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A Report

on
Feasibility study of Goat milk Procurement
and marketing
in Pratapgarh area
of Alwar District (Rajasthan)

Photo - Camel and Goat milk Dairy in desert of Mauritania

Submitted to
Ibtada, Alwar

Submitted by
Sanjeev Kumar
Lucknow
Acknowledgements
Index

1. Background

2. Need and relevance of study

3. Study objectives

4. Process and methodology

5. Analysis and results

Annexure –
(i) Formats for data collection
(ii) FGD Guidelines
(iii) Letter to Pediatricians
(iv) Route map of Goat milk collection centers
Executive summary

Rearing goats has been one of major livelihood source of poor families in Paratapgarh
area of Thanagaji block. Goats due to its adaptability to harsh condition and high
prolific nature, has been a reliable complementary source of poor families in the area
along with rain based agriculture and wages in near by cities. However due to high
dependence of free grazing and low nutritional supplementation , goats productivity
are low. The indiscriminate breeding due to low awareness and absence of collective
effort has led to genetic degradation of existing stock.

Ibtada has organized over 1200 women from poor families in the saving and credit
groups in the area. Almost 40% of families are already engaged in goat rearing with
varying degree of dependence. Ibtada with its concern for household food security and
gainful employment of women and poor families finds an opportunity in strengthening
goat rearing on semi stall fed model to reduce the drudgeries of goat rearing and
enhance the financial return of business. It has been observed that although area being
near to Jaipur (45 Km) has good meat goat market , the opportunity and rate for goat
milk selling has been limited.

Ibtada perceived that if goat milk can have an assured and women friendly market
(collection from hamlet and fair & transparent payment system), the goat rearing can
be metamophosised to a semi stall fed model with high focus on breed quality and
enhanced investment in feeding of goats. Such a process will lead to improvement in
genetic quality through breed up gradation and selection and will facilitate
development of a semi stall fed model of goat raring with very limited grazing and feed
supplementation of proper nutritional quality.

So a study on Goat milk procurement fesibility and marketing had been commissioned
with following objectives –
1. To assess volume of available goat milk and seasonal fluctuation in major goat
rearing villages around Pratapgarh
2. Analyse cost economics of procurement of goat milk
3. Understand consumer level facilitating and constraining factor in goat milk sale
4. Suggest an appropriate strategy for goat milk market development in Ibtada &
promoted SHG context.

Study has covered both production and consumer side issues to understand the
broader set of problems and intend to suggest the broad strategy and choices in this
context.
On review of available literature it has been found that procurement and marketing of
milk has been on rise across the globe with leadership from Holland, France,
Australia. However China has developed a huge production and market capacity in
recent past as much as 23 companies are involved in goat milk procurement and
marketing through various goat milk products (Shanghai region). Similar efforts in Sri
Lanka have been on rise. Desert like Mauritania has established community level
camel and goat milk processing plant and has been successfully managing the
business.

As per basic methodology, an household survey at Goat rearers level with 200 families
from 10 villages was collected to assess the availability of production and surplus goat
milk in the area. This was supplemented with focused group discussions (FGDs) in 6
villages and direct observation of breed, feeding and management practices in the
area. FGDs also fathoms into existing taboos around goat milk consumption, present
disposal systems and prevailing rates of goat milk.
Area has on average goat herd size of 10 with adult and kid ratio of 4.8:1 in the month
of September 09, wet average has been 0.61 Kg (milk yield range 0.96 to 0.32
ltr/day/in milk goat).
Analysis of collected data, facts and figures suggest that as on average over 600 liter
per day surplus goat milk is available in these 10 villages. The seasonal fluctuation has
been 1:3 being rainy season has the lowest milk available (356 ltr per day) to Summer
(highest milk availability) of 1100 liter.

However the available milk has to be collected from478 goat rearers across 11 villages.
As most of goat rears are in hamlets, away from village and even concrete road are not
approachable in these hamlet, the milk collection is more challenging than
cow/buffalo milk collection. Having average milk of 0.74 liter per goat rearer in winter
and 2.30 liter in summer, the small amount of milk may not compel gat rearers to
travel and pour the milk. So decentralized procurement at hamlet level has been
perceived as the basic need to facilitate farmers to pour milk into the procurement can.

It has been observed that goat rearers with large herd size tend to migrate in summer
to remoter and vegetation rich area, so collection of goat milk in summer will require
to reach to them. The large size goat rearers are also most often with inferior goat
quality and clean goat milk production is problem with them. So strategically Ibtada
has to build upon small herd size goat rearers so that clean milk and semi stall fed
condition can be promoted in the area.

SO Ibtada needs following basic process in goat milk collection from the area –

 Target small Goat herd size keeper to enhance milk productivity and produce
clean milk so that regular supply of quality milk can be ensured.
 Milk collection system has to be hamlet based rather than village based so that
goat rearers can have access to procurement center. It is important with view
that small quantity of goat milk may not motivate farmers to pour milk into can
unless and until it is not very close.
 Ibtada needs to enhance milk productivity through improved breeding and
feeding so that significant milk can be produced at each household level for
procurement.

The economics of milk procurement from present 10 villages has shown that a margin
of Rs 2.36 on average 650 ltr per day collection has to be achieved in bulk sale to
sustain the cost of operation. The margin seems higher in comparision to similar other
experiences in bovine milks. So it will be important to enhance the collection of daily
milk and reduce seasonal fluctuation through appropriate interventions.

On market side study it has been found that city dwellers specially middle and lower
calass respondents has positive perception towards goat milk (84%) in Jaipur. 77%
respondent are willing to purchase goat milk if available in market. However majority
of respondents (65%) intend to purchase it in packaged form. Willingness of
consumer to pay for one liter of goat milk has been highest (60%) for rate less than
Rs15 and 26% respondent are willing to pay between Rs 15 to Rs 18 per liter for goat
milk in Jaipur.

A similar study on consumer perception in Alwar has shown almost similar trend.
Almost 71% respondent perceived goat milk as good as nutrition source and same
numbers of respondents were ready to purchase it if goat milk is available in the
market. However the preference for goat milk as packaged milk is high (66%) and only
28% respondent can accept it as loose and open sale. The preferred rate for Goat milk
has been in the range of Rs 15 to 18 as 71% respondent can pay for goat milk at this
arte in Alwar.

A semi structured interview of reputed pediatricians of Alwar highlighted that goat


milk are deficient in folic acid and it should not be promoted as sole food for infants.
However it can be promoted as nutritional supplements for growing children and aged
people provided pasteurized and packaged milk availability can be ensured. Three out
of four interviewed doctor were ready to endorse such product and prescribe it to the
patients provided milk is pasteurized and packaged in sanitized condition.

Based on above facts and figures, it has been understood that the goat milk
procurement and marketing can be a feasible option for community in the Pratapgarh
area provided a long term and phased strategy for enhancing productivity, clean milk
production and semi stall fed goat rearing under control of women is promoted
through focused effort.

The effort of Ibtada has to be different phases with clear cut milestones and
achievement to achieve the break even and profitability in the present business. The
suggested phase can have following outline -

Phase I (Preparatory Phase) – 12 months - This phase should look into intensive
training of members on improved dairy goat selection, proper feeding and economics
of dairy goat in the area, developing package of practices of dairy goat management.
The phase should also focus on initiating collectivization of goat milk from producers
and its bulk sale to institutiol (like dairy cooperative/sweet and tea shops) or
individual milkmen on experimental basis. The phase will help in fine tuning the
process and building community participation and understanding on the process.

Phase II (Establishment of Goat milk pasteurization and packaging plant &


establishing milk procurement system) – 24 Months
Once procurement of over 300 liter per day is ensured, this phase should look into
establishing and managing pasteurization and packaging plant for goat milk. Phase
should work on consolidation of procurement and look into various other goat milk
products on experimental basis like Goat Cheese, Goat milk Soap to diversify the
product and cater different segment of market.

Phase III (Diversify goat milk products and intensive market growth) – 24 months
(ongoing)

Based on experimentation, product diversification should be consolidated in this


phase and a strategic market development for more goat milk should be focused to
enhance and accommodate the goat milk from the area.
1. Background
Importance of goat rearing in India and Rajasthan

Goat has been firat domesticated animal by Humans. It has high concentration in
developing and underdeveloped coutries and
supporting livelihoods of poor people in
various ways.
India has 120.8 million goats in 1997 and has
increased to 124.35 million as per census 2003,
ranks first in the world. Goat meat production
stands at the level of 0.47 million tones. The
slaughter rate of goat is at the level of 39.7 % as
compared to 31.8% for sheep and 11% for
buffaloes respectively. Goat also produce
2.55 million tones of milk and 0.1288
million tones of skin as per F.A.O. 189 records
2002 report. The trend in consumption of
mutton and goat meat shows increase from
467000MT in 1981 to 696000 MT in 2002
indicating annual compound growth rate of
1.28 % during 92-02. Sheep and goat meat
production has reached 700400MT during 2002 in India.

