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TRAINING RELIANCE MODULE NO.

MODULE RG-CM-R-009

TRAINING MODULE

-
ON

STEAM TURBINE

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TRAINING MODULE OBJECTIVE

This Training manual is intended to help engineers to understand the basic fundamentals
Steam Turbine. Thus, in this module, an effort has been made to provide, a much needed
source of information in the field of Steam turbine.

To make the module easy to use, contents are divided into short sections like

♦ Introduction to Steam Turbine


♦ Principle of operation
♦ Construction of Steam Turbine
♦ Operation of Steam Turbine
♦ Maintenance & trouble shooting
♦ FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Manual users shall help in improving as their valuable suggestions can make much improved
version later on.

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CONFIDENTIALITY STATEMENT

This Training manual is prepared exclusively for the technical knowledge enhancement of
the personnel of Reliance Group of Industries.

No part of the document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or
otherwise. The document must be returned or when the recipient has no further use of the
same. The document or any part of the document is not allowed to be taken out of the
respective site or to be shared with any person outside the Reliance Group.

Reliance group of industries reserves the right to refuse access to the above document on the
grounds of confidentiality.

Authorisation for information disclosures is allowed with the written permission of the
respective Site Engineering Head.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. NO. Description Page

1. Function 5

2. Principle of Working/Theory/operation 12

3. Selection Criteria 28

4. Description 31

5. Installation Guidelines 69

6. Operation Guidelines 70

7. Maintenance Guidelines 79

8. Troubleshooting Guidelines 82

9. Acceptance Criteria 91

10. Dos and Don’ts 93

11. Frequently Asked Questions 95

12. Suggested Additional references 105

13. Bibliography & references 109

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1. Function

1.1 . Introduction
A steam turbine is a prime mover that derives its energy of rotation due to conversion of the
heat energy of steam into kinetic energy as it expands through a series of nozzles mounted on
the casing or produced by the fixed blades.

Three important things for Steam Turbine functioning are:

a. Steam at high temperature and pressure contains the potential energy.

b. Potential energy of the steam is converted into a mechanical work through


expansion in a nozzle and impact and/or reaction with a blade.

c. Mechanical Work of many sets of blades attached to a shaft produces rotational


power.

Steam Turbine is widely used in power plants and in all industries where power and /or heat
is needed for the processes. These include Refinery, Petrochemical, Chemical Fertilizers,
Paper industries etc. Steam turbine began to overtake the steam engine for electric power
generation from beginning of year 1900 onwards. Gradually Steam Turbine efficiency and
reliability improved as the time passed. Life extension, Design improvement, &
developments of materials, operations, maintenance, performance monitoring, diagnostics
and machine protection have helped very much in this.

The use of Steam Turbines for Power Generation in Power Plants, for drives for critical
Centrifugal/Axial Compressors in Refineries, Fertilizers & Petrochemicals and for drive units
for pumps, fans, show the wide acceptance & importance of Steam Turbines.

Advantages commonly attributed to Steam Turbines include flexibility to use multiple inlet
and exhaust pressure, inherent variable speed operation, operation independent of electric
power supply, spark proof controls for hazardous duty and inherent self limitations on
developed power.

Advantages of steam turbine over reciprocating steam engine are as below:

§ High efficiency

§ Ability to utilse high pressure and high temperature steam

§ High rotational speed

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§ The brake horsepower of steam turbines can range from a few HP to several thousand HP
in single units. Hence they are quite suitable for large thermal power stations.

§ Unlike reciprocating engines, the turbines do not need any flywheel, as the power
delivered by the turbine is uniform.

§ Smooth, nearly vibration-free operation

§ High rpm can be developed in steam turbines but such a high-speed generation is not
possible in the case of reciprocating engines.

§ Oil free exhaust steam

§ Can be built in small or very large units.

§ Unlike reciprocating steam engines, no internal lubrication is required for steam turbines,
due to the absence of rubbing parts.

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1.2 Turbine History:


In modern times the progress of science has been phenomenally rapid. The old methods of
research have given place to new. The almost infinite complexity of things has been
recognized and methods, based on a co-ordination of data derived from accurate observation
and tabulation of facts, have proved most successful in unrevealing the secrets of Nature.

Hero, an Egyptian Scientist from Alexandria developed the first turbine known as
“Aeropile” about 2,000 years ago. It consisted of a boiler, two hollow bent tubes mounted to
a sphere, and the sphere. Steam coming from the boiler entered through the two hollow tubes
supporting the sphere. The steam then exited through the bent tubes on the sphere, causing it
to spin. Hero is said to have used this invention to pull-open temple doors.

In 1629 an Italian Engineer, Givanni Branca, was probably the first to invent an actual
impulse turbine. This device, a stamping mill, was generated by a steam powered turbine. A
jet nozzle directed steam onto a horizontally mounted turbine wheel, which then turned an
arrangement of gears that operated his mill

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Around the year 1837 several reaction steam wheels were made by Avery at Syracuse, New
York, and by Wilson at Greenock, for driving circular saws and cotton gins. Figure below
shows the rotor of Avery's machine: steam is introduced into it through a hollow shaft and by
the reaction of the jets at the extremities causes rotation.

The rotor was 5 feet across, and the speed 880 feet per second. These wheels were
inefficient, and it is not so obvious that an economical engine could be made on this
principle.

HERO’S REACTION STEAM WHEEL


ROTOR OF AVERY’S TURBINE

In the year 1888, Dr. De Laval of Stockholm undertook the problem with a considerable
measure of success. He caused the steam to issue from a trumpet-shaped jet, so that the
energy of expansion might be utilized in giving velocity to the steam. Experiments showed
that in such jets about 80 per cent of the whole of the available energy in the steam was
converted into kinetic energy of velocity in a straight line, the velocity attained into a vacuum
being about 4,000 feet per second.

Dr. De Laval caused the steam to impinge on a paddle wheel made of the strongest steel,
which revolved at the highest speed consistent with safety, or about half the velocity of the
modern rifle bullet, for the centrifugal forces are enormous. Unfortunately, materials were
not strong enough for the purpose, and the permissible speed of the wheel could only reach
about two-thirds of that necessary for good economy. Dr. De Laval also introduced spiral
helical gearing for reducing the enormous speed of rotation of his wheel to the ordinary
speeds of things to be driven,

In 1884 or four years previously, Sir Charles Parson dealt the turbine problem in a different
way. He thought that moderate surface velocities and speeds of rotation were essential if the
turbine was to receive general acceptance as a prime mover. He decided to split up the fall in
pressure of the steam into small fractional expansions over a large number of turbines in
series, so that the velocity of the steam nowhere should be great.

This principle of compounding turbines in series is now universally used in all except for
very small turbines, where economy in steam is of secondary importance. The arrangement

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of small falls in pressure at each turbine also resulted in high efficiency, because the steam
flowed practically in a non-expansive manner through each individual turbine, and
consequently in an analogous way to water in hydraulic turbines whose high efficiency at
that date had been proved by accurate tests.

DIAGRAM OF CURTIS BLADES AND NOZZLES

FIRST PARSON TURINE

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STRAIGHT BLADING OF FIRST TURBINE MADE, 1884


The compound steam turbine of 10 HP ran at 18,000 revolutions per minute, and had slightly
elastic bearings to allow it to rotate about its dynamic or principal axis. The turbine teeth or
blades were like a cog wheel, set at an angle and sharpened at the front edges, and the guide
blades were similar. These are shown in above figure.

Gradually the form of the blades was improved as a result of experiments and some of these
are shown below. Curved blades with thickened backs were introduced. The blades were cut
off to length from brass, hard rolled and drown to the required section, and inserted into a
groove with distance pieces between and caulked up tightly.

BLADES AND DISTANCE PIECES TRIED IN 1894

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BLADES EXPERIMENTED IN 1900

MAKING OF SEGMENTS OF BLADES

Sir Parson said that steam behaves almost like an incompressible fluid in each turbine of the
series, but because of its elasticity its volume gradually increases with the succession of
small falls of pressure, and the succeeding turbines consequently are made larger and larger.
This enlargement is secured in three ways: (1) by increasing the height of blade, (2) by
increasing the diameter of the succeeding drums, and (3) by altering the angles and openings
between the blades.
All three methods are generally adopted to accommodate the expanding volume of the steam
which in a condensing turbine reaches one hundredfold or more before it issues from the last
blades to the condenser.

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2. Principle of Working/Theory/operation

2.1. Principle of Working/Theory


As explained above “A steam turbine is a prime mover that derives its energy of rotation due
to conversion of the heat energy of steam into kinetic energy as it expands through a series of
nozzles mounted on the casing or the fixed blades.”

Water is converted to steam by application of heat in the boiler, which makes the steam at
specified pressure and temperature. To convert the steam’s energy into work, it must go
through a thermodynamic cycle that combines expansion compression, heat input, and heat
rejection. The most efficient thermodynamic cycle for an ideal fluid is Carnot cycle. It
consists of an isothermal heat input, isentropic expansion, isothermal heat rejection, and an
isentropic compression. Regardless of the combination, the efficiency of the cycle, assuming
constant mass flow is based on the difference in the enthalpy and between the beginning and
end of the cycle.

• 1 to 2: Isentropic expansion
• 2 to 3: Isothermal heat rejection
• 3 to 4: Isentropic compression
• 4 to 1: Isothermal heat supply

Steam can be used as the working fluid in the Carnot Cycle. But its properties adversely
impact its usefulness. In this case the steam expansion process takes place completely in the
moisture region. This requires compression of a vapour/moisture mixture to return to the
cycle’s starting point. Moisture is an expansion process imposes large mechanical efficiency
losses. Also, vapour compression is inefficient and consumes relatively large amounts of
power.

To avoid a two-phase vapour compression process, turbines are based on the Rankine cycle.
It is similar to the Carnot Cycle, except that the initial pressure of the steam is raised and the
condensation process that accompanies heat rejection continues until the liquid saturation
point is reached. At the end of the cycle, then, condensate is simply pumped back to the

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boiler to begin the cycle. The role of the steam turbine is to expand the steam from high
pressure and temperature to lower pressure and temperature.

Rankine cycle is a heat engine with vapor power cycle. The common working fluid is water.
The cycle consists of four processes:

1 to 2: Isentropic expansion
(Steam turbine)

2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection


(Condenser)

3 to 4: Isentropic
compression (Pump)

4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply


(Boiler)

Several things can be done to steam to improve the Rankine Cycle efficiency. Raise initial
steam condition and reduce the amount of moisture near the end of expansion stage. The first
is accomplished by superheating the steam before it does any work. The second involves re-
heating steam to near initial-conditions after it is partially expanded by directing it back to
the heat source, then completing the expansion.

In converting the thermal energy of steam into mechanical energy turbines takes advantage
of this facts- as it expands or drops in pressure, through a small nozzle or opening, it
accelerates and forms a high-speed jet. Directing this momentum in a rotating blade provides
mechanical energy.
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2.1.1. Turbine Classification:


Turbines as fundamentally classified as “Impulse” or “Reaction” type by how the steam
expands through a nozzle and impact a blade. Impulse Stages are often compared with
waterwheels, reaction stages to a rotary lawn sprinkler. There are different ways to classify
the turbine based on:

A. By the action of steam:

a. Impulse
b. Reaction
c. Impulse and reaction combined

B. By the number of step reductions involved:

a. Single stage
b. Multi-stage
c. Whether there is one or more revolving vanes separated by stationary reversing vanes.

C. By the direction of steam flow:

a. Axial
b. Radial
c. Mixed
d. Tangential
e. Helical
f. Reentry

D. By the inlet steam pressure:

a. High Pressure
b. Medium pressure
c. Low pressure

E. By the final pressure

a. Condensing
b. Non-condensing

F. By the source of steam:

a. Extraction
b. Accumulator

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But Turbines as fundamentally classified as “Impulse” or “Reaction” type by how the steam
expands through a nozzle and impact a blade.

Impulse Type:

Impulse nozzles organise the steam so it flows in well-formed high-speed jets. Moving
blades, also called buckets, absorb the jet’s kinetic energy and convert it to shaft rotation.
When the blade is stationary, the jet enters and leaves with equal speed, developing the

SIMPLIFIED BASIC IMPULSE TURBINE

maximum force but no mechanical work. But as the blade speeds up, the jet slows down
relatively and force shrinks. Under ideal conditions, the jet does the most work when the
blade speed is half the steam speed. Steam pressure and speed vary through the impulse
stage.

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IDEAL IMPULSE TURBINE STAGE

The type of blading used in High-pressure turbine is impulse blading because it extracts more
work from the high pressure steam than reaction blading. Impulse blading is in the shape of a
half moon. As steam impacts the moving blades, it pushes the blade forward. This impact
causes the steam to lose velocity without losing the pressure.

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In order to efficiently extract the maximum amount of work out of the steam, two different
types of impulse stages are used. The Curtis stage is the first stage of HP turbine. The Curtis
Stage is designed to initially extract a large amount of work out of the steam as enters the
turbine. The remaining stages of the HP turbines are Rateau Stages.

Curtis Stage:

The Curtis Stage is designed to be a power rotor, extracting a large amount of energy out of
the steam. As main steam enters the HP turbine, it first passes through the nozzle block. The
nozzle block contains the nozzles. The velocity of steam is increased and the pressure is
decreased as the steam passes through the nozzles.

On an impulse turbine, the only time a pressure drop occurs is when steam passes through a
nozzle. After steam passes through the nozzles, it passes through the first set of moving
blades. In the first set of moving blades, work is extracted from the steam causing the
velocity to drop. After passing through the moving blades, the steam then passes through the
non-moving blades. The only purpose the non-moving blades serve is to redirect steam from
the first set of moving blades to the second set of moving blades.

On an impulse turbine, non-moving blades do not have any effect on the pressure or the
velocity of the steam passing through them. After leaving the non-moving blades the steam
passes through another set of moving blades. This set up of nozzles followed by a set of

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SIMPLIFIED TURBINE CURTIS STAGE

moving blades, non-moving blades, and moving blades makes up a single Curtis Stage.
After steam exits the nozzles there are no further pressure drops. However, across both sets
of moving blades there is a velocity drop. This causes the Curtis stage to be classified as
velocity compounding blading.

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Rateau Stages:

The remaining stages of the HP turbines are a series of Rateau stages. A single Rateau stage
consists of a nozzle diaphragm followed by a row of moving blades. The nozzle diaphragm
separated the stages of an impulse turbine and provides support for the nozzles. The nozzles
within the nozzle diaphragm serve the same purpose as the nozzles within the nozzle block.
As steam passes through the nozzle, velocity is increased and pressure is decreased. After
leaving the nozzle, steam then enters the moving blades where once again work is extracted
from the steam. As work is extracted from the steam, its velocity will once again decrease
even though its pressure will not be effected.

Even though there is a velocity increase and a velocity decrease in each Rateau stage, the
overall velocity from the inlet of the first Rateau stage to the exhaust of the final Rateau stage
is not changed. In contrast, there is a pressure drop in each Rateau stage, resulting in overall
pressure drop from the inlet of the first Rateau Stage to the exhaust of the final Rateau stage.
This overall pressure drop causes the Rateau staging to be considered pressure
compounded.
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SIMPLIFIED TURBINE WITH CURTIS & RATEAU STAGING

Above shown diagram indicates Curtis & Rateau Staging arrangement for a turbine.

