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Lesson-4

BINOMIAL THEOREM
b
An expression consisting of two terms is called as a binomial; e.g., a + b; a + etc. The expansion
x

(x + a)n = xn + nC1 xn–1 . a + nC2 . xn–2 . a2 + ... + nCn an where n  N

is called as binomial theorem. We note the following:

(i) There are n + 1 terms in the expansion.

(ii) The (r + 1)th term is Tr+1 = nCr xn–r ar.


n
(iii) Cr is called as the coefficient of the (r + 1)th term and nC0, nC1, ..., nCn are called as binomial
coefficients.

(iv) Sum of powers of a and x is n.

(v) The power of a is the suffix of the binomial coefficient.

Greatest binomial coefficient

n
(a) When n is even, nCr takes maximum value for r  .
2

(b) When n is odd, nCr takes maximum value for r 


n  1 and r  n  1 and n
C n 1  n C n  1
2 2 2 2

Middle term of the expansion

Case-I: n is even; n = 2m: m  N.

The middle term is Tm+1;

n n
T m 1  n C n x 2 a 2
2

Case-II: n is odd ; n = 2m + 1 : m  N.
There are two middle terms, viz., Tm + 1 and Tm + 2

n 1 n 1
n 2 2
T m  1  C n 1 x a
2

n 1 n  1
n 2 a 2
T m  2  C n 1 x
2
Numerically greatest term

(x + a) = n  n
C r . x n r .a r
r 0

T r 1 n
C r . x n r . a r n  r 1 a
= n n  ( r 1 ) r 1 = .
Tr C r 1 . x .a r x

Tr 1 n  r 1 a
1  . 1
Tr r x

n 1 x
 1 
r a

 
 n 1 
n 1  
 r so rmax. =  x  = q (say)
1
x 1  a 
 
a
 Tq+1 is the greatest term if f  0; If f = 0, Tq = Tq+1 and both terms are numerically greatest.

 
 n  1 
 
where f =  x
1 
 a 

Properties of the Binomial Coefficient

 Put x = 1 in (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + .... + nCn–1xn–1 + nCnxn

 nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + .... + nCn–1 + nCn = 2n ...(i)

i.e. sum of the binomial coefficients is 2n.

 Substitute x = 1 in (1 – x)n = nC0 – nC1x + nC2x2 – .... + (–1)n(nCn)xn

 nC – nC1 + nC2 – .... + (–1)n (nCn) = 0 ...(ii)


0

 From equation (i) and (ii), we get

nC + nC2 + nC4 + .... = nC1 + nC3 + nC5 + ....


0

1 n
=
2

2  0 = 2n–1 
n
 1
 Term independent of x in the expansion of (1 + x)n 1   gives
 x

C 0 2  C1 2  C 2 2  ..........  C n 2  2n
Cn .

Binomial expansion of (1 + x )m when m is not a positive integer is

m ( m  1) m(m  1)( m  2) 3
(1 + x)m = 1 + mx + 2! x2 + x + ..................
3!

When m is a negative rational number, the expansion holds only for | x | < 1
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex.1: Use Binomial theorem to find the value of (10.1)5

Sol.: (10.1)5 = (10 + 0.1)5

= (10)5 + 5C1(10)4(0.1) + 5C2(10)3(0.1)2 + 5C3(10)2(0.1)3 + 5C410(0.1)4 + (0.1)5

= 105 + 5(103) + 10(10)3(0.01) + 10(10)2(0.001) + 5(10)(0.0001) + (0.00001)

= 100000 + 5000 + 100 + 1 + 0.005 + 0.00001

= 105101.00501.

10
1  c3 
Ex.2: Find the coefficient of 2 in  2  y  ,
y y 

Sol.: In the binomial expansion, (r + 1)th term is

n r
 c3 
tr+1 = Cr(y)  2 
n r : n = 10
y 

10  r
 1 
= 10 C
r (y)r(c3)10–r   y 2 
 

= 10 C c30–3r y3r–20 ...(i)


r

 3r – 20 = –2 ; r = 6

 7th term will contain y–2 and from (i) the coefficient of y–2 is = 210 c12

7
 1
Ex.3: Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of  2 x 2   .
 x

7 1 73
Sol.: The total number of terms in the expansion are 8. Therefore th and th i.e 4th and
2 2
5th terms are two middle terms.
3
7C  1 7!
4th term = 3 (2x2)7–3   =  16x8–3 = –560x5
 x  3! 4!

4
 1 
and 5th term = 7C4 (2x2)7–4   = 280x2
 x 

Hence the two middle terms are –560x5 and 280x2.


Ex.4: The coefficient of (r – 1)th, rth and (r + 1)th term in the expansion of (x + 1)n are in the ratio
1 : 3 : 5. Find n and r.

Sol.: Coefficient of (r – 1)th term is nCr – 2


Coefficient of r th term is nCr – 1
Coefficient of (r + 1)th term is nCr
Coefficients are in ratio of 1 : 3 : 5
n n
Cr  2 1 C r 1 3
n
= and =
C r 1 3 n
Cr 5

r –1 1 r 3
or = and =
n –r  2 3 n  r 1 5

i.e n – 4r +5 = 0 and 3n – 8r + 3 = 0
Solving both we get n = 7 & r = 3

2n !
Ex.5: If Cr denotes the binomial coefficient nCr, prove that : C02 + C12 + .... + Cn2 = .
( n !) 2

Sol.: We know that


(1 + x) n = nC 0 + nC 1x + nC 2x 2 + .... + nC
n–1x
n–1 + nC
nx
n

(x + 1) n = nC 0x n + nC 1x n–1 + nC 2x n–2 + .... + n C n – 1 x + nC


n

Multiplying these equations side by side, we get


(1 + x)n(x + 1)n = (C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Cn–1xn–1 + Cnxn)  (C0xn + C1xn–1
+ C2xn–2 + .... + Cn–1x + nCn)
Coefficient of xn on R.H.S. is equal to

C 02 + C12 + C 22 + .... + C n21 + C n2

2n!
Coefficient of xn in L.H.S. is 2nC
n = . This proves the required identity..
n! n!

Ex.6: If A be the sum of odd numbered terms and B the sum of even numbered terms in the
expansion of (x + a)n prove that A2 – B 2 = (x2 – a2) n

Sol.: (x + a)n = nC0xn + nC1xn–1a + nC2xn–2a2 + .... + nCnan = A + B


where A = nC0xn + nC2xn–2a2 + nC4xn–4a4 + ....
B = nC1xn–1a + nC3xn–3a3 + nC5xn–5a5 + ....
 (x – a)n = A – B,
A2 – B2 = (A – B) (A + B)
= (x – a)n (x + a)n
= (x2 – a2)n
Ex.7: Find the coefficient of x4 in the expansion of

(a) (1 + x + x2 + x3)11.

(b) (2 – x + 3x2)6.

Sol.: (a) (1 + x + x2 + x3) = (1 + x)(1 + x2)

 (1 + x + x2 + x3)11 = (1 + x)11(1 + x2)11


= (1 + 11C 11C 2 11C 3 11C 2 11C 4
1x + 2x + 3x + ....) × (1 + 1x + 2x

+ 11C 6
3x + ....)

Coefficient of x4 = (1  11C 2  11C 2 .11 C1  11C 4 .1)

11 10 1110 1110  9  8


=   11 
2 2 4.3.2.1

= 55 + 605 + 330

= 990.

(b) (2 – x + 3x2)6 = [2 – x(1 – 3x)]6

= 26 – 6C125[x(1 – 3x)] + 6C2.24.[x(1 – 3x)]2 – 6C323[x(1 – 3x)]3


+ 6C4.22.[x(1 – 3x)]4 – 6C52[x(1 – 3x)]5
+ 6C6[x(1 – 3x)]6

In this expansion, 3rd, 4th and 5th terms contain x4.

3rd term = 6C2.24.[x(1 – 3x)]2.

Coefficient of x4 is : 15 × 16 × 9.

In the 4th term coefficient of x4 is = 20 × 8 × 9.

In the 5th term coeefficient of x4 is = 15 × 4.

Hence the coefficient of x4 in (2 – x + 3x2)6 is = (15 × 16 × 9 + 20 × 8 × 9 + 15 × 4)

= (2160 + 1440 + 60)

= 3660.

Ex.8: Find numerically greatest term in the expansion of (3 – 5x) 15 when x = 1/5.

Sol.: Using standard notations w.r.t. (x + a)n

n 1 16
 4
x 3
1 1
a ( 1)

T4 and T5 are numerically equal to each other and are greater than any other term.
Ex.9: If n be a positive integer, then prove that the integral part I of (5  2 6 ) n is an odd integer.
1
If f be the fractional part of (5  2 6 ) n , prove that I =  f.
1 f

Sol.: Let P = (5  2 6 ) n = I + f

or I + f = 5n + C15n–1( 2 6 ) + C25n–2( 2 6 )2 + .... + Cn( 2 6 )n ...(i)

0<5– 2 6 <1  0 < (5 – 2 6 )n < 1


Let (5  2 6 ) n = f , where 0 < f < 1.

f  = 5n – C15n–1( 2 6 ) + C25n–2( 2 6 )2 – C35n–3( 2 6 )3 + .... ...(ii)


Adding (i) and (ii)

I + f + f  = 2[5n + nC25n–2( 2 6 )2 + nC45n–4( 2 6 )4 ....]


or I + f + f  = even integer
Now 0  f <1 and 0 < f  < 1.
 0< f + f<2
 f+f = 1 and  I is an odd integer
Now I + f = (5  2 6 ) n , (5  2 6 ) n = f  = 1 – f
 (I + f )(1 – f ) = 1
1
 (I + f ) =
1 f

 I = 1
 f.
1 f

Ex.10: Prove that


C1 C 2 C 2 n1  1
(a) C0    .......  n 
2 3 n 1 n 1
C1 C C 3 n1  1
(b) 2.C 0  2 2.  2 3. 2  .......  2 n1. n 
2 3 n 1 n 1
1 1 1 C 1
(c) C0  C1  C 2  C 3 .......  ( 1) n n 
2 3 4 n 1 n 1

(d)
C 0 C1 C 2 Cn 2 n2  n  3
   .......  
1.2 2.3 3.4 ( n  1).( n  2) ( n  1)( n  2)

C 2 C4 2n
(e) C0    ....... 
3 5 n 1

Sol.: (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + C3x3 + .... + Cnxn ...(A)


(a) Integrating both sides of (A) within limits 0 to 1, we get
1 1
n 2
 (1  x ) dx =  ( C 0  C1 x  C 2 x  C 3 x 3  ...C n x n ) dx
0 0
1
 (1  x) n  1   C x  C x 2  C x 3  ......  C x n1 |1
 n 1  0 1
2
2
3
n
n 1 0
 0
2 n 1  1 C C C
= C 0  1  2  .......  n
n 1 2 3 n 1
(b) Integrating both sides of (A) within limits 0 to 2,
2 2
n 2
 (1  x ) dx =  ( C 0  C1 x  C 2 x  C 3 x 3  ...C n x n ) dx
0 0

2
 (1  x) n  1   C x  C x 2  C x 3  ......  C x n 1 2
or  n 1  0 1
2
2
3
n |
n 1 0
 0
3 n1  1 C C C
or  C 0 .2  2 2 . 1  2 3 . 2  .......  2 n 1. n
n 1 2 3 n 1
(c) Integrating both sides of (A) within limits –1 to 0,
0 0
n 2
 (1  x ) dx =  ( C 0  C1 x  C 2 x  C 3 x 3  ...C n x n ) dx
1 1

0
 (1  x) n  1   x2 x3 x n 1 0
|
 n 1  C 0 x  C1
2
 C2
3
 ......  C n
n  1 1
 1
1  C1 C 2 C 
– 0 = 0 –  C0    .......  ( 1) n 1 n 
n 1  2 3 n  1

1 C C C
 C 0  1  2  ....... (1) n n
n 1 2 3 n 1
n
Ck
(d) General term of L.H.S. =
( k  1)( k  2)

n 1 n n 1
C k 1  Cr C r 1 
= ,  
( n  1)( k  2)  n r 

n 2
Ck 2
=
( n  1)( n  2)

n n2
C
 The sum of terms on L.H.S. =  (n  1)(nk 2 2)
k 0

n
1
=
( n  1)(n  2)  n 2 Ck  2
k 0

1
=
( n  1)(n  2)

2 n  2  n  2 C 0  n  2 C1 
1
=
( n  1)(n  2)

2 n  2  1  ( n  2) 
2 n2  n  3
=
( n  1)(n  2)

(e) Integrating both sides of (A) within limits –1 to 1, we get


1 1
n 2
 (1  x ) dx =  ( C 0  C1 x  C 2 x  C 3 x 3  ...C n x n ) dx
1 1

1 1
 (1  x)n  1  = C0 x  C1
x2
 C2
x3
 ......  Cn
x n 1
 n 1  2 3 n 1
 1 –1

2 n1  0  C C C   C C 
= C0  1  2  .......  n  –   C0  1  2  .......
n 1  2 3 n  1   2 3 

2 n 1  C C 
= 2 C0  2  4  .......
n 1  3 5 

2n C2 C4
 = C0    .......
n 1 3 5

Ex.11: Prove, by binomial expansion, that


n
(a) k 2 n
C k  n ( n  1) 2 n 2
k 1

n C 0 C1 ......C n 1 ( n  1) n
(b)  ( C k 1  C k )  n!
.
k 1

Sol.: (a) Now (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + C3x3 + .... + Cnxn


‘Differentiating twice w.r.t .x, we get
n(n – 1)(1 + x)n-2 = 2.C2 + 3.2.C3x + 4.3.C4x2 + .... + n(n – 1)Cnxn–2
Substituting x = 1, we get
n
n(n – 1)2n-2 =  k (k 1)(Ck )
k 1

n
  ( k 2 )( n C k ) = n(n – 1)2n–2 + n.2n–1 [ k. nCk = n. n–1Ck–1)
k 1

= 2n–2[n2 – n + 2n]
n
  k 2 n Ck = n(n + 1)2n–2
k 1

C 0 C1 ....C n 1 ( n  1) n
(b) To prove (C0 + C1)(C1 + C2)(C2 + C3) .... (Cn–1 + C n) =
n!
Multiply and divide L.H.S by C0C1C2.......Cn–1; then,

 C  C 2   C 
L.H.S. = C0C1C2 .... Cn–1 1  1 1  ........1  n 
 C0  C1   C n 1 
n
C n  r 1
On using n r  we have,
C r 1 r

 n – 2 1   n – 3 1   n – n 1 
L.H.S. = C0C1C2 .... Cn–1(1 + n) 1  2
 1 
3
 ........1 
n

    

 1 n   1  n   n 1 
= C0C1C2 .... Cn–1 (1  n)    ........ 
 2  3   n 

C 0 C1 ....C n 1 ( n  1) n
= .
1.2.3. .... n

C 0 C1 ....C n 1 ( n  1) n
= = R.H.S.
n!

Ex.12: Find the remainder when 2710 + 751 is divided by 10.

Sol.: We have 2710 = 330 = 915 = (10 – 1)15


751 = 7.750 = 7.(49)25 = 7(50 – 1)25
2710 = 10m1  1 ...(i)
751 = 7(50 – 1)25
= 10m2 – 7 ...(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii),
2710 + 751 = (10m1 – 1) + (10m2 – 7)
= 10m1 + 10m2 – 8
= 10m1 + 10m2 – 10 + 2
Thus, the remainder is 2 when 2710 + 751 is divided by 10.

Ex.13: If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + C3x3 + .... + Cnxn

then find the value of  (C i  C j ) 2


0 i  j  n

Sol.:  (C i  C j ) 2 = (C0 + C1)2 + (C0 + C2)2 + .... + (C0 + Cn)2


0 i  j  n

+ (C1 + C2)2 + .... + .... + (C1 + Cn)2


+ (C2 + C3)2 + .... + .... + (C2 + Cn)2
+ .... + (Cn–1 + Cn)2

= n(C02 + C12 + C22 + .... + Cn2) + 2  Ci C j


0 i j n
The square of the sum of n terms is given by

(C0 + C1 + C2 + C3 + .... + Cn)2 = (C02 + C12 + C22 + .... + Cn2) + 2  C i C j


0 i  j  n

 2  C i C j = [(C0 + C1 + C2 + C3 + .... + Cn)2 – (C02 + C12 + .... + Cn2)]


0 i  j  n

= (2n)2 – 2nC
n (by example 5)

  (C i  C j ) 2 = [n.2nCn] + {22n – 2nC


n},
0 i  j  n

= (n – 1)2nCn + 22n.

C 0 C1 C 2 C 3 ( 1) n C n 3 n n!
Ex.14: Show that     ....   .
1 4 7 10 3n  1 1.4.7.....(3 n  1)

Sol.: (1 – x3)n = C0 – C1x3 + C2x6 – C3x9 + C4x12 + .... + (–1)n Cnx3n

Integrating both sides between limits 0 and 1, we get


1
3 n
C1 C 2 C 3 ( 1) n C n
 (1  x ) dx = C0     ....  ...(i)
0
4 7 10 3n  1
1
3 n
Also In =  (1  x ) dx
0
1
= x(1  x 3 ) n |10   n(1  x 3 ) n 1 ( 3x 2 ).x dx
0
1
= 3n  x 3 (1  x 3 ) n 1 dx
0
1
= 3n  ( x 3  1  1)(1  x 3 ) n 1 dx
0

In = 3nI n1  3nI n

(1 + 3n)In = 3nI n1


3n
 In = I
3n  1 n 1
Replacing n by 1, 2, 3, 4, ..., n – 1 successively in the above reduction formula, we get
3n 3(n  1) 3( n  2) 3
In = ........... I 0 ...(ii)
3n  1 3n  2 3n  5 4
1 1
3 0
But I0 =  (1  x ) dx   dx  1
0 0

Hence, from (ii),

3 n n!
In =
( 3 n  1)( 3 n  2 )( 3 n  5 ) .... 7.4
Using (i)

C 0 C1 C 2 C 3 ( 1) n C n 3 n n!
    ....   .
1 4 7 10 3n  1 1.4.7.....(3 n  1)

Ex.15: If (1  x  x 2 ) n  a0  a1 x  a 2 x 2  ......  a 2 n x 2 n show that


 a0 + a1 + a2 + .... + a2n = 3n
 a0 – a1 + a2 – a3 + .... + a2n = 1
 a0 + a3 + a6 + .... = 3n–1

Sol.: Given (1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .... + a2nx2n ...(i)


 Putting x = 1, we get
3n = a0 + a1 + a2 + .... + a2n ...(A)

 Putting x = –1 in (i), we get


1 = a0 – a1 + a2 – a3 + .... + a2n

 Putting x = w, w2 successively in (i), we get


0 = a0 + a1w + a2w2 + a3 + a4w + a5w2 + .... + a2nw2n ...(B)
0 = a0 + a1w2 + a2w + a3 + a4w2 + a5w + a6 + .... + a2nw4n ...(C)
Adding (A), (B) and (C) we have
3n = 3(a0 + a3 + a6 + ....)
 a0 + a3 + a6 + .... = 3n–1
OBJECTIVE ASSIGNMENT
Choose the correct option(s) in the following :

9
 1
1. The term independent of x in  x 2   , is
 x

(a) 1 (b) –1 (c) 48 (d) none of these

2. The coefficient of the middle term in the expansion of (2 + 3x)4 is

(a) 6 (b) 5! (c) 8! (d) 216

3. If the coefficient of (2r + 1)th and (r + 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)43 are equal, the value
of r is

(a) 14 (b) 13 (c) 10 (d) none of these

4. C0C1 + C1C2 + C2C3 + ............. + Cn–1Cn = ...................

2n ! 2n!
(a) (b) 2n! (c) (d) none of these
n  1 ! n  1! n! n! n  2! n  2!

5. nC + n+1C + n+2C + ............. + n + mC is equal to


n n n n

(a) n+m+1 C (b) n+m+2 C (c) n+m+3 C (d) none of these


n+1 n n –1

6. 260 when divided by 7 leaves remainder


(a) 1 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 2

n
7.  3r n C r 
r 0

(a) 2n (b) 3n (c) 4n (d) none of these

20 20 20 20
8. The sum of the series C0  C1  C 2  .......  C10 is

1 20
(a) 220 (b) 219 (c) 219  C10 (d) none of these
2

9. If the sum of the binomial coefficients in the expansion of (x + y)n is 4096, then the greatest
coefficient occurs in the term
(a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) none of these
10. If the coefficient of x7 and x4 are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign in the expansion of
11
 x 2  b  , then
 a x 

(a) ab = 1 (b) a = b (c) a + b = 0 (d) none of these

11. If n is even , then the coefficient of x in the expansion of (1+x)n(1-1/x)n , is

(a) n C n (b) 0 (c) n C n 1 (d) none of these


2
2

10
1
 
12. The sum of the rational term in the expansion of  2  3 5  , is
 
(a) 41 (b) 0 (c) cannot be evaluated (d) none of these

C0 C1 C 2 C3
13. The sum of (n + 1) terms of the series     .... is equal to
2 3 4 5

(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) none of these


n 1 n2 n( n  1)

log 10 x 5
14. If the third term in the expansion of [ x  x ] is 106, then x =

(a) 10–1/3 (b) 10 (c) 10–5/2 (d) none of these

15. The appr. value of (7.995)1/3 correct to four decimal places is

(1) 1.9995 (b) 1.9996 (c) 1.9990 (d) 1.9991

100
16. The coefficient of x53 in the expansion of  100 Cm ( x  3)100 m 2 m is
m 0

(a) 100 C (b) 100 C (c) –100 C (d) none of these


47 53 53

17. If (1 + x – 2x2)6 = 1 + a1x + a2x2 + .... +a12 x12, then the expression a2 + a4 + a6 + .... +a12
has the value

(a) 32 (b) 63 (c) 64 (d) none of these

n  n   n 
18. For 2  r  n,    2     
 r   r  1  r  2 

 n  1  n  1  n  2  n  2
(a)   (b) 2   (c) 2   (d)  
 r 1  r 1  r   r 
19. The coefficient of x4 in the expansion of (1 + x + x2 + x3)n is
(a) nC 4 (b) nC4 + nC2
(c) nC4 + nC2 + nC4.nC2 (d) nC4 + nC2 + nC1.nC2

20. If m, n, r are positive integers such that r < m,n, then the series
mC + mCr–1 nC1 + mCr–2 nC2 + .... + mC1 nCr–1 + nCr is equal to
r

(a) (m Cr) 2 (b) m+n C


r (c) m+nC
r + m C r + nC r (d) none of these

21. If the second, third and fourth term in the expansion of (x + a)n are 240, 720 and 1080 respectively,
then the value of n is
(a) 15 (b) 20 (c) 10 (d) 5

22. In the expansion of (1 + x)n the coefficient of pth and (p + 1)th terms are respectivley p and q.
Then p + q =
(a) n + 3 (b) n + 1 (c) n + 2 (d) n
15
 4 1
23. The coefficient of x32 in the expansion of  x  3  is
 x 

(a) 15 C (b) 15 C (c) 15 C (d) 15 C


4 3 2 5

24. If n is even positive integer, then the condition that the greatest term in the expansion of (1 + x)n
may have the greatest coefficient also, is

n n2 n 1 n n n4
(a) x (b)  x (c) x (d) none of these
n2 n n n 1 n4 4
n
 2 1
25. If the middle term in the expansion of  x   is 924x6, then n =
 x

(a) 10 (b) 12 (c) 14 (d) none of these

(n  1) q
26. If rth and (r +1)th terms in the expansion of (p + q)n are equal, then r ( p  q ) is

1 1
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) (d)
4 2
n

C0  ...  n Cn
27. The value of 
n 1
n
Pn
is

(a) e 2 (b) e (c) e2 – 1 (d) e – 1

28. The sum of coefficients in the expansion of (x + 2y + 3z)8 is


(a) 38 (b) 58 (c) 68 (d) none of these
29. Sum of the last 30 coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)59, when expanded in ascending powers
of x is
(a) 259 (b) 258 (c) 230 (d) 229
30. Integral part of (7 + 35)2n+1 is (n  N)
(a) an even number
(b) an odd number
(c) an even or an odd number depending upon the value of n
(d) none of these

MORE THAN ONE CORRECT ANSWERS


2n
 n 1
31. n n   is
 2 

3 3
 n 1
(a) less than  n  1  (b) greater than   (c) less than (n!)
3 (d) greater than (n!)3
 2   2 
m

i 0
30
  
20
32. If f (m)   30  i m  i where p  p Cq , then
q 
50
(a) maximum value of f(m) is C25 (b) f (0)  f (1)  ...  f (50)  250

50
2
(c) f(m) is always divisible by 50(1  m  49) (d) the value of  ( f (m))  100C50
m0

33. If for z as real or complex, (1  z 2  z 4 )8  C0  C1 z 2  C2 z 4  ...  C16 z 32 , then

(a) C0  C1  C2  C3  ...  C16  1 (b) C0  C3  C6  C9  C12  C15  37

(c) C 2  C 5  C 8  C11  C14  3 6 (d) C1  C4  C7  C10  C13  C16  37

34. If (1  x) n  C0  C1 x  C2 x 2  ...  Cn x n , then


C0  (C0  C1 )  (C0  C1  C2 )  (C0  C1  C2  C3 )  ...( 1) n 1 (C0  C1  ...  Cn 1 ) , where n is even
integer is
(a) A positive value (b) A negative value (c) Divisible by 2n–1 (d) Divisible by 2n

35. If (1  x) n  C0  C1 x  C2 x 2  ...  Cn x n , n N , then C0  C1  C2  ....  ( 1) m 1 Cm 1 is equal to (m  n)

(n  1)(n  2)...(n  m  1)
(a) ( 1) m 1 (b) n 1
Cm 1 (1)m 1
(m  1)!

(n  1)( n  2)...( n  m)
(c) (1) m 1 (d) n 1
Cn m ( 1) m 1
( m  1)!
36. For which of the following values of x, 5th term is the numerically greatest term in the expansion of
(1 + x/3)10
(a) – 2 (b) 1.8 (c) 2 (d) – 1.9

37. The coefficient of a8 b6 c4 in the expansion of (a + b + c)18 is


18
(a) C14.14C8 (b) 18
C10.10C6 (c) 18
C6.12C8 (d) 18
C4.14C6

n
 1
n
38. The term independent of x in the expansion of (1 + x) .  1   is
 x

n 1 n
2
Cn 1
(a) 0, if n is odd (b) (1) . , if n is odd
2

(c) ( 1) n /2 . n Cn /2 , if n is even (d) none of these

39. Let R  (8  3 7) 20 and [R] = the greatest integer less than or equal to R. Then

(a) [R] is even (b) [R] is odd

1
(c) R  [ R]  1  (d) none of these
(8  3 7) 20

40. In the expansion of (x + y + z)25


(a) Every term is of the form 25Cr. rCk.x25–r.yr–k. zk
(b) The coefficient of x8 y9 z9 is 0
(c) The number of terms is 325
(d) none of these
MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENT
Comprehension-I

n! 1  r
If can be intuitively proved that (x1 + x2 + x3 + .... + xr)n =   !  !.... ! x
1 2 r
1 x2 2 .....x r where the

summation runs over all those terms for which a1 + a2 + .... + ar = n. This result is called multinomial
theorem. The famous Newton’s binomial theorem is a special case of this theorem if n = 2. Indeed
n!  
(x1 + x2)n = 
1   2

n 1
!  2 !
x1 1 x2 2 .

20 !
1. The sum of the numerical series 
x  y  z  20
x ! y ! z ! must be
(a) 203 (b) 320 (c) 20
C3 (d) none of these

2. The coefficient of a3b4c5 in the expansion of (ab + bc + ac)6 must be


12 !
(a) 60 (b) 18 (c) 3! 4 ! 5 !
(d) none of these

10
 1 
3. The coefficient of x8 in the expansion of  x   2 must be
 x 
(a) 55 (b) 66 (c) 190 (d) 180

4. The coefficient of a7b5c8 in the expansion of (abc + bcd + cda + adb)6 is


18 ! 12 !
(a) 7 ! 5! 8 !
(b) 7 ! 5! 8 !
(c) 240 (d) none of these

Comprehension-II

If n and x are positive integers then by binomial theorem (1 + x)n = 1 + nC1 x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + .... The
RHS can be written in several ways.
For instance (1 + x)n = 1 + (A multiple of x) = 1 + x where  is an integer.
OR
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +x2 = 1 + nx + a multiple of x2 etc.
From the last representation we can conclude that (1 + x)n – 1 – nx is divisible by x2.

5. If n  5 the expression 22n + 1 – 9n2 + 3n –2 must be divisible by


(a) 36 (b) 48 (c) 54 (d) none of these

6. If f (n) = 52n + 2 – 24 n – 25 then select the best choice from the following choices
(a) f (n) is divisible by 12 for all n (b) f (n) is divisible by 24 for all n
(c) f (n) is divisible by 576 for all n (d) none of these
7. The last three digits of the number 31000 must be
(a) 249 (b) 751 (c) 001 (d) 003
8. Match the following expansion with their number of terms

A. (x1 + x2 + ... + xn)3 (p) infinite

B. (x1 + x2 + x3)n (q)  2n + 1

C. (1 – x)–3, (| x | < 1) (r) n+2


C3

D. (1 + x + x2)n (s) n+2


C2

9. A. If 7103 is divided by 25, then the remainder is (p) 8

B. The sum of rational terms in the expansion of (2 + 1/15)10 is (q) 225

C. For all n  N, 24n – 15n – 1 is divisible by (r) 18

D. When 599 is divided by 13, the reminder is (s) 41

INTEGER TYPE QUESTIONS

n 1
10. if Cr  (k 2  3) n Cr 1 , then the maximum value of k is

8
x 
11. If the middle term in the expansion of   2  is 1120 then the sum of possible real values of x is
 2 

23
12. Number of values of set of values of ‘r’ for which Cr  2. 23Cr 1  23Cr  2  25C15 is

13. Let a  31/223  1 and for all n  3 , let f(n) = n C0 .a n 1  n C1 .a n  2  n C2 a n 3  ....(1)n 1 . n Cn 1a 0 . If the
value of f(2007) + f(2008) = 3k where k  N, then the value of k is

14. If R is remainder when 683 + 883 is divided by 49, then the value fo R/5 is

15. Given (1 – 2x + 5x2 – 10x3) (1 + x)n = 1 + a1x + a2x2 +..... and that a12 = 2a2 then the value of n is

4
 34 k  x 4  2
16. The largest real value for x such that   (4  k )!  k !   3
k 0   

17. The coefficient of x50 in (1  x)101 (1  x  x 2 )100 is

5
5
18. The remainder when x  55 (24 times 5) is divided by 24 is

19. The greatest power of 10 by which 101100  1 is divisible is


PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
IIT-JEE/JEE-ADVANCE QUESTIONS

1. If in the expansion of (1 + x)m (1 – x)n, the coefficients of x and x2 are 3 and –6 respectively, then m
is
(a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 12 (d) 24
a
2. In the binomial expansion of (a – b)n, n  5, the sum of the 5th and 6th terms is zero. Then
b
equals
n5 n4 5 6
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6 5 n4 n5

n  n   n 
3. For 2  r  n,  r   2  r  1   r  2  =
     

 n  1  n  1 n  2  n  2
(a)   (b) 2  (c) 2  (d)  
 r  1    r 
   r  1  r   

4. The expression [x + (x3 – 1)1/2]5 + [x – (x3 – 1)1/2]5 is a polynomial of degree


(a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 7 (d) 8

5. The sum of the rational terms in the expansion of ( 2 + 31/5)10 is ........ .


(a) 41 (b) 40 (c) 39 (d) 42

m
10   20    p 
6. The sum   i   m  i 
where    0 if p  q  is maximum when m is
 q 
i0    
(a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 15 (d) 20
n n
1 r
7. If an = 
r0
n
Cr
, then  n
Cr
equals
r0
1
(a) (n – 1) an (b) na n (c) na (d) none of these
2 n

8. Coefficient of t24 in (1 + t2)12 (1 + t12) (1 + t24) is


(a) 12C6 + 3 (b) 12C6 + 1 (c) 12
C6 (d) 12
C6 + 2

9. The number of integral terms in the expansion of (51/2 + 71/8)1024 is

2
 n  
2  ! 
 2  
10. If Cr = nCr, then sum of the series {C02 – 2C12 + 3C22 – ... + (–1)n (n + 1)Cn2}
n!
where n is even integer, is
(a) 0 (b) (–1)n/2·(n + 1) (c) (–1)n/2·(n + 2) (d) none of these
11. If n–1C = (k2 – 3) nCr+1, then k 
r

(a) (–,–2] (b) [2, ) (c) [– 3 , 3] (d) ( 3 , 2]

 30   30   30   30   30   30   30   30  n
12. The value of               ......      is, where   = nC
r 
 0  10  1  11   2  12   20   30 
r.
 

 30   30   60   31
(a)   (b)   (c)   (d)  
10  15   30  10 
       

13. The coefficients of three consecutive terms of (1 + x)n + 5 are in the ratio 5 : 10 : 14. Then n =

14. Coefficient of x11 in the expansion of (1 + x2)4(1 + x3)7(1 + x4)12 is


(a) 1051 (b) 1106 (c) 1113 (d) 1120

DCE QUESTIONS

1. If C0, C1, C2 ......... Cn denote the binomical coefficient in the expansion of (1 + x)n. Prove that

c1 c2 c3 c
C0 –  –   (1) n n =
2 3 4 n 1

1 1 n(n  1)
(a) (b) (c) (d) none of these
n 1 n(n  1) ( n  1)

n
 x
2. If the coefficients of x7 and x8 in  2   are equal then n is
 3

(a) 56 (b) 55 (c) 45 (d) 15

3. If nCr – 1 = 36, nCr = 84 and nCr + 1 = 126, then r =


(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4

4. If {1 + x + x 2 } n = a 0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + ... + a 2n x 2n , then a 0 + a 2 + a 4 + ... + a 2n is equal


to

1 3n  1
(a) 3n + 1 (b) 3n (c) 3n + (d)
2 2

5. The expansion of (4 – 3x)3/n in terms of powers of x is valid only if

3 8 8 4
(a) x < (b) x < (c) x > (d) |x| >
8 3 3 3
6. The number of objects of a set containing n distinct objects is
(a) nC + nC2 + nC3 + nC4 + ... nCn (b) nC + nC1 + nC2 + ... nCn
1 0
(c) 2n – 1 (d) 2n + 1

