BINOMIAL THEOREM
b
An expression consisting of two terms is called as a binomial; e.g., a + b; a + etc. The expansion
x
n
(a) When n is even, nCr takes maximum value for r .
2
n n
T m 1 n C n x 2 a 2
2
CaseII: n is odd ; n = 2m + 1 : m N.
There are two middle terms, viz., Tm + 1 and Tm + 2
n 1 n 1
n 2 2
T m 1 C n 1 x a
2
n 1 n 1
n 2 a 2
T m 2 C n 1 x
2
Numerically greatest term
(x + a) = n n
C r . x n r .a r
r 0
T r 1 n
C r . x n r . a r n r 1 a
= n n ( r 1 ) r 1 = .
Tr C r 1 . x .a r x
Tr 1 n r 1 a
1 . 1
Tr r x
n 1 x
1
r a
n 1
n 1
r so rmax. = x = q (say)
1
x 1 a
a
Tq+1 is the greatest term if f 0; If f = 0, Tq = Tq+1 and both terms are numerically greatest.
n 1
where f = x
1
a
1 n
=
2
2 0 = 2n–1
n
1
Term independent of x in the expansion of (1 + x)n 1 gives
x
C 0 2 C1 2 C 2 2 .......... C n 2 2n
Cn .
m ( m 1) m(m 1)( m 2) 3
(1 + x)m = 1 + mx + 2! x2 + x + ..................
3!
When m is a negative rational number, the expansion holds only for  x  < 1
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex.1: Use Binomial theorem to find the value of (10.1)5
= 105101.00501.
10
1 c3
Ex.2: Find the coefficient of 2 in 2 y ,
y y
n r
c3
tr+1 = Cr(y) 2
n r : n = 10
y
10 r
1
= 10 C
r (y)r(c3)10–r y 2
3r – 20 = –2 ; r = 6
7th term will contain y–2 and from (i) the coefficient of y–2 is = 210 c12
7
1
Ex.3: Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of 2 x 2 .
x
7 1 73
Sol.: The total number of terms in the expansion are 8. Therefore th and th i.e 4th and
2 2
5th terms are two middle terms.
3
7C 1 7!
4th term = 3 (2x2)7–3 = 16x8–3 = –560x5
x 3! 4!
4
1
and 5th term = 7C4 (2x2)7–4 = 280x2
x
r –1 1 r 3
or = and =
n –r 2 3 n r 1 5
i.e n – 4r +5 = 0 and 3n – 8r + 3 = 0
Solving both we get n = 7 & r = 3
2n !
Ex.5: If Cr denotes the binomial coefficient nCr, prove that : C02 + C12 + .... + Cn2 = .
( n !) 2
2n!
Coefficient of xn in L.H.S. is 2nC
n = . This proves the required identity..
n! n!
Ex.6: If A be the sum of odd numbered terms and B the sum of even numbered terms in the
expansion of (x + a)n prove that A2 – B 2 = (x2 – a2) n
(a) (1 + x + x2 + x3)11.
(b) (2 – x + 3x2)6.
+ 11C 6
3x + ....)
= 55 + 605 + 330
= 990.
Coefficient of x4 is : 15 × 16 × 9.
= 3660.
Ex.8: Find numerically greatest term in the expansion of (3 – 5x) 15 when x = 1/5.
n 1 16
4
x 3
1 1
a ( 1)
T4 and T5 are numerically equal to each other and are greater than any other term.
Ex.9: If n be a positive integer, then prove that the integral part I of (5 2 6 ) n is an odd integer.
1
If f be the fractional part of (5 2 6 ) n , prove that I = f.
1 f
Sol.: Let P = (5 2 6 ) n = I + f
I = 1
f.
1 f
(d)
C 0 C1 C 2 Cn 2 n2 n 3
.......
1.2 2.3 3.4 ( n 1).( n 2) ( n 1)( n 2)
C 2 C4 2n
(e) C0 .......
