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OUTPUT FEEDBACK CONTOL FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEMS USING VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL By Seungrohk Oh A DISSERTATION Submitted to Michigan State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Department of Electrical Engineering 1994 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner, Further reproduction prohibited without permission, small, but nonzero, delay in control switching will cause chattering around the sliding manifold. This is not a desirable feature. One of the remedies for chattering is the use of continuous approximations [24], e.g., the signum nonlinearity is replaced by sat(z) where sat(t) = 1 a A ® A However the continuous approximation results in uniform ultimate boundness around the origin rather than asymptotic stability in the stabilization problem [25]. There- fore we have to trade off performance precision vs chattering; a trade off which is application dependent. 1.2 Robust High-gain Observer and The Peaking Phenomenon For simplicity, consider a single-input single-output system & = Av+ Bif(z) + 9(z)u] (17) uced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohi ited without permission. 10 f(-) and g(-) are sufficiently smooth in a domain UC R*, and g(2) is nonsingular. Va € U. Suppose nominal models of f(+) and g(-) are fo(-) and go(-), respectively Construct the observer = AE + Bl fol4) + go(#)u(2)] + L(y - C2) (1.9) Let e=a—4. Then é=(A-LChe+ Bé(z,¢) (110) where 6(z,e) = f(x) — fol) + (9(2) — go(#))u(2). The 6 term consists of two terms: a term due to the uncertainty in the state equation (1.7) and a term resulting from imperfect cancellation of nonlinearity due to the use of the estimate of state rather than the state itself. The observer structure should be able to reject the deriving term 5. We call such observer a robust observer. This can be achieved by designing the Le (¢) such that (s/ — A+ L(c)C)""B — 0 as a design parameter ¢ — 0. Singular perturbation is a powerful tool to design such L(¢). Let L = [ay,-+,an]7, where a; is chosen such that (A — LC) is Hurwitz, Choose the specially scaled observer gain Let Gj = zhre:. We can rewrite equation (1.10) as = (A- 10g + «B5 (1) ‘The perturbation term is multiplied by ¢. Hence its effect. diminishes asymptotically as ¢ + 0. Since we want to allow the initial condition {|¢(0)|| < sr, where cy is positive constant, the solution of (1.11) contains terms of the form zLye™*. Since z(t) is coupled with e through the control input, 2(¢) exhibits an impulse-like behavior Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission,