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20 A.

Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)

ALEXANDER ILIN-TOMICH

Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula in the Late Middle Kingdom


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and the Second Intermediate Period

In 1941, C. J. C. Bennett published a study of W. Grajetzki has likewise demonstrated the de-
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the Htp-dj-nsw formula in the Middle Kingdom viation of scarabs .
inscriptions. This study marked a new epoch in Regional differences pose another problem to
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the Middle Kingdom epigraphy . Having studied Bennett’s approach. A detailed overview of the
121 dated instances of the formula, Bennett weaknesses in Bennett’s method regarding pro-
established 11 dating criteria to differentiate vincial monuments can be found in G. Lapp’s
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between the Eleventh Dynasty, early Twelfth study of Middle Kingdom coffins . Franke also
Dynasty and later Twelfth Dynasty inscriptions. pointed out that Bennett divided the Middle
His study led to a substantial development in the Kingdom into time periods that are too large,
study of private Middle Kingdom monuments in namely the Eleventh, early Twelfth and later
the second half of the 20th century. Twelfth Dynasty, while excluding the periods
D. Franke recently argued that there are limi- after the Twelfth dynasty (now we know that
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tations in Bennett’s dating system . Franke most known Middle Kingdom monuments date
pointed out that Bennet’s work was based on a from the Thirteenth dynasty or later). He further
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mixed set of documents, including heterogene- criticises Bennett’s statistical approach for being
ous monuments (stelae, tombs, rock inscrip- too mechanistic.
tions, coffins and one offering table). Epigraphic A systematic overview of the Htp-dj-nsw for-
features do not synchronously emerge on differ- mula in the Middle Kingdom inscriptions can be
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ent kinds of monuments. According to G. Lapp, found in W. Barta’s study of offering formulas .
the dating criteria established for coffins do not He divides the Middle Kingdom into four peri-
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apply to other object groups . P. Vernus has ods (the Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth/Four-
shown that the expedition graffiti deviate teenth and Fifteenth/Seventeenth dynasties),
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from the norm of monumental inscriptions . however his chronological findings are not reli-
able because of an unclear basis of his datings
of reference documents. A number of examples
1
I am grateful to Jared McBride for correcting my
given in the Twelfth dynasty section actually
English and to Elena Vorobieva for taking the photo- belong to the Thirteenth dynasty.
graphs of Middle Kingdom stelae on display in the
Louvre for me. My thanks are also due to Ivan Bogda-
nov for allowing me to use the photographs of the
Cairo stelae preserved in the Oleg D. Berlev archive and
to Gisèle Piérini for the authorisation to photograph Deuxième Période Intermédiaire”, in: S. Quir k e (ed.),
the stelae on display in the Marseille Museum of Medi- Middle Kingdom Studies (New Malden, 1991), p. 143.
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terranean Archaeology. W. Gr aje tzk i, “Der Schatzmeister Amenhotep
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C. J. C. Be nnett , “Growth of the Htp-dj-nsw for- und eine weitere Datierungshilfe für Denkmäler des
mula in the Middle Kingdom”, JEA 27 (1941): 77–82. Mittleren Reiches”, BSEG 19 (1995): 10.
3 7
D. Frank e, “The Middle Kingdom Offering For- Lapp , Typologie, pp. 243– 245.
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mulas – a Challenge”, JEA 89 (2003): 57. Later revised by H. Sat zinge r , “Beobachtungen
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G. Lapp, Typologie der Särge und Sargkammern zur Opferformel: Theorie und Praxis”, LingAeg 5
von der 6. bis 13. Dynastie, SAGA 7 (Heidelberg, 1993), (1997): 177– 188.
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S. 245. W. Bar ta , Aufbau und Bedeutung der alt-
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P. Ver nus, “Sur les graphies de la formule ‘l’of- ägyptischen Opferformel, ÄF 24 (Glückstadt, 1968),
frande que donne le roi’ au Moyen Empire et à la pp. 43– 84.
ZÄS 138 (2011) A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula 21
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The present state of research allows us to dis- thet of deceased and the phrases T#w nDm n onX
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tinguish the late Middle Kingdom inscriptions and T#w nDm n mHjjt in the list of offerings .
(Senwosret III and later) from the early Middle More accurate dating is possible through the
Kingdom and New Kingdom documents, but study of prosopography or the groups of stylisti-
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establishing a more precise date within this pe- cally close stelae called workshops . But these
riod is often a complicated task. That is why we methods only apply to a limited number of
often meet monuments dated as just “Late documents with prosopographic or stylistic links
Middle Kingdom” in recent studies and cata- to dated monuments. A review of changes in the
logues. The following traits emerge roughly in offering formula during the late Middle King-
the reign of Senwosret III and are widely used dom could help dating the monuments that
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for dating: wD#t-eyes in the lunette , the writing could otherwise not be dated at all. The aim of
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of Ss mnXt with , the title nbt-pr applied to this paper is to review the dating criteria based
women not belonging to a royal or nomarchal on the Htp-dj-nsw formula already proposed in
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family . Further features are first utilized in the scholarly literature and to establish new ap-
very end of the Twelfth dynasty or in the Thir- proaches.
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teenth dynasty: the use of instead of , Hq#- The study encompasses the documents from
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Dt as an epithet of Osiris , wHmw onX as an epi- the reign of Senwosret III to the end of the
Seventeenth dynasty. Given the limited number
of documents dated precisely to a specific reign,
I was able to divide the entire time-span into
only three general periods: the late Twelfth dy-
10
D. Fr ank e, “Die Stele Inv. Nr. 4403 im Landes- nasty (Senwosret III to Neferusobek), the Thir-
museum in Oldenburg”, SAK 10 (1983): 177, n. 83; teenth dynasty and the Second Intermediate
M. M ar ée, “A remarkable group of Egyptian stelae
from the Second Intermediate Period”, OMRO 73 Period stricto sensu. The latter period is defined
(1993): 8. on the basis of specific epigraphic features,
11
For this dating criterion, see: O. D. Ber lev , rather than by political history events.
“Один из способов датировки стел Среднего Царст- In a criticism of Bennett’s system, D. Franke
ва (формула ‘О живые, сущие на земле ...’)”, Краткие
сообщения Института народов Азии 46 (1962): 66. has suggested that “for dating stelae, only stelae
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Having studied 243 pre-Senwosret III Twelfth dynasty should be assembled in the database” . How-
stelae I could not find any example of such a writing ever, given the fact that offering-tables and stat-
earlier than this reign. One example of an intermediate ues often belonged to the same chapel as stelae
form can be found on stela BM 567 (Amenemhat II,
photo accessible on the British Museum website) with and were executed at the same workshop, I de-
only partly set between the two poles of . cided to include these groups of monuments as
12
D. Fr ank e, Altägyptische Verwandtschaftsbe- well. I also include the tomb stelae and wall in-
zeichnungen im Mittleren Reich, HÄB 3 (Hamburg, scriptions in the scope of this paper because
1983), pp. 139 – 140. Some exceptional instances of this
title are known from the time of Amenemhat II, see: many of the stelae of unknown archaeological
R. E. Fr eed , “Stela Workshops of Early Dynasty 12”,
in: P. d er Manueli an (ed.), Studies in Honor of Wil-
liam Kelly Simpson (Boston, 1996), vol. I, p. 331. 15
O. D. Be r lev , Общественные отношения в
Египте эпохи Среднего царства. Социальный слой
13
D. Franke, review of J. Bourriau, Pharaohs
and Mortals. Egyptian Art in the Middle Kingdom ‘царских Hmww’ (Moscow, 1978), с. 180; R osat i,
(Cambridge, 1988), JEA 77 (1991): 211; O. D. Ber le v OrAnt 19 (1980): 277; D. Fr ank e, Das Heiligtum des
and S. I. Hod jash, Sculpture of Ancient Egypt in the Heqaib auf Elephantine, SAGA 9 (Heidelberg, 1994),
Collection of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts p. 44.
16
(Moscow, 2004), p. 115. Berlev cites the toilet-box S. I. Hod jash and O. D. Ber le v , “Several
MMA 26.7.1438 (Amenemhat IV) as the earliest exam- Middle Kingdom Stelae of the Moscow Fine Arts Mu-
ple. Another early example of in the name of Osiris seum”, AoF 3 (1975): 8; R osat i, OrAnt 19 (1980):
can be found on an offering-table from the tomb of 275.
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Neferuptah (doc. 2) from the reign of Amenemhat IV For the concept of stela workshop, see: Fr ee d ,
or, less likely, Amenemhat III. in: d er Manuelia n (ed.), Studies ... Simpson, I,
14
G. R osati, “Note e proposte per la datazione pp. 297 – 336.
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delle stele del Medio Regno”, OrAnt 19 (1980): 284. Fr ank e, JEA 89 (2003): 57.
22 A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)
21
context could belong to tombs and not to offer- in the first regnal years of Ahmose . These crite-
ing chapels. In summary: the inscriptions on ria underlie the present study and will not be
individual stone monuments: stelae, statues, further discussed.
naoi, offering tables and on tomb walls are all I decided to exclude the inscriptions from the
taken into account, while graffiti, coffins, cano- tomb of Awibre Hor because the place of this
pic boxes, vessels, and toilet-boxes are excluded. king in the Thirteenth dynasty was recently
22
I also exclude expedition inscriptions on stelae called into question by S. Aufrère .
from Sinai, Wadi el-Hudi and other sites because The results showed 76 documents from the
it has been shown that these monuments evolve late Twelfth dynasty, 139 from the Thirteenth
independently of other groups of inscriptions and 264 Second Intermediate Period documents.
(see above). Bennett’s article has been correctly criticised
C. J. J. Bennett relied on the monuments for disregarding the regional differences. The
bearing a specific royal name and this is why he late Middle Kingdom inscriptions show a great
could cite only five instances of the Htp-dj-nsw regional discrepancy. For example, the late writ-
from the Thirteenth dynasty. To expand the ing of the Htp-dj-nsw which Smither believed to
corpus of dated inscriptions I have added the be a universal indicator of Second Intermediate
monuments securely dated in the prosopog- Period inscriptions was prevalent only in the
23
raphical studies by D. Franke, W. Grajetzki and southern part of Egypt, from Nubia to el-Kab .
other scholars. This measure provides us with However, in the present paper I am not able to
enough examples from the time of dynasties XII pursue the regional discrepancy due to the fact
and XIII; however, the Second Intermediate that most private Late Middle Kingdom monu-
Period monuments are still lacking. Therefore, I ments either come from Abydos where stelae
decided to add Second Intermediate Period in- from different regions were installed or are of
scriptions dated solely by epigraphic criteria. The unknown provenance. That is why I had to
following criteria were employed: the late writ- study the offering formulas regardless of re-
ing of the Htp-dj-nsw, the anomalous forms of gional differences.
the -sign and the -sign with cusps turned The limited number of inscriptions and their
upward. P. C. Smither has noted that since the heterogeneous character make the statistical
end of Dynasty XIII the traditional writing analysis of the material very unreliable, therefore
is often replaced in horizontal lines by a I decided not to take into account the gradual
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new one . In a recent paper I have tried changes in the Htp-dj-nsw formula expressed in
to show that anomalous forms of the -sign
and namely those with crossed top, diamond-
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shaped top, large round top and two-petalled Cl. Vand er sleye n, Les guerres d’Amosis, fon-
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top are only attested after Dynasty XIII . The dateur de la XVIIIe dynastie, Monographies Reine Éli-
sabeth 1 (Bruxelles, 1971), pp. 205 – 228; for a revision
third criterion was proposed by C. Vandersleyen of this dating criterion, see: D. Polz, Der Beginn des
who noticed that the -sign with cusps turned Neuen Reiches: zur Vorgeschichte einer Zeitenwende,
upward is only attested under Dynasty XVII and SDAIK 31 (Berlin, 2007), pp. 14– 20.
22
S. Aufrère, “Le roi Aouibrê Hor: Essai d’inter-
prétation du matériel découvert par Jacques de Morgan
à Dahchour (1894)”, BIFAO 101 (2001): 1 – 41.
23
As was shown in the conference paper cited
19
P. C. Smit her , “Writing of Htp-di-nsw in the above in n. 20. M. Marée comes to the same conclusion,
Middle and New Kingdoms”, in: JEA 25 (1939): 34 – M. M ar ée, “A Sculpture Workshop at Abydos from
37, see the latest critical evaluation in: Ver nus, in: S. the Late Sixteenth or Early Seventeenth Dynasty”, in:
Quir k e (ed.), Middle Kingdom Studies. M. M ar ée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period
20
A paper “The anomalous forms of the -sign in (Thirteenth-Seventeenth Dynasties): Current Research,
the Second Intermediate Period” (in Russian) was pre- Future Prospects, OLA 192 (Leuven, 2010), p. 249,
sented at the Saint Petersburg Egyptological Readings n. 52. The present article had already been submitted
in June 2010 and is to be published in: A. O. Bols- when the insightful study by Marée appeared. So I
hak ov (ed.), Saint Petersburg Egyptological Readings could take his findings into account only to a limited
2009 –2010 (in print). extent at the very last minute.
ZÄS 138 (2011) A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula 23
Table 1. Writings of ckr.
Total appearance of ckr, PtH-ckr and
PtH-ckr-Jst-Jrt in the offering formula
Late Dyn. XII 5 0 0 0 5/76 docs. (7%)
Dyn. XIII 12 0 0 0 12/139 docs. (9%)
Sec. Int. Per. 22 15 5 3 46/264 docs. (17%)

