horizontal seismic loads and to pre- Nonferrous components that have been proven b)'
...ent vertical motion r~ulting from seismic loads. fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application. that are
listed for this pUlpose. and that are in compliance with the The structural components to which bracing is at-
other r~quirementsof this section shall be acceptable.
tached shall be detennined to be capable of resisting the
added applied .seismic loads. Sway Bmcing Design.* Horizontal loads on .system piping shall be deter- Sway braces simi I be dc.signed to withstand forces in
mined in accordance v.;th teruion and compression. unless th~ requirements of9.
arc met.* A .shared support structure .shall be pennitted to
support both the grnvit)'loads adclre.ssed in and the* Tension-onl}' bracing S)' shall bc permitted for
.seismic loads addressed in we where listed for this sen.;ce and where installed in accor-
dance with their listing limitations. including installation in- When a shared support .structure is used to sup-
port grnvit)· and seismic loads. the structure shall be designed
to support these loads for all pipe and distribution s}"Stems on For all braces. whether or notlistcd. the ma.'l:.imum
the structure wing either or with an impor- allowable load shall be based on the weakest component of
tance factor. Jp. of 1.5 being applied to all of the distribution the brace with safet}' factors.
systems. Laternl Sway Bracing.* If a shared support structure is used to support* Lateral SW3)' bracing shall be provided on all feed
sprinkler pipe and other distribution s)"Stems per and
and cros.s maim regardless of size and all branch lines and
that structure docs not pro\<;de seismic resistance as required
other piping with a diameter of2~ in. (65 mm) and larger.
in the following shall be met: 'W'here branch lines are not prm;ded with lateral
(I) The sprinkler pipe shall bc braced wing the method in
swa)' bracing, the)' shall be pro'\ided with restraint in accor- v.;th the zone of influence including the water-
dance with 9.3.6.
filled sprinkler pipe and all othcr distribution s)'Stems that
are not indcpendcntl)· equipp~d with scisrrnc protection 2*1...:lteral s\Va)' bl-acing shall be in accordance with either
and attached to the shared support structure. Tabl<, (b), (c), (d), or «), or, ba.ed on .he
(2) The sprinkler sway bracing attachment shall be con- piping material of the sprinkler s)'Stem.
nected to th~ same building or structure as the shared Specially listed nonstandard pipe shall bc pennit-
support structure.
ted using the \-alues in Table or with values pro- Bracing requirements of 9.3.5 shall not appl)' to vided by the manufacturcr.
drain piping downstream of the drain valve. Spacing shall not cxc~ed a ma.-umum inter..'al of Listing. 40 ft (12.2 m) on center. S...." 3)' bracing assemblies shall be listed for a maxi- The maximum permissible load in the zone of
mum load rating. unless the requirements of9. are met. influence of a sway brace shall not exceed the wlues given in
Table (a) through Table (e) or the values cal- \Vhere sway bracing utilizing pipe, angles, flats,. or
culated in accordance with
rods as shown in Table, Table 9.3.5. I 1.8(b) , and
Table (c) is used, the component'> shall not require The ma.ximum load (F.-) in the zone of lnfluence
listing. for specially listed pipe shall be calculated. (SuAnlllx E.) Bracing fittings and conncctions used with those The requirement:; of9. shall notappl)' to 2~in.
specific materials shall be listed. (65 mm) .starter piece> that do 110t exceed 12 ft (3.66 m) in
length. TIle loads shall bc reduced as shown in Table
for installations where the brace is less than 90 degrees from ver- TIle distance between the last brace and the end of
tical. the pipe shall not exceed 6 £t (I.S m).

2013 Editicn W

Table Maximum Load (Fe"') in ZODe of Table Maxinnun LoAd (Fe.,J in Zone of
Influence (Ib): (F,. = 30 ksi) Sdledule 10 Steel Pipe Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Schedule 5 Steel Pipe

ute-ral Sway Brace Spacing (rt)1lI lAteral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a