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Reaction Type:

In a Reaction stage steam enters the fixed blade passages and leaves as steam jet that fills the
entire rotor periphery. Steam flows between moving blades that in-turn, form moving
nozzles. There it drops in pressure, and its speed rises relative to that of blades. This creates
reactive pressure that does work. Despite the rising relative speed, the overall effect reduces
the absolute steam speed through one stage. When the enthalpy drop is about equal in
moving and stationary blades, it is called a 50% reaction stage.

SIMPLIFIED BASIC REACTION TURBINE

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In order to efficiently extract work out of the lower pressure steam, reaction blading is used
on the Turbine. Reaction blading works on the same concept as jet engine. A jet engine is
designed to take in air, compress it, heat it up and discharge it through the back. As the air
exits the jet engine, it expands, pushing the jet engine forward. As the jet engine is pushed

SIMPLIFIED TURBINE REACTION STAGING

forward, it propels the jet through the air. Similarly, each moving reaction blade, is designed
to act as a nozzle (miniature jet engine). As the steam passes through a reaction blade it
causes the reaction blade to be propelled forward, resulting in rotation of the turbine rotor.

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Both the moving blades and the non-moving blades of a reaction turbine are designed to act
like nozzles. As steam passes through the non-moving blades, no work is extracted. Pressure
will decrease and velocity will increase as steam passes through the moving baldes. In the
moving blades work is extracted. Even though the moving blades work is extracted. Even
though the moving blades are designed to act like nozzles, velocity and pressure will
decrease due to work being extracted from the steam.

In the reaction design, a velocity-compounded control stage is followed by two reaction stage
is followed by two reaction stages. The high –speed steam jet gives up only part of its kinetic
energy in the first row of moving blades. Then come reversing blades that redirect the slowed
steam into the second row of moving blades where most of its remaining kinetic energy is
absorbed. Steam then enters the series of reaction stages.

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Impulse –Reaction Compounding Type:

In practice, steam turbine combines impulse and reaction stages, although the machines are
usually labeled one or the other and competitors distinguish the advantages and
disadvantages of each approach.

Steam flowing through nozzles can be pressure-compounded or velocity-compounded. In the


pressure-compounded, for an impulse design, exhaust steam from one-stage flows through
similar impulse stages. In the velocity-compounded, steam energy is absorbed in a series of
constant pressure steps. The velocity energy in the steam emerging from the nozzles is
applied to two or more sets of moving blades. Velocity compounding uses a set of stationary
blades between sets of rotating blades to reverse the flow of steam.

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2.2. Operation:
Three important things for Steam Turbine operation are:

a. Steam at high temperature and pressure contains the potential energy.

b. Potential energy of the steam is converted into a mechanical work through


expansion in a nozzle and impact and/or reaction with a blade.

c. Mechanical Work of many sets of blades attached to a shaft produces rotational


power.

Turbine operation can be divided in following types of turbine:

I. Back-pressure Type
The turbine normally operates against a constant back-pressure, In these turbines the process
steam is derived from the end of the stage and is fed to a process header. The condenser is
eliminated from the thermal cycle. These turbines can also be used as top turbines to supply
exhaust steam to existing units; this improves the entire plant's thermal efficiency.

The steam flow through the turbine can be regulated to maintain the back- pressure header.

II. Back pressure turbines with uncontrolled extraction


According to the extraction pressure the steam is bled either from the wheel chamber or from
the drum section of the turbine. The pressure at the extraction depends on the steam flow
through the rest of the turbine and fluctuates with the load.

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The operating pressure for the steam user can be kept constant within certain limits by fitting
a pressure-reducing valve. Extraction back-pressure turbines can be used when two or more
kinds of process steam are required.

III. Condensing Turbine


Straight-condensing turbines are advantageous, especially when large quantities of a reliable
power source are required or an inexpensive fuel, such as process by-product gas, is readily
available. To improve plant thermal efficiency, steam is usually extracted from the
intermediate stage of the turbine for feedwater heating.

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IV. Extraction -Condensing Turbine


Most process plants need auxiliary steam, which is obtained by bleeding it from
designed extraction points in the steam turbine. The standard practice is to extract
steam at a constant pressure and distribute to different sub-feeders by
incorporating Pressure Reducing Stations (PRDS). Constant Extraction is achieved
by automatic controlled opening/closing of HP inlet control valve and closing
/opening of IP/LP Inlet control valves.

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3. Selection Criteria
Minimum requirements for a selection of Turbine are:

Requirements:

§ Inlet steam pressure and temperature

§ Exhaust steam pressure

§ Driven Equipment power (rated max.-min.)

§ Driven equipment speed (rated max.-min.) and maximum allowable over-speed for trip

§ Speed control (manual or type of process signal)

§ Site conditions: indoor/outdoor and ambient conditions

§ Cooling water data (pressure, temp and cleanliness)

§ Any off-normal steam or driven equipment operating conditions:


- affects turbine steam path areas and ability to make power
- low power conditions create high exhaust temperature (affects lubrication method)

§ Type of pump and service:


- centrifugal or positive displacement
- normal or quick start
- continuous or standby duty
- site electrical rating (if electrical accessories are involved)

§ Specifications:
- customer required scope and turbine shop tests

- API-611/612-3rd or 4th editions (API data sheets required)


- steam cost evaluation
- sound level requirements

Criteria:

The relative value of thermal to electric energy has much to do with the motor/turbine
selection. In industries where electric power costs are high, turbine dominates as the driver
selection. In a competitive and energy saving environment turbine selection also helps to
achieve the same.

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Many industrial plants require both electric and thermal energy at the same time, thermal
energy in the form of steam. If the steam is used for generating the power before its normal
use then the generating power cost will be less.

Efficient Plants are using steam for producing full electrical demand before its process
requirements. Back-pressure Turbine are used for power generation since their heat rate is
considerably lower than that of a condensing turbine.

Requirements can be distinguished as below:

a. Steam demand predominates then steam can be supplied to the user by way of
Pressure Reducing Station.

b. Electrical demand predominates or where the electric power that can be generated
in back pressure operation does not fulfills the requirement then balance power
must be drawn from external source or generated in condensing operation within
the plant itself.

I. Back-pressure Type
Back-pressure Turbines are used in those industrial plants where the heat requirements are
approximately the same as the electrical demand. The turbine normally operates against a
constant back-pressure, demand fluctuations being compensated by parallel operation with
the external power grid.

Back-pressure turbines can be used when a large quantity of process steam is required. The
turbine exhaust steam is supplied to the process and the electric output is dependent on the
demand for the process steam. These turbines can also be used as top turbines to supply
exhaust steam to existing units; this improves the entire plant's thermal efficiency.

II. Back pressure turbines with uncontrolled extraction

A back pressure turbine with uncontrolled extractions is particularly suitable when two steam
systems operating at different pressures are to be supplied and the extraction flow is less than
the exhaust flow. Extraction back-pressure turbines can be used when two or more kinds of
process steam are required. High-pressure steam is supplied through the extraction openings
and low-pressure steam is supplied through as the turbine exhaust.

III. Condensing Turbine

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The main field of application for condensing turbines in industrial plants is where cheap fuel
is available in the form of waste products or waste heat derived from the manufacturing
process. Condensing turbines are used increasingly as prime movers for the turbo-
compressors. The turbine and compressors can be designed for the same speed over a wide
power range.

Straight-condensing turbines are advantageous, especially when large quantities of a reliable


power source are required or an inexpensive fuel, such as process by-product gas, is readily
available. To improve plant thermal efficiency, steam is usually extracted from the
intermediate stage of the turbine for feedwater heating.

IV. Extraction -Condensing Turbine


Extraction-condensing turbines generate both process steam and stable electric power.
Process steam, at one or more fixed pressures, can be automatically extracted as needed. This
type of turbine has the flexibility to satisfy wide variations of process steam at a constant
pressure and to meet electric power demands

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4. Description
Description part is divided into two sections, one for Auxiliary Drive Turbine for Lube oil
Pump/fans/ and pumps and another for Large Drive Turbine like BFW
Pump/Compressor/Generator.

4.1. Auxiliary Turbine

Major components of Auxiliary Turbine are:

4.1.1. Inlet Flange

This is the connection to the steam supply pipeline. It is part of Overspeed Trip Valve or
Emergency Stop Valve. Flange type and material are as per steam operating conditions.

4.1.2. Overspeed Trip System

The overspeed trip system consists of the overspeed sensing device, the interconnected
linkage between it and a Overspeed or Emergency Trip Valve or a combined trip and throttle
valve.

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The overspeed trip sensing device includes those elements which are directly responsive to
speed and which initiate action to close the trip valve at a predetermined overspeed,
commonly referred as the trip value. This trip speed varies depending upon the turbine speed.

Overspeed Trip actuating mechanism is a bolt type weight in the turbine shaft. Spring
restrained until preselected trip speed is reached, the bolt then is instantly released to unlatch
the overspeed trip/emergency trip valve. Snap-action tripping is positive, precise and
repeatable. Trip speed can be easily set in the field, by turning the readily accessable
adjusting screw, the bolts center of gravity is relocated. This action changes the bolt trip
speed.

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By relocating the center of gravity, rather than changing the preload on the spring, the force
that trips the bolt mechanism remains constant no matter what trip speed is set. A weight
mounted to oppose a spring force is set to extend its normal position when trip speed is
reached.

4.1.3. Overspeed Trip Valve or Emergency Stop Valve

This is a mechanically actuated valve that stops the supply of steam to the turbine during
manual stoppage in emergency condition or overspeeding of turbine rotor. Steam supply cut
off brings the turbine to the complete stop condition. When in open, it is positioned to
minimse pressure drop, thereby ensuring highest available pressure at the nozzle ring for
doing work.

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4.1.4. Trip Linkage

Trip linkage connects the Overspeed Trip Valve to the Governor Mounting Housing, where
the valve is activated by either the overspeed trip collar or the Manual Trip Lever.

4.1.5. Throttle Valve or Control Valve

The controlling element of a control system is the steam admission (governing /Control
Valve). In a single valve turbine, all the steam passes through a single control (governing)
valve to the turbine steam chest nozzles. Since the quantity of the steam passing through the
turbine nozzles depends on the steam pressure, the quantity of the steam flowing through
these nozzles will depend directly on the pressures in the steam chest. Hence variation in the
steam flow is accomplished by changing the throttling the steam pressure, the amount of
steam entering the turbine and thereby determines the speed and power produced by the
turbine

The throttle valve is located downstream of the Overspeed Trip Valve and upstream of the
steam chest.

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4.1.6. Governor

To control turbine load automatically speed governor takes care to measure shaft speed and
adjust governor valve openings to pass the required steam flow, in turns, maintain speed
within the governors regulating range.

Turbine speed will remain constant as long as shaft load, governing valve openings are
unchanged and steam conditions remain steady. But when shaft load decreases with constant
governing valve opening, the turbine speed increases because it is getting too much steam.
To bring shaft speed to normal, governing valve must throttle steam flow to match the new
load. When shaft load rises and valve opening is constant, the turbine slows down. To return
shaft speed to normal, the valve must open more to admit more steam.

A shaft speed governor can make these changes automatically. The operation of the governor
is basically the same in the sense that the speed governor controls the shaft speed by varying
the opening in the control valve proportional to the load variations on the turbine.

The Governor senses the speed of the turbine and opens or closes the throttle valve, as
appropriate, to maintain the set speed. A variety of governors are available for different
applications. Mechanical Constant Speed Governor or Woodward make hydraulic speed
droop type governors are being used for this purpose.

Governor Training module has been separately prepared. Please refer to Manual RG-CM-R-
014.

4.1.7. Governor Linkages

This is the linkage between the Governor output shaft and the Governing Control/Throttle
Valve.

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4.1.8. Governor Mounting Housing

This is the structure supporting the Governor and connecting it to the Governor End Bearing
housing. The Trip Collar, Manual Trip Lever and Governor Drive Coupling are connected
within the Governor Mounting Housing.

4.1.9. Overspeed Trip Lever

The Overspeed Trip lever is part of Trip Linkage. It allows manual activation of the
Overspeed/Emergency Trip Valve.

4.1.10. Governor End Bearing Housing

The radial (Sleeve or Ball type) bearing supporting the shaft is contained within this housing.
The housing also contains oil rings, seals, the oil reservoir and the cooling water jackets. An
oil leveler and Constant Level Oiler are mounted on the bearing housing, along with the oil
filter/ vent, oil drain plug, and plugs for cooling water inlet and outlet openings. The Casing
Ned Bearing Housing is similar to the Governor End Bearing Housing. The radial bearing
(ball or sleeve type) in the Casing End Bearing
housing also support the rotor.

4.1.11. Oil Level Gauge

The oil level gauge indicates the oil level in the bearing housing. This level corresponds with
a mark inscribed on the bearing housing.

4.1.12. Constant Level oiler

The Constant Level Oiler is an oil reservoir that is set to maintain a constant oil level in the
bearing housing.

4.1.13. Gland Housing & Gland Seals

Gland Housing contains sealing system, which prevents steam from leaking along the shaft to
atmosphere. Some steam will escape past the sealing system to the atmosphere or venting
arrangement to a safe location.

Carbon or labyrinth rings or dry running mechanical seals are provided at each end of the
turbine where the shaft passes thru the turbine case. On non-condensing turbine, the packing
limits and controls the flow of steam along the shaft. On condensing turbines, the packing
controls the outward leakage of steam at the steam end, where the pressure inside the turbine
case is greater than atmosphere, and the entrance of air into the casing at the exhaust end
where the pressure inside the turbine case is less than atmosphere.

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4.1.14. I. Carbon Ring

Each carbon ring consists of segments (depend on shaft size) bound by a garter spring. The
spring holds the segments concentric but permits the ring to float with the shaft. The spring
passes through a stop washer, which fits into a recess in the gland housing and in the carbon
ring to prevent the ring from rotating.

Coppus Sealing Arrangement Dresser Rand Sealing Arrangement

Split carbon-ring glands are removable without disturbing the upper casing in case of Coppus
make turbine for quick, convenient inspection or replacement. Shaft area under the rings is
chrome plated and ground to a smooth finish to achieve finish to achieve a tight steam seal
and to prolong the carbon ring life.

4.1.14. II. Labyrinths

Labyrinths packings of soft metal are used when back pressure or turbine speed. The packing
is segregated and assembled concentric to the turbine shaft and held in place by multiple coil
(garter) springs. This segmental designed allows for movement under upset conditions,
maintaining the integrity of the steam path.

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4.1.14. III. Mechanical seal

Dry running mechanical seals are available in place of carbon or labyrinth sealing system.
They create a high-pressure region that forms a barrier tp steam flow as the turbine rotates.
The seals reduce leakage so that glande ejectors and condensers are not required. These seals
decrease steam consumption and lower maintenance costs.