varying frequencies of certain elements in differ- by his assertion that all monuments with old
ent periods, but instead to focus on drastic writings of Htp-dj-nsw predate the Second In-
changes expressed in the occurrence or absence termediate Period. Consequently, he has dated
of certain elements (with some exceptions, of all such monuments in the Thirteenth dynasty.
course). To dispute his claim, it can be shown that in the
Second Intermediate Period the old writing was
replaced by the new spelling, not universally, but
1. Min-Harnakht only in some parts of Egypt (see above). Many
of the monuments dated by Vernus in the Thir-
Mnw-"r-NXt appears in the offering formulas teenth dynasty should be dated in the later pe-
primarily in the Thirteenth dynasty. The appear- riod and this is why a review of his results is
ance of this god in the offering formula seems to necessary.
be synchronous with the appearance of ithyphal- In the late Twelfth and Thirteenth dynasty
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lic Min figures on Abydene stelae . This god is the name ckr was only written as . In the Sec-
attested in 10 Thirteenth dynasty documents ond Intermediate Period new spellings appear:
(docs. 109, 139, 154, 155, 162, 164, 168, 170, , and (see Table 1). There is also one
191, 201). Doc. 342 could be dated in the Sec- Second Intermediate Period document spelling
ond Intermediate Period by the late writing of ckr as (doc. 461).
Htp-dj-nsw, however, its similarity in composi- Hence, the anomalous writings of ckr are a
tion and style with a Thirteenth dynasty stela, clear sign of post-Thirteenth dynasty inscrip-
doc. 167, suggests a Thirteenth dynasty date. tions.
The only undoubted later example, doc. 428
probably comes from Koptos (as suggested by
the phrase nTrw jmjw Hwt-Mnw). To conclude: 3. Additional dj before a god’s name
the mention of Mnw-"r-NXt in the offering for-
mula outside the cultic centers of Min is a sign D. Franke has noted that on several Second
of a Thirteenth dynasty date. Intermediate Period stelae an additional dj or dd
26
was added, spelled with or . His examples
(our docs. 270, 326, 406, 428 and Khartoum
27
2. The spelling of Sokar 4448 ) can be supplemented with docs. 283,
292, 331, 379, 427, 447.
P. Vernus has already studied the spellings of These spellings only occur in the Second
the name of Sokar in the Middle Kingdom in- Intermediate Period. Recently, M. Marée has
25
scriptions . The results of his study were blurred
centenaire (1880– 1980), MIFAO 104 (Le Caire, 1980),
pp. 187 – 190.
24 26
For these, see: M. Malai se, “Les représentations Fr ank e, JEA 89 (2003): 40, n. 2.
27
de divinités sur les stèles du Moyen Empire”, in: Orien- F. LI. Gr iffith, “Oxford Excavations in Nubia”,
talia J. Duchesne-Guillemin emerito oblata, Acta Iranica LAAA 8 (1921): 98, pl. XXIX.1. This stela was not
23 (Leiden, 1984), pp. 408–411. included in our study because it does not fit the basic
25
P. Ver nus, “Trois statues de particuliers attri- formal criteria. However, the style and layout of the
buables à la fin de la domination hyksos”, in: Livre du inscriptions suggest a Second Intermediate Period date.
24 A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)

Table 2. Writings of JHw #pdw.

or
Late Dyn. XII 27 (36%) 25 (34%) 17 (23%) 4 (6%) 1 (1%)
Dyn. XIII 15 (15%) 46 (46%) 0 (0%) 37 (37%) 1 (1%)
Sec. Int. Per. 26 (13%) 133 (67%) 0 (0%) 8 (4%) 33 (17%)

shown that most examples belong to an Abydos from the reign of Amenemhat III, docs. 10, 24,
28
workshop he has studied (docs. 270, 283, 292, 46 (one further example dates from the Second
29
331, 406, 427, 447, Liverpool E.610 and Fi- Intermediate Period, doc. 355).
30
renze 1807 ).

6. The spelling of jHw #pdw


4. The sign [U23] in the name #bDw
(Abydos) JHw #pdw (“oxen and fowl”) is one of the
most ubiquitous elements of the offering for-
O. D. Berlev has noted the sign is attested in mula. It can be written with various combi-
31
a form with a leg since Kamose, doc. 426 . An nations of determinatives. The most common
earlier example can be cited dating from the variants and were used at all periods. The
reign of Sobkhotep VII (Dynasty XVI), doc. other spellings are limited to certain periods (see
280. All other examples also belong to the Sec- Table 2).
ond Intermediate Period: docs. 236, 254, 279, In summary: is not attested after Dynasty
375, 395, 408, 413, 440. XII, or was used almost exclusively during
Dynasty XIII and became common in the
Second Intermediate Period.
5. The phrase m swt.f nbt Another feature in the spelling of jHw #pdw
specific for the Second Intermediate Period
Bennett’s assertion that the phrase m swt.f nbt inscriptions can be pointed out: the large size of
after the name of Osiris appears only once in the the “beef” and “fowl” signs (against the tradi-
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Twelfth dynasty (in the reign of Senwosret I) tional size of a quarter of a square). One of these
should be corrected. Three examples are known signs may occupy the full height of a line: ,
, or . The only example of such writ-
28
Mar ée, in: M. Ma r ée (ed.), Second Intermediate
ing prior to the Second Intermediate Period is
Period, pp. 250 – 252 doc. 53 (Amenemhat III). M. Marée cites this
29
S. R Snape , “Statues and Soldiers at Abydos in feature as one of distinctive traits of a Second
the Second Intermediate Period”, in: C. J. E yr e (ed.), Intermediate Period workshop from Abydos he
The Unbroken Reed: Studies in the Culture and Heri- 33
tage of Ancient Egypt in Honour of A. F. Shore, EES
discovered (docs. 292, 319, 406, 422, 425, 445
Occasional Publications 11 (London, 1994), pp. 304 – from our set).
307; it does not fit the basic formal criteria chosen for However, the Second Intermediate Period
our study. examples are not limited to the Abydos monu-
30
Its publication was not accessible to me: G. R o-
sati, “Nuovi ‘individui’: statuette di XVII – inizio XVIII
ments he studied. The following documents can
dinastia nel Museo Egizio di Firenze”, in: P. Min à be cited (ordered by geographical origin): 239
(ed.), Imagines et iura personarum. L’uomo nell’Egitto (Elephantine); 226, 227, 228, 374, 375, 383,
antico. Per i novanta anni di Sergio Donadoni: Atti del 384, 392, 473 (Edfu); 260, 348, 400 (Gebelein/
IX Convegno Internazionale di Egittologia e Papirolo-
gia, Palermo 10 –13 novembre 2004 (Palermo, 2006),
Rizeiqat); 355, 465 (Thebes); 275, 290, 295, 322,
pp. 225 – 234.
31
Ber lev , H od jash, Sculpture of Ancient Egypt,
33
p. 115. Mar ée, in: M. Ma r ée (ed.), Second Intermediate
32
Bennett, JEA 27 (1941): 80. Period, p. 255, trait 10.
ZÄS 138 (2011) A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula 25

