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GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND


FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATION REPORT
F OR
B+G+8 MIXED USED BUILDING

D
DEEC
CEEM
MBBEER
R 22001188
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8 Mixed
Used Building

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Project Description .......................................................................................... 1


1.2 Scope of Work ................................................................................................ 1
1.3 Purposes of Exploration .................................................................................. 1
1.4 Location.......................................................................................................... 2
1.5 Regional and Site Geology .............................................................................. 2
1.5.1 Regional Geology .......................................................................... 2
1.5.2 Site Geology .................................................................................. 3

2. METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION............................................................ 5

2.1 Drilling............................................................................................................ 5
2.2 Drilling Equipment and Operation.................................................................. 5
2.3 Testing and Sampling...................................................................................... 6
2.3.1 Field Testing .................................................................................. 6
2.3.2 Sampling ....................................................................................... 8
2.3.3 Laboratory Testing ........................................................................ 8

3. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................ 9

3.1 Description of Geotechnical Layer ................................................................... 9


3.2 Groundwater Observation ........................................................................... 10

4. FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATION ............................................................ 11

4.1 Allowable Bearing Capacity Based on SPT N Values ...................................... 12


4.1.1. Isolated Footing Foundation at 3.60m below Lowest GL ........... 13
4.1.2. Mat Foundation at 3.60m below Lowest GL .............................. 14
4.2 Settlement Analysis ....................................................................................... 15
4.3 Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity.................................................. 18

5. CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................... 20
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8 Mixed
Used Building

List of Tables

Table 1: Co-ordinates of Boreholes


Table 2: Summary of Exploration Activities and Tests Performed
Table 3: Soil properties Correlated With Standard Penetration Test Values
Table 4: Representative SPT N-values
Table 5: Summary of Laboratory Test Results
Table 6: Representative and adjusted SPT - N values
Table 7: Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity for Isolated Footing
Foundation
Table 8: Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity for Mat Foundation

List of Figures

Fig 1: Geological Map of Addis Ababa


Fig 2: Generalized Ground Profile
Fig 3: Allowable Bearing Capacity for Isolated Footing Foundation
Fig 4: Allowable Bearing Capacity for Mat Foundation
Fig 5: Settlement of Isolated Footing Foundation
Fig 6: Settlement of Mat Foundation

Appendices

Appendix 1: Borehole Logs


Appendix 2: Geotechnical Cross-section
Appendix 3: Borehole Locations
Appendix 4: Laboratory Test Results
Appendix 5: Plates of Core Boxes
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8 Mixed
Used Building

List of Abbreviations and symbols

BH - Boreholes
BS - British Standards
m - Meters
kPa - Kilo-Pascal (kN/m2)
GWL - Ground water level
N-value - Number of blows for 300mm penetration
NMC - Natural moisture content
LL - Liquid limit
PI - Plasticity index
PL - Plastic limit
UCSC - Unified soil classification system
FS - Free Swell
D - Disturbed sample
UDS - Undisturbed sample
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Description

This report presents the results of the geotechnical investigation works for
mixed use building project which is located in Addis Ababa, Bole sub city
around 22. The proposed development consists of the construction of eight
story building with one basement and ground floor (B+G+8).

The field work of the geotechnical site investigation was conducted from
November 12 to November 21, 2018.

1.2 Scope of Work

The site investigation has been carried out by drilling two exploratory bore
holes to a depth of 15.00m in BH-1 and 13.00m in BH-2 at the proposed
locations shown in the attached site plan (Appendix 3). Laboratory tests were
performed on selected soil samples to identify and determine their properties.
The results of laboratory tests are included in Appendix 4 of this report.

1.3 Purposes of Exploration

The purposes of this exploration were to:

 Determine the type and extent of geological layers;


 Investigate the presence of ground water and identify its level if
encountered;
 Determine the engineering properties of the geotechnical layers
constituting the sub-surface geology of the site;
 Develop engineering recommendations to guide design and construction
of the project.

We accomplished these purposes by:

1. Borehole drilling to explore the subsurface soil and ground water


conditions;
2. Performing laboratory tests on selected representative soil samples from
the boreholes to evaluate pertinent engineering properties;
3. Reviewing available geologic literature and soil mapping information;
4. Analyzing the field and laboratory data to develop appropriate
engineering recommendation, and
5. Preparing geotechnical investigation report.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

1.4 Location

The project site is located in Addis Ababa, Bole sub city around 22. Based on
the area to be covered by structure; two boreholes were selected for the
investigation. The project site is generally characterized by nearly flat
topographic feature.