3 5 n 1
2
(1 x) n 1 C x C x 2 C x 3 ...... C x n 1 2
or n 1 0 1
2
2
3
n 
n 1 0
0
3 n1 1 C C C
or C 0 .2 2 2 . 1 2 3 . 2 ....... 2 n 1. n
n 1 2 3 n 1
(c) Integrating both sides of (A) within limits –1 to 0,
0 0
n 2
(1 x ) dx = ( C 0 C1 x C 2 x C 3 x 3 ...C n x n ) dx
1 1
0
(1 x) n 1 x2 x3 x n 1 0

n 1 C 0 x C1
2
C2
3
...... C n
n 1 1
1
1 C1 C 2 C
– 0 = 0 – C0 ....... ( 1) n 1 n
n 1 2 3 n 1
1 C C C
C 0 1 2 ....... (1) n n
n 1 2 3 n 1
n
Ck
(d) General term of L.H.S. =
( k 1)( k 2)
n 1 n n 1
C k 1 Cr C r 1
= ,
( n 1)( k 2) n r
n 2
Ck 2
=
( n 1)( n 2)
n n2
C
The sum of terms on L.H.S. = (n 1)(nk 2 2)
k 0
n
1
=
( n 1)(n 2) n 2 Ck 2
k 0
1
=
( n 1)(n 2)
2 n 2 n 2 C 0 n 2 C1
1
=
( n 1)(n 2)
2 n 2 1 ( n 2)
2 n2 n 3
=
( n 1)(n 2)
1 1
(1 x)n 1 = C0 x C1
x2
C2
x3
...... Cn
x n 1
n 1 2 3 n 1
1 –1
2 n1 0 C C C C C
= C0 1 2 ....... n – C0 1 2 .......
n 1 2 3 n 1 2 3
2 n 1 C C
= 2 C0 2 4 .......
n 1 3 5
2n C2 C4
= C0 .......
n 1 3 5
n C 0 C1 ......C n 1 ( n 1) n
(b) ( C k 1 C k ) n!
.
k 1
n
( k 2 )( n C k ) = n(n – 1)2n–2 + n.2n–1 [ k. nCk = n. n–1Ck–1)
k 1
= 2n–2[n2 – n + 2n]
n
k 2 n Ck = n(n + 1)2n–2
k 1
C 0 C1 ....C n 1 ( n 1) n
(b) To prove (C0 + C1)(C1 + C2)(C2 + C3) .... (Cn–1 + C n) =
n!
Multiply and divide L.H.S by C0C1C2.......Cn–1; then,
C C 2 C
L.H.S. = C0C1C2 .... Cn–1 1 1 1 ........1 n
C0 C1 C n 1
n
C n r 1
On using n r we have,
C r 1 r
n – 2 1 n – 3 1 n – n 1
L.H.S. = C0C1C2 .... Cn–1(1 + n) 1 2
1
3
........1
n
1 n 1 n n 1
= C0C1C2 .... Cn–1 (1 n) ........
2 3 n
C 0 C1 ....C n 1 ( n 1) n
= .
1.2.3. .... n
C 0 C1 ....C n 1 ( n 1) n
= = R.H.S.
n!
= (2n)2 – 2nC
n (by example 5)
= (n – 1)2nCn + 22n.
C 0 C1 C 2 C 3 ( 1) n C n 3 n n!
Ex.14: Show that .... .
1 4 7 10 3n 1 1.4.7.....(3 n 1)
3 n n!
In =
( 3 n 1)( 3 n 2 )( 3 n 5 ) .... 7.4
Using (i)
C 0 C1 C 2 C 3 ( 1) n C n 3 n n!
.... .
1 4 7 10 3n 1 1.4.7.....(3 n 1)
9
1
1. The term independent of x in x 2 , is
x
3. If the coefficient of (2r + 1)th and (r + 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)43 are equal, the value
of r is
2n ! 2n!