351 (Abydos) as well as 15 inscriptions of un- is often dated in the reign of Senwosret III
known origin, docs. 257, 259, 264, 324, 332, 397, through the mention of that king on the god’s
403, 407, 408, 417, 426, 460, 464, 476, 478. In place in the Htp-dj-nsw formula. However, other
sum, 41 Second Intermediate Period inscriptions Middle Kingdom examples of formulas men-
exhibit this feature (I cite only the examples tioning specific kings date later than the reign of
36
where at least one of the two signs occupies the that king: Dra Abu el-Naga K01.12 and
37
full height of a line; the examples having just Geschenk des Nils , Nr. 155 mentioning Men-
disproportionately large signs are more numer- thuhotep II both date from the Thirteenth dy-
ous, but not so clearly discernible). Hence, this nasty; docs. 248 and 452 mentioning Senwos-
feature is not a trait of a specific workshop, but ret I and Senwosret III both date from the
rather one of the signs of a Second Intermediate Second Intermediate Period. Hence, the men-
Period date. tion of Senwosret III in the offering formula is
not a reason to date Frankfort, JEA 14 (1928),
no. 6 in his reign.
7. The phrases rnpt nbt and Hnkt nbt The study shows that the phrase #X wsr m#o-
Xrw appears in the Thirteenth dynasty. 16 exam-
The phrases rnpt nbt (“all produce” or “all ples are visible from the Thirteenth dynasty and
34
yearly offerings” ) and Hnkt nbt (“all donations”) 10 from the Second Intermediate Period.
are attested in the offering formulas of Twelfth
dynasty inscriptions, but do not occur later. The
following late Twelfth dynasty examples can be 9. The phrase jnnt Hopj m Htpt.f (nfrt)
cited: docs. 5, 6, 10, 22, 26, 35, 41, 46, 51, 53, 65,
67. The phrase ddt pt qm#t t# jnnt Hopj (“what the
I could find only two examples of a later date: sky gives, the earth creates and the Nile brings”)
doc. 183 (time of Khendjer) and Cairo CG is present at all periods of the Middle King-
20430 (dated not earlier than the Thirteenth dom. Since the Thirteenth dynasty, the following
dynasty through the use of wHmw onX). words were sometimes added to the phrase: m
Htpt.f (nfrt) (“as his (beautiful) offering”). After
Barta, these words appear already in the Twelfth
8. The phrase #X wsr m#o-Xrw 38
dynasty . However, I could find no Twelfth
dynasty example supporting this view. Four
The phrase #X wsr m#o-Xrw (“being akh, pow- examples are known from the Thirteenth dy-
erful and justified”) frequently occurs in lists of nasty and 17 from the Second Intermediate Pe-
offerings of Htp-dj-nsw formula and sometimes riod.
in its complete version #X m pt, wsr m t#, m#o-Xrw There was also a regional variant of this
m xrt-nTr (“being akh in the sky, powerful on the phrase visible on the monuments produced in
39
land and justified in the necropolis”). According Antaeopolis : jnnt Hopj m Htp-dj-nsw (“what the
35
to W. Barta, it appeared in the Twelfth dynasty . Nile brings as an offering which the king has
However, all Twelfth dynasty examples cited by
Barta should be attributed to a later date. Cairo 36
D. Polz, A. Seil er , Die Pyramidenanlage des
CG 20322 is dated by the use of , Firenze Königs Nub-Cheper-Re Intef in Dra’ Abu el-Naga: Ein
7600 [Bosticco, no. 42] is dated by the phrase Vorbericht, SDAIK 24 (Mainz am Rhein, 2003), pl. 2.
T#w nDm n onX. Frankfort, JEA 14 (1928), no. 6 37
H. A. Schlögl, Geschenk des Nils: Aegyptische
Kunstwerke aus Schweizer Besitz (Basel, 1978).
38
Bar ta, Aufbau und Bedeutung, S. 58.
39
For the traits of Antaeopolite monuments, see: A.
34
On the possible meaning, see: H. G. Fischer , Ilin-Tomich, “Памятники жителей Антеополя в
Varia Nova, Egyptian Studies 3 (New York, 1996), Абидосе конца XII– XIII династии: признаки и
p. 132. общие черты”, to be published in: A. O. Bols hak ov
35
Bar ta, Aufbau und Bedeutung, pp. 59– 60 (Bitte (ed.), Saint Petersburg Egyptological Readings 2009–
7). 2010 (in print).
26 A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)

given”). It is attested on four stelae of Antaeo- The phrases n jm#Xj and n k# n jm#Xj appear
40
polite origin: doc. 320, BM 143 , Cairo CG only in the Twelfth dynasty and the Second In-
41
20431 and Marseilles 230 . termediate Period. Seven examples are known
from the late Twelfth dynasty and 6 from the
Second Intermediate Period.
10. The phrase onXt nTr jm.sn

P. Vernus has noted that the use of onXt nTr Conclusions


jm.sn (or onXt nTr jm.s) instead of the traditional
onXt nTr jm is a sign of Second Intermediate Pe- The following features are characteristic of
42
riod inscriptions . The material collected in the late Twelfth dynasty inscriptions: the spelling of
present study fully supports this view. 19 exam- jHw #pdw with , the phrases rnpt nbt and Hnkt
ples of this phrase are known from the Second nbt and the introduction of the recipient with
Intermediate Period, docs. 226, 242, 283, 284, simple n NN.
347, 370, 372, 375, 376, 388, 401, 407, 422, 426, The Thirteenth dynasty inscriptions can be
429, 436, 460, 461, 475. distinguished by the mention of Mnw-"r-NXt
The use of this phrase in doc. 139 coinciding and the spelling of jHw #pdw with or .
with a late writing of Htp-dj-nsw suggests that we The anomalous writings of ckr, additional dj
should discard its Thirteenth dynasty date sug- or dd after Htp-dj-nsw written with an arm-sign,
gested by Franke in PD 732 followed by Gra- the sign U23 with a leg , the spelling of jHw
jetzki in GHB III.18. No other examples predat- #pdw with or with overgrown “beef” and
ing the Second Intermediate Period are known. “fowl” signs and the phrase onXt nTr jm.sn are
signs of a Second Intermediate Period date.
The following phrases are only attested after
11. Designation of the recipient the Twelfth dynasty: #X wsr m#o-Xrw and jnnt Hopj
of the offering formula m Htpt.f (nfrt).
The designation of the recipient with jm#Xj
All known Thirteenth dynasty inscriptions could indicate a date either in the Twelfth dy-
use the form n k# n NN (“to the ka of NN”) to nasty or in the Second Intermediate Period.
introduce the recipient. A simple designation n Applying these criteria to the inscriptions of
NN (“to NN”) is attested primarily in the Awibre Hor supports placing this king in the
Twelfth dynasty inscriptions: 8 examples are Thirteenth dynasty in accordance with the Turin
known. It is also attested in doc. 360, an Aby- papyrus and contra the considerations of
44 45
dene offering-table produced in Antaeopolis. A S. Aufrère : his monuments Cairo JE 30952
46
Second Intermediate Period date of this monu- and JE 30953 spell jHw #pdw as .
ment is suggested by the late writing of Htp dj
nsw, however, the owner of the table could be
identical with the Antaeopolite mayor Jbw List of documents
43
known from the Twelfth dynasty .
Catalogue numbers are given in brackets. Dating
grounds are given in parentheses: the royal name is
specified if a monument is dated by the mention of
40
a specific king; otherwise a reference to a prosopo-
HTBM II, pl. 44. graphical study is given where the date is established.
41
Seen de visu on display in the museum.
42
Ver nus, in: S. Q uir k e (ed.), Middle Kingdom
Studies, p. 149. Unfortunately, I could not access the
much-cited unpublished dissertation by Pascal Vernus
44
devoted to the inscriptions from Edfu. Aufrère, BIFAO 101 (2001): 1–41.
43 45
For him, see: W. Gr aje tzk i, “Bemerkungen zu J. d e. Mor gan, Fouilles à Dahchour, mars– juin
den Bürgermeistern (H#tj-o) von Qaw el-Kebir im Mitt- 1894 (Vienne, 1895), p. 94, fig. 218.
46
leren Reich”, GM 156 (1997): 58 –59. Op. cit., 95, fig. 219.
ZÄS 138 (2011) A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula 27
53
Datings based on dubious identifications were (FHH, 62). 50. Durham N. 1936 (S III). 51. Firenze
rejected. 2504 [Bosticco 23](ANOC 33, pl. 51, PD 143). 52.
The documents for each period are listed in Firenze 2506 [32] (A III). 53. Firenze 2521 [33]
54
alphabetical order. First, the monuments appear cited (PD 255). 54. Genève D 50 (S III). 55. Haag 155
by publications, than those cited by museum (A III). 56. København Mus. Nat. Aad 13 (ANOC 2,
56
numbers. pl. 7, PD 101). 57. Leiden AP 21 [Boeser 8] (A III).
58. Louvre C 5 (A III, ANOC 1, pl. 3). 59. Louvre
Late dynasty XII: 1. De Morgan, Dahchour, I, C 6 (A III, Mus). 60. Louvre C 757 (A IV). 61. Louvre
33, fig. 64 (GHB I.10). 2. Farag, Iskander, The C 33 (ANOC 1, pl. 4, PD 705). 62. Louvre C 313
58

Discovery of Neferwptah, pl. VI–VII (Neferwptah). 59


(A III). 63. Louvre E.20350 (PD 500). 64. Man-
3. Habachi, The Sanctuary of Heqaib, Nr. 18 60 61
chester 3306 (S III). 65. Marseille 222 (A III). 66.
(FHH, 40). 4. Op. cit., Nr. 25 (FHH, 41). 5. Op. cit., 62
MMA 62.77 (S III). 67. Moscow I.1.a.5339 (Ber-
Nr. 26 (FHH, 41). 6. Op. cit., Nr. 27 (FHH, 41). 7. lev, RdE 27, 1975, 12–16; PD 189). 68. Musée
Op. cit., Nr. 56 (FHH, 61). 8. Op. cit., Nr. 101 63
Guimet C 5 (PD 150B). 69. Rio de Janeiro 627
(FHH, 60). 9. Petrie, Lahun II, pl. XXXI (PD 155). 64
[2419] (S III). 70. Rio de Janeiro 645 [2435]
65