The co-ordinates of drilled boreholes measured using hand-held GPS (UTM


Adindan Datum), are tabulated as follows:

Table 1: Co-ordinates of Boreholes

Borehole ID Easting Northing

BH-1 0476172 0995774


BH-2 0476169 0995771

1.5 Regional and Site Geology

1.5.1 Regional Geology

Addis Ababa city is situated in the western margin of the Main Ethiopian Rift
and represents a transition zone between the Ethiopian Plateau and the rift
with poorly defined escarpment.

The geology of Addis Ababa area is represented by four volcanic units


dominated in the lower part by basaltic lava flows (Addis Ababa basalt),
followed by a pyroclastic sequence, mainly formed by ignimbrites (Addis
Ababa Ignimbrite), followed by central composite volcanoes (Central
Volcanoes unit), and finally small spatter cones and lava flows (Akaki unit).

Addis Ababa basalt extensively crops out along Akaki, Kebena, and Dukem
rivers at the east to southeastern part of Addis Ababa, and represents the oldest
unit of the area. It consists of essentially sub-horizontal lava flows with
thickness ranging from few meters up to 20m. Maximum exposed thickness
was found east of Addis Ababa, along the Kebena River. Addis Ababa basalt is
predominantly constituted by alkaline and olivine basalts with three main
textural attributes, that is, porphyritic, aphyric, and sub-aphyric.

Addis Ababa Ignimbrite is exposed close to Addis Ababa along the Akaki and
Kebena rivers. It overlies the Addis Ababa basalt and locally covers the
products of the composite central volcanoes of Wechecha and Furi. The
sequence is constituted by different flow units, consisting of pale-green to pale-
yellow welded and crystal rich ignimbrites.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Central volcanoes unit includes the Yerer volcano and the product of the two
composite volcanoes wechecha and Furi west and southeast of Addis Ababa,
respectively. Wechecha and Furi volcanoes are two large edifices composed by
predominant trachyte with minor pyroclastics. Yerer represents the largest
volcanic edifice in the region, with a relief of 1000m from the plain and 14km
wide along east-west direction. Products mainly consist of trachytes, even if
pyroclastics are widespread mainly in the central part eastern sector. The
highest part of Yerer volcano was affected by a more recent volcanic activity
that produces spatter cones and associated basalt.

Akaki unit crops out east of Addis Ababa and consists of scoria and spatter
cones with associated tabular lava flows and phreato- magmatic deposits.
Alluvial deposits covering these units consists of regolith, reddish brown soils,
talus and alluvium with maximum thickness of about two meters.

Fig 1: Geological Map of Addis Ababa

1.5.2 Site Geology

The upper most layer of the project site is covered by backfill material
comprises of concrete, clay, gravel & silt in BH-1 up to a depth of 2.10m and
boulder,corestone,gravel, silt & clay up to a depth of 0.80m in BH-2. Beneath
the backfill layer is medium stiff, dark to light grey, high plastic clayey SILT soil

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

layer and extends up to a drilling depth of 7.25m around BH-1 and 7.40m
around BH-2. following clayey SILT soil layer is weak, light grey, slightly
weathered IGNIMBRITE rock extends up to a drilling depth of 13.10m around
BH-1 and 12.00 around BH-2. The lowest profile of explored depth is medium
stiff to very stiff, variegated color, high plastic clayey SILT/silty CLAY up the
end of exploration depth.

The detailed geological strata are presented in the borehole logs attached with
this report (Appendix 1) and generalized ground profile is shown in figure 2
below.

Fig 2: Generalized Ground Profile

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

2. METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION

The site investigation was conducted by deploying one Spindle type China
made XY-200 core drilling rig having the capacity to perform boring
operations to the required standard and quality.

The main tasks undertaken as per the requirements for the geotechnical
investigation are:

1. Rotary core drilling,


2. Field testing and sampling
3. Laboratory testing

2.1 Drilling

For the top soil formation dry drilling method has been utilized using single
core barrels fitted with appropriate size tungsten carbide bits at the bottom in
order to achieve good quality core recovery. When the formation changed to
rock, water was pumped down to the diamond bit through hollow drill rods,
thus, lubricating the bit and flushing the debris up the borehole. Telescopic
drilling was used whereby the drilling size was reduced progressively starting
from 108mm hole-diameter through 89mm and remains till the completion
depth.

In conjunction with drilling, the following activities were performed:

 Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and


 Ground water observation,

2.2 Drilling Equipment and Operation

The core drilling was carried out by using spindle type rotary core drilling rig.
Equipment to conduct in-situ testing and sampling, such as SPT apparatus
including split spoon sampler, water pump, rods, casings and a wide range of
heavy-duty tools were used during the drilling operation.

Core samples recovered from core barrels were arranged in partitioned


wooden core boxes having 1.0 m length, and are properly labeled indicating
project name, client, borehole designation, depth, etc. The cores inside core
boxes were logged and photographed (colored) and kept as part of the report
document.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Table 2: Summary of Exploration Activities and Tests Performed

Type of Exploration/Test Unit Quantity

Field investigation

 Drilling

BH-1 m 15.00
BH-2 m 13.00
- Standard penetration test, SPT No. 8
Laboratory Tests
 Atterberg Limit No. 4
 Grain size analysis No. 4
 Free swell No. 4
 Specific gravity No. 3
 Natural moisture content No. 3
 UCS of rock No. 5

2.3 Testing and Sampling

2.3.1 Field Testing

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) utilizes a 51mm external diameter and
450mm long thick-walled split spoon tube sampler driven into the ground
under the impact of semi-automatic sliding hammer weighing 63.5kg through a
free fall height of 760mm in accordance with test procedure mentioned in test
No. 19 of BS 1377; 19750. The 'N' value, which is the measure of the density or
consistency of the ground under testing, is recorded as the number of hammer
blows required to achieve penetration of the last 300mm. The initial blows
required to penetrate the first 150mm are normally regarded as seating blows
to allow for any disturbed materials at the bottom of the borehole, and are
discarded. Upon completion of the test, the sampler tube is removed and
disassembled to obtain 'disturbed' but representative sample of the tested
ground.

The N-values of the SPT are an indication of the relative density of cohesion
less soils and the consistency of cohesive soil. General N-value ranges are
correlated with relative density and consistency as shown in table 3 below. It is
emphasized that for gravels and clays the correlations to relative density and
consistency should serve only as general estimates

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Table 3: Soil properties Correlated With Standard Penetration Test Values

Cohesion less Soil Cohesive Soil


Number of Blows Number of Blows
Relative Density Consistency
per 0.3 m (1 ft), N per 0.3 m (1 ft), N
0–4 Very loose Below 2 Very soft
4 – 10 Loose 2–4 Soft
10 – 30 Medium 4–8 Medium
30 – 50 Dense 8 – 15 Stiff
Over 50 Very dense 15 – 30 Very stiff

Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) in the borehole was conducted starting


from a depth of 1.50m below the ground level. The following table
summarizes the representative SPT N-value.

Table 4: Representative SPT N-values

SPT N-
BH ID Depth (m) SPT N-value vs depth Plot Layer Description
value

4.00 – 4.45 3/3/3 Medium stiff to stiff, light


grey, high plastic clayey SILT
6.00 – 6.45 3/5/4 soil.

BH-1 Weak, light grey, slightly


7.25 – 13.10 Rock
weathered IGNIMBRITE rock.
Stiff to very stiff, reddish
14.50 – 14.95 6/7/7 brown high plastic clayey SILT
soil.
Medium stiff, dark grey, high
1.50 – 1.95 1/3/3 plastic clayey SILT/silty CLAY
soil.
3.00 – 3.45 2/3/3
Medium stiff to stiff, dark to
4.50 – 4.95 3/4/4 light grey, high plastic clayey
SILT soil.
BH-2 6.00 – 6.45 4/5/7

Weak, light grey, slightly


7.40 – 12.00 Rock
weathered IGNIMBRITE rock.

Medium stiff, light yellow to


12.55 – 13.00 7/6/9 red, high plastic clayey SILT
soil.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

2.3.2 Sampling

Four disturbed soil samples were taken from the boreholes for laboratory
determinations of specific gravity, gradation, Atterberg limits and free swell
tests to characterize the types of soil in the profile. Five intact rock samples
were taken and uniaxial compression was conducted to characterize the rock
layer.