The distribution of goats has been found across the coutry as shown in map of India.
Each dot represents 10000 of goats.

The number of goats in Rajasthan as per livestock census 1997 and 2003 has seen
marginal decline from 16971 thousands in 1997 to 16809 thousands in 2003.

As per the last 17th livestock census, the state of Rajasthan had 5.86%
of cattle, 10.63% of buffaloes, 16.36% of sheep, 13.52% of goats and 2.50% of pig
population of the country. The poultry population is 1.27% of the country’s
total poultry population. The state ranks third in buffaloes population, second in
sheep population and second in goats population in the country.

The rural economy of Rajasthan has traditionally been based on livestock kept on
common property resources. More than 80% of farmers own animals and livestock
ownership is much more evenly distributed than that of land. While keeping of large
animals (cattle and buffaloes) is usually integrated with agriculture, there are also
many specialized animal herders (pastoralists) who have a large number of animals
but own little land” (Köhler- Rollefson et al, 1999).

Goats make a valuable contribution to the livelihood of economically weaker sections


of the society. Amongst the livestock owners goat rears are the poorest of the lot.
District Alwar
Situated in Eastern Rajasthan in Central Plateau and hill region (Agro climatic
Zone VIII), Alwar has been home tract of quality goat breeds like Jakhrana (Only
high Milk yield Breed in the country) and Battisi (Excellent dual purpose breed).
The area is densely populated with population density of 357. The economy of
district is predominately agriculture based with mustard, wheat, gram , Bajra,
jowar, maize, barley, onoin and til as major crops.

46% of population has less than 1 ha land holding (As per land records) but actual
fragmentation of the record has been even more, making agriculture more of crop
production as for consumption purpose for large section of community.
Animal husbandry has been playing a major role in livelihood security of rural
families through providing supplementary employment and income. The
utilisation of surplus time of lees qualified and manual labor, livestock rearing has
been pivotal in providing employment and income to these families.

As per census of 2003 following numbers of livestock is reared in Alwar -


S.NO Species Numbers
1. Cow 139812
2. Buffaloes 833372
3. Sheep 90758
4. Goat 437470
5. Poultry 330537

The comparative Block wise goat population as per 1997 and 2003 census has been
presented below -
S. No. Name of Block Goat Goat Decrease
population population /increase
1997 2003
1. Bansur 41888 34818 -7070
2. Kishangarh Bas 31929 26460 -5469
3. Thanagaji 94389 69870 -24519
4. Alwar 80428 62784 -17644
5. Laxmangarh 26188 27861 1673
6. Kotkasim 6307 5916 -391
7. Mandawar 24220 21450 -2770
8. Tijara 36779 33434 -3345
9. Kathumer 10460 9267 -1193
10. Ramgarh 29806 33918 4112
11. Bahrod 21974 22706 732
12. Rajgarh 95745 88986 -6759
Total 500113 437470 -62643

Importance of Goat rearing as livelihood option

The following distinct qualities of goat rearing has made it poor friendly livelihood
option -
 The initial investment requirement is low (Fixed cost remains low).
 Goats are prolific breeder and inter kidding period and gestation period is low so
flocks build up quickly.
 Due to small body size and docile nature, it is easy to be kept in small place and
handled by women and small children at home.

 Under proper management, goats can improve and maintain grazing land and
reduce bush encroachment (biological control) without causing harm to the
environment.
 In drought prone area risk remains quite low in comparison to bigger livestock.
Risk is spread as no. of units are more.
 Both male and female kids have equal value in contrast to Cow and buffaloes.
 No religious taboo against goat slaughter and meat consumption prevalent in the
country.
 Goats can sustain on wide variety of thorny bushes and fibrous feeds.
 Goat is also called “Poor man’s cow” as it provides milk for household
consumption. Goat milk has therapeutic values, has smaller fat globules, has anti
allergic value and has proved effective in curing gastrointestinal problems in child.
Its marketability needs to be promoted.
 Every part of goat is marketed and scope of cottage industries based on meat and
milk processing (Cheese) is ample.
 Goat rearing is suitable to small or marginal land holders with low fertility lands.
 Goat can be milked number of times in a day and did not require let down
reactions. Due to this quality, it is called walking refrigerator. This reduces milk
loss by delayed in milking time.
Review of literature on goat milk importance and market potential

Mahatama Gandhi called goat as “Poor man’s cow”. Goat has been providing
nutritionally rich milk to goat keepers and has a been a vital ingredient for household
consumption and limited local sale in Rajasthan. Goat milk and its products of butter,
yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition:

 Feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than
from cow milk
 Treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders,
which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries
 Filling the gastronomic needs of connoisseur consumers, which is a growing
market share in many developed countries.