Pipe (in.) 20b 25b 30< 35" 40· Pipe (in.) 2rJ' 25 b 3(f S5< 40"
I III 89 n 63 52 I 71 56 46 40 33
l!1.a 176 141 116 99 83 IY. 116 93 76 65 55
II> 241 193 158 136 114 Iii. 154 124 101 87 73
2 390 312 256 219 183 2 246 197 161 138 116
21> 641 513 420 360 301 21i. 459 367 301 258 216
3 966 773 633 543 454 3 691 552 453 388 325
31> 1281 1025 840 720 603 31i. 910 728 597 511 428
4 1634 1307 1071 918 769 4< 1160 928 760 652 546
5 2814 2251 1844 1581 1324
I 6 and largcrC 4039 3231 2647 2269 1900 NOle:ASTM:A 106 Gl<lde B orASl"MA 53 Gr.lde B has an J;= 35 bi.
An F, = SO w:.l!o used also as :\ consen'au\'e mlue to account for
NOfe: ASTM A l06Grade B or ASThtA 53 Grade B has an F, = 35 lsi. differences i n material propertia as well a!l olher operational stresses.
An F, = 30 k:5.i was used aI'SO a5 a consc£'o'ui\'(' \<I1ue to account for '"llle rabies for Ihe mmtimum load. F, ... in zone ofinnuence are based
differences in material properties as well 35 olher operational Sf ~!>. on specific configurations of maim and branch linu.
:OThe tables for the maximum load. F~. in zone ofinfiuence are based b .-USumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each supporr.
on specific configurations of mains and branch IinC5. c ASSUIne3 branch lines at Ihird-poinu of pipe span and near each

"A~ume!> branch lines at eenle.. of pipe span and near each support. support.
C AMumes branch lines at lhird-points of pipe span and near each Ii Assumes branch lines al quarter-points of pipe .span and Ilear each
suppon. suppon.
d AMltmC5 branch Jines ,u quaner-poims of pipe span and near c:lch • urger diameter pipe can be UM'd when jmlified by engineering
support. anaI)'Si.!>.
• Larger diameter pipe can be med when justified by engineering
Table Maximum Load (F,~..) in Zone of
Influence (lb), (Fy = 8 hi) CPVC P"lpe
Table Maximum Load (FJ>'.) in Zone of
lAteral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
Influence (Ib), (~.= 30 ksi) Sd1edule 40 Steel Pipe
Pipe (in.) 2rJ' 25 b 30" 35< 40·
Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (fc)1O
b b
¥. 15 12 10 8 7
Pipe (in.) 20 25 30< 35' 40" I 28 22 18 15 13
IY. 56 45 37 30 26
I 121 97 79 68 57 Iii. 83 67 55 45 39
Iv. 214 171 140 120 100 2 161 129 105 87 76
II> 306 245 201 172 144 21i. 286 229 188 154 135
2 520 416 341 292 245 3 516 413 338 278 243
21> 984 787 645 553 463
3 1597 1278 1047 897 751 '"TIle lables for the maximllln load. F, ... in zone ofinnuence are based
31> 2219 1775 1455 1247 1044 on specific configurations of maim and branch linu.
4 2981 2385 1954 1675 1402 b Assumes branch lines al cenler of pipe span and near each suppon
5 5061 4049 3317 2843 2381 C Assumes branch lines at. lhird-poinu of pipe span and near each

I 6 and largere 7893 6314 5173 4434 3713 suppan.

Ii A~umes branch lines al quarter-poiOls of pipe span and near each
Note: ASJ1o.f A 106 Grade B or ASTht A 53 Grade B has an J; = 35 tM. .support.
An F, = 30 kM was used also as a coweryatiye ..-alue lD account for
differences in mareriaJ properties as well a.s other operaJ.ional StI"e5M!S.
'"The lable» for the maximum load. F,.... in zone ofinnuence are based
on specific confIgur..llions of mains and branch lines. •
b A~umes branch lines al center of pipe span and near each ~UPP0rL Where there is a change in direction of the piping.
~ ~lImes branch lines at Ihird-points of pipe span and near each the cumulative distance between consecutive lateral SW3-)'
suppon. brncc.s shall not exceed the ma..c imum permitted di.smnce in
d •.ustlm~ branch Lines al quaner-poin~ of pipe span and near each accorcl'lnce with
support. TIle last I(~ngth of pipe at the end of a feed or cross
• urger diameter pipe can be med when justifIed by engineering main shall be prO\,;ded with a lateral brace.
analysis. latera.l braces shall be allowed to act as longitudinal
bracc.s ifthc)' arc wilhin 24 in. (610 mm) of the centerline of the
piping braced longitudinally and the lateral brace is on a pipe of
equal or greater si7.c than the pipc being braced longitudina.1l}:

W2013 Edition

Table Maximum Load (F,...) in Zone or Swny Bracing of Ris~rs.
JnfIuenc~ (Ib), (F... = 30 bi) Typ~ 1\1 Coppel'" Tube (with*Tops of risers exceeding 3 £t (l m) in length shall be
Soldered Joints) .
provided with a four-way brace.
uternl Sway Brnce Spacing (ft)1lI Riser nipples shall bt permitted to omit the four-
w<rf brace required by
Pipe (in.) 2ri' 25" 30" 35' 40" \\i'hen a four-wa)' brace at the top of a ruer is at-
y. tached on the horizontal piping. it shaH be within 24 in.
16 13 10 9 8
1 29 24 19 16 14 (610 mm) of the centerline of the ruer and the loads for that
Iv.. 53 42 35 28 25 brace shall include both the \-'ertical and horizontal pipe.
Ill> 86 69 56 46 41 Distance between four-way braces for risers shall not
2' 180 144 118 9i 85 exceed 25 £t (7.6 m).

a The tables for lhe m:L'<imum lo:K1. Fpu. in zone of influence are based Four-way bracing .shall not be required where risers
on ~pecific configurations of and branch line~. penetrate intermediate floor.! in multistory buildings where
b Assumes branch lines at center of pipe SJEn and near suppa". the clearance docs not exceed the limit!! of9.3.4.
c A'§5ume~ branch lines at third-points of pipe ~pan and nror each* Horizontal SeLsmic Loads.
d A~ume5 branch lines 3t quaner-poinu of pipe span md near each* The horizonta.lseasmic load for the braces shall be
support. as determined in or, or as required by the
• l...:u'ger diameter pipe can be u!ed when justified by engineering 3uthorit)· havingjurudiction.
anal)""Sis. The weight of the s)'stem being braced (WI') shall be
taken as 1.15 rimes the weight of the \'o'3.ter-filled piping. (Sn
• "\'bere flexible couplings arc ilUtalled on mains The horizont3l force, F/"<>,' acting on the brace shall be
other than as required in 9.3.2. a lateral brace shall be pro- taken as F,.,= C, W where Cp is the seismic coefficient selected in
vided within 24 in. (610 mm) of every other coupling. includ- Ih.ble utirizing the .short period response parameter. S,.
ing flexible couplings at grooved fitting.s. but not more than
40 ft (12.2 m) on center. Table S~ilmlic Coe£fici~nt Table* The requirements of .shall not apply to

pipes individuall)·.supported b)' rods less than 6 in. (152 mm) s, C,
long mea-Sw-ed bttween the top of the pipe and the point of
attachment to the building struchtre. 0.33 or less 0.35
0.40 0.38 The requirements of .shall not apply 0.50 0.40
where V-type hooks of the WTaparound type or those V-type 0.60 0.42
hooks arranged to keep the pipe tight to the unde:r.side of 0.70 0.42
the structural element shall be permitted to be used to .sat- 0.75 0.42
isf)' the requiremenu. for lateral swa)' bracing, provided the 0.80 0.44
legs are bent out at least 30 degrees from the venical and 0.90 0.48
the maximum length of each leg and the rod .size .satisfies 0.95 0.50
the conditions of Table Table (b), 1.00 0.51
1.10 0.54
and Table
1.20 0.57 Longitudinal Sway Bracing. 1.25 0.58
UO 0.61 J Longitudinal swa)' bracing spaced at a ma.ximum of 1.40 0.65
80 ft (24.4 m) on center shall be provided for feed and cros.s 1.50 O.iO
malns. 1.60 0.i5
l.iO 0.i9 Longitudinal bracC5shall be allowed to act as late:T3.1 1.75 0.82
braces if they arc within 24 in. (610 mm) of the centerline of 1.80 0.84
the piping braced laterall),. 1.90 0.89 The distance between the last. brace and the end of 2.00 0.93
the pipe: or a change in direction shall not exceed 40 ft (12.2 m). 2.10 0.98
2.20 1.03 Pipe with Change(..) in Di~ction. 2.30 1.0i
2.40 1.12 Each nm of pipe between changes in direction shall 2.50 l.Ii
be provided with both lateral and longitudinal bracing. unless 2.60 1.21
the requirement:5: of9. are met. 2.70 1.26
2.80 1.31· Pipe urns less than 12 ft (3.7 m) in length shall be 2.90 1.35
permitted to be supported by the braces on adjacent runs of 3.00 1.40

2013 Editlcn W
1$-108 INSTAllATION OFSPRJNKLER SYSTEMS The value of S, used in Table shall be For indi".idual braces. the slenderne!">.'> ratio (llr)
obtained from the authority having jurisdiction or from seis- shall not exceed 300, where I is the le,ngth of dle brac.e and ris
mic hazard maps. the least radius of gyration.* Linear interpolation shaJllx: pcnnincd to be wed Where threaded pipe is used as part of a !Way brace
for intermediate values of 5.. _ assembly, it-5hall not be less than Schedule 30.* The horizontal force. F,.... acting on the brace shall All parlS and fittings of a brace shaJllie in a straight
be permitted to be dctcnnincd In accordance with Section line to avoid eccentric loadings on fittings and fastenen.
13.3.1 of SEllASCE 7, "'·fill;lIUl1R./Rsign Loads of Buildings and
Othel" Stnutll1~S, multiplied b)" O. i to convert to allowable stress For longitudinal braces onl,.·, the brace shall be
de>;gn (ASD). pennitted to be conllected to a tab welded to the pipe in con·
fonnance to 6.5.2.* Where data for dctennining C, arc not a\wlablc.
the horizontal seismic force acting on the braces shall be de- 7 For ten.sion-onl,. braces. two ten.sion~onl)' brace
tcnnincd as :specified in with C$' = 0.5. components opposing each other must be installed at each
lateral or longitudinal brace location.* The zone of influence fOT lalera) braCe!> shall in·* The loads determined in shall not exceed
elude all branch lines and mains tribut:a.rJ to the brace. except
branch lines that arc provided with longitudinal bracing or as thc laser of the maximum alloW3.ble loads provided in
pl"ohibited b)" Table 1.8 (a). Table 1.8(b). and Table 1.8(c)
or the manufacturer'.s certified maximum a1lov.-able horizontal· When riser nipples arc prO\ided in systems reqllir~ loads for brace angles of30 to 44 degrees, 45 to 59 degrees. 60 to
ing .seismic protecrion and arc longer than 4 ft (1.2 m). the 89 degrees. or 90 degrees.
weight of the water-filled branch line pipe in the zone of influ-
ence (W,) as defined by including the length of the* Other pipt: schedules and materials not specifi-
riser nipple. multiplied b)' the .seismic coefficient (c;.). and by cally included in Table 9.3.5.I1.8(a). Table,
the height of the riser nipple (H,J. di..ided by the .section and Table shall be permitted to be used if cer-
modulu.s (5) of the riser nipple piping shall not meet or ex- tified b)' a registered profes.sional engineer to support the
ceed the )ield strength (F;) of the riser nipple piping. If the loads determined in accordance with the criteria in the
calculated value is equal to or greater than the yield strength tables.
01" the riser nipple, the longitudinal sei.smic load of each line Calculations shall be submitted where required
shall be evaluated indi..idllall)" and branch lines .shall be pro- b)' the authority ha..ingjurisdiction.
..ided "";th longitudinal 9H3)" bracing per Ctype clamps including beam and large flange
( H.W.C) clamps, with or without restraining straps. shall not be used to
• ~ , 't!:. F attach braces to the building !>lructure.
S ' Powder-dri~n fasteners shall not be used to at-
where: tach braces to the building structure. tmles.s they are specifi-
H. = length of riser nipple piping (in inches) call,. listed for service in resisting lateral loads in areas subject
WI> = tributary weight (in potmds) for the branch line to earthquakes.
or portion of branch line within the zone of
influence including the mer nipple 9.3.5.]2· Fasteners.
C = seismic coefficient· For individual fasteners. the loads determined
S = sectional modulus of the riser nipple pipe
in shall not exceed the allowable loads provided in
S = allowable }ield .strength of 30.000 psi for steel,
30.000 psi for copper (soldered), 8000 psi for
CPIIC 9.3.5. ]2.2 The l)pe: of fastener.; wed to secure tht: bracing
assembl,. to the stn.tcture shall be limited to those shown in lfthC' calculated value is equal to or than the
Figt.U"e or to Iiste:d devices.
)idd strength of the ruer nipple, the longitudinal seismic load of
each line shall be c=o.'a1uar.ed indi\iduallyand brnnch lines shall be 9.3.5. ]2.3· For connections to wood. through-bolts with wash-
prO\ided with longitudinal swa)' bracing per ers on each end .shall be ust:d.. tUlless the requirements of are mt:L The zone=: of influence for longitudinal braces shall
include all mains tributary 10 the brace. 9.3.5.]2.4 ,",'here it is not practical to install through-bolu
due to the thickness of the wood member in exce!">.'> of 12 in. Net '~rtical Reaction Forces. \\lhe=:re the: horizontal
(305 mOl) or inaccessibility. lag screws shall be permitted and
selsmic loads we:d exceed 0.5 \,,~ and the brace angle is Ie!">.'>
holes shall be pre-drilled % in. (3.2 mOl) smaller than the
than 45 degrees from vertical or where the: horizontal seismic
maximum root diameter of the lag scrC'W.
load exct:eds 1.0 W.. and the brace angle is less than 60 degrees
from vertical. the braces shall be arrangc=d to resist the net 9.3.5. ]2.5 Holes for through-bolts and similar Ii.sted auaeh-
\''Crtical reaction produced by the horizontal load. mellts shall be 1..16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than tht: diameter of
the bolt.* SW8)' Brace ]n~tallatioD. The requiremenu of shall not apply to
9.3.5.n.l Bracing shall be atta.ched directly 10 the S)'3tem
other fastening methods, which shall be acceptable for we if
1 pipe. certified by a rcgistered professional c=ngi.neer to support thc Sway bracing shall be tighL loads detennjned in accordance wiUl the criteria in