2.3.3 Laboratory Testing

Representative soil/rock samples were selected and tested in ARCON Soil and
Construction Materials Laboratory, to check field classification and to
determine pertinent engineering properties. Summary of laboratory test results
are shown in summary table of Appendix 4.

Table 5: Summary of Laboratory Test Results


Table 5.1: Soil Index Test Results

Atterberg
Lab. Limit FS, % % %
BH ID Depth(m) Gs, USCS
Description LL, PI, (%) Gravel Sand Fine
(%) (%)
High plastic
3.00 - 3.50 86 40 100 2.75 NIL 1 99 MH
clayey SILT
BH-1
High plastic
4.50 - 5.00 88 44 140 2.69 NIL 1 99 MH
clayey SILT
High plastic
3.50 - 4.00 86 40 130 2.70 NIL 2 98 MH
clayey SILT
BH-2
High plastic
5.50 - 6.00 91 43 150 - NIL 1 99 MH
clayey SILT

Table 5.2: Rock Uniaxial Strength Test Results

Depth Unit Weight UCS


Bore Hole
(m) (gm/cc) (Kg/cm2)

7.80 - 8.00 2.27 158.10

BH-1 9.00 - 9.15 2.60 227.18

11.80 - 12.00 2.44 205.93

8.00 - 8.20 2.34 194.21


BH-2
9.80 - 10.00 2.53 184.75

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

3. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

3.1 Description of Geotechnical Layer

Descriptive analysis was made on the soil/rock samples derived from the two
boreholes. This was used together with the classification tests and relative
compactions as indicated from the SPT tests, and the following generalized
geo-technical layers are identified.

Details on type and extent of the geotechnical layers are given in Appendix 1
(Borehole logs).

A. Backfill soil layer

The upper most layer of the project site is covered by backfill material
comprises of concrete, clay, gravel & silt in BH-1 up to a depth of 2.10m and
boulder,corestone,gravel, silt & clay up to a depth of 0.80m in BH-2 soil layer.

B. Medium stiff to stiff, dark to light grey, high plastic clayey SILT soil
layer

Beneath the backfill layer is medium stiff, dark to light grey, high plastic clayey
SILT soil layer and extends up to a drilling depth of 7.25m around BH-1 and
7.40m around BH-2.

Representative disturbed soil samples were taken and laboratory tests were
conducted. From lab test results, the percentage of materials passing through
0.075mm sieve is 98% to 99%. The soil consistency test results for the strata
shows Plasticity Index and Liquid Limit values are ranging from 40% to 44%
and 86% to 91% respectively. The recorded maximum free swell is 150%.
These results indicate that the soil in this layer is dominantly fine grained soil
with high degree of expansion potential.

C. Weak, light grey, slightly weathered IGNIMBRITE rock layer

Following clayey SILT soil layer is weak, light grey, slightly weathered
IGNIMBRITE rock extends up to a drilling depth of 13.10m around BH-1 and
12.00 around BH-2.

The rock quality designation (RQD) is taken and gives values in a range from 0
to 100% in all boreholes for the entire rock layer and an average RQD value
of 70.88% around BH-1 and 43.14% around BH-2. The RQD measurements
show that the rock is in poor to fair quality in terms of RQD measurement.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Five intact rock core samples were taken to the laboratory for uniaxial
compressive strength tests. The test results gave compressive strength in a range
from 158.10 kg/cm2 to 227.18 kg/cm2 shows weak (according to Brown 1981).

D. Medium stiff to very stiff, variegated color, high plastic clayey SILT
soil layer

The lowest profile of explored depth is medium stiff to very stiff, variegated
color, high plastic clayey SILT which extends up the end of depth of
exploration in both boreholes.

3.2 Groundwater Observation

Water was encountered during the course of drilling at a depth of 3.00m in


both boreholes. However, it should be noted that variation in location of the
long-term water table may occur as a result of changes in precipitation,
evaporation, seepage and other factors not immediately apparent at the time
of this exploration.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

4. FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATION

Foundation recommendation refers to the determination of the bearing layer


and depth, allowable bearing capacity of the bearing layer and type of
foundation that could be adopted safely and economically.

In selecting the appropriate type of foundation, numerous factors have to be


taken into account. Basic design considerations include insuring the load from
the superstructure not to exceed the allowable bearing pressure on the soil and
reducing the settlement of the foundation.