4.1.14. Cover

The cover is the turbine component that contains the high-pressure steam. The steam is
actually passes through the steam chest. Steam enters the Steam Chest from the throttle valve
and exit through the nozzles.

4.1.15. Hand Valves or Booster Valves

Handvalves allow maximum efficiency at part loads and rated load at reduced steam pressure
for overload capacity.

These valves allow the operator to open or close the passages from the Steam Chest to a
portion of the nozzles-thereby turning some nozzles on and off. This permits the operator to
improve the turbine efficiency at partial load. By closing some nozzles power can be
decreased by reducing the steam flow, without throttling and steam pressure. The number of
hand valves on the turbine is determined by operating conditions and customer requirements.
To avoid steam erosion damage to hand valves seats, hand valves must be either completely
open or closed, never used as a throttle.
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4.1.16. Exhaust Casing

The exhaust Casing contains the exhaust steam and is integral with the Turbine Support and
Exhaust Flange. The Exhaust Casing supports the Bearing housing support and Casing End
Bearing Housing at the shaft extension.

4.1.17. Turbine Support

The Turbine support consists of two legs that are cast integral with the Exhaust Casing. The
legs are drilled for mounting bolts and dowel pins which holds the turbine in position and
help maintain alignment with the driven equipment.

4.1.18. Exhaust Flange

This flange connects the turbine to the exhaust steam line. Flange type, size and material are
a function of steam conditions and customer requirements.

4.1.19. Rotor

The rotor assembly is the rotating element of the turbine, which includes all parts attached to
a shaft, except the coupling that connects the turbine to the driven equipment.

Turbine Rotor and Other Parts Turbine Rotor Wheel

The parts of the rotor are the shaft, wheel with the blades machined into or mounted on the
circumference, the rotating portion of the thrust bearing like thrust collar or in the case of the
ball thrust the complete thrust bearing, the oil pump and /or governor drive gear or coupling
and any necessary spaces, rings or gland sleeves.

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When reinstalling rotor, a check must be made of the relationship in the position of the steam
nozzle located in the steam chest reversing chamber to that of the wheel buckets. This
relationship is called “lap”. The lap can be line and line 9zero) to maximum dimension as per
the manufacturer guideline. The “lap” dimension can be achieved by the location of the
thrust bearing on the rotor shaft with a spacer collar. Changing the thickness of spacer collar
will change the amount of “lap”.

The axial flow turbines use vane type elements for blades. The blades of the axial flow
turbines are made of a stainless steel material. It is important that they retain their sharp
edges to hold the performance they are designed for.

The blades are mounted on the periphery of the wheel.

The blades are joined together at their tips in segments with a shroud band. The shroud band
not only ties the blades together to increase the rigidity of the blade group but also prevents
the steam from spilling put of the blades radially. The shroud itself is stainless steel and the
holes for the tennon are punched on the strip. This tennon is then peened over to hold the
shroud band in place.

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4.1.20. Shaft Extension

This is the output shaft of the turbine

4.1.21. Main Bearings

The turbine rotor is supported on two main bearings which are generally termed as the steam
end and exhaust end or NDE and DE or Governor End or Coupling End depending on their
location.

Bearings could be of Antifriction bearing, Sleeve type, selected based on operating


conditions and requirement by turbine manufacturer.

4.1.21. I. Main Bearings; Sleeve type

The rotor shaft journal bearings are sleeve type, thin wall or shell design, manufactured from
bronze- baked and or steel shell with babbitt lining depending on operational requirements
and specifications. In most cases, journal bearings are interchangeable for both the steam
inlet and exhaust ends. An Anti-rotation pin prevents main bearing from rotating with the
shaft.

The bearing is designed for either of the followings:

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a. A ring lubrication system


b. A combined circulating and ring lubrication system
c. A pressure feed lubrication system only.

Whenever bearings are removed for examination or replacement, the oil sumps should be
drained, this is where sludge, dirt and metallic deposits will indicate its origin and the state of
that part or parts. Complete bearing can be removed without removing the rotor.

4.1.21. II. Main Bearings; Anti-friction Type

Depending upon operating conditions, Anti-friction ball bearing may eliminate cooling water
requirements for lubrication oil cooling.

Antifriction bearings are standards in Coppus make RLA and RLVA turbine. In RLA and
RLVA turbines these bearings are little far from the hot casing so that the turbines can
operate at steam temperatures well above those possible with sleeve bearing without water
cooling or forced lubrication. Anti-friction bearings provided are main bearing for radial
support as well as for Axial thrust.

Both Steam and Exhaust end bearing are lubricated through the oil ring lubrication. Coppus
make RLVA bearings are grease lubricated, as standard but oil mist or circulating oil systems
are also being used.

4.1.21. III. Thrust Bearing

Single impulse wheel design rotor produces minimum internally generated thrust, a thrust
bearing is required to firmly fix the rotor in its axial position and to withstand coupling thrust
by load transmission.

Thrust bearing precisely locates the rotor to maintain proper clearances between nozzles and
buckets. They are locked on the shaft by bearing nut that is secured by lock washer.

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Depending on operating conditions, a ball bearing or a double acting self-equalising, tilting


pad thrust bearing may be used to take care of thrust. A ball or tilting pad type thrust bearing,
located on the Governor or steam end of the turbine shaft, prevents axial movement of the
turbine rotor beyond designed limits. The bearing is installed so that the primary thrust load
is taken on the row of balls opposite to the loading groove side in case of Anti-friction type
bearing.

Tilting thrust bearings, built on the Kingsbury principle, withstand heavy thrust loads with
very small friction losses and a low rate of wear. The babbitt-surfaced, multi-segment shoes
pivot during operation, providing a tilting action that forms a wedge-shaped oil film between
the rotating thrust collar and the bearing surface. The thrust load automatically distributes in
either direction equally to the several shoes, maintaining internal alignment as well as
holding the rotor in its axial position. This means less maintenance to wearing parts.

In Coppus make vertical RLVA vertical turbines, the standard thrust bearings are a double –
row, angular contact-type designed for handling external up and down thrust loads.

In a pressure feed lubricated systems, the bearing operates in a continuous oil bath. For ring
lubricated system, the ball thrust bearing receives the necessary oil supply from the same oil
ring which supplies oil to the adjacent governor end main bearing.

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4.1.22. Oil Ring

Turbine bearings that are not fed from a pressurized oil system have Oil Rings located inside
a slot in each bearing. This allows the ring to encircle the shaft while dipping into an oil
reservoir in the bottom half of the bearing housing. The purpose of the oil ring is to lift and
release oil thus lubricating and cooling the journal and thrust bearings. During operation, the
rings, which revolve freely on the shaft, dip into the oil reservoir and carry oil up onto the
shaft where it is distributed to each main bearing. The thrust bearing, located inside the shell
of the steam end main bearing, receives its lubrication oil from this same action.

This simple oil ring design is automatically provides lubrication protection during start-up
and coast down. With oil rings the oil temperature in the bearing housings is limited to a
maximum of 82 Deg. C.

4.1.23. Impro Seals

Impro Seals are optional mechanical type seal s which provides a positive sealing against oil
leakage and the entry of dirt and gland leakage steam into the bearing housings. Prevention
of contamination by the seals helps prolong the bearing life.

4.1.24. Pressure Lubrication (Forced Feed)

This system generally consists of a shaft driven main oil pump, an auxiliary oil pump driven
by an independent power source, cooler, filter, pressure and temperature indicators and
piping with associated fitting.

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4.2. Large Steam Turbine

As discusses above that the basic design criteria of steam turbines is to expand steam by an
impulse stage followed by reaction stages. An impulse stage, controlled by partial arc
admission, maintains good turbine efficiency in a wide steam flow range.

Reaction stages give high steam expansion efficiency; in large steam turbines the
combination of one impulse stage with reaction stages produces turbines with the best
efficiency in a wide range of steam flows and speeds (high efficiency with high operating
flexibility.

Reaction stages are made in sections. The fixed blades of each section are supported by
horizontally- split blade carriers housed in the outer casing. The blade carriers must
withstand elevated steam pressure and temperatures together with the outer casing, as well as
low thermal inertia and short start-up time.

Note: Major components description given below are for Siemens make turbine and but
for all major manufacturers components may differ in the construction/design but
function is same.

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Major components of Large Steam Turbine are:

4.2.1. Casing

Casings are of horizontal split type, heavy in order to withstand the higher pressures and
temperatures. It is general practice to let the thickness of walls and flanges decrease from
inlet to exhaust end.

Large casing for low pressure turbines are of welded plate construction, while smaller LP
casings are of cast iron, which may be used for temperatures up to 230 deg.C. Casings for
Intermediate pressures are generally of cast carbon steel able to withstand up to 425 Deg. C.
The high temperatures high-pressure casings for temperatures exceeding 555 Deg.C are of
cast alloy steel such as 3 Cr 1 Mo. ( 3% Chromium + 1 % Molybdenum).

The reason for using different casing materials is that materials at the given maximum
temperatures and under constant pressure continue to deform with very slow increasing strain
of the material, this phenomenon is called “ Creep”.

The casing joints are made of steam tight, without the use of gaskets, by machining the
flange faces very exactly and smoothly. The boltholes are drilled for smoothly fitting bolts,
but dowel pins are often added to secure exact alignment of the flange joint. For high-
pressures the flanges of the casing must be very heavy and will heat up much slower than the
casing walls.

Double casings are used for very high steam pressures. The high pressure is applied to the
inner casing, which is open at the exhaust end, letting the turbine exhaust to the outer casing
the pressure is divided between the casings. And most important, the temperature is also
divided of the flange and is forced to flow round the bolts by means of baffle and thermal
stresses on casings and flange are greatly reduced. Radiation losses are also decreased. The
inner casing may be assembled with shrink rings giving an ideal casing without flanges.

Outer Casing

Inner
Casing

Casing Flange

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The main parts of the turbine outer casing are the inlet (admission) section, the exhaust
section and intermediate section, whose length depends on the number of stages.

All the parts of turbine casing are of cast steel. The outer casing is split axially. The top and
bottom parts are bolted together.

The upper part of the casing includes the integrally cast valve chest. This is in the form of a
horizontal pipe, on one end of which the Main Stop Valve casing with the initial steam inlet
is welded on and at other end is a blind flange. If the flow rates are sufficiently high, MSV
can be arranged at both ends. The valve chest is connected to the interior of the outer casing
via holes which take the control valve seats.

The outer casing is divided into several sections of different pressures. The pressure
chambers are bounded by the webs which take the guide blades carriers.

In addition to the guide blade carriers, the nozzle casing and the packing glands are also
flexibly mounted in the interior of the outer casing to allow the thermal expansion.

- The outer casing for the condensing turbine is made of a high-pressure section, cast in steel,
bolted by a vertical flange to a low pressure one made of cast iron or fabricated steel. In case
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of condensing turbine casing supports and guide keys are provided at the front end bearing
(NDE) pedestal. The rear end (coupling end) bearing pedestal is cast integral with the
exhaust casing, the supporting surface being level with the rotor axis.

- In the case of Back-pressure turbine, in order to permit unrestricted horizontal expansion of


the casing without moving it out of the centre, the casing is located at both casing ends by
two strong guide keys arranged in the vertical centre plane at the bearing pedestals.

4.2.2. Steam Chamber

The steam chamber contains the nozzle groups and serves as packing gland around the
balancing piston. It forms the part by which the control valve nozzles are connected with the
impulse-wheel compartment of the turbine.

Flexibly mounted rings of L-shaped cross section act as steam seal between the steam
chamber and the outer casing. The steam chamber is axially split in the horizontal plane. A
system of appropriately turned shoulders and annular faces ensures the correct position of the
two chamber halves with respect to each other and to the outer casing.

Precise alignment in the outer casing will be obtained by adjustable eccentric guide pins in
both the upper and lower half of the casing.

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The nozzle groups have been inserted into the upper half of the steam chamber and have been
fixed in their position by welding.

The front end of the steam chamber is designed to form a packing gland. A system of annular
sealing strips caulked edgewise into the bore of the gland together with corresponding
grooves machined into the periphery of the turbine rotor form a labyrinth seal which avoids

mechanical contact with the moving rotor parts. A major part of the leak system flowing
through the labyrinth gland is being sucked off through drilled holes in the middle section of
the gland which helps improve the balancing of the axial thrust forces.

4.2.3. Guide Blade Carrier

The function of the guide blade carrier is to support the fixed guide blades in the turbine. In
addition to certain benefits in manufacture, the use of guide blade carrier enables damaged
guide blades to be changed without having to dismantle the bottom half of the outer casing
and its piping connections.

The guide blade carrier is of horizontal-split design with a bolted flange. It is supported and
located axially in the outer casing by means of a circumferential groove which engages with
a cast projection.

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The paws of the bottom half of the carrier are supported in recesses in the bottom half of the
outer casing. Adjusting devices enable it to be lined up level with the turbine axis. Side
alignment is provided by an eccentric pin which engages in a slot in the bottom half of the
outer casing at right angles to the joint face.

The support surface of the carriers paws and the eccentric pin lie in symmetrical planes in
order to prevent any distortion arising from thermal expansion.

4.2.4. Turbine Rotor

The design of turbine rotor depends on the operating principle of the turbine. The impulse
turbine with pressure drop across the stationary blades must have seals between stationary
blades and the rotor. The smaller the sealing area, the smaller the leakage, therefore the
stationary blades are mounted on the diaphragms with labyrinth seals around the shaft. This
construction requires a disc rotor.

The reaction turbine has pressure drops across the moving as well as across the stationary
blades and the use of a disc rotor would create a large axial thrust across each disc. The
application of a drum rotor eliminates the axial thrust caused by the discs, but not the axial
thrust caused by the differential pressure across the moving blades,

Disc Rotor:

All larger disc rotors are now machined out of a solid forging of nickel steel; this should give
the strongest rotor and a fully balanced rotor. It is rather expensive, as the weight of the final
rotor is approximately 50% of the initial forging. Older or smaller disc rotors have shaft and
discs made in separate pieces with the discs shrunk on the shaft. The bore of the discs is
made 0.1% smaller in diameter than the shaft. The discs are then heated until they easily are
slid along the shaft and located in the correct position on the shaft and shaft key. A small
clearance between the discs prevents thermal stress in the shaft.

Drum Rotor:

The first reaction turbines had solid forged drum rotors. They were strong, generally well
balanced as they were machined over the total surface. With the increasing size of turbines
the solid rotors got too heavy and the hollow drum rotor was introduced. This rotor is made
of two or more pieces. For good balance the drum must be machined both outside and inside
and the drum must be open at one end. The second part of the rotor is the drum end cover
with shaft. The end cover is made with a shrink fit and welded.

Hollow Drum Rotor:

A fairly light and rigid drum rotor may be manufactured from discs welded together to form
a drum. Before welding, the rotor is heated by induction heating, then the welding is
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performed with automatic welding machines for the "Argon-arc" process.

Most rotors are now made of nickel alloy-steels. Rotors for high outputs and high
temperatures are generally made of chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels.

Rotor arrangement:

The blading of the turbine converts kinetic energy into mechanical energy, which the moving
blades of the rotor provide as a rotary motion driving the machine to which the turbine is
coupled.

Above figure shows the basic construction of a turbine rotor and the special features which
can be incorporated. The rotor is a single forging together with the control stage disc 7 and

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the thrust bearing collar 3. The thrust collar can also be made detachable if required. The
rotor is supported of two pressure lubricated journal bearings (4 and 10).

In front of the thrust bearing collar is the hole for the mechanical overspeed trip 1 and the
operating cams for trip on high axial displacement.

After the front journal bearing come the sealing strips for the outer gland bush 5 and the
inner bush 6. In the figure it is possible to see after the drum blading 8 a small part of the rear
outer gland bush 9.

After the rear journal bearing comes the toothed wheel for the manual turning gear 22 and the
impeller for the hydraulic turbine 12.

The primary balancing planes are located in front of the inner gland bush, after the final row
of moving blades and between the two 15. In addition, there are secondary balancing planes
in front of the outer gland bush 16 and in front of the coupling hub.

4.2.5. Blading

The blading of the turbine converts thermal energy into mechanical energy. The design and
quality of the blading has major impact on the efficiency and reliability of the turbine. Thus,
high standards are set for the design and manufacturing of the turbine blades.

Three different types of blades are used:

§ Nozzles and impulse airfoils with low reaction for the partial admission control stage
where nozzle group control is employed.
§ The reaction stage with 50% reaction for the full arc admission drum stages, and
§ The twisted and tapered moving blades for the low-pressure stages of condensing
turbines.

Throttle controlled turbines do not have a control stage. All blade rows have shrouds, except
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for the free standing blades of the low pressure stages. All blades are made of stainless Cr
steel.

4.2.5.1 Control Stage

Control stage consists of nozzle and moving blades. The nozzles for the inner casing (steam
chamber, nozzle block) are machined from non-welded blanks. These axially split
components are fitted into grooves in the casing.

One-piece inner casings have a 3-piece nozzle ring, which consists of the outer, middle and
inner ring. Profiled openings are machined into the middle ring by means of
electromechanical machining. Appropriately formed profile material is then inserted into the
openings. The middle ring is fixed to the inner and outer rings by means of electron beam
welding.

The moving blades of the control stage are machined in one piece with straddle root and
shroud. Either a 2- or 3-leg straddle root is used depending on blade stresses. Where
centrifugal forces are very high, the blades are electro-mechanically machined directly into
the rotor.

The straddle roots are inserted into grooves in the control-stage disk and secured with two-
axial taper pins.

4.2.5.2. Drum Blading

The guide blades are made from drawn bar stock. They have pronged roots and are held at
the desired pitch in the grooves of the guide blade carrier by machined spacers. The spacers
are secured to the joint faces of the guide blade carrier by taper pins.

The shrouding is riveted to the guide blades in segments consisting of several blades. The
moving blades of the drum blading (i.e. Reaction Stages) are machined in one piece with
inverted T roots and integral shroud. The inverted-T roots are inserted into the grooves in the
turbine rotor and caulked with brass profile strip.

Moving blades with 2- and 3-leg

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The roots of the blades are sized such that when the blades are lined up they produce
passages of the required size. A gate blade closes off the point of entry to the groove for each
row of blades. This blade, which is secured to the rotor with grub screws, ensures that there is
no gap in the ring of blades or sudden change in pitch.

Moving Blade with Longitudinal T roots


and integral shroud

4.2.5.3. Low Pressure Blading

The last stages of condensing turbines form a standard stage group.

The guide blades of the low-pressure stage –like the drum blading –are made from drawn bar
stock and have pronged roots, riveted shrouding, and machined spacers. The blades have thin
trailing edges to prevent the formation of water droplets. The axial distance before the last
row of moving blades is kept large to facilitate the acceleration and atomisation of any water
droplets which detach from the trailing edges of the stationary blades. This reduces the
energy with which droplets impact on the leading edges of the blades. In addition, the leading
edges of the blades are hardened in case high circumferential velocity, high steam wetness
and low condenser pressure occur simultaneously.

Guide Blade Segment

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The moving blades have inverted-T roots here as well. Hence, they are secured just like the
other drum blades. Only the moving blades of the last low-pressure stage have 3 or 4-leg
straddle roots. In this case the blades are attached to the rotor by means of axially inserted
taper pins. The last row of blades sometimes has curved fir-tree roots. They are inserted in
the axial grooves of the rotor and secure with caulking pieces.

Example of Standardised Low-Pressure Stage with inverted-T


and 4-leg straddle roots.

The moving blades of the standard low-pressure stages are free standing and stabilised by
damping devices. The moving blades of the last stage have small loosely inserted damping
pins. The blades are strengthened around the insertion holes for the rods to prevent
overstressing of the remaining cross section. The other rows of low-pressure moving blades
have loosely inverted damping wire.

4.2.5.4. Blade Tip Sealing

There is a radial clearance of several millimeters at the tip of all guide and moving blades.
This eliminates any possibility of contact between the stationary and moving parts of the
turbine, for example due to distortion of the rotor or casing. This relatively large radial gap is
sealed by strips to restrict power loss due to tip losses to an absolute minimum

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The sealing strips for the guide blade are caulked into the rotor and those for the moving
blades into the guide blade carrier. The thin sealing strip leaves only a few tenths of a
millimeter between the shrouding and the rotor or guide blade carrier.

The sealing strips are made of Stainless Cr Steel and are strong enough to withstand
maximum possible pressure differences. If rubbing occur, then the amount of heat generated
is so slight that no dangerous distortion of the rotor to guide blade carrier can result. The
sealing strips are replaceable.

4.2.6. Balancing Drum

The balancing drum largely compensates the axial thrust of the turbine shaft arising a result
of the pressure difference between inlet and exhaust ends. Balancing Drum, thus, preventing
overloading of the thrust bearing.

Balancing line connected from the Exhaust to the Inlet End.

The horizontal split and bolted balancing drum seal is held in the turbine casing split joint
and suspended in the casing by centering bolts such that it can follow the thermal expansion.
It is fixed axially by a shoulder which also provided sealing of the balancing drum seal from
the casing.

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4.2.7. Turbine Journal Bearing

The function of the two journal bearings in the front (NDE) and rear (DE) is to support the
turbine rotor centrally in the outer casing and its guide blade carriers. The bearings carry a
load perpendicular to the axis of rotation made up of the weight of the rotor, constant or
fluctuating steam forces and kinetic forces caused by the unstable running or any residual
unbalance.

The journal bearing can be sleeve type or tilting pad type in order to satisfy the stability and
loading requirement of the rotor.

The tilting pad bearing has five tilting pads arranged so that two of them are symmetrical to
the vertical in the bottom shell. Each pads cover an arc of 45 degree and its width is 50% of
the journal diameter. The radius of the inner surface of the pads is greater than the radius of
the journal so that the top pads too develop a hydrodynamic film of oil from the rotation of
the shaft.

The pads are held in horizontally –split bearing ring by a pin at each end in the
circumferential direction, however, they do not interfere with the self-adjustment of the pads.
There are split side rings to the left and right of the pads to hold them in the axial direction.

The split bearing ring is designed so that the top half bolts to the bearing cap. The bottom
half lies in the bottom half of the bearing housing and is located axially and circumferentially
by pins at the joint. The inner surface of the bearing ring is chamfered on both sides so that
the pads can adjust to the deflection line of the rotor. The sliding surfaces of the pads are
faced with white metal lining.

The bearing ring only serves as intermediate support for the pads, therefore, the bearing
clearance is solely determined by the diameter of the bearing housing bore, the sum of the
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bearing –ring and pad thickness and the journal diameter. Consequently, the outside diameter
of the bearing ring has no effect on the bearing clearances.

The bearings are lubricated and cooled by a supply of lube oil under pressure. The oil is
admitted through 6 nozzles between each pair of pads. The rotation of the journal draws the
oil into the wedge –shaped gap between journal and pad and a hydrodynamic film of oil
builds up as the speed rises.

The friction and compression in the oil causes fluid pressure which, with the right
combination of gap shape, oil viscosity and circumferential velocity, are sufficient to raise
the journal from the pads even when the loading is high, so allowing it to float on the film of
oil without physical contact.

4.2.8. Turbine Thrust Bearing

The main purposes of thrust bearing are:

§ To keep the rotor in exact position in the casing


§ To absorb any axial thrust on the rotor

From the thrust bearing the shaft must be free to expand in either direction, thus a shaft can
have only one thrust bearing. The thrust bearing should be located at the steam inlet, where
the blade clearances are most critical. When shaft

The axial thrust is very small for impulse turbine, as the pressure is equal across the rotor
discs ensured by equalizing holes in the discs. A simple thrust bearing babbitt facing on
journal bearings for larger turbines is very common.

The pressure drop across the moving blades of reaction turbines creates a heavy axial thrust
in the direction of steam flow through the turbine and a thrust bearing suitable for heavy axial
loading is needed. The tilting pad Kingsbury or Michel thrust bearings operating on the same
principle as the tilting pad journal bearing are generally applied. The axial thrust in impulse
turbines does not require tilting pad thrust bearings, but due to their excellent performance,
they are the most common thrust bearing for large impulse turbines.

The axial thrust in reaction turbines can be nearly eliminated by the use of balance or dummy
pistons. With the correct size of a dummy piston exposed to two different bleed point
pressures, the thrust is nearly equalized, There is a small leakage across the labyrinth seal of
the dummy piston as steam leaks from the high to the lower bleed point.

Thrust bearing consists basically of an assembly divided into two half rings on to which
tilting pads are mounted to form two annular surfaces. These are backed by flanges made

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integral with the shaft. The pads are lined with white metal and are free to tilt individually on
a fixed or moving axis so as to adjust to possible displacements of the rotating shaft.

Generally this bearing is of Kingsbury type. This has large capacity for adjusting to
misalignments between shaft and bearings. Lube oil in thrust bearing supports the load as
well as removes the heat generated.

4.2.9. Jacking Oil Facility

Where bearing loads are high, a jacking oil facility is provided for start-up or when shaft
turning (barring) device is in operation. This is an optional device.

4.2.10. Bearing Housing Shaft End Seal Ring

The seal ring seals the bearing housing at the point where the turbine rotor passes through the
turbine casing.

The bearing seal ring is split axially. It is split inserted in a groove in bearing housing (1) and
is thereby positively located in the axial direction. Seal strips (3) are caulked into the seal
ring at the point where the turbine rotor passes through the turbine casing. The seal strips act
in conjunction with the seal lip (7) of the turbine rotor which is matched to the seal ring to
prevent oil from escaping along the shaft.

Drilled holes are also provided between the seal strips in the bottom half of the seal ring to
allow any oil that accumulates to flow back to the bearing housing.

A thermal shield (2) is fitted to the seal ring to prevent overheating of the bearing housing.

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The oil system must be protected against aggressive atmospheres. These atmospheres can
affect the oil drain lines of the bearing housing. The seal gas (air or nitrogen) is therefore
input to the seal strips at connection L.

The seal chamber pressure should be 5 to 15 mm H2O, the pressure required at inlet
connection L for this is between 0.5 to 1.5 bar. This pressure is adequate to seal effectively
the bearing housing and thereby the oil system against the atmosphere.

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4.2.11. Control Valves

The function of control valves are opened and closed in order to adjust the steam flow to give
the required power output from the turbine. Depending on the power required, the control
valves are opened or closed in a specific sequence.

3
15
D
14
13
12
4
11

10
5
9
6

8 7

1- Arm 6- Valve Cone 12-Guide Ring Top


2- Link 7- Spacer Bush 12-Guide Ring Top
3- Valve Bonnet 8-Valve Seat 13-Stem Head
4- Steam Chest 9-Valve Cone 14-Compression Spring
5- Valve Crossbar 10- Guide ring Bottom 15- Actuator

The valve seats are in the form of diffusers in order to keep flow losses to a minimum.

The steam chest 4 contains a valve crossbar 5 in which the actual valve cones 6 are
suspended loosely. The crossbar is connected to the arm 1 through two stems 9 and the
pivoted links 2. The arm is operated by the actuator 15 which is flexibly mounted on a
bracket 11 attached to the steam chest. The steam chest has two bonnets 3 in which the valve
stems are guided by two rings (10 and 12). The rings also form the top and bottom stem
glands. Each stem head 13 is loaded by a compression spring 14 so that the control valves are
held closed when the turbine is stationary.

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When the turbine is in stationary condition the springs keep the cross-bar in its lowest
position and the cones of the control valves are forced on to their seats 8 by the pressure of
steam. A control pulse from the governor causes the actuator to pull the arm downwards, thus
raising the stems and lifting the cross-bar. The valves then lift in a sequence determined by
the different lengths of the spacer bushes 7 in the cross-bar.

4.2.12. Control Valve Actuator

The actuator transmits the secondary oil positioning pulses for the control valves to the valve
operating levers. The lever system raises or lowers the control valves so that the steam flow
always corresponds to the preset or required turbine output. The actuator pilot valve receives
its control pulses from the secondary oil circuit. However the actual servo power for
positioning the control valves is derived from the pressure of the oil which flows either to the
space above or below the actuator piston.

25- 1-
VENTILATING EYEBOLT
FILTER JOINT
HEAD
11-
ADJUSTING
SCREW 2- RESET BAR

10-LEVER

3- PISTON
ROD
9-PILOT
VALVE
4- SERVO
CYLINER
8- PILOT
PISTON 5-SERVO
PISTON
7-PILOT
SLEEVE

6- CONNECTION PIECES

The principal parts of the actuator are the pilot valve 9 with pilot piston 8, the connection
piece 6 and the feedback system. The piston 5 and piston rod 3 are located in the actuator
housing. The piston rod carries the feedback bar 2 and the eyebolt joint head 1 for connecting
the actuator with the lever system of the control valves.

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Several sleeves 7 in which the pilot piston 8 slides, are fitted tightly into the pilot –valve
housing. The pilot valve has on its periphery grooves which coincide with corresponding oil
pockets in the bore of the sleeves. The top end of the pilot piston carries an impeller 16 with
evenly spaced passages drilled in radial and tangential direction.

23-INSERT 14 –COMPRESSION
SPRING
22- DRILLED
RADIAL HOLE 15 –AXIAL THRUST
BEARING
21-THROTTLE
VALVE FOR 16-WHEEL DISC
ROTATION OIL
P-PRESSURE
17-SLIDE PISTON

20-DRILLED
HOLE

19-THROTTLE
VALVE FOR
VIBRATION
C- SECONDARY
18-DRAIN HOLE OIL PRESSURE

T-OIL DRAIN

A thrust ball bearing 15 is fitted on the pivot pin arranged on the top face of the impeller 16.
A cup shaped spring is pressed against the thrust bearing. Pre-loading of the compression
spring is determined by the setscrew 11 and the position of the lever 10.

Any change in the secondary oil pressure brings about corresponding displacements of the
pilot valves and sleeves are arranged such that, with increasing secondary oil pressure, the
pilot piston is moved upwards, thus enabling pressure oil P to flow into the space above the
actuator piston. The piston moves down and opens the control valves through the lever
system. If the secondary oil pressure drops, the movement is reversed.