W2013 Edition

Table 9.3.5. 11.8(a) Maximum Hom:olltalloacb for Sway Bnces with 1/,. = 100 for Steel Braces with F, = 36 ksi
Maximum Hori.zontal Load (lb)

Ma>cimum Lengtb
Least for I/r= 100 Brace Angle
of 30" to 440 45° to 59'" GO" to 90°
Area Gyration Angle from Angle from Angle from
Broce Shape and Size (in.) (m.') Irl (io.) ft ".. Vertical Vertical Vertical

Pipe I 0.494 0.421 3 6 3,150 4,455 5,456

Schedule 40 114 0.669 0.540 4 6 4,266 6,033 7,389
Iii 0.799 0.623 5 2 5,095 7,206 8,825
2 1.07 0.787 6 6 6,823 9,650 11,818

AngleJ: l~xl~x~ 0.688 0.292 2 5 4,387 6,205 7,599

2x2xJA 0.938 0.891 3 3 5,982 8,459 10,360
2Mt x 2 x14 1.06 0.424 3 6 6,760 9,560 11,708
2~x2~x~ 1.19 0.491 4 I 7,58!l 10,732 13,144
3x2~x ~ Ull 0.528 4 4 8,354 11,814 14,469
3x3x!4 1.44 0.592 4 II 9,183 12,987 15,005

Rods 0.07 0.075 0 7 446 631 773

(all thread) *'Ii 0.129 0.101 0 10 823 1,163 1,425
1lI 0.207 0.128 I 0 1,320 1,867 2,286
~ 0.309 0.157 I 3 1,970 2,787 3,413
'lfl 0.429 0.185 I 6 2,756 3,869 4,738

Rods 0.11 0.094 0 9 701 002 1,215

(threaded at *'Ii 0.196 0.125 I 0 1,250 1,768 2,165
ends only) 1lI 0.307 0.156 I 3 1,958 2,769 3,391
~ 0.442 0.188 I 6 2,819 3,986 4,882
III 0.601 0.219 1 9 3,858 5,420 6,638

Fla... IM!x!4 0.375 0.0722 0 7 2,391 3,382 4,142

2 x JA 0.5 0.0722 0 7 3,189 4,509 5,523
2x *' 0.75 0.1082 0 10 4,783 6,764 8,264 Cakulations shall be submitted where required (3) No. 12,440 Ib (200 kg) wire ;nstnIled at least 45 degrees
by the authority having jurisdiction. from the vertical plane and anchored on both sides of the
pipe ConereteAnchora.
I (4) CPVC hangers utilizing two pointll of attachment· Concrete anchors shall be prequalified for .seis- (5)*Hanger not leu than 45 degrees from ,-crtical installed
mic applications in aceordancewith ACI 355.2, Q}1a/iji.cahen of within 6 in. (152 mm) of the vertical hanger arranged for
Post~/kdMt'Chan;c6lA11chors in Conamolld CotlU1Imfory. and restraint against upward movement, provided it i.s utilized
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. such that liT does not exceed 400, where the rod shall
extend to the pipe or have 3 surge clip installed Concrete anehon other than those shown in Ftg-
(6) Other approved mcana
ure shall be acceptable for we where designed in
accordance with the requirements of the building code and '\lre ReoUaint
certified by a registered profeuional engineer.
• Brace5 to Buildings with Differential Mo'oemeot. A Wire wed for restraint shall be located within 2 ft
(610 mm) ofa hanger.
length of pipe shall not be braced to sectiON of the building
that will move differentially. The hanger closest to a wire re.straint shall be of a
9.3.6 Reetraint ofBrancb Linl'8. type that resists upward mo\>'Cment of a branch line. Restraint is considered a lesser degree of TC!:i.sting The end sprinkler on a branch line shall be re-
loads than bracing and shall be provided by we of one of the strained.
following: Branch lines shall be laterally restrained at intervals
(1) Listed sway brace assembly not exceeding those specified in Table or
(2) Wraparound U-hook satisfying the requiremenm of Table based on branch line diameter and the value of C,.