For the study area, two alternative shallow foundation types -Isolated footing
and mat foundation - are considered appropriate to support the proposed
structure based on the site geologic setting and anticipated load of the building.

Mat foundation is commonly used where the base soil has a low bearing
capacity and/or the column loads are so large that more than 50 percent of the
area is covered by conventional spread footings. It is common to use mat
foundations for deep basements both to spread the column loads to a more
uniform pressure distribution and to provide the floor slab for the basement.

From the geotechnical characterization presented in the above section and


architectural requirement for basement medium stiff to stiff, dark to light gray,
high plastic clayey SILT soil followed by ignimbrite rock will be the major
bearing layer to support the proposed building. The depth of foundation is
assumed to be placed at a depth of 3.60m below the lowest ground level of
the project site.

Allowable bearing capacity for the selected foundation layer shall be discussed
based on correlation of the relative compaction of the in-situ ground as
indicated from SPT values. Then, all the necessary adjustments are made to
determine the actual SPT values.

The following section discusses the methodology for determination of the


allowable bearing capacity for the selected types of foundation. Geotechnical
characteristics of the sub surface geology mentioned on section 3 of this report
will be used for this purpose.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

4.1 Allowable Bearing Capacity Based on SPT N Values

Allowable bearing capacity for the selected foundation layer shall be discussed
based on correlation of the consistency/ relative compaction of the in-situ
ground as indicated from SPT. Then, all the necessary adjustments are made to
determine the actual SPT values. The depths at which the SPT N-values are
obtained, the SPT N-values and the adjusted N-values (i.e., N’55) are given
below and they are considered for determining the design N-values.

SPT values will be used to calculate the bearing capacity of the geotechnical soil
layers below the foundations. The depths at which the SPT N-values are
obtained, the SPT N-values and the adjusted N-values (i.e., N’55) are given
below and they are considered for determining the design N-values. Note that
for the rock layer SPT blow count of 50blows/300mm is considered.

Before using in-situ SPT values, the site N-values shall be adjusted to N55
standard energy ratio value using the following formula (Bowles, 1988).

,
𝑁55 = 𝐶𝑁 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝜂1 ∗ 𝜂2 ∗ 𝜂3 ∗ 𝜂4

,
Where 𝑁55 = adjusted N
𝑃 ′′
𝐶𝑁 = adjustment for overburden pressure =( 𝑃𝑂, )1/2
𝑂
𝑃𝑂, =overburden pressure
𝑃𝑂′′ = reference overburden pressure (95.76 kPa or
1.0kg/cm )
2

𝜂1 = 𝐸𝑟 /𝐸𝑟𝑏 (where 𝐸𝑟 is average energy ratio that depends


on the drill system and 𝐸𝑟𝑏 is the standard energy
ratio). 𝐸𝑟 is taken as 50 and 𝐸𝑟𝑏 as 55.
𝜂2 = Rod length correction
Rod length > 10 m = 1,
Rod length 6-10 m = 0.95,
Rod length 4-6 m = 0.85,
Rod length 0-4 m = 0.75
𝜂3 = sampler correction (1.00 in our case)
𝜂4 = borehole diameter correction (1.00 in our case)

Table 6: Representative and adjusted SPT - N values


Measured Weighted Average
BH-ID Depth (m) Adj. SPT
SPT Design N value
4.00 6 5
BH-1 6.00 9 7 22
8.00 *50 50

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Measured Weighted Average


BH-ID Depth (m) Adj. SPT
SPT Design N value
10.00 *50 50
12.00 *50 50
13.50 14 8
14.50 14 8
1.50 6 6
3.00 6 5
4.50 8 7
BH-2 6.00 12 10 21
8.00 *50 50
10.00 *50 50
12.55 15 9

Note 1: (*) indicates assumed SPT N values for rock layer. N = 50blows/300m
is considered for the analysis of bearing capacity.

After adjusting the N-values, a design N-values are chosen from consecutive
depths where the test is performed. The design N-values are taken as the
average of adjusted N-values which are found in between ½ B above and 2B
below the proposed footing depths where B is the width of the foundation.