(a) (b) 2n! (c) (d) none of these
n 1 ! n 1! n! n! n 2! n 2!
n
7. 3r n C r
r 0
20 20 20 20
8. The sum of the series C0 C1 C 2 ....... C10 is
1 20
(a) 220 (b) 219 (c) 219 C10 (d) none of these
2
9. If the sum of the binomial coefficients in the expansion of (x + y)n is 4096, then the greatest
coefficient occurs in the term
(a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) none of these
10. If the coefficient of x7 and x4 are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign in the expansion of
11
x 2 b , then
a x
(a) ab = 1 (b) a = b (c) a + b = 0 (d) none of these
10
1
12. The sum of the rational term in the expansion of 2 3 5 , is
(a) 41 (b) 0 (c) cannot be evaluated (d) none of these
C0 C1 C 2 C3
13. The sum of (n + 1) terms of the series .... is equal to
2 3 4 5
log 10 x 5
14. If the third term in the expansion of [ x x ] is 106, then x =
100
16. The coefficient of x53 in the expansion of 100 Cm ( x 3)100 m 2 m is
m 0
17. If (1 + x – 2x2)6 = 1 + a1x + a2x2 + .... +a12 x12, then the expression a2 + a4 + a6 + .... +a12
has the value
n n n
18. For 2 r n, 2
r r 1 r 2
n 1 n 1 n 2 n 2
(a) (b) 2 (c) 2 (d)
r 1 r 1 r r
19. The coefficient of x4 in the expansion of (1 + x + x2 + x3)n is
(a) nC 4 (b) nC4 + nC2
(c) nC4 + nC2 + nC4.nC2 (d) nC4 + nC2 + nC1.nC2
20. If m, n, r are positive integers such that r < m,n, then the series
mC + mCr–1 nC1 + mCr–2 nC2 + .... + mC1 nCr–1 + nCr is equal to
r
21. If the second, third and fourth term in the expansion of (x + a)n are 240, 720 and 1080 respectively,
then the value of n is
(a) 15 (b) 20 (c) 10 (d) 5
22. In the expansion of (1 + x)n the coefficient of pth and (p + 1)th terms are respectivley p and q.
Then p + q =
(a) n + 3 (b) n + 1 (c) n + 2 (d) n
15
4 1
23. The coefficient of x32 in the expansion of x 3 is
x
24. If n is even positive integer, then the condition that the greatest term in the expansion of (1 + x)n
may have the greatest coefficient also, is
n n2 n 1 n n n4
(a) x (b) x (c) x (d) none of these
n2 n n n 1 n4 4
n
2 1
25. If the middle term in the expansion of x is 924x6, then n =
x
(n 1) q
26. If rth and (r +1)th terms in the expansion of (p + q)n are equal, then r ( p q ) is
1 1
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) (d)
4 2
n
C0 ... n Cn
27. The value of
n 1
n
Pn
is
3 3
n 1
(a) less than n 1 (b) greater than (c) less than (n!)
3 (d) greater than (n!)3
2 2
m
i 0
30
20
32. If f (m) 30 i m i where p p Cq , then
q
50
(a) maximum value of f(m) is C25 (b) f (0) f (1) ... f (50) 250
50
2
(c) f(m) is always divisible by 50(1 m 49) (d) the value of ( f (m)) 100C50
m0
(n 1)(n 2)...(n m 1)
(a) ( 1) m 1 (b) n 1
Cm 1 (1)m 1
(m 1)!
(n 1)( n 2)...( n m)
(c) (1) m 1 (d) n 1
Cn m ( 1) m 1
( m 1)!
36. For which of the following values of x, 5th term is the numerically greatest term in the expansion of
(1 + x/3)10
(a) – 2 (b) 1.8 (c) 2 (d) – 1.9
n
1
n
38. The term independent of x in the expansion of (1 + x) . 1 is
x
n 1 n
2
Cn 1
(a) 0, if n is odd (b) (1) . , if n is odd
2
39. Let R (8 3 7) 20 and [R] = the greatest integer less than or equal to R. Then
1
(c) R [ R] 1 (d) none of these
(8 3 7) 20
n! 1 r
If can be intuitively proved that (x1 + x2 + x3 + .... + xr)n = ! !.... ! x
1 2 r
1 x2 2 .....x r where the
summation runs over all those terms for which a1 + a2 + .... + ar = n. This result is called multinomial
theorem. The famous Newton’s binomial theorem is a special case of this theorem if n = 2. Indeed
n!