10 Simpson, JEA 51 (1965), pl. XIV (Op. cit., 66


(A IV). 71. Stockholm MM 32004 (A III). 72.
p. 174). 11. Basel III 5002 (ANOC 1, pl. 3, PD 551). 67 68
Tübingen 464 (A IV). 73. UC 14339 [Stewart , 148]
47 48
12. Berlin 1198 (A III). 13. BM 101 (A III). 14.
BM 202 (ANOC 1, pl. 3, PD 27). 15. BM 233 (A III,
Web). 16. BM 247 (PD 506, Web). 17. BM 557
(A III, ANOC 26, pl. 39, Web). 18. BM 559 (ANOC 53
49
43, pl. 62, PD 151). 19. BM 563 (PD 147). 20. BM S. Bir ch, Catalogue of the Collection of Egyptian
805 (PD 779, Web). 21. BM 827 [HTBM II, 30] Antiquities at Alnwick Castle (London, 1880), pl. V.
54
50
(A III). 22. BM 831 (S III). 23. BM 1213 (ANOC A. Wiedemann, B. Pörtner, Aegyptische Grab-
69, pl. 31, PD 455) 24. Boston 13.3844 (A III, Web). und Denksteine aus verschiedenen Sammlungen, III
51 (Strassburg i. E., 1906), pl. I.
25. Budapest 51.2142 (1939) (A III). 26. Cairo CG 55
W. S piegel ber g, Die Aegyptische Sammlung
456 (PD 155). 27 Cairo CG 20038 (ANOC 1, pl. 2, des Museum-Meermanno-Westreenianum im Haag
PD 27). 28. Cairo CG 20064 (A III, ANOC 33, (Strassburg, 1896), pl. I.
pl. 51). 29. Cairo CG 20065 (PD 543). 30. Cairo CG 56
P. A. A. Boeser , Beschreibung der aegyptischen
20127 (PD 1). 31. Cairo CG 20140 (A III). 32. Cairo Sammlung des Niederländischen Reichsmuseums der
CG 20231 (A III). 33. Cairo CG 20235 (PD 297). 34. Altertümer in Leiden, [II:] Die Denkmäler der Zeit
Cairo CG 20296 (PD 498, ArchB). 35. Cairo CG zwischen dem Alten und Mittleren Reich und des Mitt-
20310 (ANOC 1, pl. 2, PD 27). 36. Cairo CG 20399 leren Reiches, Abt. I. Stelen (Haag, 1909).
57
(PD 482). 37. Cairo CG 20536 (A III). 38. Cairo CG M. Vallogg ia, “Amenemhat IV et sa corégence
20538 (A III). 39. Cairo CG 20558 (ANOC 26, avec Amenemhat III”, RdE 21 (1969), pl. 12.
58
pl. 39, PD 150 A, 506). 40. Cairo CG 20591 (A III, S. Guicha r d , “Une collection d’antiquités égyp-
ArchB). 41. Cairo CG 20602 (A III). 42. Cairo CG tiennes méconnue”, RdE 58 (2007), pl. IVb.
59
20683 (ANOC 1, pl. 2, PD 27). 43. Cairo CG 20686 A. Mor et, Catalogue du Musée Guimet: Galerie
(S III). 44. Cairo CG 20691 (A III). 45. Cairo CG Égyptienne. Stèles, bas-reliefs, monuments divers,
20723 (PD 528, ArchB). 46. Cairo CG 20733 (S III, Annales du Musée Guimet 32 (Paris, 1909), pl. V (C 6).
60
ArchB). 47. Cairo CG 20773 (A III, ArchB). 48. J. Baines, “The stela of Khusobek: private and
Cairo CG 23013 (Neferwptah). 49. Cairo JE 91243
52 royal military narrative and values”, in: J. O sing and
G. Dreyer (ed.), Form und Mass. Beiträge zur Litera-
tur, Sprache und Kunst des alten Ägypten. Festschrift
für Gerhard Fecht zum 65. Geburtstag am 6. Februar
47
G. Roeder, Aegyptische Inschriften aus den 1987, ÄAT 12 (Wiesbaden, 1987), pp. 43– 61.
61
Königlichen Museen zu Berlin (Leipzig, 1913), Vol. I, J. Capar t, Recueil de Monuments Égyptiens,
pp. 176 – 177. Sèr. 1 (Bruxelles, 1902), pl. XXVII.
48 62
A. M. Blac k man, “The Stela of Nebipusenwos- W. C. Hay e s, “Egyptian Art”, BMMA 21 (1962):
ret: British Museum No. 101”, JEA 21 (1935), pl. I. 68 –69.
49 63
E. A. W. B u d g e , A Guide to the Egyptian Gal- Moret, Catalogue, pl. IV.
64
leries (Sculpture) (London, 1909), pl. XI. K. A. Kitc hen, Catalogue of the Egyptian Col-
50
Budge, A Guide to the Egyptian Galleries lection in the National Museum, Rio de Janeiro (War-
(Sculpture), p. 50. minster, 1990), no. 1.
51 65
I. Nagy, Guide to the Egyptian collection (Buda- Op. cit, no. 2.
66
pest, 1999), p. 28, fig. 13. B. J. Peter son, “Two Egyptian Stelae”, OrSu
52
W. K. Sim pson, Inscribed Material from the 14 –15 (1966): 3 – 8.
67
Pennsylvania-Yale Excavations at Abydos, PPYEE 5 E. Brunner-Traut, H. Brunner, Die Ägypti-
(New Haven– Philadelphia, 1995), pp. 36 – 35, pl. 7 (C sche Sammlung der Universität Tübingen (Mainz am
5). Rhein, 1981), pl. 56.
28 A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)

(PD 155). 74. UC 14429 [117] (S III). 75. Wien ÄS CG 1247 (PD 591). 120. Cairo CG 1263 (Rosati,
109 [CAA Wien 7, 37–44] (PD 650). 76. Wien ÄS in: Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first
74
164 [4, 97–102] (A III). Century, 3, pp. 374–375). 121. Cairo CG 20023
Dynasty XIII: 77. Alliot, Edfou, pl. XVI.2 (GTT, 21–22). 122. Cairo CG 20039 (ANOC 12,
(Sobkhotep IV). 78. Ayrton, Abydos III, pl. XIII pl. 21; PD 45). 123. Cairo CG 20058 (daughter of
75
(Franke, Verwandtschaftsbezeichnungen, pp. 134– Neferhotep I ).124. Cairo CG 20072 (ANOC 17,
137). 79. Budge, Some Account ... Lady Meux, pl. 27; PD 21). 125. Cairo CG 20075 (ANOC 17,
no. 46 (PD 173, GHB I.26). 80. Downes, Esna pl. 26; PD 668; GHB II.22). 126. Cairo CG 20104
267E (Franke, Verw., p. 23). 81. Habachi, BIFAO (ANOC 22, pl. 32; PD 389). 127. Cairo CG 20117
81 suppl. (1981), pl. VIb (PD 26, GHB I.29). 82. Op. (PD 371; GTT 25; ArchB). 128. Cairo CG 20147
cit., pl. VIII–IX (PD 26, GHB I.29). 83. Habachi, (ANOC 22, pl. 32; PD 389). 129. Cairo CG 20159
The Sanctuary of Heqaib, Nr. 40 (PD 26; FHH 72). (PD 248; ArchB). 130. Cairo CG 20160 (PD 244;
84. Op. cit., Nr. 44 (PD 294; FHH 71). 85. Op. cit., GTT 25). 131. Cairo CG 20225 (PD 634; GHB II.21;
Nr. 45 (PD 738; FHH 71). 86. Op. cit., Nr. 46 (PD ArchB). 132. Cairo CG 20266 (PD 212; GTT 34;
76
294; FHH 71). 87. Op. cit., Nr. 50 (PD 732; FHH ArchB). 133. Cairo CG 20282 (PD 682; GTT 32).
66). 88. Op. cit., Nr. 51 (PD 732; FHH 66). 89. Op. 134. Cairo CG 20309 (ANOC 12, pl. 21; PD 45).
cit., Nr. 65 (Amenemhat V). 90. Op. cit., Nr. 66 (PD 135. Cairo CG 20334 (ANOC 17, pl. 27; PD 667;
248; FHH 65). 91. Op. cit., Nr. 69 (FHH 65–66). 92. GHB II.22). 136. Cairo CG 20373 (PD 584, 740
Op. cit., Nr. 80 (FHH 71). 93. Op. cit., Nr. 107 (PD dated via doc. 79; ArchB). 137. Cairo CG 20391 (PD
410). 94 Newberry, PSBA, 23 (1901): 222–223 167; GHB III.17). 138. Cairo CG 20459 (ANOC 17,
(PD 461). 95. Petrie, Abydos II, pl. XXIX [top left] pl. 27; PD 667–668; GTT 13). 139. Cairo CG 20556
(PD 178; GHB I.26). 96. Op. cit., pl. XXXI [bottom] (ANOC 50, pl. 68; PD 732). 140. Cairo CG 20560
69
(PD 88, 207, 478). 97. Berlin 1629 and 1630 (PD (same workshop as doc. 141, ArchB). 141. Cairo CG
260). 98. Berlin 7311 (ANOC 22, pl. 32; PD 389). 99. 20614 (PD 634; GHB II.21). 142. Cairo CG 20616
Berlin 7732 (ANOC 74, pl. 40; PD 516–517). 100. (PD 408; GTT 22–23, ArchB). 143. Cairo CG 20690
Berlin 22462 (PD 410). 101. BM 215 (ANOC 25, pl. (PD 173; GHB I.26; ArchB). 144. Cairo CG 20718
38; PD 667–668; GHB II.22). 102. BM 225 (GTT (PD 460; GTT 16). 145. Cairo CG 20725 (ANOC
25; Web). 103. BM 238 (ANOC 54, pl. 76; PD 460, 48, pl. 66; PD 717; Marée, BMSAES 12, 41). 146.
591). 104. BM 242 (PD 45; Web). 105. BM 249 Cairo CG 20778 (PD 584, 740). 147. Cairo CG
(ANOC 50, pl. 68; GTT 25). 106. BM 252 (ANOC 42034 (PD 173; GHB I.26). 148. Cairo CG 42035
77
25, pl. 38; PD 667–668; GHB II.22). 107. BM 254 (PD 173). 149. Cairo JE 43269 (PD 273). 150.
70 78 79
[HTBM, III, 26] (GTT 34). 108. BM 428 (PD 634; Cambridge E.1.1840 (PD 732). 151. Dublin 1360
80
GHB II.21; Web). 109. BM 471 (PD 55, 767; Web). (GTT 21). 152. Durham 1941 (PD 85). 153. Firenze
81
110. BM 506 (Marée, BMSAES 12, 41; Web). 111. 2590 [Bosticco 24] (PD 309). 154. Hannover 2931
82
BM 903 (PD 331, 460; GTT 24; Web). 112. BM 1348 (PD 260). 155. Hannover 2932 (GHB, S. 165).
71
(Ibia; Web). 113. Bologna 1929 (PD 227). 114.
72
Bolton 53.02.6 (GHB, III.25). 115. Brooklyn
73
08.480.176 (GTT, 34). 116. Cairo CG 431 (PD
408). 117. Cairo CG 482 (PD 717; Marée, BMSAES
12, 41). 118. Cairo CG 1246 (PD 591). 119. Cairo
74
Z. Haw ass , Hidden Treasures of the Egyptian
Museum: One Hundred Masterpieces from the Cen-
68
H. M. Stewar t , Egyptian Stelae, Reliefs and tennial Exhibition (Cairo and New York, 2002), p. 36.
75
Paintings from the Petrie Collection, 2 (Warminster, Contra: K. R yhol t, The Political Situation in
1979). Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period (Copen-
69
R oed er , Aegyptische Inschriften, p. 161. hagen, 1997), pp. 249 – 250.
70 76
T. E. Peet , The Cemeteries of Abydos, Pt. II, M. A. Affar a, “Stela from Abydos in the Egyp-
EEF Memoir 34 (London, 1914), pl. XXIII.3. tian Museum, Cairo (CG 20282)”, GM 200 (2004): 13–
71
E. Brescia ni, Le stele egiziane del Museo Civico 26.
77
Archeologico di Bologna (Bologna, 1985), pp. 36 –37, G. Legr ai n, ASAE 10 (1910): 258 –259.
78
tav. 12 (no. 9). G. T. Mar tin, Stelae from Egypt and Nubia in
72
A. P. Thom as, “Two Monuments from Abydos the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, c. 3000 BC– AD
in Bolton Museum”, in: J. R uffle, G. A. Ga balla and 1150 (Cambridge, 2005), no. 28.
79
K. A. Kitc hen (ed.), Glimpses of Ancient Egypt. S. Quir k e, “Six hieroglyphic inscriptions in Uni-
Studies in Honour of H. W. Fairman (Warminster, versity College Dublin”, RdE 51 (2000), pl. XXXI.
80
1979), pl. I. Bir ch, Catalogue ... Alnwick Castle, pl. VII.
73 81
J. F. R oma no, “The Armand de Potter Collec- M. Cr amer , “Ägyptische Denkmäler im Kestner-
tion of Ancient Egyptian Art”, in: d er Man uelian Museum zu Hannover”, ZÄS 72 (1936): 87 –88, pl. V.1.
82
(ed.), Studies ... Simpson, II, p. 710, fig. 4. Op. cit., p. 107.
ZÄS 138 (2011) A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula 29
83 96
156. Hermitage 1063 (PD 173; GHB I.26). 157. 33). 186. München Ant. 36 (PD 570; GTT 23). 187.
84
Hermitage 1075 (PD 173; GHB I.26). 158. München Gl. WAF 34 (ANOC 44, pl. 63; GHB
85 97
Hermitage 1084 (PD 667; GHB II.22). 159. IV.16). 188. Musée Guimet C 8 (PD 331). 189. Ny
86 98
København Mus. Nat. Aad 10 (PD 332; GTT 34). Carlsberg Gl. ÆIN 964 (PD 373). 190. Parma 17799
87 100
160. Leiden 1963/8.32 (PD 667; GHB II.22). 161. (PD 260). 191. Parma 178 (PD 260). 192.
101
Leiden AP 2 [Boeser 14] (PD 667; GHB II.22). Pittsburgh, Carnegie 2983–6701 (GHB II.22). 193.
102
162. Leiden AP 41 [Boeser 27] (GHB, S. 165). 163. Pittsburgh, Carnegie 4558–3 (PD 294; GHB
Leiden AP 42 [Boeser 35] (PD 45). 164. Leiden III.25). 194. Richmond 63–29 (De Meulenaere,
AP 48 [Boeser 42] (PD 173). 165. Leiden H. III. BIFAO 69, pp. 61–64; PD 428). 195. Rio de Janeiro
103
RR 31 [Boeser 31] (GHB, S. 165). 166. Leiden V. L. 637/638 [2428] (PD 410). 196. Rio de Janeiro 646
104 105
D. J. 2 [Boeser 34] (PD 634; GHB II.21). 167. [2436] (GTT 34). 197. Roanne 163 (GTT 34).
106
Leiden L. XI 60 [Boeser 33] (PD 227; GTT 33). 198. Stockholm NME 18 (GTT 25). 199. Stock-
107
168. Liverpool M13635 (GTT 28, pl. 2). 169. holm NME 34 (PD 438). 200. Torino Cat. Suppl.
88
Liverpool M13661 (GTT 28, pl. 1). 170. Louvre C 8 1298 (PD 667; GHB II.22; Mus). 201. Torino Cat.
(Sobkhotep III). 171. Louvre C 11 (Khendjer). 172. 1620 (ANOC 54, pl. 76; PD 266, 460; GTT 24). 202.
Louvre C 12 (Khendjer). 173. Louvre C 13 (Spa- Torino Provv. 94 (Rosati, in: Egyptology at the
linger, RdE 32, 95–116; PD 294). 174. Louvre C 29 Dawn of the Twenty-first Century, 3, pp. 374–375).
108
(PD 649; Mus). 175. Louvre C 39 (PD 634; GHB 203. Tübingen 462 (ANOC 60, pl. 42; GTT 34).
109
II.21; Mus). 176. Louvre C 194 (PD 656; Mus). 177. 204. Tübingen 479 (PD 525; GTT 25). 205.
89 110
Louvre C 199 (PD 732; GHB III.18). 178. Louvre Walters Art Gallery 22.190 (PD 732; GTT III.18).
90 111
C 206 (PD 309, 419; GHB, S. 122). 179. Louvre 206. Warszawa 141262 (PD 428). 207. Warszawa
91
E.20909 (PD 428). 180. Magdeburg (ANOC 60, 141263 (Marée, BMSAES, 12, 2009, 41–42, fig. 5).
92
pl. 42; GTT 34). 181. Marseille 223 (PD 460; GTT 208. Wien ÄS 135 [CAA Wien, 4,44–47] (PD 273).
93
24). 182. Marseille 252 (GHB III.24). 183. MMA 209. Wien ÄS 140 [4,55–61] (PD 634; GHB II.21).
63.154 (ANOC 59, pl. 81; PD 373). 184. MMA 210. Wien ÄS 142 [4,62–67] (PD 6; GTT 63). 211.
94 95
68.14 (GTT 33). 185. Moscow I.1.a.5350 (GTT Wien ÄS 143 [4,67–74] (PD 732; GTT 25). 212.

96
K. Dyroff, B. Pörtner, Aegyptische Grabsteine
und Denksteine aus süddeutschen Sammlungen, II
83
A. O. Bolshakov, S. Quirke, The Middle (Strassburg i. E., 1906), pl. IV (no. 7).
97
Kingdom Stelae in The Hermitage, PIREI 3 (Utrecht Moret, Catalogue du Musée Guimet, pl. VII.
98
and Paris, 1999), no. 21. H. Mad sen , “Les Inscriptions Égyptiennes de la
84
Op. cit., no. 23. Collection Épiscopale à Copenhague”, Revue égyptolo-
85
Op. cit., no. 11. gique 12 (1907): 218 –220; M. J ør gensen, Catalo-
86
M. Mogens en, Inscriptions hiéroglyphiques du gue Egypt I (3000– 1550 B. C.) (København, 1996),
Musée National de Copenhague (Copenhague, 1918), pp. 190 – 191.
99
pl. XII, fig. 13. G. Botti, I cimeli egizi del Museo di antichità di
87
D. Fr ank e, “Die Hockerstatue des Sonbso-Mei Parma (Firenze, 1964), no. 177.
100
in Leiden und Statuen mit nach oben gerichteten Hand- Op. cit., no. 178.
101
flächen”, OMRO 68 (1988): 59 –76. D. C. Patc h, Reflections of Greatness: Ancient
88
Z. Szafr an sk i, “Observations on the Second In- Egypt at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History
termediate Period Relief”, in: Festschrift Jürgen von (Pittsburgh, 1990), pp. 32 –33 (no. 22).
102
Beckerath zum 70. Geburtstag am 19. Februar 1990, Peet, The Cemeteries of Abydos, II, pl. XV.1–
HÄB 30 (Hildesheim, 1990), pl. 19a. 3.
89 103
Habachi , The Sanctuary of Heqaib, pl. 211. Kitchen, Catalogue ... Rio de Janeiro, no. 22.
90 104
K. A. H. Awad, “Die Abydos-Stele des Nfr-n#-jj Op. cit., no. 18.
105
aus dem Mittleren Reich”, GM 199 (2004): 61 –66. M. Gabold e, Catalogue des Antiquités Egyp-
91
M. Mar ée, “Edfu under the Twelfth to Seven- tiennes du Musée Joseph Déchelette (Roanne, 1990),
teenth Dynasties: The monuments in the National no. 1.
106
Museum of Warsaw”, BMSAES 12 (2009), fig. 8. B. J. Pete r son, “Ägyptische Privatstelen aus
92
G. Masper o, “Monuments égyptiens du Musée dem Mittleren Reich”, OrSu 17 (1968): 25–26.
107
de Marseille”, RecTrav 13 (1890): 114. Op. cit., 18 –21.
93 108
Portes pour l’au delà. L’Égypte, le Nil et le Brunner-Traut, Brunner, Die Ägyptische
“Champ des offrandes” (Lattes, 1992), no. 37. Sammlung, no. 462.
94 109
H. G. Fisc her , Varia Nova, Egyptian Studies 3 Op. cit., no. 479.
110
(New York, 1996), pl. 25. G. Steind or ff, Catalogue of the Egyptian
95
S. Hod jash, O. Ber le v , The Egyptian Reliefs Sculpture in the Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore, 1946),
and Stelae in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Mos- pp. 30– 31, pl. XI, CXII (no. 57).
111
cow (Leningrad, 1982), no. 36. Mar ée, BMSAES, 12 (2009), fig. 7.
30 A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)

134 (Htp, formula). 259. Athens 135 (Htp). 260.


117 118
Wien ÄS 144 [4,75–80] (PD 684; GTT 34). 213.
119 120
Wien ÄS 163 [4,93–96] (GHB 165). 214. Wien ÄS Athens 154 (Htp). 261. Baroda EG 92 (Htp). 262.
112 121 122
182 [4,137–142] (PD 460; GTT 23). 215. Zagreb 8 Berlin 7282 (formula). 263. Berlin 7288 (Htp).
(GTT 22). 264. BM 204 (Htp, Web). 265. BM 219 [HTBM III, 2]
Second Intermediate Period: 216. Alliot, (formula). 266. BM 228 [II, 49] (formula). 267. BM
Edfou, pl. XV.1 (Htp). 217. Ball, Light from the East 230 [III, 1] (formula). 268. BM 255 (Htp, Web). 269.
123
(London, 1899), pp. 76–77 (Htp, formula). 218. Da- BM 489 (Htp, Web). 270. BM 630 (Pentjeni). 271.
124
ressy, ASAE 18 (1918): 50–51 (formula). 219. BM 1163 (Sobkemsaf I; Web). 272. BM 1247 (Htp).
Downes, Esna, 81E (Htp). 220. Op. cit., 216E (Htp). 273. BM 1314 [V, 17] (joH, formula). 274. BM 1371
221. Op. cit., 221E (Htp). 222. Op. cit., 247E (Htp). [V, 16] (Htp, formula). 275. BM 1653 (Htp, Web). 276.
223. Dunham, Uronarti, Shalfak, Mirgissa, pl. LXI.a BM 1750 (Htp, Web). 277. BM 1817 (formula, Web).
113
(Htp). 224. El-Kab, Tomb 9 (Htp, formula). 225. El- 278. BM 55386 (formula, Web). 279. BM 69673 (joH,
114 125
Kab, Tomb 10 (Htp, formula). 226. Engelbach, formula, Web). 280. Bologna 1927 (PD 228). 281.
126
ASAE 22 (1922): 118–119 (formula). 227. Op. cit.: Bolton 10.20/12 (Htp). 282. Boston 01.7303 (Htp,
127
121–122 (formula). 228. Op. cit.: 122–123 (for- Web). 283. Bruxelles E.5263 + Liverpool E.40–42
128
mula). 229. Farout, RdE 58 (2007), pl. IX (Htp, (Htp). 284. Bruxelles E.6254 (Htp, formula). 285.
129
formula). 230. FHH, Taf. 9 (Htp, formula). 231. Burnley Eg. 100 (formula). 286. Cairo CG 451
Griffith, LAAA 8 (1921), pl. XXIV.6 (Htp, for- (formula). 287. Cairo CG 998 (formula). 288. Cairo
mula). 232. Habachi, The Sanctuary of Heqaib, CG 1010 (formula). 289. Cairo CG 20037 (formula;
no. 38 (Htp). 233. Op. cit., no. 90 (formula). 234. ArchB). 290. Cairo CG 20049 (formula; ArchB). 291.
Hassan, MDAIK 29 (1973), pl. Ib (formula). 235. Cairo CG 20059 (Htp). 292. Cairo CG 20068
Op. cit., pl. Ic (Htp, formula). 236. Op. cit., pl. Id (formula). 293. Cairo CG 20083 (formula). 294.
(Htp, formula). 237. Jacquet-Gordon, Karnak- Cairo CG 20084 (formula). 295. Cairo CG 20143
Nord VIII, Le Caire, 1999, no. 110 (Htp, formula). (Htp; ArchB). 296. Cairo CG 20144 (formula). 297.
238. Op. cit., no. 111 (Htp, formula). 239. Junge, Cairo CG 20164 (formula). 298. Cairo CG 20168
Elephantine XI (AV, 49), pl. 2a (Htp). 240. Kuentz, (Htp; ArchB). 299. Cairo CG 20170 (Htp; ArchB). 300.
BIFAO 21 (1921): 107–109 (formula). 241. Lines, Cairo CG 20173 (Htp; formula; ArchB). 301. Cairo
JEA 87 (2001): 43–54 (formula). 242. Marée, CG 20183 (formula). 302. Cairo CG 20192 (Htp).
BMSAES 12 (2009), fig. 16 (Htp, formula). 243. 303. Cairo CG 20194 (Htp). 304. Cairo CG 20198
Michałowski, Tell Edfou 1938, pl. 7 (Htp, formula). (PD 4, 327). 305. Cairo CG 20199 (Htp). 306. Cairo
244. Petrie, Abydos I, pl. LX.1 (Htp). 245. Pierrat CG 20202 (formula; ArchB). 307. Cairo CG 20206
et al., Cahiers de Karnak 10 (1995): 436, fig. 26 (Htp). (formula; ArchB). 308. Cairo CG 20207 (Htp; ArchB).
246. Quibell, Hierakonpolis I, pl. XLVI.6 (Htp, 309. Cairo CG 20213 (formula; ArchB). 310. Cairo
formula). 247. Smith, The Fortress of Buhen. The CG 20220 (formula). 311. Cairo CG 20228 (Htp;
Inscription (London, 1976), no. 262 (formula). 248.
Op. cit., 263 (formula). 249. Op. cit., 487 (Htp,
formula). 250. Op. cit., 588 (Htp, formula). 251. Op. 117
Op. cit., pl. III (7).
cit., 713 (Htp). 252. Op. cit., 1111 (formula). 253. Op. 118
Op. cit., pl. III (10).
cit., 1434 (formula). 254. Op. cit., 1708 (formula). 119
Op. cit., pl. III (11).
255. Vernus, Livre du centenaire, MIFAO 104 (Le 120
E. Bresciani, M. Betrò, Egypt in India. Egyp-
Caire, 1980), 179–182 (Htp). 256. Aix-en-Provence tian Antiquities in Indian Museums (Pisa, 2004), 80,
115 116
849-1-1S (Htp). 257. Athens 4 (Htp). 258. Athens 247.2.
121
R oed er , Aegyptische Inschriften, S. 192 – 194.
122
Gr ajetzk i, Two Treasurers, pl. 6.
123
Mar ée, in: M. Mar ée (ed.), Second Intermedia-
112
J. Monnet Saleh, Les antiquités égyptiennes te Period, pl. 85.
124
de Zagreb (Paris and La Haye, 1970), pp. 22 – 23. P. Dav oli, Il dossier di Aku, in: Aegyptiaca Bo-
113
W. V. Dav ies, “Renseneb and Sobeknakht of noniensia I (Pisa, 1991), pl. III.
125
Elkab: The genealogical data”, in: M. Marée (ed.), Sec- Bresciani, Le stele ... Bologna, no. 11.
126
ond Intermediate Period, p. 227. V. A. Don ohue, E. W hile, Bolton Museum
114
J. J. Tylor , Wall Drawings and Monuments of El and Art Gallery: The Egyptian Collection (Bolton,
Kab. The Tomb of Sebeknekht (London, 1896); Da - 1967), no. 26.
127
v ies, in: M. Mar é e (ed.), Second Intermediate Period, Marée, in: M. Marée (ed.), Second Interme-
p. 233. diate Period, pl. 80 –83.
115 128
C. Bar boti n, Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence: H. de Me ulena er e, “Contributions à la pro-
Collection égyptienne (Aix-en-Provence, 1995), no. 7. sopographie du Moyen Empire”, BIFAO 81 suppl.
116
B. Pör tne r , Aegyptische Grabsteine und Denk- (1981), pl. XIII.
129
steine aus Athen und Konstantinopel (Strassburg i. E., A. Leahy , “A Stela of the Second Intermediate
1908), pl. II (4). Period”, GM 44 (1981): 23–31.
ZÄS 138 (2011) A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula 31
130 140
formula). 312. Cairo CG 20229 (formula). 313. (Htp). 367. Cairo JE 38917 (Dedumose I). 368.
141 142
Cairo CG 20246 (formula; ArchB). 314. Cairo CG Cairo JE 42201 (formula). 369. Cairo JE 42824
143
20265 (formula). 315. Cairo CG 20283 (formula; (Htp). 370. Cairo JE 43362 (formula). 371. Cairo JE
144 145
ArchB). 316. Cairo CG 20286 (formula; ArchB). 317. 46200 (Htp, formula). 372. Cairo JE 46785 (Htp,
146
Cairo CG 20301 (formula; ArchB). 318. Cairo CG formula). 373. Cairo JE 46786 (Htp, formula). 374.
131 147
20302 (formula; ArchB). 319. Cairo CG 20307 (Htp; Cairo JE 46988 (Dedumose). 375. Cairo JE
148 149
formula). 320. Cairo CG 20313 (formula). 321. Cairo 47927 (formula). 376. Cairo JE 48229 (Htp). 377.
150
CG 20318 (Htp; ArchB). 322. Cairo CG 20324 (Htp). Cairo JE 48230 (Htp, formula). 378. Cairo JE
151 152
323. Cairo CG 20325 (formula). 324. Cairo CG 49566 (Htp, formula). 379. Cairo JE 49793 (Htp).
153
20327 (Htp; ArchB). 325. Cairo CG 20329 (Htp; 380. Cairo JE 52456 (Htp, formula). 381. Cairo
154
formula). 326. Cairo CG 20335 (Franke, JEA 71 Temp. 16.2.22.20 (formula). 382. Cairo Temp.
155
(1985): 176). 327. Cairo CG 20358 (formula; ArchB). 16.2.22.21 (Htp, formula). 383. Cairo Temp.
156
328. Cairo CG 20368 (formula). 329. Cairo CG 16.2.22.22 (Htp, formula). 384. Cairo Temp.
157
20376 (formula; ArchB). 330. Cairo CG 20377 (Htp; 16.2.22.24 (Htp, formula). 385. Cairo Temp.
132 158 159
ArchB). 331. Cairo CG 20387 (Htp; formula). 332. 25.10.17.1 (Htp). 386. Cambridge E.199.1899
160
Cairo CG 20415 (Htp). 333. Cairo CG 20434 (Htp). 387. Cambridge E.SS.37 (Htp). 388. Cam-
161
(formula). 334. Cairo CG 20437 (Htp; ArchB). 335. bridge UM Z 43846 (formula). 389. Dublin Na-
Cairo CG 20440 (formula). 336. Cairo CG 20499
133
(Htp; formula). 337. Cairo CG 20530 (Htp; formula).
338. Cairo CG 20537 (Htp; formula). 339. Cairo CG
20559 (formula). 340. Cairo CG 20569 (formula). 140
R. E l-Sa ye d , “Quelques précisions sur l’histoire
341. Cairo CG 20578 (PD 228; ArchB). 342. Cairo de la province d’Edfou à la IIe Période Intermédiaire
CG 20598 (formula). 343. Cairo CG 20603 (étude des stèles JE 38917 et 46988 du musée du
(formula). 344. Cairo CG 20610 (formula; ArchB). Caire)”, BIFAO 79 (1979): 167– 186.
345. Cairo CG 20613 (Htp). 346. Cairo CG 20622 141
G. Dar ess y, ASAE 17 (1917): 240 –241 (III).
142
(formula). 347. Cairo CG 20623 (formula). 348. Carnarvon, H. Carter, Five Years’ Explora-
Cairo CG 20642 (formula). 349. Cairo CG 20649 tion at Thebes (Oxford, 1912), pl. LIV.
143
(Htp). 350. Cairo CG 20650 (formula; ArchB). 351. 144
Dar essy, ASAE 17 (1917): 242–243 (V).
Cairo CG 20656 (Htp). 352. Cairo CG 20666 S. Kubisc h, “Biographies of the Thirteenth to
(formula). 353. Cairo CG 20674 (formula). 354. Seventeenth Dynasties”, in: M. Mar é e (ed.), Second
Cairo CG 20687 (formula). 355. Cairo CG 20694 Intermediate Period, pl. 72
145
(Htp). 356. Cairo CG 20702 (formula). 357. Cairo CG E ngelba c h, ASAE 22 (1922), pl. I.3.
146
20711 (Htp; ArchB). 358. Cairo CG 20732 (formula). Op. cit., pl. I.2.
147
359. Cairo CG 20734 (formula; ArchB). 360. Cairo E l-Sayed , BIFAO 79 (1979): 186– 207.
148
134
CG 23036 (formula). 361. Cairo JE 33480 (Htp). http://www.egiptomania.com/antiguoegipto/
135 136 museos/fotografias.asp?foto=karanis0028.jpg [accessed
362. Cairo JE 33481 (Htp). 363. Cairo JE 33507
137 on 02. 06. 2010].
(formula). 364. Cairo JE 33509 (formula). 365. 149
Mar ée, BMSAES 12 (2009), fig. 17.
138 139