2013 Edition W

Table Maximum Horizontal Loads for ~"'Y Braces with flr= 200 for Steel Braces with ~ ='6 bi

Maximum HorizontAl 1.ond (Ib)

Maximum Length for

I/r= 200 Brace Angle
Radius of 30" to 440 45° to 59" 600 to 90°

Broce Shapt' and Si.ze (in.)

Gyration (r)
(in. ) It ... Angle from
Angle from
Angle from

Pipe I 0.494 0.421 7 0 926 1310 1604

Schedule 40 11.4 0.669 0.540 9 0 1254 1774 2173
Ph 0.799 0.623 10 4 1498 2119 2595
2 1.07 0.787 13 I 2006 2837 3475

Angles J1hxPhx~ 0.688 0.202 4 10 1290 1824 2234

2x2xY4 0.938 0.391 6 6 1i59 2487 3046
2 1hx2x Yt 1.06 0.424 7 0 1988 2811 3442
2!;i x 2!,.i x ~ 1.19 0.491 8 2 2231 3155 3865
.3 x 2~ x Y.. 1.31 0.528 8 9 2456 3474 4254
3x3xY., 1.44 0.592 9 10 2700 3818 4677

Rods % 0.07 0.075 I 2 131 186 227

(all thread)
'h 0.129
O. I 0 I
~ 0.809
O. I 85

Rods % 0.11 0.094 I 6 206 292 857

(threaded at
ends ani)') ..
'h 0.196
~ 0.442

FlalS Ph x l.4 0.375 0.0722 I 2 708 994 1218

2x ~ 0.5 0.0722 I 2 938 1826 1624
2x% 0.75 0.1082 I 9 1406 1989 2486 \o\'berc:: the branch lin~ are .supported by rods less for pipe diameters 8 in. (200 mm) or les.'S and 14 gauge
than 6 in. (152 mm) long measured ~tw"ccn the top of the (1.98 mm) thickness and not less than 1!4 in. (31.7 mm) wide
pi~ and the point of attachment to the building 51nlcture. for pipe diameters greater than 8 in. (200 mm).
the requirements of through shall not apply
and additional restraint shall not ~ required for the branch The restraining stmp shall wrap around the beam
line5. flange not less than I in. (25.4 mm).* Sprigs 4 ft (1.2 m) or longer shall be re5trained A lock nut on a Ct)'pe damp shall not be u..sed as a
agaiwt taternl movemenL mcthod of restrainL

9.3.6. 7 Dmps and arm oven shall not require restrainL A lip on a "C" or "Z" purlin shaD not be wed as a
method of restntinl.
9.3.7 Hangen; and Fnstel:aers Subject to Earthquakes. \....11el'"l= seismic pl'"Otection is provided. Ct)pe: clamps VVhere purl ins or beams do not provide a secure lip to
(including beam and large: flange clamps) used to attach a restraining strap. the strap shaD be through*boltcd or se-
hangers to the building strl.tcntre shall be equipped with a cured by a sdf*tapping screw.
restraining strap unless the pmvisions ofQ.S.7 .1.1 are satisfied. In areas where the horizontal force factor excecds As an altemative to the ilUullation ofa required 0.50 \o~, powder*driven studs shall be pennittcd to attach
restraining strap, a device i n"-estigated and specifically listed to hangers to the=: building stnIcturc where=: they arc spccificalty
restmin the clamp to the stn.!cture is permitted where the in* listed for we in areas subject to earthquakes.
tcnt ofthc dcvice is to resist thcworst*case expected horizontal \Vhcrc scismic protection is provided. concrctc an*
chors wed to securc hangcrs to the building SlrUCtUI'C shall be The restraining strap shall be listed for use with a in accordance with ACt 355.2, Qualifualioll ofPost-lmtall£d MI:-
Ctype clamp or shall be a stcd strap of not less than 16 gauge chouical AlIl~hors in C01U7rtl: and COnWIl'1ltary, and installed in
(1.57 mm) thickne.n and not les.'S than 1 in. (25.4 mm) widc accordance with manufacturcr's instructions.