(x1 + x2)n =
1 2
n 1
! 2 !
x1 1 x2 2 .
20 !
1. The sum of the numerical series
x y z 20
x ! y ! z ! must be
(a) 203 (b) 320 (c) 20
C3 (d) none of these
10
1
3. The coefficient of x8 in the expansion of x 2 must be
x
(a) 55 (b) 66 (c) 190 (d) 180
ComprehensionII
If n and x are positive integers then by binomial theorem (1 + x)n = 1 + nC1 x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + .... The
RHS can be written in several ways.
For instance (1 + x)n = 1 + (A multiple of x) = 1 + x where is an integer.
OR
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +x2 = 1 + nx + a multiple of x2 etc.
From the last representation we can conclude that (1 + x)n – 1 – nx is divisible by x2.
6. If f (n) = 52n + 2 – 24 n – 25 then select the best choice from the following choices
(a) f (n) is divisible by 12 for all n (b) f (n) is divisible by 24 for all n
(c) f (n) is divisible by 576 for all n (d) none of these
7. The last three digits of the number 31000 must be
(a) 249 (b) 751 (c) 001 (d) 003
8. Match the following expansion with their number of terms
B. The sum of rational terms in the expansion of (2 + 1/15)10 is (q) 225
n 1
10. if Cr (k 2 3) n Cr 1 , then the maximum value of k is
8
x
11. If the middle term in the expansion of 2 is 1120 then the sum of possible real values of x is
2
23
12. Number of values of set of values of ‘r’ for which Cr 2. 23Cr 1 23Cr 2 25C15 is
13. Let a 31/223 1 and for all n 3 , let f(n) = n C0 .a n 1 n C1 .a n 2 n C2 a n 3 ....(1)n 1 . n Cn 1a 0 . If the
value of f(2007) + f(2008) = 3k where k N, then the value of k is
14. If R is remainder when 683 + 883 is divided by 49, then the value fo R/5 is
15. Given (1 – 2x + 5x2 – 10x3) (1 + x)n = 1 + a1x + a2x2 +..... and that a12 = 2a2 then the value of n is
4
34 k x 4 2
16. The largest real value for x such that (4 k )! k ! 3
k 0
5
5
18. The remainder when x 55 (24 times 5) is divided by 24 is
1. If in the expansion of (1 + x)m (1 – x)n, the coefficients of x and x2 are 3 and –6 respectively, then m
is
(a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 12 (d) 24
a
2. In the binomial expansion of (a – b)n, n 5, the sum of the 5th and 6th terms is zero. Then
b
equals
n5 n4 5 6
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6 5 n4 n5
n n n
3. For 2 r n, r 2 r 1 r 2 =
n 1 n 1 n 2 n 2
(a) (b) 2 (c) 2 (d)
r 1 r
r 1 r
m
10 20 p
6. The sum i m i
where 0 if p q is maximum when m is
q
i0
(a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 15 (d) 20
n n
1 r
7. If an =
r0
n
Cr
, then n
Cr
equals
r0
1
(a) (n – 1) an (b) na n (c) na (d) none of these
2 n
2
n
2 !
2
10. If Cr = nCr, then sum of the series {C02 – 2C12 + 3C22 – ... + (–1)n (n + 1)Cn2}
n!
where n is even integer, is
(a) 0 (b) (–1)n/2·(n + 1) (c) (–1)n/2·(n + 2) (d) none of these
11. If n–1C = (k2 – 3) nCr+1, then k
r
30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 n
12. The value of ...... is, where = nC
r
0 10 1 11 2 12 20 30
r.