By means of a feedback bar 2 , the piston stroke is fed back to the lever 10 via a bellcranck
follower 12. The action of that lever on the compression spring opposes pilot piston
movement. The pilot piston reacts to the spring force and returns to its neutral position. The
feedback system thus stabilises the movements.

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The functional relationship between secondary oil pressure and piston movement can be
changed by the adjusting the inclination of the feedback bar to the desired position with the
help of a setscrew. Such adjustments will affect only the amount of proportional gain, while
the secondary oil pressurisation displacement relationship remains linear with the design of
the feedback bar. However non-linear control characteristics can also be provided through an
appropriately shaped cam profile of the feedback bar.

16-
WHEEL
DISC

OIL FLOW THROUGH


WHEEL DISC

P-PRESSURE OIL

Pressure oil P passes through drilled passages in the pilot valve housing to the upper part of
the pilot piston. From there it floes through four radial holes 22 into the cavity of the hollow
pilot piston, from where it passes to the drilled radial and tangential passages 24 of impeller
16 from which it escapes. The permanent flow of oil leaving the impeller tangentially imparts
a continuous rotational motion to the pilot piston. The throttle valve 21 allows adjustments of
the speed by adjusting the oil flow volume. The speed can be measured in the insert 23.

The secondary oil pressure acting on its underside imparts a constant axial motion to the pilot
valve. This is achieved by a small hole drilled into the lower part of the pilot piston. During
every complete revolution of the piston, this hole momentarily overlaps a drain hole 18 in the
housing. The quantity of secondary oil which is then allowed to escape causes a small
pressure drop in the secondary oil circuit causing the pilot piston downwards by a small
amount. When the hole is covered again the piston is fitted until the next overlap. During
each of the movements by the pilot piston, a minute volume of pressure oil flows to the
actuator piston. This causes slight vibration of the spindles of the control valve, thereby
ensuring immediate response of these components to the control pulses of the governor. The
vibration stroke of the pilot piston can likewise be adjusted by means of a throttle valve 19.

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4.2.13. Main Stop Valve (Emergency Stop Valve)

The Main Stop Valve is the main shut of provision between the steam inlet piping and the
turbine. It can cut off the steam supply to the turbine in a minimum time which is of
particular importance in the event of a fault

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13

F
E T1
D K T2
14

H
1-Main Valve Cone 8-Piston Disc D-Steam Inlet
2- Relief Cone 9-Spring Cup E-Trip Oil
3- Steam Strainer 10-Piston F-Start-up oil
4- Guide Bush 11- Compression Spring H-Test Oil
5- Valve Bonnet 12- Test Piston K-Leakage Oil
6- Labyrinth Bush 13-PG connection T1- Drain Oil
7-Valve Spindle 14-Hand Valve T2-Leakage Oil

The Main stop valve consists basically of a steam section and a hydraulic section which are
joined by a bonnet 5 which is flanged to the side of the valve chest admission section of the
turbine, thus sealing off the steam section. Most of the steam forces acting on the bonnet are
transferred directly to the admission section of the turbine.

The valve spindle 7 is located in the bonnet in two guide bushes 4. The steam side end of the
valve spindle is a relief cone 2 and is mounted on the main cone 1 with an interference fit.
The other end of the valve spindle carries the piston disc 8.

The valve spindle penetration is effectively sealed by the guide and labyrinth bushes. The
steam-side guide bush is also provided with a sealing edge. With the Main Stop Valve open,
the steam pressure acting in the direction of the hydraulic section forces the valve cone with
its specially provided backseat against this edge to form a steam tight seal. In this sway,
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leakage steam cannot escape via the labyrinth bushes while the Main stop valve is open. At
the same time, this ensures that as long as the valve is open the valve cone will not rotate.
Any leakage steam arising while the valve is closed is led away into a leakage-steam line K
located near the rear guide bush.

The hydraulic section, which is also bolted to the connection part, is the active component of
the Main stop valve. It is a piston consisting of two parts, one disc shaped, one bell shaped.
The disc shaped section is fixed to the valve spindle while the bell shaped section moves in a
surrounding cylinder. A compression spring 11 which acts at one end on the inside of the bell
shaped part and at the other end on the valve spindle via a spring cup 9 provided the
connection between the two piston parts. The two parts are pressed against each other when
trip oil (start up oil F) acts on the bell shaped piston pushing it towards the disc.

The Main stop valve is opened hydraulically by oil and closed by spring action. The opening
operation is initiated by the starting device. For this purpose, trip oil (start-up oil F) flows
into the space behind the piston. As it overcomes the action of the spring, the piston moves in
the direction of the piston disc and is eventually pressed against the disc to form a seal.
Controlled by the starting device, the trip oil pressure E now builds up ahead of the piston
disc. While the oil pressure increases here, the oil pressure behind the piston will be
decreasing. This causes the piston disc and the piston to move jointly to their ultimate
position in front of the test piston, thereby opening the valve.

Whenever a tripping operation is released, the trip oil circuit and thus also the space ahead of
the piston disc become depressurised and the valve is immediately closed by the compression
spring. Any remaining trip oil flows into the valve compartment and from there into drain
line T1. During the process the piston remains in its ultimate position.

When control valve starts opening steam D having passed through the inlet flange and the
steam strainer 3, flows through holes in the main cone 1 to the relief cone 2. When the piston
in the hydraulic section moves the valve spindle towards the open position, the relief cone is
first lifted from the cone. The steam flows through the hole thus uncovered to the control-
valves and creates pressure equilibrium upstream and downstream of the cone. The force
required to open the Main stop valve is thereby considerably reduced.

4.2.14. Overspeed Trip

The overspeed trip is a mechanical device, which shuts down the turbine in the vent of
overspeed. This device initiates turbine trip if turbine speed exceeds an admissible limit more
than 10%.

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If turbine speed increases up to the pre-set trip speed, the centrifugal force acting on the trip
bolt overcomes the force of the compression spring. The trip bolt then moves a few
millimeters out of the shaft. In doing so, it strikes the paws of the overspeed trip gear. This
opens the trip oil circuit, which causes the turbine stop and control valves to close and
immediate shutdown of the turbine.

4.2.15. Emergency trip Gear

The Emergency trip gear opens the trip oil circuit, if a fault occurs during operation which
requires turbine shutdown.

If the emergency trip gear trips, the turbine is separated from the live steam system
immediately by the emergency stop valve.

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Emergency trip gear is initiated by

- manual operation of the hand lever in case of emergency,

- Rotor overspeed at about 10% above rated speed and bolt of the overspeed trip rises from
the rotor and strikes the pawl of the trip gear.

In both cases, the passage for the pressure oil is blocked and the rest of oil line ceases to be
under pressure, this results in closing of Main stop valve to shutdown the turbine.

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5. Installation Guidelines

Below is the checklist of tasks to complete prior to placing the new machine into operation:

• Unpacking and inspection

• Cleaning of shipping preservatives

• Inspection and preparation of foundation

• Leveling of turbine and prealignment checking with driven machine

• Grouting of machine baseframe

• Aligning turbine and driven machine

• Connect auxiliary piping

• Check piping stain of steam inlet and exhaust piping

• Connect steam inlet and exhaust piping

• Preparation for initial starting and start-up

Above given guidelines are general and it is recommended to follow Turbine manufacturer
installation guidelines while installing.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

6. Operation Guidelines
To ensure the trouble free operation, the turbine must be

• Operating as per specified operating parameters


• Proper lubricated
• Subjected to correct functioning of protective devices
• Operated according to the specified procedure
• Regularly inspected and maintained according to the Manufacture’s given
guidelines

Turbine steam quality to be ensured for trouble-free operation. Steam quality is dependent on
water quality and boiler design and operating procedure. The build up of deposits in turbine
due to impurities in the steam can cause both thermodynamic and mechanical problem which
can lead to blade failure.

6.1. Starting Guidelines:

General Starting guidelines for Auxiliary and Large Steam Turbine are as below, it is
recommended to follow the guidelines as given by the Manufacturer for individual machine.

Auxiliary Turbine:
§ Check driven machine instruction for starting and operating procedures and readiness.

§ Check oil level in the bearing housing and Woodward Governor, fill as necessary using
oil specified.

§ Start auxiliary pump, if this is supplied.

§ Reset emergency trip lever

§ Drain all condensate from low points in the inlet steam line, from the casing or low points
in the exhaust line. Drain valves must be left open while the turbine is started, to allow
condensate to drain as the turbine warms up.

§ If a cooling water system is used, admit cooling water to bearing housing water jackets.
Flow should be adjusted to maintain bearing oil temperature in normal operating range.

§ In case of condensing turbine- commission the condensing system.

§ In case of back-pressure turbine-slowly open the exhaust line shut off valve to admit
steam from the exhaust line to the turbine casing for the warm up. Do not open full valve

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when turbine casing is cold. If the exhaust line shut off valve is equipped with a by pass
line, use this line for better control of the steam. When the casing is warmed up to the
saturation temperature of the exhaust steam or very nearby, and condensate is not coming
through the drain lines, open the exhaust line shut off valve fully.

§ Admit sufficient steam through the Steam inlet-line valve to turbine so that the rotor
starts slowly spinning. Continue to open the slowly until the speed governor assumes
control of turbine speed. If the governor does not take control, shut down the turbine for
checking the governor functioning.

§ Check that the bearings are adequately lubricated. For oil ring lubrication, remove oil
filler plug and check ring rotation. For pressure feed system check oil pressure gauge.

§ Close all drain lines when no condensate observed.

§ Check for abnormality, vibration, bearing housing temperature, noise.

§ Monitor the turbine operation until stable operation is reached.

Large Steam Turbine:


§ Check driven machine instruction for starting and operating procedures and readiness.

§ Start Lube oil pump and commission oil supply to the bearing oil and governing oil
system.

§ Ensure oil pressure at the machine bearing stabilizes at the specified values

§ Drain all condensate from low points in the inlet steam line, from the casing or low points
in the exhaust line. Drain valves must be left open while the turbine is started, to allow
condensate to drain as the turbine warms up.

§ During turbine start up the hot steam entering the turbine condenses on the cold wall of
the piping and casing. If large amount of condensate collect, or if water enters the casing
then it will not warm up uniformly. There will be temperature differences in the casing
walls, which will give rise to thermal stresses and casing distortion with the possibility of
serious damage to the internals.

§ The drains of piping in which the steam is stationary must remain open until an adequate
steam flow has started.

§ In case of condensing turbine- commission the condensing system.

§ In case of gland condenser system, commission the cooling water to the condenser.

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TRAINING RELIANCE MODULE NO.
MODULE RG-CM-R-009

§ After thoroughly draining the steam inlet before Main Steam Shut off valve, open this
valve and slowly pressurise and warm up the main steam inlet line up to the turbine.

§ If a bypass line to main steam shut off valve is provided, open this first to reduce the load
on the main valve.

§ In many large turbine independent of the thermal condition of the turbine, the turbine is
usually has been warmed from the front i.e. steam admission end. Here open the control
valve before opening the exhaust line shut off valve (applicable in case of back –pressure
turbine).

§ Check barring system functioning during warm up period, if it is manual then follow the
manual barring as described by the manufacture.

§ Where a non-return valve is fitted between turbine and exhaust line shut off valve, this
valve should like0-wise be opened before the shut off valve. (applicable in case of back –
pressure turbine)

§ Check functioning and healthiness of all machine protective devices of turbine as well as
of driven machine.

§ When the steam inlet line has been adequately drained and warmed up, open the
Emergency Stop Valve.

§ Check barring mechanism is disengaged in case of manual barring system.

§ In case of electronic governor give start-up command from the governor panel.

§ In case of manual start up follow start-up sequence as described by the manufacture.

§ Admit sufficient steam through the Steam inlet line valve to turbine so that the rotor starts
slowly spinning. Continue to open the slowly until the speed governor assumes control of
turbine speed. If the governor does not take control, shut down the turbine for checking
the governor functioning.

§ When the turbine has been pressurised as per value given by the manufacturer then open
the exhaust shut off valve.

§ Check that the bearings are adequately lubricated. For oil ring lubrication, remove oil
filler plug and check ring rotation. For pressure feed system check oil pressure gauge.

§ Close all drain lines when no condensate observed.

§ Check for leakage, vibration, bearing temperatures, noise.


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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

§ Monitor the turbine operation until stable operation is reached.

A sample pre-commissioning checklist for a large steam turbine is given below for reference:

S.No ACTIVITIES RESULT


1 Cross-Check ITP / Take over check list
2 Cross-check mechanical completion of turbine and auxiliaries
3 Cross-Check completion of piping erection
4 Cross-Check cleanliness of pipe lines
4.1 Check spring hangers lock removed and cold setting is as per spec.
5 Cross check oil system ( Lube oil console checks )
6 Ensure proper oil flushing
6.1 Charge fresh oil in the tank or centrifuge the flushed oil and reuse
for normal operation
7 Ensure proper functioning of governing system
8 Check following field instruments are in line and working properly
8.1 Level switches, Pr. Gauges, Pr. Transmitters, Diff. Pr. Gauge, Diff
transmitters, Temp indicators, switches etc
8.2 Check all protective devices are on line
8.3 Check all indications are coming in DCS
9 Check instrument air and cooling water supply in line
10 Check gradual heating of the steam inlet piping upto ESV
11 Check charging of downstream back pressure line to rated condition
12 Operation of turbine in no load (Solo Run) condition in presence of
all concerned
12.1 Check pressure temperature and flow of steam
12.2 Check vibrations level regularly during test run
12.3 Check freeness of holding down bolt washer
12.4 Check casing expansion
12.5 Check for any abnormal sound at glands, bearings, casing
12.6 Check bearing metal / oil temperature, axial float of rotor
12.7 Check the First critical speed as per manufacturer's test report
12.8 Check the operation of protection when turbine speed is 10 +- 1% of
MCS, lube oil pressure drop 0.7 atg etc.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

S.No ACTIVITIES RESULT


12.9 Check the stability of governing system over entire speed range
12.91 Check the test run for four hrs at MCS
12.92 Trip the turbine and check the coast down time and vibration
signature
12.93 Keep the machine on manual barring gear operation for cooling
down period
13 Check the alignment between turbine and driven machine
14 Couple the machine and prepare for couple run as per Vendor Test
procedures

6.2. Turbine Limit Monitoring

Generally all large turbines are equipped with supervisory, safety and protection devices
whose function is to prevent or give warning of operating conditions which are dangerous for
the turbine operation:

§ Supervisory devices are for identifying plant operating conditions and/or any deviations
from setpoint conditions.

§ Safety devices are for identifying and eliminating conditions which are undesirable for
operation of the turbine. They are designed and adjusted so that they operate before the
relevant protection device and its trip and therefore contribute to avoiding plant trips.

§ Protection devices are for shutting down the turbine itself or parts of the plant as soon as
conditions arise which endanger the machine.

