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high-gain observer.

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OUTPUT FEEDBACK CONTOL FOR
NONLINEAR SYSTEMS USING VARIABLE
STRUCTURE CONTROL
By
Seungrohk Oh
A DISSERTATION
Submitted to
Michigan State University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
Department of Electrical Engineering
1994
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner, Further reproduction prohibited without permission,small, but nonzero, delay in control switching will cause chattering around the sliding
manifold. This is not a desirable feature. One of the remedies for chattering is the
use of continuous approximations [24], e.g., the signum nonlinearity is replaced by
sat(z) where
sat(t) =
1
a
A
®
A
However the continuous approximation results in uniform ultimate boundness around
the origin rather than asymptotic stability in the stabilization problem [25]. There-
fore we have to trade off performance precision vs chattering; a trade off which is
application dependent.
1.2 Robust High-gain Observer and The Peaking
Phenomenon
For simplicity, consider a single-input single-output system
& = Av+ Bif(z) + 9(z)u] (17)
uced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohi
ited without permission.10
f(-) and g(-) are sufficiently smooth in a domain UC R*, and g(2) is nonsingular.
Va € U. Suppose nominal models of f(+) and g(-) are fo(-) and go(-), respectively
Construct the observer
= AE + Bl fol4) + go(#)u(2)] + L(y - C2) (1.9)
Let e=a—4. Then
é=(A-LChe+ Bé(z,¢) (110)
where 6(z,e) = f(x) — fol) + (9(2) — go(#))u(2). The 6 term consists of two terms:
a term due to the uncertainty in the state equation (1.7) and a term resulting from
imperfect cancellation of nonlinearity due to the use of the estimate of state rather
than the state itself. The observer structure should be able to reject the deriving term
5. We call such observer a robust observer. This can be achieved by designing the
Le
(¢) such that (s/ — A+ L(c)C)""B — 0 as a design parameter ¢ — 0. Singular
perturbation is a powerful tool to design such L(¢). Let L = [ay,-+,an]7, where a;
is chosen such that (A — LC) is Hurwitz, Choose the specially scaled observer gain
Let Gj = zhre:. We can rewrite equation (1.10) as
= (A- 10g + «B5 (1)
‘The perturbation term is multiplied by ¢. Hence its effect. diminishes asymptotically
as ¢ + 0. Since we want to allow the initial condition {|¢(0)|| < sr, where cy is
positive constant, the solution of (1.11) contains terms of the form zLye™*. Since
z(t) is coupled with e through the control input, 2(¢) exhibits an impulse-like behavior
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission,

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