30 30 60 31
(a) (b) (c) (d)
10 15 30 10
13. The coefficients of three consecutive terms of (1 + x)n + 5 are in the ratio 5 : 10 : 14. Then n =
DCE QUESTIONS
1. If C0, C1, C2 ......... Cn denote the binomical coefficient in the expansion of (1 + x)n. Prove that
c1 c2 c3 c
C0 – – (1) n n =
2 3 4 n 1
1 1 n(n 1)
(a) (b) (c) (d) none of these
n 1 n(n 1) ( n 1)
n
x
2. If the coefficients of x7 and x8 in 2 are equal then n is
3
1 3n 1
(a) 3n + 1 (b) 3n (c) 3n + (d)
2 2
3 8 8 4
(a) x < (b) x < (c) x > (d) x >
8 3 3 3
6. The number of objects of a set containing n distinct objects is
(a) nC + nC2 + nC3 + nC4 + ... nCn (b) nC + nC1 + nC2 + ... nCn
1 0
(c) 2n – 1 (d) 2n + 1
8. If C0, C1, C2 ... Cn denote coefficients of the expansion (1 + x)n, then the value of
C0 + 2C1 + 3C2 + ... + (n + 1)Cn is
(a) n2n –1 (b) (n + 1) 2n (c) (n + 1) 2n + 1 (d) (n + 2) 2n – 1
n
1
9. The sum of coefficients of the expansion 2 x is 6561. The coefficient of term independent
x
of x is
n
10. The value of r n
Cr x r y n r where x + y = 1 is equal to
r0
(a) 1 – nx (b) 1 + nx (c) –nx (d) nx
r
C3 · 3 r
12. The value of
r3
r!
is equal to
6e 2 6e 3 9e 2 9e 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 2
AIEEE/JEEMAINS QUESTIONS
2. r and n are positive integers r > 1, n > 2 and coefficient of (r + 2)th term and 3rth term in the
expansion of (1 + x)2n are equal, then n equals
(a) 3 r (b) 3 r + 1 (c) 2 r (d) 2 r + 1
7. If the coefficient of rth, (r + 1)th and (r + 1)th and (r + 2)th terms in the binomial expansion of
(1 + y)m are in A.P., then m and r satisfy the equation
(a) m2 – m(4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0 (b) m2 – m(4r – 1) + 4r2 + 2 = 0
(c) m2 – m(4r – 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0 (d) m2 – m(4r + 1) + 4r2 + 2 = 0
11 11
2 1 1
8. If the coefficient of x7 in ax equals the coefficient of x–7 in ax 2 , then a and
bx bx
b satisfy the relation
a
(a) 1 (b) ab = 1 (c) a – b = 1 (d) a + b = 1
b
6
9. The value of
50
C4 56 r C3 is
r 1
3 x 3 2 3 2 3
(a) x2 (b) x (c) 1 x (d) 3x x 2
8 2 8 8 8
11. The sum of the series 20C0 – 20C1 + 20C2 – 20C3 + .... – .... + 20C10 is
20
1
(a) 0 (b) C 10 (c) – 20 C 10 (d) 20
C10
2
n
n
12. Statement1: (r 1)
r0
C r = (n + 2)2n–1.
n
n
Statement2: (r 1) Cr x r = (1 + x)n + nx(1 + x)n–1.
r0
(a) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true; Statement2 is a correct explanation for Statement1.
(b) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true; Statement2 is not a correct explanation for Statement1.
(c) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false.
(d) Statement1 is false, Statement2 is true.
13. The remainder left out when 82n – (62)2n + 1 is divided by 9 is
(a) 2 (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) 0
10 10
10
14. Let S1 = j ( j 1)10 C j , S2 = j j 1
Cj
j 1
10
2 10
and S3 = j
j 1
Cj .
Statement1: S3 = 55 × 29
Statement2 : S1 = 90 × 28 and S2 = 10 × 28
(a) Statement1 is false, Statement2 is true.
(b) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true; Statement2 is a correct explanation for Statement1.
(c) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is true; Statement2 is not a correct explanation for Statement1
(d) Statement1 is true, Statement2 is false.