The principal criteria which can indicate a dangerous condition during normal operation are
as follows:

§ Oil and Bearing Temperatures


§ Bearing housing and Shaft vibrations
§ Relative shaft vibration and absolute casing expansion
§ Steam Parameters

6.2.1. Lubrication System Monitoring

The oil supply is critical to satisfactory operation of the turbine. It lubricates, cools and
controls and in order to ensure that it performs these functions properly, the pressure and

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temperatures must be monitored continuously during normal operation, start-up and


shutdown and if necessary during turning-gear (barring) operation.

The journal bearings support the turbine rotor in a central position in relation to the fixed
guide blade carrier and outer casing. Damage to the bearings can result in serious damage
due to internal metal to metal contact and subsequently involves repair and outage cost.

An essential precondition for trouble free turbine operation is an adequate supply of lubricant
to each bearing at all time. Lube oil supply to journal bearing is important, as the load
carrying capacity of the oil film in the bearing is dependent on the viscosity of the lube oil
used. In turn, however, it is equally dependent on the temperature of the oil film. Therefore in
addition to the lube oil pressure it is important to maintain the lube oil temperature generally
between 45 –50 deg. C outlet of the lube oil cooler. The oil temperature at the outlet of the
cooler must be monitored continuously.

The cleanliness of the oil system is extremely important if the turbine and its driven
equipment are to operate reliably and without interruption over long periods. Any
contamination results in premature wear in components and to sudden operational
disturbances and failures. The cleanliness must therefore to be checked at specified intervals.

6.2.2. Bearing Temperature Monitoring


The temperatures of the journal bearings and thrust bearing are measured either as oil outlet
temperatures directly at the bearing or as bearing metal temperatures immediately below the
white metal lining of the bearing shells/tilting pads and thrust bearing pads.

The bearing metal temperatures can vary widely even when the oil inlet temperature remains
constant. With a thrust bearing the variation depends on the magnitude of the residual thrust.
In the case of journal bearings the changes can be due to variations in the direction and
magnitude of the bearing loads exerted by the shaft journal influenced by steam flow
conditions.
Any spontaneous increases in bearing temperatures above the normal measured maximum
are always an indication of some irregularity. Consequently, a thorough bearing inspection
should follow such change.

6.2.3. Vibration Monitoring

The purpose of vibration monitoring is to monitor the running condition of the turbine and
detect any change with time. The objectives of vibration monitoring are to:

§ Protect the machine and its surroundings against damaging vibration.


§ Identify the causes of excessive or changed vibration
§ Provide the basis for rectification when undesirable vibration occurs.

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The vibration monitoring gives an indication of:

§ Changes in the running parameters due to broken blades, deposits, erosion, misalignment,
shaft distortion, temperature sensitive unbalance.
§ Dynamic overstressing, especially in the bearings, which causes premature depletion of
the bearing carrying capacity.
§ Elimination of the radial clearances, which are important during non-steady state
operating conditions, especially start-up.

When starting up and loading a turbine, especially from cold, it is to be expected that there
will be some temporary vibration due to thermal unbalance which will considerably exceed
the normal value measured when turbine is at operating temperature.

However if an increase in vibration occurs suddenly for no apparent reason at a load or phase
of the start-up procedure when abnormal permanent or temporary vibration is not anticipated,
it is most likely to be due to damage or other malfunctioning, even when limit values are not
attained.

6.2.4. Thermal Expansion of Casing


In the case of Large Steam Turbine, at the time of installation, all stationary and rotating
turbine parts kept aligned with respect to each other and all measuring devices to their
respective neutral positions. Taking that zero position as reference, all parts of the turbine
which are exposed to elevated temperature, such as casing, bearing housing and rotor are
going to expand in both axial and vertical direction. Because of the diverse temperature
levels and the distinct properties of material of construction, the resulting expansion may
attain different values.

Radial Expansion:

Through appropriate measures taken by Turbine design, it has been ensured that the changes
in radial play due to differential radial expansion of stationary and rotating parts and then
causing potential hazard for the turbine, will be kept within limits.

Axial Expansion:

More critical than radial expansion is elongation, the change of dimensions in the axial
direction. The turbine casing, which is secured at its rear end (Drive end) to a fixed point, can
yield in the axial direction under the influence of elevated temperatures only by sliding
forward on the casing support together with the supporting front bearing support (Non-drive
end). As the holding down bolts of the casing brackets at the front end permits free
movement of the brackets in axial direction even after having tightened.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

This explains the importance of making sure, especially during the start-up and shutting
down, that the washers of the bracket hold down bolts are easily movable by hand.

Relative Expansion:

As mentioned above that turbine casing will expand in the axial direction under the influence
of the high steam temperatures with the result that the front bearing housing, which serves as
support for the turbine rotor, is being pushed forward. This bearing housing incorporates the
thrust bearing by which the axial position of the rotor is fixed. By the elongation of the
casing, this fixed point will therefore be shifted too. The rotor, when heated up by the steam
which is flowing across it, is likewise going to expand, but in the direction opposite to the
elongation of the casing.

The difference between the elongation values of the turbine rotor and casing have been
defined as relative elongation. Relative expansion under steady state conditions may be
caused by :

- Different Thermal expansion coefficient of the rotor and casing material of


construction.
- Different mean temperature values of rotor and casing.

The permissible limit values for relative elongation, which have been employed in the design
of the turbine, include an additional margin of safety. These limit values must not to be
exceeded in the operation of turbine.

6.2.6. Steam Parameters Monitoring

A. Temperature

The satisfactory functioning and life of the various components of the turbine are to a large
extent dependant on the absolute main steam temperatures and temperatures fluctuations.

The object of continuous temperature monitoring is:

§ To maintain steam temperatures at the values given in the Data sheet and to utilise the
permitted tolerance.
§ To maintain the main steam temperatures steady.
§ To match the main steam temperatures to the actual casing temperatures as accurately as
possible during start-up.
§ To control the main steam temperature fluctuations within the allowable limits.

Consequences of exceeding the permitted tolerances are:

§ A shortening of the life the affected components.


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§ A build up scale in guiding and sealing devices.


§ Permanent distortion of housing and casings.
§ Temporary or permanent changes in radial clearances.

B. Inlet Steam Pressure Monitoring

The Inlet steam pressure must be monitored during start-up and continuous operation, the
objective of the monitoring is to:

§ Maintain the inlet steam pressure within the permitted tolerance in order not to exceed the
annual average value.
§ Keep the initial steam pressure as constant as possible during steady state operation.
§ Match the initial steam pressure to the requirement of power output.
§ Maintain the pressure and changes during start-up as far as possible in accordance with
the actual casing temperatures.

During normal operation of the turbine with the control valves fully open the turbine output
is entirely dependant on the initial steam pressure.

6.2.6. Wheel Chamber pressure Monitoring:


Wheel Chamber pressure monitoring is a good indication of rotor condition. As these
pressure is direct function of steam mass flow. If the measurement indicates higher values at
constant mass flow then it is an indication of deterioration of turbine operation. All operating
conditions need to be checked.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

7. Maintenance Guidelines
Scheduled preventive maintenance is essential for continued optimum performance and long
service life of the turbine. Maintenance requirements and the corresponding schedule will
vary with the application and service conditions.

Turbine used for the stand-by service should be operated at regular intervals to minimise the
problems normally associated with the idle equipment and to ensure that the turbine is
operable when needed.

The following maintenance and inspection guidelines are recommended for turbine operated
under normal conditions, but it is recommended to follow the guidelines as recommended by
the machine manufacturer.

Auxiliary Turbine:

Daily:

§ Visually inspection for leakage, external damage, abnormal noise


§ Check oil level in the bearing housing and governor, add oil if required.

Monthly:

§ Check lube oil condition, if require replace.


§ Check that oil rings rotate freely and smoothly
§ Follow ovespeed trip check frequency as recommended by manufacture, many are
recommending for monthly check.
§ Check throttle/control valve, overspeed trip linkage for looseness, wear and freedom of
movement.

Yearly:

§ For Woodward governor drain oil, flush and clean and re-fill with fresh oil.
§ Remove and clean the steam strainer.
§ Inspect internal component of the throttle/control valve for wear, replace if required.
§ Thoroughly inspect the governor linkage and overspeed trip linkage for wear, replace if
required.
§ Inspect, clean and flush bearing housings, oil reservoirs and cooling water jackets.
§ Inspect carbon ring for wear-remove, clean and assemble, replace if required.
§ Check thrust bearing play.
§ Remove sentinel valve and check for operation
§ Check alignment
§ Check calibration of all measuring instruments.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

Major Inspection:

Manufacturer recommendation is the final for major inspection or overhaul. The frequency of
this inspection/overhaul will depend on the turbine service conditions, its maintenance
history, the convenience of scheduling a shutdown, and the user’s experience with similar
machines.

Large Stean Turbine:

The turbine must be regularly monitored, particularly in the case for all protective, limiting
and monitoring devices. The turbine plant is equipped with supervisory, safety and protective
devices whose function is to prevent or give warning of operating conditions which are
uneconomical or dangerous for the turbines:

§ Supervisory devices are for identifying plant operating conditions and /or any deviations
from setpoint conditions.

§ Limiting devices are for identifying and eliminating conditions which are undesirable for
operation of the turbine. They are designed and adjusted so that they operate before the
relevant protection device and its trip and therefore contribute to avoiding operational
trips.

§ Protection devices are for shutting down the turbine itself or parts of the plant as soon as
conditions arise which endanger the turbine.

The principal criteria which can indicate a dangerous condition during normal operation are
as below:

§ Oil and bearing metal temperature


§ Bearing Housing and Shaft Vibration
§ Relative Shaft vibration and absolute casing expansion
§ Steam pressures and temperatures
§ Speed
§ High axial displacement

The task of monitoring equipment is to keep the operating personnel constantly informed of
the turbine’s operating condition. If measured values then depart form their normal operating
range, the operating personnel will be able to take measures to return the turbine to its normal
condition or to compensate for a deviation from the optimum operating condition, before a
limiting or protecting device responds.

Preventive maintenance must be performed on the turbine at certain intervals. Each


manufacturer has its own fixed intervals, like M/s Siemens, Germany has recommended:

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

§ Minor overhaul after not more than 4 years or 20,000 to 25,000hrs equivalent operating
hours.

§ Major overhaul after 6 to 8 years or 40,000 to 50,000 equivalent operating hours.

§ Major overhaul after 12 to 15 years or 100,000 equivalent operating hours.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

8. Troubleshooting Guidelines
It is impossible to predict when and where unusual operating conditions and trouble happens.
Below tables describes the possible troubles, its causes and necessary troubleshooting.

Emergency shutdown may be necessary in some cases due to the nature of the trouble,
however in general cases, cause of the trouble shall be investigated during operation and the
troubleshooting shall be made to minimise the downtime.

Usually one problem causes another problem and may lead to serious damage to the unit,
therefore investigation of trouble cause is most important. Problems as described below can
be avoided, if proper precaution during unit operation are taken. In case the investigation of
the cause if trouble is difficult and the needs engineering and technical details, it is better to
contact Turbine vendor.

For Auxiliary Turbine:

S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


1 Excessive Misalignment Run turbine on no load, if vibration is
Vibration normal, check the alignment
Unbalance Remove any deposits in blades. Make
sure turbine if fully drained during long
idle period to prevent the rust formation.
Rubbing Correct the axial position of the rotor.
Adjust the thrust bearing as required.
Worn bearing Replace worn bearing
Worn Coupling Replace worn coupling
Bent Shaft Must be caused by hot bearings, tight
glands or mechanical damage. Check
shaft runout near the center as well as at
the coupling end.
Loose wheel It is extremely unusual, but may be
caused by a rub away, excessive steam
temperature or shock loading.
Glands fitted too Tight carbon rings may cause vibration
tight and overheating. Check for proper
clearances.
Piping Strain Both inlet and exhaust steam lines
should be properly supported to prevent
strains from being imposed on the
turbine. Sufficient allowance must be
made for thermal expansion.

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S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


2 Bearing, Heating Use of improper Oil must be clean and of proper
and wear lubrication viscosity. Ensure that it is free of
condensate and sediment.
Improper Water When water cooling is required, water
Cooling flow should be adjusted to maintain the
bearing oil sump temperature. It will
also cause overheating of main and
thrust bearing.
Water in the oil This may result from gland leakage,
cooler leakage, or condensation from the
atmosphere. Check oil sump for water
and drain the contained water.

Misalignment Misalignment is a common cause of


excessive bearing wear. In case of
sleeve bearing babbit material may be
cracked or broken loose a result of
misalignment. Check and correct the
alignment.
Unbalance This is often due to deposits on buckets
or wheels. Inspect and clean the rotating
element.
Rough Journal In case of sleeve bearing, rough journals
Surface can lead to bearing wear. Journals to be
checked and corrected.
Bearing Fit Ball bearings should fit on the shaft with
a light fit. Too tight a fit.

Excessive thrust Check that proper distance must be


from driven shaft. made between shaft ends.
Heavy slugs of This condition can be avoided through
water in the steam proper steam conditions. Damage to
thrust bearing and wheels will result
from water slug.
Rust Rust may develop on bearing surfaces
when the turbine is improperly stored.
Rust may also develop when the turbine
is out of service for long periods,
without receiving proper attention.

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S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


3 Excessive steam Badly worn or Carbon rings should have a slight
leakage under broken carbon ring clearance on the shaft when cold, as
carbon rings carbon expands much less with heat
than steel.
Dirt under rings The rings should be free to flat axially,
steam leaking under carbon rings may
carry scale or dirt, which can foul the
rings. Remove rings and clean.
Shaft scored The shaft surface under the carbon rings
must be smooth to prevent leakage.
Polish minor shaft imperfections or
replace the shaft.
Corroded, worn or Steam will leak past the carbon ring
dirty partition plate partition if dirt, corrosion or scoring
surface prevents a good seal. Polish sealing
surface.
Leak off line Verify that all steam and condensate can
plugged be discharge freely, which can cause
back pressure.
Excessive Exhaust Gland Packing Housing are designed for
Pressure a predetermined back pressure,
excessive back pressure causes leakage.
4 Oil leaks from High Oil level Reduce the oil level to match with the
seal required level.
Scored shaft Polish shaft under seal ring and install a
under seal ring new ring.
Seal ring Check and install seal ring properly.
improperly
installed
Shaft vibration Excessive vibration may lead to oil leak
problem. Attend vibration problem.
5. Lack of power Hand valve open Ensure correct combination of
(Turbine does not insufficiently handvalves are opened for required load.
run at rated
speed)
Governor (control) Adjust linkages to get full opening.
valve does not
open fully
Steam strainer is Clean and remove all foreign material
choked from the strainer.