7. The degree of the polynomial [x + (x3 – 1)1/2]6 + [x – (x3 – 1)1/2]6 is equal to


(a) 9 (b) 8 (c) 10 (d) none of these

8. If C0, C1, C2 ... Cn denote coefficients of the expansion (1 + x)n, then the value of
C0 + 2C1 + 3C2 + ... + (n + 1)Cn is
(a) n2n –1 (b) (n + 1) 2n (c) (n + 1) 2n + 1 (d) (n + 2) 2n – 1
n
1 
9. The sum of coefficients of the expansion   2 x  is 6561. The coefficient of term independent
x 
of x is

(a) 16.8C 4 (b) 8C 4 (c) 8 C5 (d) none of these

n
10. The value of r n
Cr x r y n  r where x + y = 1 is equal to
r0
(a) 1 – nx (b) 1 + nx (c) –nx (d) nx

11. The greatest term in the expansion of (1 + 3x)54 where x = 1/3 is


(a) T 28 (b) T 25 (c) T 26 (d) T 24

 r
C3 · 3 r
12. The value of 
r3
r!
is equal to

6e 2 6e 3 9e 2 9e 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 2
AIEEE/JEE-MAINS QUESTIONS

1. The positive integer just greater than (1 + 0.0001)10000 is


(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 2 (d) 3

2. r and n are positive integers r > 1, n > 2 and coefficient of (r + 2)th term and 3rth term in the
expansion of (1 + x)2n are equal, then n equals
(a) 3 r (b) 3 r + 1 (c) 2 r (d) 2 r + 1

3. If x is positive, the first negative term in the expansion of (1 + x)27/5 is


(a) 6th term (b) 7th term (c) 5th term (d) 8th term

4. The number of integral terms in the expansion of ( 3  8 5 ) 256 is


(a) 35 (b) 32 (c) 33 (d) 34
5. If nC r denotes the number of combination of n things taken r at a time, then the expansion
nC n n
r + 1 + Cr – 1 + 2x Cr equals
(a) n + 1C (b) n + 2C (c) n + 2C (d) n + 1C
r+1 r r+1 r

6. The coefficient of xn in expansion of (1 + x)(1 – x)n is


(a) (n – 1) (b) (–1) n–1 n (c) (–1)n–1(n – 1)2 (d) (–1)n(1 – n)

7. If the coefficient of rth, (r + 1)th and (r + 1)th and (r + 2)th terms in the binomial expansion of
(1 + y)m are in A.P., then m and r satisfy the equation
(a) m2 – m(4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0 (b) m2 – m(4r – 1) + 4r2 + 2 = 0
(c) m2 – m(4r – 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0 (d) m2 – m(4r + 1) + 4r2 + 2 = 0
11 11
 2  1    1 
8. If the coefficient of x7 in  ax     equals the coefficient of x–7 in  ax   2   , then a and
  bx     bx  
b satisfy the relation

a
(a) 1 (b) ab = 1 (c) a – b = 1 (d) a + b = 1
b
6
9. The value of
50
C4   56  r C3 is
r 1

(a) 56 C (b) 56 C (c) 55 C (d) 55 C


3 4 4 3
3 3
 1 
(1  x ) 2  1  x 
10. If x is so small that x3 and higher powers of x may be neglected, then  2  may be
1
(1  x ) 2
approximated as

3 x 3 2 3 2 3
(a)  x2 (b)  x (c) 1  x (d) 3x  x 2
8 2 8 8 8

11. The sum of the series 20C0 – 20C1 + 20C2 – 20C3 + .... – .... + 20C10 is

20
1
(a) 0 (b) C 10 (c) – 20 C 10 (d) 20
C10
2
n
n
12. Statement-1:  (r  1)
r0
C r = (n + 2)2n–1.

n
n
Statement-2:  (r  1) Cr x r = (1 + x)n + nx(1 + x)n–1.
r0
(a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is not a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.
(d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
13. The remainder left out when 82n – (62)2n + 1 is divided by 9 is
(a) 2 (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) 0
10 10
10
14. Let S1 =  j ( j  1)10 C j , S2 = j j 1
Cj
j 1

10
2 10
and S3 = j
j 1
Cj .

Statement-1: S3 = 55 × 29

Statement-2 : S1 = 90 × 28 and S2 = 10 × 28
(a) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
(b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is not a correct explanation for Statement-1
(d) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.

15. The coefficient of x7 in the expansion of (1 – x – x2 + x3)6 is


(a) 144 (b) –132 (c) –144 (d) 132

2n 2n
16. If n is a positive integer, then  3 1   
3 1 is

(a) an irrational number (b) an odd positive integer


(c) an even positive integer (d) a rational number other than positive integers
10
 x 1 x 1 
17. The term independent of x in expansion of  2 / 3 1/ 3   is
 x  x  1 x  x1/ 2 
(a) 210 (b) 310 (c) 4 (d) 120

18. If the coefficients of x3 and x4 in the expansion of (1 + ax + bx2) (1 – 2x)18 in powers of x are both
zero, then (a, b) is equal to

 251   251   272   272 


(a) 16,  (b) 14,  (c) 14,  (d) 16, 
 3   3   3   3 
BASIC LEVEL ASSIGNMENT

1. If (1 + ax)n = 1 + 8x + 24x2 + ...., find a and n.

 1 
2. Find the coefficient of x9 in  x 2   9
 3x 

 x 3  10
3. Find the term independent of x in the Binomial expansion    .