2n 2n
16. If n is a positive integer, then 3 1
3 1 is
18. If the coefficients of x3 and x4 in the expansion of (1 + ax + bx2) (1 – 2x)18 in powers of x are both
zero, then (a, b) is equal to
1
2. Find the coefficient of x9 in x 2 9
3x
x 3 10
3. Find the term independent of x in the Binomial expansion .
3 2x 2
9
3 1
4. Find the term independent of x in the Binomial expansion (1 + x +2x3) x 2
2 3 x
5. If the coefficients of second, third and fourth terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n are in A.P., show
that 2n2 – 9n + 7 = 0.
7. Prove that the sum of the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x – 3x2)2163 is –1.
20
1
9. Find the greatest term in the expansion of 3 1 .
3
10. Find the term which does not contain irrational expression in the expansion of (5 3 7 2 ) 24 .
(b) 4n – 3n – 1 is divisible by 9.
C1 C 2 C 2n 1 – 1
(i) C0 + ....... n
2 3 n 1 n 1
C1 C C 3n 1 – 1
(ii) 2 C 0 2 2 23 2 ....... 2 n 1 n
2 3 n 1 n 1
22 23 24 Cn 3n 2 – 2 n – 5
(iii) C0 C1 C 2 ....... 2 n 2
1.2 2. 3 3. 4 (n 1) ( n 2) (n 1) ( n 2)
13. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Cnxn prove that
( 2 n) !
(i) C0Cr + C1Cr+1 + C2Cr + 2 + .... + Cn–rCn =
(n r ) ! (n – r ) !
n!
(ii) C02 – C12 + C22 .... (–1)n Cn2 = 0 or (–1)n/2 2 according as n is odd or even, respectively..
n!
2
n n n n 1 n n 2 n n k n
2k 2 k 1 ( 1) k
k 1 k 1 + 2k – 2 2 k 2 k 0 k
0
8
1 2
19. If the 6th term in the expansion of 8/3 x log10 x is 5600, find the value of x.
x
2n
1 1.3.5....(2n 1) 2 n
2. Prove that the middle term in the expansion of x is .
x n!
3. In the expansion of (x + a)15, if the eleventh term is the geometric mean of the eighth and the
twelfth terms, which term in the expansion is the greatest ?
4. Prove that in the expansion of (1 +x)2n, the coefficient of xn is double the coefficient of xn in the
2 n
expansion of (1 2 x x ) .
1 x
n 2
C 1
k 3 C k 12 n(n 1) 2 (n 2)
k 1 k 1
2n 2n
6. If ar ( x 2) r br ( x 3) r and ak = 1 for all k n, show that bn 2 n 1C n 1 .
r 0 r 0
n
1 3r 7r 15r
7. Find the sum of the series (–1) r n Cr 2r
2 2r
2 3r
2 4r
......... to m terms
r0
2n
9. If n is a positive integer and if (1 + x + x2)n = ar x r , prove that
r0
11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (b,c) 15. (b)
16. (c) 17. (d) 18. (d) 19. (d) 20. (b)
21. (d) 22. (b) 23. (a) 24. (a) 25. (b)
26. (b) 27. (c) 28. (c) 29. (b) 30. (b)
31. (b,d) 32. (a,b,d) 33. (a,b,d) 34. (b,c) 35. a,b,d)
36. (a,b,c,d) 37. (a,b,c,d) 38. (a,c) 39. (b,c) 40. (a,b)
Miscellaneous Assignment
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (c)
13. (9) 14. (7) 15. (6) 16. (1) 17. (0)
18. (5) 19. (4)
DCE QUESTIONS
5 17
3. 4.
4 54
20 1 (24) !
9. C7 10. t15 = . 32. 2 2
27 (14) ! (10) !
n(n 1)(n 4)
16. 192 17.
6
18. 16 C9 19. x = 10
20. 135 and 136
5376
1. 672 ; ; 18 3. 8th term
x9
1 mn 1
7. 2
2 n 1