4.1.1. Isolated Footing Foundation at 3.60m below Lowest GL

The bearing capacity for and isolated footing can be calculated from the SPT
N- values using Meyerhof’s equation as follows (Bowles, 1997):-
𝑁,
𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙 = ∗ (1 + 𝐹3 /𝐵)2 ∗ 𝐾𝑑 … … … … … … … … … 𝐵 > 𝐾𝑑
𝐹2
Where
𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙 = Allowable bearing capacity for settlement limited to 25 mm.
B > F4
𝐾𝑑 = 1+0.33D/B, ≤ 1.33
𝐹2 = 0.08
𝐹3 = 0.3
𝐹4 = 1.2
𝐵 = Width of foundation
𝐷 = Depth of foundation

The following allowable bearing capacities values are computed for isolated
footings placed at a depth of 3.60m below the lowest ground level.
Foundation widths are varied from 1.50m to 4.00m. A settlement of 25mm is
assumed for the allowable bearing capacity computation. The figures below
illustrate the computations made.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

590
BH-1
560
BH-2
530
Bearing Capacity (kPa)

500

470

440

410

380

350

320

290
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
Width of Footing (m)

Fig 3: Allowable Bearing Capacity for Isolated Footing Foundation

From the above analysis, one can see a little variation of bearing capacity
computed using two boreholes data. The allowable bearing pressure range in
value from 412kPa to 527Pa in BH-1 and 393kPa to 503kPa in BH-2 based on
various widths of footings.

4.1.2. Mat Foundation at 3.60m below Lowest GL

The allowable bearing capacity value of isolated footing for this project may
not be sufficient to support the proposed structure. Accordingly, mat
foundation is proposed as a second option.

The bearing capacity for Mat foundation is calculated from the SPT N- values
using Meyerhof’s equation as follows (Bowles, 1997):

𝑁′55 ∆𝐻𝑎
𝑞𝑎= 𝐾
0.06 25 𝑑
Where,
qa= allowable bearing capacity
Kd = 1+0.33D/B 1.33
Ha = allowable settlement
B = Width of foundation
The following allowable bearing capacity values are computed for mat
foundation placed at 3.60m depth from the lowest ground level. Foundation

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

widths are varied from 8.0m to 26.0m with 2 unit interval. A settlement of
50mm is assumed for the allowable bearing capacity computation. The table
below illustrates the computations made.

780 BH-1
BH-2
750
Bearing Capacity (kPa)

720

690

660

630

600
6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0
Width of Footing (m)

Fig 4: Allowable Bearing Capacity for Mat Foundation

From the above analysis, the allowable bearing pressure can be stated as

 680kPa to 747kPa in BH-1 and


 654kPa to 718kPa in BH-2 based on various widths of mat.

The above allowable bearing capacity values for both options discussed above
shall be checked for settlement criterion using lower values of bearing capacity
obtained from SPT N

4.2 Settlement Analysis

Settlement is another criterion for evaluating the performance of a building.


Excessive settlements will result in poor performance of the building structure.
Different building codes set the limiting settlement for the type of the structure
and foundations. The proposed foundation types shall also meet this criterion.

For saturated fine grained soils, the major part of the settlement is contributed
by the consolidation settlement. The calculation of consolidation settlement is
presented below.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Consolidation settlement computed using the following formula:

∆H = [CcH/(1 + eo)] [log (p'o + ∆p/ p'o)]


Where,
Cc = compression index from e vs log p plot
eo = in-situ void ratio in the stratum
H = thickness of stratum
p'o = effective overburden pressure at mid-height of H
∆p = average increase in pressure from foundation in
layer H in Same unit as p'o
In order to estimate the settlement properties of the clayey SILT soil layer
beneath the foundation, compression index correlation is used as shown in
Bowles, 5th edition, 1997. We have used Al-Khafaji and Ander land, 1992 to
compute Cc (compression index).

Cc = -0.156+0.411e0 + 0.00058WL

The following data are used for calculating the settlement:

 The foundation shall be placed at 3.60m meters below NGL.


 The settlement is thus calculated for a thickness of 3.00m which is
the part below the foundation depth.
 eo = average in situ void ratio in the stratum for which Cc
applies. The in situ void ratio is computed as eo = WNGs as
suggested by Bowles.
 WN=41%, Gs=2.70, and LL=87%
(these are the respective average values of lab result)
 Initial void ratio, eo = 1.107 (calculated value)
 Compression index, Cc, taken as 0.349 (calculated value)

 Unit weight of the clayey SILT soil, b = 18.0 kN/m3

The following primary consolidation settlements are estimated for allowable


bearing capacity determined for the maximum contact pressure value. Primary
consolidation settlements are checked for the high plastic clayey SILT soil layer.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

300
280
260
settelment (mm)

240
220
200
180
160
140
120
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
Width of Isolated Fotting (m)

Fig 5: Settlement of Isolated Footing Foundation

For Normal structures with isolated foundations, total settlements up to 50mm often
acceptable. (Ethiopian standards – Based on European Norm, ES EN 1997:2015).
From the above analysis, calculated settlement values are not within the
tolerable limit. Hence, bearing capacity values shall be further reduced until the
desired settlements are achieved.