til 2013 Editbn


Table 9.S.5.11.8(c) :Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 300 for Steel Braces with ~= 36 bi

Maximum Horizontal Load (Ib)

Maximum Length
l/r= llOO Brace Angle

LeutRadius SO" to 44" 45 0 to 59" 60 0 to goo

Area of Gyration Angie from Angle from Angle from
Braoo Shape and Size (in.) [LD.") (r) (io.) ft in. Vertical Vertical Vertical

Pipe 1 0.494 0.421 10 6 412 582 718

Schedule 40 1\4 0.669 0..540 18 6 558 788 966
1~ 0.799 0.628 IS 6 666 942 1158
2 1.07 0.787 19 8 892 1261 1544

Angles l~xl~x\4 0.688 0.292 7 8 573 811 998

2 x2 x \4 0.988 0.891 9 9 782 1105 1854
2~x2 x ~ 1.06 0.424 10 7 883 1249 1580
2~x2'hx ~ 1.19 0.491 12 3 992 1402 1718
3x2~x ~ 1.81 0..528 18 2 1092 1544 1891
3x3x~ 1.44 0..592 14 9 1200 1697 2078

Rod. % 0.07 0.075 1 10 58 82 101

(all thread) ~ 0.129 0.101 2 6 108 152 186
% 0.207 0.128 8 2 173 244 299

Rod. % 0.11 0.004 2 4 92 180 159

(threaded at ~ 0.196 0.125 8 1 168 281 288
end" only) % 0.llO7 0.156 8 10 256 852 448

*% 0.442

Fl... l~x JA 0.875 0.0722 I 9 818 442 541

2 x!l4 0.5 0.0722 1 9 417 589 722
2x *' 0.75 0.1082 2 8 625 884 1088

2013 Edition til


() Minimumfour
fastener diameters
- --i<==::::::/. tz:.-----;;:::::---::;
but notand
depth <%beam
Fastener <3 in. (76 mm) for
L olientation Angle G, H, or 1 YIo'ClOd beams
Angle G, H, or I
Angle A. 8. or C Angle G = 30" to 44'
Angle H = 4S" to 59'
Angle A = W to 4.40 Angle 1 = 60' to 90"'
Angle 8 = 45" to 690
Angle C -- 60) to g(p Load Paral~ 10 Struc:tUrBl Member
Wed;Je Pn::h:Irs in 3OCX'J ~i Li ~llU_Ci'9:ked Ccn::rete
~ Minimum DSmEn9r Ernl:$dmMt

of beam but not
11 ,
(in.) A B C 0 E F G H
110 20S 410 '36 :llS 191 S9S 4912 SOl

'- I-
<3 in. (76 mm)
for woocl beams
11 ,
3'. '45 JI51 970 5Sll 457 42S 1021 1239 13S8
344 SSI 14()S 'ff SSI 597 15S9 187S 2055
E, ex F Angle D. E, or F
11 ,'. 44S 959 IB39 101>1 959 n4 :ll7' 270S ,,'"
Angle D = 3Wto 44" W903e hl::hCfS n 4000 psi NCfIT\1l1 WEoigtrl Cra::ked CCflcrete
Angle E = 4S' to 59'> Dia.matEf" Embedment
Angle F = 60) to 90> (in.) On.) A B C 0 E F G H I
load Perpendicular to Structural Member % 2 ISS 342 roo 34S 342 :141 473 616 7ff
'NedQ8AnchcfS in 3XlOP!lil~htwel'Jht Concrete·RIIed MetaJ C\:lclti"l;j
% ,
3'. 443 797 1m '52 797 7S9 1264 1616 1842
627 1147 21gB 126' 1147 II>l8 1000 2613 2843
OiamlJter Eml:edrrent % ,%
(in.) ~n.) A B C 0 E F G H I "6 1496 2Il91 1668 1496 '14 265' 3339 :mO
2 Wed~ AnchOI8 in 0000 !lsi Normal Wei3ht Cra.cbld Concrete