3 2x 2
 
9
3 1 
4. Find the term independent of x in the Binomial expansion (1 + x +2x3)  x 2  
 2 3 x

5. If the coefficients of second, third and fourth terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n are in A.P., show
that 2n2 – 9n + 7 = 0.

6. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Cnxn, show that


C2 + 2C3 + 3C4 + .... + 14C15 = 13.214 + 1.

7. Prove that the sum of the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x – 3x2)2163 is –1.

8. Show that (101)50 > (100)50 + (99)50

20
 1 
9. Find the greatest term in the expansion of 3 1   .
 3

10. Find the term which does not contain irrational expression in the expansion of (5 3  7 2 ) 24 .

11. If n is a positive integer, show that

(a) 32 n + 2 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 64.

(b) 4n – 3n – 1 is divisible by 9.

12. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Cnxn show that

C1 C 2 C 2n  1 – 1
(i) C0 +   .......  n 
2 3 n 1 n 1

C1 C C 3n  1 – 1
(ii) 2 C 0  2 2  23 2  .......  2 n  1 n 
2 3 n 1 n 1

22 23 24 Cn 3n  2 – 2 n – 5
(iii) C0  C1  C 2  .......  2 n  2 
1.2 2. 3 3. 4 (n  1) ( n  2) (n  1) ( n  2)
13. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Cnxn prove that
( 2 n) !
(i) C0Cr + C1Cr+1 + C2Cr + 2 + .... + Cn–rCn =
(n  r ) ! (n – r ) !

n!
(ii) C02 – C12 + C22 .... (–1)n Cn2 = 0 or (–1)n/2 2 according as n is odd or even, respectively..
 n! 
 
 2 

14. Prove that

n n n n


  sin x cos(n – 1)x +   sin 2x cos (n – 2)x +   sin 3x cos (n – 3)x + ··· +   sin nx = 2n–1.
1  2  3 n

15. Prove that

n  n  n   n  1 n  n  2  n  n  k   n
2k      2 k 1            ( 1) k      
k   1   k  1 + 2k – 2  2  k  2 k   0   k 
0              

16. Find the coefficient of x11 in the expansion of (2x2 + x – 3)6.


17. Find the coefficient of x3 in the expansion (1 + x + x2)n.

18. The coefficient of x6 in {(1  x)6  (1  x)7  ....  (1  x)15 } is

8
 1 2 
19. If the 6th term in the expansion of  8/3  x log10 x  is 5600, find the value of x.
x 

20. The expansion (2  2) 4 has value, lying between


ADVANCED LEVEL ASSIGNMENT
1. Write the fourth term from the beginning and the fourth term from the end in the expansion of
9
 2 
 x  2  and find the coefficient of x6.
 x 

2n
 1 1.3.5....(2n  1) 2 n
2. Prove that the middle term in the expansion of  x   is .
 x n!

3. In the expansion of (x + a)15, if the eleventh term is the geometric mean of the eighth and the
twelfth terms, which term in the expansion is the greatest ?

4. Prove that in the expansion of (1 +x)2n, the coefficient of xn is double the coefficient of xn in the
2 n
expansion of (1  2 x  x ) .
1 x

5. If (1 + x)n = C 0  C1 x  C 2 x 2  C 3 x 3  ...... C n x n , (n  N ), show that

n 2
 C  1
 k 3  C k   12 n(n  1) 2 (n  2)
k 1  k 1 

2n 2n
6. If  ar ( x  2) r   br ( x  3) r and ak = 1 for all k  n, show that bn  2 n 1C n 1 .
r 0 r 0

n
 1 3r 7r 15r 
7. Find the sum of the series  (–1) r n Cr  2r 
2 2r

2 3r

2 4r
 ......... to m terms 
r0  

8. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + ....... + Cnxn, then prove that

3C0 – 8C1 + 13C2 – 18C3 + ........ upto (n + 1) terms = 0

2n
9. If n is a positive integer and if (1 + x + x2)n =  ar x r , prove that
r0

(i) ar = a2n–r for 0  r  n


1
(ii) a0 + a1 + ..... + an–1 = (3n – an)
2
(iii) (r + 1) ar + 1 = (n – r) ar + (2n – r + 1) ar – 1 for 0  r  2n.
ANSWERS
Objective Assignment

1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (a)

6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10 (a)

11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (b,c) 15. (b)

16. (c) 17. (d) 18. (d) 19. (d) 20. (b)

21. (d) 22. (b) 23. (a) 24. (a) 25. (b)

26. (b) 27. (c) 28. (c) 29. (b) 30. (b)

31. (b,d) 32. (a,b,d) 33. (a,b,d) 34. (b,c) 35. a,b,d)

36. (a,b,c,d) 37. (a,b,c,d) 38. (a,c) 39. (b,c) 40. (a,b)

Miscellaneous Assignment
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (c)

6. (c) 7. (c) 8. A-(r); B-(s); C-(p); D-(q)

9. A-(r);B-(s);C-(q);D-(p) 10. (2) 11. (0) 12. (5)

13. (9) 14. (7) 15. (6) 16. (1) 17. (0)
18. (5) 19. (4)

Previous Year Questions


IIT-JEE/JEE-ADVANCE QUESTIONS

1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (a)


6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (c)
11. (d) 12. (a) 13. (6) 14. (c)

DCE QUESTIONS

1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d)


6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (d)
11. (a) 12. (d)
MAINS QUESTIONS

1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (c)


6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (c) 10. (a)
11. (d) 12. (a) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (c)
16. (a) 17. (a) 18. (d)

Basic Level Assignment


 28
1. a = 2, n = 4 2.
9

5 17
3. 4.
4 54

20 1 (24) !
9. C7 10. t15 = . 32. 2 2
27 (14) ! (10) !

n(n  1)(n  4)
16. 192 17.
6
18. 16 C9 19. x = 10
20. 135 and 136

Advanced Level Assignment

5376
1. 672 ; ; 18 3. 8th term
x9

1  mn 1
7. 2
2 n 1