Cairo JE 33510 (formula). 366. Cairo JE 37515 150
R. Engelb ach, “Two Steles of the Late Middle
Kingdom from Tell Edfû”, ASAE 23 (1923): 185– 186.
151
J. Čer ný, “Stela of Emhab from Tell Edfu”,
130
B. R usso, The territory w and related titles dur- MDAIK 24 (1969): 87 –92.
152
ing the Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate H. Fr ank for t, “The Cemeteries of Abydos:
Period, GHP Egyptology 13 (London, 2010 ), pl. V. Work of the Season 1925 – 26: II. Description of
131
Marée, in: M. Marée (ed.), Second Interme- Tombs”, JEA 16 (1930), pl. XXXVIII.
153
diate Period, pl. 72. B. Gunn, “A Middle Kingdom Stela from
132
Op. cit., pl. 88. Edfu”, ASAE 29 (1929): 5 –14.
133 154
P. Ver nus, “Les inscriptions d’Edfou, du début E ngelba c h, ASAE 22 (1922): 117 –118, pl. I.9.
155
de la XII dynastie au début de la XVIII dynastie”, Op. cit., pp. 115– 116, pl. I.5.
156
L’information historique 50 n. 1 (1988): 14– 19. Op. cit., p. 117, pl. I.8.
134 157
W. C. Nor thamp ton, et al., Report on Some Op. cit., pp. 114– 115, pl. I.4.
158
Excavations in the Theban Necropolis During the A. M. Abd a laal, “A Late Middle Kingdom of-
Winter of 1898 – 9 (London, 1908), pl. 15 [2,5], 16 [1,2]. fering table, Cairo Temp. No. 25.10.17.1”, MDAIK 62
135
Op. cit., pl. XV [4], XVI [10, 11]. (2006): 1 – 6.
136 159
Op. cit., pl. XVII [5], XVI [4]. Mar tin, Stelae from Egypt and Nubia, no. 25.
137 160
Op. cit., pl. XVII [6], XVI [5]. Op. cit., no. 29
138 161
Op. cit., pl. XVII [9], XVI [8]. A. Dod son, “Stelae of the Middle and New
139
K. El-E na ny, “Une stèle privée de la fin du Kingdoms in the Museum of Archaeology and Anthro-
Moyen Empire découverte à Karnak. Le Caire, Musée pology, University of Cambridge”, JEA 78 (1992): 274 –
égyptien JE 37515”, BIFAO 108 (2008): 95 –113. 279.
32 A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)
162 181 182
tional Museum 1920: 273 (Htp). 390. Durham 5320 (PD 595). 415. København Mus. Nat. s. n.
163 164
1947 (Htp). 391. Durham 1964/186 (formula). (same workshop as doc. 427). 416. Kraków MNK-
165 183 184
392. Field Museum 31664 (Htp, formula). 393. Field XI-951 (Htp). 417. Lausanne 3379 (formula). 418.
166 167 185
Museum 31679 (Htp). 394. Firenze 1808 (Htp). Leiden F 1939/2.48 (Htp, formula). 419. Leipzig
186 187
395. Firenze 2547 [Bosticco 49] (Htp, formula). 396. 3616 (Htp, formula). 420. Liège I/631 (Htp). 421.
188
Firenze 6383 [58] (formula). 397. Firenze 6384 [62] Liverpool 55.82.116 (Htp). 422. Liverpool
189 190
(Htp, formula). 398. Firenze 7400 [59] (Htp, formula). 1977.109.36 (Htp, formula). 423. Liverpool E.73
191
399. Firenze 7603 [43] (Htp). 400. Firenze 7605 [61] (formula). 424. Liverpool E.75 (Htp). 425. Louvre
168 192 193
(formula). 401. Firenze 7606 (formula). 402. C 193 (Htp). 426. Louvre C 201 (Kamose). 427.
169 170 194
Genève D 51 (Htp). 403. Grenoble 1952 (Htp, for- Louvre E.10525 (Htp). 428. Louvre E.13057
171
mula). 404. Hermitage 1080 (Htp). 405. Hildesheim (Franke, JEA 71, 1985, 175–176). 429. Louvre
172 173 195 196
4589 (Htp). 406. Ithaca 967.3.75 (formula) 407. E.15682 (Seqenenre). 430. Louvre E.20370 (Htp).
174 175 197 198
Karlsruhe H 366 (joH). 408. Karlsruhe H 413 (Htp, 431. Louvre N 1587 (Htp). 432. Manchester 3997
176 199
formula). 409. Kendal KMA 1993.245 (Htp). 410. (Htp). 433. Manchester 7964 (Htp). 434. Marseille
177 178
Khartoum 18 (Htp, formula). 411. Khartoum 365
179
(Htp, formula). 412. Khartoum 370 (Htp, formula).
180
413. Khartoum 372a (formula). 414. Khartoum 181
J. W. Bar ns, “Four Khartoum Stelae”, Kush 2
(1954): 19 –25.
182
Mogensen , Inscriptions .. . Copenhague, pl.
XIII.
183
H. Br and ys, “Female Statuette of Prince’s Ser-
162
http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/ vant named Nbw-n-ib from the Collection of the Na-
detail.aspx?id=2646 [accessed on 02. 07. 2010]. tional Museum in Cracow”, in: Études et travaux 2,
163
Bir ch, Catalogue ... Alnwick Castle, pl. XIII. Prace Zakladu Archeologii Sródziemnomorskiej Pol-
164
H. S. Smit h, The Fortress of Buhen. The In- skiej Akademii Nauk 6 (Warszawa, 1968), pp. 99– 106.
184
scriptions, EES 48 (London, 1976), pl. VIII.1, LX.2 A. Wiese, Ägyptische Kunst im Antikenmuse-
(no. 1716) um Basel und Sammlung Ludwig (1998), no. 39.
165 185
T. G. Allen, Egyptian Stelae in Field Museum of Mar ée, OMRO 73 (1993): 7 – 22.
186
Natural History (Chicago, 1936), pl. V. FHH, pl. 10.
166 187
Op. cit., pl. VII. M. Malais e, Antiquités égyptiennes et Verres du
167
G. R osati, “A statuette of the Seventeenth Dy- Proche-Orient ancien des Musées Curtius et du Verre à
nasty in Florence”, in: M. Mar é e (ed.), Second Inter- Liège (Liége, 1971), pp. 50– 51, fig. 17.
188
mediate Period, pl. 101 –103. D. v an d er Plas, Egyptian Treasures in Europe,
168
A. Pellegr ini, “Glanures”, RecTrav 19 (1891): 4: National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside, Liver-
217 (4). pool (Utrecht, 2001).
169 189
Wied ema nn, Pör tne r , Op. cit., pl. III.3. J. R. O gd on, “Observaciones sobre una estela
170
G. Kueny, J. Yoyotte, Grenoble, musée des del Reino Medio tardío procedente de Abidos (Mersey-
Beaux-Arts: Collection égyptienne, Inventaire des col- side County Museum Liverpool 1977.109.36)”, Revista
lections publiques françaises 23 (Paris, 1979), no. 17. de la sociedad uruguaya de Egiptologia 19 (2002): 7 – 12.
171 190
Bolshak ov , Quir k e, Op. cit., no. 6. A. A. M. A. Amar , “The Stela of the Herdsman
172
H. Kayser , Die ägyptischen Altertümer im Roe- Pepi”, JEA 81 (1995): 210–212.
191
mer-Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim, Pelizaeus-Muse- Marée, in: M. Marée (ed.), Second Interme-
um zu Hildesheim. Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichung diate Period, pl. 61.
192
8 (Hildesheim, 1973), 52, fig. 42. Op. cit., pl. 66.
173 193
Peet, The Cemeteries of Abydos, II, pl. P. Pier r et, Recueil d’inscriptions inédites du
XXIV.2,4; Mar ée, in: M. Mar é e (ed.), Second Inter- Musée Égyptien du Louvre, 1, Études égyptologiques 2
mediate Period, pl. 79. (Paris, 1874), pp. 59– 62.
174 194
W. Spiegelberg, B. Pörtner, Aegyptische E. Delang e, Catalogue des statues égyptiennes
Grab- und Denksteine aus süddeutschen Sammlun- du Moyen Empire (2060 – 1560 avant J.-C.) (Paris,
gen, I (Strassburg i. E., 1902), pl. III.6. 1987), pp. 126 – 127.
175 195
Op. cit., pl. XII.21. H. E. Winlock , “The tombs of the kings of the
176
S. Snape, in: C. J. E yr e (ed.), The Unbroken Seventeenth dynasty at Thebes”, JEA 10 (1924), pl.
Reed, pp. 308 – 311. XVIII– XX.
177 196
T. Säv e-Sö d er ber gh, “A Buhen Stela from the Moret, Catalogue du Musée Guimet, pl. X.
Second Intermediate Period (Khart.ūm no. 18)”, JEA 35 197
Dela nge, Catalogue, pp. 100 –101.
198
(1949): 50. Mar ée, in: M. Mar ée (ed.), Second Intermedi-
178
Smith, The Fortress of Buhen, pl. LXX.2. ate Period, pl. 92 –93.
179 199
Op. cit., pl. LXX.4. H. Fr ank for t, “The Cemeteries of Abydos:
180
J. Ver cou tter , “Upper Egyptian Settlers in Work of the Season 1925 – 26”, JEA 14 (1928), pl.
Middle Kingdom Nubia”, Kush 5 (1957): 36, pl. XIII. XXI.3.
ZÄS 138 (2011) A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula 33
200 201 220
224 (formula). 435. Marseille 225 (Htp). 436. 455. Stockholm NME 59 (formula). 456. Torino
202 221
Marseille 231 (joH, Mus). 437. MMA 21.2.68 (Htp). Cat. 1582 (Htp, Mus). 457. Torino Suppl. 18130
203
438. MMA 22.3.309 (formula). 439. MMA (formula). 458. UC 14413 [Stewart, 106] (Htp, Web).
204 205
35.7.55 (Htp, formula). 440. Moscow I.1.a.4760 459. UC 14418 [113] (formula, Web). 460. UC 14419
206
(Htp). 441. Moscow I.1.a.5606 (Htp, formula). 442. [138] (Htp, formula, Web). 461. UC 14450 [143] (Htp,
207
Moscow I.1.a. 5731 (Htp). 443. Moscow I.1.b. 32 + formula, Web). 462. UC 14452 [105] (Htp, Web). 463.
208 209
UC 14326 (Sobkemsaf II). 444. Napoli 1018 UC 14453 [142] (Htp, Web). 464. UC 14456 [136]
210
(formula). 445. New Haven YPM 6848 (formula). (Htp, Web). 465. UC 14459 [103] (Htp, Web). 466. UC
211 222
446. Ny Carlsberg Gl. ÆIN 961 (Htp). 447. Odessa 14564 [141] (Htp, Web). 467. UC 14624 (Htp). 468.
213 223 224
50508 (Htp, formula). 448. Oriental Institute 64
212
UC 16666 (Htp). 469. Uppsala VM 1951 (Htp). 470.
214 225
(Antef VII). 449. Oslo EM 2383 (Htp). 450. Warszawa 139935 (Htp, formula). 471. Warszawa
215 226 227
Philadelphia E.878 (PD 291, after doc. 381). 451. 139936 (Htp). 472. Warszawa 141265 (Htp). 473.
216 228 229
Philadelphia E.9182 (Htp). 452. Philadelphia Warszawa 141266 (Htp). 474. Warszawa 141281
217
E.10984 (Htp, formula). 453. Rio de Janeiro 632 (formula). 475. Wien ÄS 91 [CAA Wien, 7,12–16]
218 219
[2424] (formula). 454. Stockholm NME 39 (Htp). (formula). 476. Wien ÄS 96 [4,1–4] (Htp). 477. Wien
ÄS 132 [4,34–38] (Htp). 478. Wien ÄS 195 [7,128–
132] (formula). 479. Wien ÄS 5084 [4,168–173] (Htp,
formula).