% 116 216 420

% ,
3'. 2f5 406 826 -
369 673 1282 -
- -
- -
A B C 0 E F G H
4()2 4912 648 754
232 3901 661 381
W9dJ9 Mcrorsin 0000 pai Ilormlll Weti!ti CraU.9:l Conaete "
Yo ,Y., ""
1649 IlSI 926 916 1326 1720 1979
Demeter Embllltn9l'1
(n.) (n.) A B C 0 E F G H I
"•• ,Y.
750 1344 2474 1426 1:144 1300 2102 26S4 3ffr7
976 f756 3261 175. 1S91 2807 35'7 4l>l9
" 2 173 306 557 321 308 301 4S8 591 6'"
Yo >Y.
,391 713 13S8 764 713 61' 1215 1537 1741 Conn9:tKlR!lto S1BE4 [Vaues lwIums Bdt ~ daJar to Uoumnll Slriace)

"•• ...
SS3 1021 2tal 1159 1021 1lS6 1004 237' 2671
717 1332 2638 152' 1332 1243 2536 3155 3S37
llama's of Unfnished ~!kIt ~n.}
A B C 0 E F G H I A BI c I 0 E F G H I
lh:lercut hlchm n 300J p.g NcnrBl Wailtrt Concnlta
400 500 '00 '"0 roo <Sl ". 4S8 S6S 1110 1200 14lXl 9)) 1200 1S!ll 73S 1006 1278
Damet81 Embed'nert
, ""
(n.) A B C 0 E F G H I
ff06 1714 9Il9 1106 11a7 1171 1611 '849 'h
[lema's of UnlilishBd SBEl Betl (tn.)
"Yo 5 855 1479 2552 un 1479 148:! 1975 582 2668 A B C I 0 I ElF G H I A B I C DIE I F G H I
,B50 1300 IB30 '260 2045 2880 3557
" 7\\ 153 3875 2121 2nl111997 3022 3302 447'
"'" '00
""" 25fll 1450

Throultl&ls in SaM'llu'n1:et or Glua-laminlll:edTi'nbnllce:l Pero£n:li:lJlar to Grainl

3300 22'"
Bolt Diameter fin.l

lerglh of
Bolt in
A B C 0
E F G H I A B C 0
E F G H I A B C 0

TiIT'baI 1~ 115 IGS "'0 '35 230 395 '30 215 310 135 IIll 236 155 270 460 155 255 '00 150 210 270 100 310 53J170 300 450
2'. 14() 200 210 '60 280 480 165 27S 410 100 215 260 185 320 550 100 495 180 255 310 205 360 615 215 365 615
175 250 305 200 300 600 200 330 485 200
- - - - - - - - - 200
295 :l4S 230
306 495 325
400 6.. 235 405 635 "'" ,'"
310 380 2SS
560 560 315 SIS 735 310 '4() 535 '00
440 750 260
620 ICllS 300
4S5 7'!JJ
610 925
Lag Saews and Laa Bolts in Wood tLolld Perperdi:1Jwto Gran - HOBs Pllldrlled Using Good Practica)

lag !bit Diameter (in.)
11 'A
A B C 0 E F G H I A B C 0 E F G H I A B C 0 E F G H I
"""'" of
Bol'" 3'. 165 100 200 170 220 310 00 l:ll 170 -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
"% 180 200 "'0 17S 235 350 00 I'" 170 300 355 38J 315 400 550 145 ~ 325 - - - - - - - - -
245 380 00 l:ll 170 3:ll 370 38J 420 610 145 ~ 325 43S 525 550 425 550 ns
"'0 17S
:ll0 17S 250 400 00 I'" "'"
170 340 375 38J 325 43S GSO 145 ~ 325 46S 640 550 430 570 B40
Spacif.::: G-Bmy cf Woo:!
IllS 320 480
IllS 320 480
N«e:W(lOd hsl:enll( maxmum caprityvaJUll8 ate bBSed cn2001 NafunaJ D96i11l Specificancns (NOS) fa' WIXId with a
&pElcili::gamy dO.$. ValuElll f« ctnE(type$ 01 WIXId can be cttained by mUtipiying the EO:r.oe vaJuElll byfhe ~lc:whi:I fadora: o.36lhruO.49 1.17
0.&3 ItwO.$5 125
F« 51 valU9S. 1in. = 26.4 mm.