420

415
settelment (mm)

410

405

400
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
Width of Mat (m)

Fig 6: Settlement of Mat Foundation

For mat foundation settlement of 100mm would be tolerated for framed


structures (U.S Army Corps of Engineers, 1990). From the above analysis,
calculated settlement for mat foundation is above the tolerable limit: hence the
allowable bearing capacity obtained from SPT N value would further be
reduced until the desired settlements are achieved.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

The following section shows the allowable bearing capacity considering both
bearing failure and settlement criteria. Bearing capacity values which satisfy
settlement criteria are presented in the section below.

4.3 Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity

In order to determine the type of foundation and the corresponding allowable


capacity, two criteria are evaluated. These criteria were bearing failure and
settlement. For the proposed structures, foundation depth is assumed at 3.60m
for both isolated foundation and mat foundation. Therefore, the designer can
choose the appropriate option and use the recommended allowable bearing
capacity presented in table below depending on the superstructure load.

Note 2:

 Since about 2.00m soil will be excavated and removed for foundation
and architectural requirement of basement construction the net
recommended bearing capacity has to consider relief load of
36kPa(2.00m*18kN/m3).

Table 7: Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity for Isolated Footing


Foundation

Width of footing(m) 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0


Recommended
Allowable Bearing 197 170 157 150 145 142
Capacity (kPa)

Table 8: Recommended Allowable Bearing Capacity for Mat Foundation

Width of Mat (m) 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0
Recommended
Allowable Bearing 170 168 167 166 166 165 165 165 164 164
Capacities (kPa)

The recommended allowable bearing capacity can be directly read from the
table or interpolate for intermediate foundation width for any foundation
width described above.

Note 3:

1. For both options, when the soft/loose soil is encountered at the


foundation level the proposed foundation shall be placed on 50cm thick

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

compacted appropriate material that is granular material with few fines,


i.e. Gravel, Gravel – sand mixtures with few silt/clay – GW-GC/SW-SC.
2. The design engineer, for the safe operation of the foundation and
substructure construction and safety of nearby structures, shall envisage
shoring system.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

5. CONCLUSION

Sub-surface geotechnical investigation work was conducted for the proposed


structure, B+G+8 mixed use building. The investigation included rotary core
drilling of two boreholes up to a maximum depth of 15.00m in BH-1 and
13.00m in BH-2 boreholes, visual identification, sampling, in-situ and
laboratory tests. From the investigation, the following geotechnical layers are
identified.

 Backfill soil;
 Medium stiff to stiff, dark to light grey, high plastic clayey SILT soil
layer;
 Weak, light grey, slightly weathered IGNIMBRITE rock layer and
 Stiff to very stiff, reddish brown, high plastic clayey SILT soil layer.

Recommendations are made on the type, depth and allowable bearing


capacity values under section 4.3 of this report according to Ethiopian
standards – Based on European Norm, Geotechnical Design ES EN 1997-1:2015
and ES EN 1997-2:2015. For the proposed structure mat foundation would be
appropriates for the proposed structure and allowable bearing capacity values
are recommended based on the worst case scenario of shear failure and
settlement. The foundation designer can choose the appropriate foundation
type and use any of the recommended values presented on table 7 & 8
depending on the superstructure loads.

The Geotechnical Engineer in charge shall conduct intermittent supervision of


the foundation excavation works during construction to verify/check the actual
subsurface conditions, and shall make adjustments to the foundation
recommendation as given in this report, where actual site conditions warrant
such changes.

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ARCON Design Build PLC. Geotechnical Engineering Service; December 2018
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

APPENDICES
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Appendix 1

Borehole Logs
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Appendix 2

Geological Cross Section


Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Appendix 3

Borehole Locations
Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Appendix 4

Laboratory Test Results


Geotechnical Investigation and Foundation Recommendation Report for B+G+8
Mixed Used Building

Appendix 5

Plates of Core Boxes