200
Capa r t, Recueil de Monuments Égyptiens,
Sèr. 1, pl. XXXII. Abbreviations
201
Op. cit., pl. XXXI.
202
W. C. Hay es, The Scepter of Egypt, I (New A – Amenemhat.
York, 1953), p. 346, fig. 227 [upper right].
203
Op. cit., 346, fig. 227 [bottom center].
ArchB – I have used a photograph of this monu-
204
W. C. Hay e s, “Horemkhauef of Nekhen and his ment from the archive of Oleg D. Berlev (Institute of
Trip to It-Towe”, JEA 33 (1947): 3 – 11. Oriental Manuscripts, Saint Petersburg).
205
Ber lev , H od jash, Sculpture of Ancient Egypt, Mus – I rely on a photograph of an object on
pp. 114 – 117. display in a museum.
206
Hod jash, B er lev , The Egyptian Reliefs, no. 43. FHH – D. Franke, Das Heiligtum des Heqaib
207
Ber lev , H od jash, Sculpture of Ancient Egypt, aus Elephantine, SAGA 9 (Heidelberg, 1994).
109– 111. Formula – late writing of Htp-dj-nsw.
208
Hod jash, B er lev , The Egyptian Reliefs, no. 41. Htp – anomalous form of .
209
G. Hölbl, Museo Archeologico Nazionale di GHB – W. Grajetzki, Die höchsten Beamten
Napoli: Le Stele funerarie della collezione Egizia (Ro- der ägyptischen Zentralverwaltung zur Zeit des
ma, 1985), no. 4. Mittleren Reiches. Prosopographie, Titel und
210
Peet, The Cemeteries of Abydos, II, pl. XXV.5; Titelreihen (Berlin, 2000).
Mar é e, in: M. Ma r ée (ed.), Second Intermediate Pe- GTT– W. Grajetzki, Two Treasurers of the
riod, pl. 68. Late Middle Kingdom, BAR International series
211
O. Koefoe d -Pet er sen, Les stèles égyptiennes 1007(London, 2001).
(Copenhague, 1948), no. 17. joH – written for .
212
O. Ber lev , S. Hod jash, Catalogue of the
monuments of Ancient Egypt. From the Museums of
the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Bielorussia, Caucasus,
Middle Asia and the Baltic States, OBO Series Archae-
220
ologica 17 (Friburg und Göttingen, 1998), no. IV.6, M. Mogens en, Stèles égyptiennes au Musée na-
pl. 74. tional de Stockholm (Copenhague, 1919), p. 29.
213 221
W. M. F. Petr ie, Abydos I, EEF Memoir 22 A. M. Donadoni Roveri, “Una stele di Heka-
(London, 1902), pl. LV.8, LVII. ib al Museo di Torino”, OrAnt 13 (1974): 53 –56.
214 222
S.-A. Nag uib, “A Middle Kingdom Stela in Mar ée, in: M. Mar é e (ed.), Second Inter-
Oslo”, CdE 55 (1980): 17 –22. mediate Period, pl. 96 – 97.
215 223
H. Rank e, “Ein ungewöhnlicher Statuentypus A. Page, Egyptian Sculpture. Archaic to Saite
des Mittleren Reiches”, in: Miscellanea Gregoriana (Warminster, 1976), no. 52.
224
(Roma, 1941), pp. 161 – 171. Mar ée, in: M. Mar ée (ed.), Second Intermedi-
216
J. Gar stan g, El Ar ába h: A Cemetery of the ate Period, pl. 62.
225
Middle Kingdom, ERA 6 (London, 1901), pl. XIII Mar ée, BMSAES 12 (2009), fig. 19.
226
[upper right]. Op. cit., fig. 12.
217 227
Säv e-Söd e r ber gh, JEA 35 (1949): 54. Op. cit., fig. 4.
218 228
Kitchen, Catalogue ... Rio de Janeiro, no. 8. Op. cit., fig. 11.
219 229
Peter son, OrSu 17 (1968), no. 1. Op. cit., fig. 15.
34 A. Ili n-To mich: Changes in the Htp-dj-nsw Formula ZÄS 138 (2011)

PD – D. Franke, Personendaten aus dem Mitt- (Senwosret III to Neferusobek), the Thirteenth
leren Reich (20.–16. Jahrhundert v. Chr.): Dossiers dynasty and the Second Intermediate Period. On the
1–796, ÄA 41 (Wiesbaden, 1984). basis of a study of the offering formulas on 479
S – Senwosret. datable monuments, the existing dating criteria are
Web – Photograph from a museum website. reviewed and new approaches are established.
An early date of the king Awibre Hor proposed
by S. Aufrère is also disputed.
Summary

The paper focuses on the formal criteria to date Keywords


the inscriptions currently attributed to the “Late
Middle Kingdom” more precisely. This time-span is offering formula – epigraphy – stela MK – stela SIP
divided into three periods: the late Twelfth dynasty – palaeography