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S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action

Load higher than Determine the actual load requirement


turbine rating of the driven equipment. Turbine can be
revamped to suit the requirement.
Inlet steam Check steam pressure at the turbine inlet
pressure is too low and exhaust pressure close to exhaust
or exhaust pressure casing. Maintain the required operating
too high parameters.
Some nozzles Inspect the nozzles for plugging and
plugged then clean.
6 Speed increases Woodward An increase in the internal droop setting
excessively with Governor droop will reduce speed variation or hunting.
loss of load adjustment
Governor low oil Low governor oil level, or dirty or
level foamy oil may cause poor governor
operation. Drain, flush and fill governor
with the proper oil.
A leaky governor Check for leak and attend the same by
(control) valve replacing valve and seal bush.
Governor responds Free the sticking valve and inspect all
slowly linkage joints for signs of sticking or
binding or excessive wear.
Governor valve Check valve stem for free and smooth
sticky motion. If friction or binding occurs,
disassemble and repair/replace seal
components as necessary.
Light load and In some cases, where the turbine
high steam provides a large amount of reserve
pressure power and the inlet steam pressure is
quite high, there is tendency for
excessive speed variation. Try operating
the turbines with additional handvalves
closed.
Rapidly changing Rapidly changing load can sometimes
load cause governor hunting. Check and
correct the operating conditions.

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S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


8 Sluggish Sticking or Generally due to dirt, wear, or
governor/ excessive friction mechanical damage. Clean and repair or
Hunting in governor valve replace.
or valve stem
Governor valve Check valve stem for free and smooth
sticky motion. If friction or binding occurs,
disassemble and repair/replace seal
components as necessary.
9 Slow response on Same cause as
start-up covered in hunting

Turbine carrying Check operating condition, if necessary


very heavy load open additional handvalves to increase
the power.
10 Overspped trip Overspeed trip set The overspeed trip should be set at
actuates on load too close to turbine aprrox. 16% or 21% above the rated
change operating speed speed depending on the NEMA rating
(D or A) of the governor.
Light load and In some cases, where the turbine
high inlet steam provides a large amount of reserve
pressure power and the inlet steam pressure is
quite high, there is tendency for
excessive speed variation. Try operating
the turbines with additional handvalves
closed.

11 Overspeed trip Excessive Replace trip lever and /or trip latch if
actuates at normal vibration latching surfaces are worn, after
speed resolving cause of excessive vibration

Trip setting too If the turbine consistently trips at or


low close to the same speed, the trip setting
may be set to low. The overspeed trip
should be set at aprrox. 16% or 21%
above the rated speed depending on the
NEMA rating (D or A) of the governor.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


12 Overspeed trip Trip speed too If the overspeed trip has not acuated
dos not actuate at high when the turbine reaches 25% above
overspeed rated speed, the trip speed setting may
be too high. The overspeed trip should
be set at aprrox. 16% or 21% above the
rated speed depending on the NEMA
rating (D or A)of the governor.
Overspeed trip The lever spring may be disconnected or
valve unable to broken, applying no activating force at
close the overspeed trip.
Overspeed trip linkages are sticky.
Disassemble and clean.
13 Excessive Steam Load greater than If the turbine is overloaded, steps should
Consumption realised be taken to decrease the load or increase
the power of the turbine by modifying
the internals.
Speed below Check steam pressure and back
normal pressure. Make sure the governor is
fully opening the valve. Check and see
if handvalves are open as required.
Too many This situation gives a turbine excessive
handvalves opened capacity which required throttling by the
governor valve to maintain the proper
speed. This is inefficient and uses more
steam than necessary.
Inlet steam Check steam pressure at the turbine inlet
pressure is too low and exhaust pressure close to exhaust
or exhaust pressure casing. Maintain the required operating
too high parameters.
Steam is wet or the This condition not only causes loss of
low superheat power, but is dangerous since it causes
excessive erosion on the nozzles and
blades. Adjust steam conditions as per
designed operating conditions.
Worn or damaged Efficiency of the turbine is adversely
nozzles and blades affected by this. Nozzles and /or blades
should be replaced or repaired at the
earliest opportunity.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

For Large Turbine:

S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


1 High Vibration Malfunction of Check and replace defective instrument
probe
Casing/Shaft Carry out spectrum analysis
vibration due to
insufficient warm
up
Decrease speed and continue warm up.
Misalignment Check temperature and compare with
alignment chart or protocol value
Correct cold alignment
Check distortion of foundation
Check piping momentum due to
thermal expansion
Vibration of driven Check vibration source
machine
Run turbine in uncoupled condition and
confirm
Attend vibration problem of driven
machine
Damage on bearing Shutdown the machine
Check bearing and turbine internals if
damage of bearing is serious.
Damage on turbine Shut down the machine and overhaul
internals due to and check internals.
carry over of
foreign material
Unbalance due to Shutdown the unit and overhaul replace
blade failure rotor with spare.
Damaged Coupling Shut down the unit. Check wear and
damage of coupling. Check bore,
retainer lock nut etc.

Rotor unbalance Check rotor balance and rebalance.

Other vibration Consult vendor with analysis data and


record for solution.
2 Unusual sound Contact of rotor and Check at low speed with sound
labyrinth detecting rod.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


Run unit dead slow rolling to correct
the rotor deflection.
When sound still exists in-spite of
above points checking, stop the unit
and overhaul.
Contact of blade fin Stop the unit and check the thrust
and nozzle bearing clearance.
Overhaul casing and check clearance of
rotor and stators.
Foreign particle or Find out the location of the unusual
loosening of screws sound. If sound is not continuous and
etc. proves to be foreign particles, shut
down the unit and check internals.
3 Increase of Malfunction of Check and calibrate instruments.
bearing thermo element Compare with other bearing.
temperature
High oil supply Check cooling water pressure and flow
temperature quantity.
Change over to stand-by cooler.
Check oil reservoir level.
Change in oil Check oil characteristics such as
properties viscosity, foaming and water content.

Check oil reservoir level.


Check lube oil pressure control valve.

Check oil leakage from the lube oil


system.
Low lube oil Check LO pressure gauge and confirm
pressure and flow correctness.

Check LP pump.
Check differential pressure across the
LO filter and change over to stand-by.
Check oil reservoir level.
Check oil leak and valve opening in LO
system.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

S.No. Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action


Damage of bearing Shutdown the unit when bearing seems
metal to be damaged. Overhaul bearing and
check.
Change out with spare parts. Clean
bearing housing internals and check
subsequent damage.
Investigate the cause of trouble:
a. Trouble in LO system
b. Carry over of foreign particles
c. Wear off metal
d. Incorrect assembly of bearing
e. Drain carry over into turbine casing
f. Abrupt load change
g. High vibration
h. Compressor surging (in case of
compressor)
i. High vibration
j. Excessive thrust owing to the
sticking of scale to nozzles and
blades.
k. Deformation of casing

Load change Load change shall be made as slowly as


possible.

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9. Acceptance Criteria
Before starting-up the turbine either it is first start-up or after overhauling it is advisable to
make sure that all parts are working properly. This check-up is necessary particularly for the
Emergency Stop Valve, control valves as well as the other safety devices, safety interlocks,
since it is on their perfect operation, safety of machine, plant and personnel depends.

9.1. Turbine No Load Trial:

Once the turbine installation /major overhauling completed, it is advisable to have turbine no
load trial to ensure machine smooth running, interlock functioning, and overspeed trip
checking before putting on load trial.

§ Follow turbine start-up instruction and startup cycle.

§ Check journal and thrust bearing temperatures and shall be within the design limit as
given by the machine vendor.

§ Check Rotor axial displacement and casing expansion and shall be within the design limit
as given by the machine vendor.

§ Check vibration level and shall be within the design limit as given by the machine
vendor.

§ Check for steam leakage, oil leak if any.

§ Check machine for any abnormal sound, machine should be free from any abnormal
sound.

§ Check turbine’s overspeed trip and shall be within the allowable limit as given by the
machine vendor.

§ Check safety devices and interlock functioning before stopping.

§ Check piping support of inlet and exhaust piping for any abnormality. Piping shall have
proper support to take care of piping expansion.

§ Check functioning of lube oil, cooling water system for its normal performance.

9.2. Turbine Load Trial:

Once the turbine no load run completed, machine with the driven machine will be coupled
and made ready for load trial.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

§ Follow machine start-up instruction and startup cycle.

§ Check journal and thrust bearing temperatures and shall be within the design limit as
given by the machine vendor.

§ Check Rotor axial displacement and casing expansion and shall be within the design limit
as given by the machine vendor.

§ Check vibration level and shall be within the design limit as given by the machine
vendor.

§ Check for steam leakage, oil leak if any.

§ Check machine for any abnormal sound, machine should be free from any abnormal
sound.

§ Check safety devices and interlock are healthy.

§ Check piping support of inlet and exhaust piping for any abnormality. Piping shall have
proper support to take care of piping expansion.

§ Check functioning of lube oil, cooling water system for its normal performance.

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MODULE RG-CM-R-009

10. Dos and Don’ts


10.1. Do’s:

The list below of Do’s are general and this has to read along with manufacturer advised Do’s.

§ Inlet steam lines must be blown down prior to connecting them to turbine.

§ Steam quality must be dry and saturated to avoid damage to turbine

§ Do maintain correct distance between the coupling hubs as recommended by coupling


vendor.

§ Do check hot alignment. Thermal movement varies significantly with inlet temperature,
load, ambient conditions and time. Final hot alignment of the turbine to the driven
machine must be based on the actual measured shaft rise under steady state condition.
(applicable for Auxiliary turbine)

For Large turbine do follow the vendor supplied alignment protocol reading.

§ Check and ensure overspeed trip functioning.

§ Do take precaution while checking overspeed trip system during testing, be prepared to
shutdown the turbine.

§ Take proper precautions while engaging the trip lever as trip linkage has a powerful
spring.

§ Do understand that sentinel provided in the auxiliary turbine will only warn that
excessive pressure exists in the casing. It will not relieve this pressure.

§ Be prepared when starting the turbine for turbine tripping in case failure of governor,
overspeed trip, linkages or valves.

10.2. Don’ts:

The list below of Don’ts are general and this has to read along with manufacturer advised
Don’ts.

§ Do not start the turbine without understanding the control, protective and monitoring
system.

§ Do not run turbine equipped with oil ring lubrication at speed less than 900 rpm.
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§ The oil rings will not operate correctly at these speed, causing bearing failure due to lack
of lubrication.

§ Do not allow cooling water to cool bearing oil sump temperature to below recommended
oil temperature.

§ Do not start dismantling the turbine with out understanding dismantling procedure.

§ Do not put a turbine into service proper alignment it to the driven equipment.

§ Do not operate turbine with wet steam

§ Do not run turbine without overspeed protection in line.

§ Do not block or disable the turbine trip system or attempt to adjust or repair it while
turbine is operating.

§ Do not set the overspeed trip system to a speed higher than the recommended value.

§ Do not leave any handvalves partially open, this may cause erosion of the valve seat.

§ Do not run governor with dirty oil or with improper oil which can cause governor
malfunctioning.

§ Do not dismantle the turbine without proper isolation at the steam inlet and exhaust lines
and other auxiliaries piping.

§ Do not operate the turbine unless an atmospheric relief valve or other protective device
has been installed ahead of the turbine exhaust line shut off valve.

§ Do not interconnect drain lines and leak off lines.

§ Do not drive the coupling on or off the shaft with a hammer in case of auxiliary turbine.
The force of hammer will damage the rotor locating bearing, resulting internal damage.

§ Do not remove any covers, guards, gland housing , drain covers etc. While the machine is
operating.

§ Never disconnect the inlet and exhaust flange without proper isolation.

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11. Frequently Asked Questions


Q. What is the principle of a steam turbine?

Ans.
a. If high-velocity steam is allowed to blow on to a curved blade, the steam will
suffer a change in the direction as it passes across the blade, and leaves it.
b. As result of its change in direction across the blade, the steam will impart a
force to the blade.
c. Now if there are number of blades were fixed on the circumference of a disc
which is free to rotate on a shaft, then steam blown across the blades, would
cause the disc to rotate. This is the working principle of a steam turbine.

Q. How can steam turbine be classified?

Ans. By the action of steam:

a. Impulse
b. Reaction
c. Impulse and reaction combined

The number of step reductions involved:

a. Single stage
b. Multi-stage
c. Whether there is one or more revolving vanes separated by stationary
reversing vanes.

The direction of steam flow:

a. Axial
b. Radial
c. Mixed
d. Tangential
e. Helical
f. Reentry

The inlet steam pressure:

a. High Pressure
b. Medium pressure
c. Low pressure
The final pressure

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a. Condensing
b. Non-condensing

The source of steam:


a. Extraction
b. Accumulator

Q. What are the two basic types of steam turbines?

Ans.
Impulse type
Reaction type

Q. What is the operating principle of an impulse turbine?

Ans. The basic idea of an impulse turbine is that a jet of steam from a fixed nozzle
pushes against the rotor blades and impels them forward. The velocity of the steam is
about twice as fast as the velocity of the blades. Only turbines utilising fixed nozzles
are classified as impulse turbine.

Q. What is the operating principle of reaction turbine?

Ans. A reaction turbine utilises a jet of steam that flows from a nozzle on the rotor.
Actually, the steam is directed into the moving blades by fixed blades designed to
expand the steam. The result is a small increase in velocity over that of the moving
blades. These blades from a wall of moving nozzle that further expands the steam.
The steam flow is partially reveresed by the moving blades, producing a reaction on
the blades. Since the pressure drop is small across each row of nozzles

Q. What are the differences between impulse and reaction turbines?

Ans.
a. The impulse turbine is characterised by the fact that it requires nozzles and
that the pressure drop of steam takes place in the nozzles.
b. The reaction turbine, unlike the impulse turbine has no nozzles, as such. It
consists of a row of blades mounted on a drum. The drum blades are separated
by rows of fixed blades mounted in the turbine casing. These fixed blades
serve as nozzles as well as the means of correcting the direction of steam onto
then moving blades.
c. In the case of reaction turbines, the pressure drop of steam takes place over
the blades. This pressure drop produces a reaction and hence causes the
motion of the rotor.

Q. How is velocity compounding accomplished?


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Ans.
a. This is accomplished by an arrangement with alternate rows of fixed blades
and moving blades. The fixed blades are mounted on the casing while the
moving blades are keyed in series on a common shaft. The function of the
fixed blades is to correct the direction of entry of steam to the next row of the
moving blades.
b. The high velocity steam leaving the nozzles passes on to the Ist row of
moving blades where it suffers a partial velocity drop.
c. Its direction is then corrected by the next row of fixed blades and then it enters
the IInd row of moving blades. Here the steam velocity is again partially
reduced. Since only part of the velocity of the steam is used up in each row of
the moving blades, a slower turbine results. This is how velocity
compounding works.

Q. How is pressure compounding accomplished?

Ans.
a. This is accomplished by an arrangement with alternate rows of nozzles
and moving blades.
b. Steam enters the Ist row of nozzles where it suffers a partial drop of
pressure and in lieu of that its velocity gets increased. The high velocity
steam passes on to the Ist row of moving blades where its velocity is
reduced.
c. The steam then passes into the IInd row of nozzles where its pressure is
again partially reduced and velocity is again increased. This high velocity
steam passes from the nozzles to the IInd row of blades where its velocity
is again reduced.
d. Thus pressure drop takes place in successive stages. Since a partial
pressure drop takes place in each stage, the steam velocities will not be so
high with the effect that the turbine will run slower.

Q. How is pressure-velocity compounding accomplished?

Ans.
a. It is a combination of pressure compounding and velocity compounding.
b. Steam is expanded partially in a row of nozzles whereupon its velocity gets
increased. This high velocity steam then enters a few rows of velocity
compounding whereupon its velocity gets successively reduced.
c. The velocity of the steam is again increased in the subsequent row of nozzles
and then again it is allowed to pass onto the another set of velocity
compounding that brings about a stage wise reduction of velocity of the
steam.
d. This system is continued.
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Q. What is a stage in a steam turbine?

Ans. In an impulse turbine, the stage is a set of moving blades behind the nozzle. In a
reaction turbine, each row of blades is called a stage. A single Curtis stage may
consist of two or more rows of moving blades.

Q. What is a diaphragm?

Ans. Partitions between pressure stages in a turbine’s casing are called diaphragms.
They hold the vane-shaped nozzles and seal between the stages. Usually labyrinth-
type seals are used. One half of the diaphragm is fitted into the top casing, the other
half into the bottom.

Q. What is an extraction turbine?

Ans. In an extraction turbine, steam is withdrawn from one or more stages, at one or
more pressures, for heating, plant process, or Boiler Feed Water heater needs.

Q. What is a radial-flow turbine?

Ans. In a radial-flow turbine steam flows outward from the shaft to the casing. The
unit is usually a reaction joint, having both fixed and moving blades. They are used
for special jobs and are more common to European manufacturers.

Q. What are 4 types of turbine seals?

Ans.
a. Carbon rings fitted in segments around the shaft and held together by
garter or carbon spring.
b. Labyrinth matted with shaft serration’s or shaft seal strips.
c. Water seals where a shaft runner acts as a pump to create a ring of water around
the shaft.
d. Stuffing box using woven or soft packing rings that are compressed with a
gland to prevent leakage along the shaft.

Q. What are two types of clearance in a turbine?

Ans. Radial: clearance at the tips of the rotor and casing.


Axial: the fore and aft clearance, at the sides of the rotor and the casing.

Q. What is the function of thrust bearing?

Ans. Thrust bearing keeps the rotor in its correct axial position.
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Q. What are the 4-types of thrust bearings?

Ans. a. Babbitt faced collar bearings


b. Tilting pad pivotal pads
c. Tapered land bearings
d. Rolling contact ball bearings

Q. What is a balance piston?

Ans. Reaction turbines have axial thrust because pressure on the entering side is
greater than pressure on the leaving side of each stage. To counteract this force, steam
is admitted to a dummy (balance) piston chamber at the low pressure end of the rotor.
Some designers also use a balance piston on impulse turbine that have a high thrust.
Instead of piston, seal strips are also used to duplicate a piston’s counter force.

Q. What is a combination thrust and radial bearing?

Ans. These units had the ends of the babbitt bearing extended radially over the end of
the shell. Collars on the rotor face these thrust pads, and the journal is supported in
the bearing between the thrust collars.

Q. What is tapered land thrust bearing?

Ans. The babbit face of a tapered land thrust bearing has a series of fixed pads
divided by radial slots. The leading edge of each sector is tapered, allowing an oil
wedge to build up and carry the thrust between the collar and pad.

Q. What is important to remember about radial bearings?

Ans. A turbine rotor is supported by two radial bearings, one on each end of the
casing. These bearings must be accurately aligned to maintain the close clearance
between the shaft and the shaft seals, and between the rotor and the casing. If
excessive bearing wear lowers the rotor , great harm can be done to the turbine.

Q. How many governors are needed for safe turbine operation?

Ans. Two independent governors are needed for safe turbine operation. One is an
overspeed or emergency trip that shuts off the steam supply at 10% above the running
speed (maximum speed). The second, or main governor, usually controls speed at a
constant speed, many applications have variable speed control.

Q. What is a multi-port governor (control) valve?

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Ans. In large turbines, a valve controls steam flow to group of nozzles. The number
of open valves controls the number of nozzles in use according to the load. A bar-lift
or cam arrangement operated by the governor opens and closes these valves in
sequence. Such a device is a multi-port valve. Using nozzles at full steam pressure is
more efficient then throttling the steam.

Q. What is the difference between partial and full arc admission?

Ans. In multi-port turbine inlets, partial arc admission allows the steam to enter per
valve opening in a sequential manner, so load is increased, more valves open to admit
steam. This can cause uneven heating on the high-pressure annulus as the valves are
individually opened with load increase. In full -arc admission, all regulating valves
open but only at a percentage of their full opening. With load increase, they all open
more fully. This provides more uniform heating around the high-pressure part of the
turbine. Most modern controls with full arc and switch the partial arc to reduce the
throttling losses through the valves.

Q. Why steam leaking from a turbine gland is wasteful and should be avoided?

Ans. It should be avoided because the steam usually enters into the bearing
contaminating the lube oil in the main bearing. Steam leakage from a turbine gland
also creates condensate, causing undue moisture in plant equipment.

Q. What factors cause excessive steam leakage under carbon rings?

Ans.
a. Dirt under rings, steam borne seals or dirt foul up the rings if steam is leaking
under the carbon rings.
b. Shaft scored
c. Worn or broken carbon rings

Q. What is the function of a gland drain?

Ans. The function of a gland drain is to draw off water from sealing-gland cavities
created by the condensation of the sealing steam. Drains are led to either the
condenser air ejector tube nest or the feedwater heaters. Often, gland drains are led to
a low-pressure stage of the turbine to extract more work from the gland-sealing
steam.

Q. What is gland-sealing steam?

Ans. Low-pressure steam is lead to a sealing gland. The steam seals the gland, which
may be a carbon ring or of the labyrinth type, against air at the vacuum /atmospheric
end of the shaft.
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Q. What types of deposits are formed on steam turbine blading?

Ans.
a. Water-soluble deposits
b. NaCl, Na2SO4, NaOH and Na3PO4
c. Water-insoluble deposits
d. SiO2 (mainly)

Q. What is the cause of turbine deposits?

Ans. The turbine deposits are steam-borne foreign matters settled on turbine blades.
Substances dissolved in the BFW transfer partly from the water to steam, during the
process of evaporation. They get dissolved in the steam and are carried into the steam
turbine.

Q. What are the consequences of turbine depositions?

Ans.
I. Economic affect:
a. Reduction in turbine output
b. Decrease in efficiency requiring higher steam consumption

II. Effect of Overloading and decreasing reliability in operation:


a. Pressure characteristic in the turbine gets disturbed with the effect that
thrust and overloading of thrust bearing increase.
b. Blades are subjected to higher bending stresses.
c. Natural vibrations of the blading are affected.
d. Vibration due to uneven deposition on turbine blading
e. Valve jamming due to deposits on valve stem.

III. Corrosion Effect:


a. Fatigue corrosion
b. Pitting corrosion
c. Stress corrosion

Q. What are the basic causes of the problem of rotor failure?

Ans.
a. Normal wear
b. Fatigue failure due to high stress
c. Design deficiency
d. Aggressive operating environment

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Q. How does the damage to turbine-blades tell upon the efficiency of the unit?

Ans. The damage to the blade profiles changes the geometry of steam flow and
thereby reducing the efficiency of the unit.

Q. How does the foreign particle damage of the turbine blade arise?

Ans. It occurs due to impact on blades by foreign particles (debris) left in the system
following outage and become steam –borne later.

Q. How many types of particle impact damage occurs in turbine blades?

Ans.
a. Erosion/Corrosion
b. Foreign particles impacts
c. Solid particle erosion
d. Water damage

Q. What are the main causes of turbine vibration?

Ans.
a. Unbalanced of rotor
b. Worn bearings
c. Worn coupling
d. Misalignment
e. Looseness of parts
f. Piping strain
g. Bent shaft
h. Rubbing of parts
i. Improper Lubrication
j. Steam trouble
k. Foundation problems
l. Cracked or excessive worn parts

Q. How can problem of “excessive vibration” due to piping strain be avoided on


steam turbine?

Ans.
a. The inlet piping as well as exhaust steam lines should be firmly
supported to avoid strains from being imposed on the turbine.
b. Adequate allowance should be made for expansion of steam pipes due to heat.

Q. What is the harm if rotor overspeed?

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Ans. Overspeed rotor grows radially causing heavy rub in the casing and the seal
system. As a result, considerable amount of shroud-band and tenon-rivet head
damage occurs.

Q. What is meant by critical speed?

Ans. It is the speed at which the machine vibrates most violently. It is due to many
causes, such as imbalance or harmonic vibrations set up by the entire machine. To
minimise damage, the turbine should be passed through the known critical speed as
rapidly as possible.

Q. What is function of turning gear (barring gear)?

Ans. Heat must be prevented from warping the rotors of large turbines or high
temperature turbines of 400 Deg.C more. When the turbine is being shutdown a
motor driven or manual operated turning gear is engaged to the turbine to rotate the
rotor and allow the cooling.

Q. Why must steam turbines be warmed up gradually?

Ans. Although it is probable that a turbine can, if its shaft is straight, be started from a
cold condition without warming up, such operation does not contribute to continued
successfully operation of the unit. The temperature strains set up in the casings and
rotors by such rapid heating have harmful effect. The turbine, in large unit especially
should be warmed slowly by recommended warm-up heating rated because of close
clearances.

Q. What are the advantages of steam turbine over reciprocating steam engines?

Ans.
a. Steam turbine has higher efficiency than reciprocating steam engines.
b. The brake horsepower of steam turbines can range from a few HP to several
hundred thousand HP in single units. Hence they are quite suitable for large
thermal power stations.
c. Unlike reciprocating engines, the turbines do not need any flywheel, as the
power delivered by the turbine is uniform.
d. Steam turbines are perfectly balanced and hence present minimum vibrational
problem.
e. High rpm 18000-24000 can be developed in steam turbines but sucj a high
speed generation is not possible in the case of reciprocating engines.
f. Some amount of input energy of steam is lost as the reciprocating motion of
the piston is converted to circular motion.
g. Unlike reciprocating steam engines, no internal lubrication is required for
steam turbines, due to the absence of rubbing parts.
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h. Steam turbines, if well designed are properly maintained, are more reliable
and durable prime movers than steam engines.

Q. Why should a steam trap be installed in the steam inlet line to turbine?

Ans. All multistage turbines, low pressure turbines operating at high pressure with
saturated steam should have a steam trap in order to prevent rapid blade wear from
water erosion.

Q. What are some conditions that may prevent a turbine form developing full
power?

Ans. a. The machine is overloaded.


b. The initial steam pressure and temperature are not up to design conditions.
c. The exhaust pressure is too high.
d. The governor is set too low.
e. The steam strainer is clogged.
f. Turbine nozzles are clogged with deposits.
g. Internal wear on nozzles and blades

Q. Why is it necessary to open casing drains and drains on the steam inlet line to
turbine when turbine is started?

Ans. To avoid slugging nozzles and blades inside the turbine with condensate on
start-up, this can break these components from impact. The blades were designed to
handle steam, not water.

Q. What is steam rate as applied to turbo-generators?

Ans. The steam rate is the Kg of steam that must be supplied per Kilowatt-hour of
generator output at the steam inlet.

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12. Suggested Additional references


Below given is reference reading for some Turbines manufactures model for additional
reference:

COPPUS TURBINE:

RLA Horizontal Single Stage Turbines

Cost-effective, easy-to-install workhorse. RLA single stage turbines are available in eight
frame sizes offering from 2 to over 1,000 horsepower (1 to 746+ kW). Each model includes
features for continuous and standby mechanical drive applications. The RLA also meets the
standards of API611.

Common applications:

lube oil, seal oil, boiler feedwater, process pumps and fans.

Features:

• Radially split construction with interlocking joints at the cover/casing, yokes and
bearing housing.
• Standard antifriction bearings with 50,000-hour L-10 life.
• Governor/throttle valve.
• Positive-seating trip valve.

Benefits:

• No special tools required at site to assure proper fit and alignment.

• Simple ring oiled lubrication at higher operating temperatures highly suitable for
emergency quick start. Suitable for side or overhung loads directly mounted on
the turbine shaft.

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• Easily adaptable to any process oriented variable speed control from standard
hydraulic constant speed governor.

RLVA Vertical Single Stage Turbines

A unique, space saving version of the original RLA. The RLVA is the RLA series in a
vertical shaft design. It is available in eight frame sizes offering from 2 to over 1,000
horsepower (1 to 746+ kW). Simple to operate and maintain, the RLVA has features for
continuous and standby mechanical operations.

Common applications:

lube oil, water and process pumps.

Features:

• Vertical shaft extension with compatible mounting flange.

Benefits:

• Conserves space by direct coupling to vertical, inline equipment.

• Installation foundation costs are reduced.

RLHA/RLHB Horizontal Single Stage Turbines

Engineered for higher efficiencies and in place maintenance. RLHA turbines are available in
four frame sizes offering a horsepower range of 10 to over 4,000 (7.5 to 2984+ kW).

This series is designed for higher efficiencies, operating conditions and steam flows than
those accommodated by the RLA. The RLHA's design meets the standards of API611.

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Common applications:
process pumps, compressors and fans; cogeneration markets.

Features:

• Axially split construction.


• Choice of sleeve or antifriction journal bearings.
• Pedestal centerline support.
• Balanced, cage-guided governor valve.
• Positive-seating trip valve.

Benefits:

• Allows fast, easy, in place maintenance


• Allows customer a choice based on lubrication preference.
• Isolates bearing housings from forces due to pipe stress and minimum thermal
movements.
• Minimizes actuating force and optimizes control.

SIEMENS
Steam Turbine Types
H turbine High-pressure turbines
M turbine Intermediate-pressure turbines
N turbine Low pressure turbines
K turbine Combined high pressure/ intermediate pressure turbine
E turbine Combined intermediate-pressure/ low-pressure(E) turbine
D turbine Compact intermediate-pressure turbine

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Turbine performing chart for steam power plants


Output range Basic Max. Main Max. Main Reheat Steam
(MW) / Series Configuration Steam Pressure Steam Temp. Temp.
(bar/PSI) (°C/°F) (°C/°F)

200-1200 HMN HMNHMN 300 / 4350 600 / 1100 620 / 1150


100-450 KN KNKN 170 / 2470 565 / 1050 565 / 1050

Turbine performing chart for combined cycle power plants


Output range Basic Max. Main Max. Main Reheat Steam
(MW) Series Configuration Steam Pressure Steam Temp. Temp.
(bar/PSI) (°C/°F) (°C/°F)

200-500 HMN HMNHMN 170 / 2470 565 / 1050 565 / 1050


100-350 KN KNKN 170 / 2470 565 / 1050 565 / 1050
50 - 300 HE HEHE 170 / 2470 565 / 1050 565 / 1050
100 - 300 DN DNDN 80 / 1160 565 / 1050 -
50 - 300 E EE 80 / 1160 540 / 1000 -

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13. Bibliography & references


§ Siemens Turbine O & M Manual

§ Siemens Company Internet Site

§ Coppus Turbine O & M Manual

§ Tuthil Company Intenet Site

§ Dresser Rand Turbine O & M Manual

§ Dresser Rand Internet Site

§ MHI Turbine O & M Manual

§ MHI Internet Site

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