Medical Research Evidence for Goat Milk

Powerful justification for goat milk can come from medical needs (not just desires) of
people, especially infants afflicted with various ailments, including cow milk protein
sensitivities. Swedish studies have shown that cow milk was a major cause of colic,
sometimes fatal, in 12 to 30 percent formula-fed, less than 3-month-old infants (Lothe
et al., 1982). In breast-fed infants, colic was related to the mother's consumption of
cow milk (Baldo, 1984; Cant et al., 1985; Host et al., 1988). In older infants, the
incidence of cow milk protein intolerance was approximately 20 percent (Nestle,
1987).

A popular therapy among pediatricians is the change to vegetable protein soya-based


formula; however, an estimated 20 to 50 percent of all infants with cow's milk protein
intolerance will also react adversely to soy proteins (Lothe et al., 1982). Approximately
40 percent of all patients sensitive to cow milk proteins tolerate goat milk proteins
(Brenneman, 1978; Zeman, 1982), possibly because lactalbumin is immunospecific
between species (Hill, 1939), but beta-lactoglobulin appears to be the major allergen in
cow's milk.

Biochemical Differences between Goat Milk and Cow Milk


Goat milk proteins have many significant differences in their amino acid compositions
from the milk of other mammalian species, especially in relative proportions of the
various milk proteins and in their genetic polymorphisms (Jenness, 1980; Boulanger
et al., 1984; Addeo et al., 1988; Ambrosoli et al., 1988). The major protein in cow milk
is alpha-s-1-casein, but goat milk may differ genetically by having either none ("Null"
type) or much ("High" type). Null types have shorter rennet coagulation time, less
resistance to heat treatment, curd firmness is weaker, pH is higher, protein and
mineral contents in milk are lower, and cheese yields are less than in high types. This
in turn indicates and may explain significant differences to cow milk in digestion by
infants and patients (Mack, 1953), which traditionally have been explained by the
"homogenized" nature of goat milk fat.
Actually, the composition of goat milk fat may be much more important than the
prevalence of large numbers of small fat globules, because it too differs significantly
from the composition of cow milk fat under average feeding conditions (Haenlein,
1992). The various components of milk fat, fatty acids, differ in carbon chain length
and saturation, which has nutritional and medical significance. Goat milk fat normally
has 35 percent of medium chain fatty acids (C6-C14) compared to cow milk fat 17
percent, and three are named after goats: Caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), capric (C10),
totaling 15 percent in goat milk fat vs. only 5 percent in cow milk fat (Table 1). Besides
their unique flavor, which has serious consequences in improper handling of goat
milk, these medium chain fatty acids (MCT) have become of considerable interest to
the medical profession, because of their unique benefits in many metabolic diseases of
humans (Babayan, 1981).

Capric, caprylic and other MCT have been used for treatment of malabsorption
syndrome, intestinal disorders, coronary diseases, pre-mature infant nutrition, cystic
fibrosis, gallstone problems, because of their unique metabolic abilities of providing
energy and at the same time lowering, inhibiting and dissolving cholesterol deposits
(Schwabe et al., 1964; Greenberger and Skillman, 1969; Kalser, 1971;
Tantibhedhyangkul and Hashim, 1975, 1978). It seems apparent that in this lipid area
is great potential for identifying a unique importance and role for goat milk,
specifically goat milk fat and probably goat milk butter, which has not received much
attention at all. And all this adds even more importance to the establishment of
acceptable practices and standards for quality goat milk production, which so far has
been lagging behind those for dairy cows, but which require separate establishment
because of the many unique physiological and metabolic characteristics of goats
compared to cows (Haenlein, 1980, 1987a, 1991; Hinckley, 1991; Kalogridou-
Vassiliadou et al., 1992).

Goat milk is very compatible with a healthy diet, and is suitable for persons above 1
year of age. Goat milk is a good source of protein, and provides for the utritional
requirements of a large number of essential amino acids. Moreover it is rich in calcium
and a number of vitamins (A, D, B1, B2, B12). Goat milk contains appreciably less folic
acid than cow milk. This must be taken into consideration when goat milk is the only
dairy component in the diet. It can then be necessary to supplement the nutritional
requirement for folic acid in another manner.

Like cow milk, pure goat milk, is not suitable for babies. It contains too much protein,
too many minerals, and too few vitamins to be able to satisfy the nutritional
requirements of infants. However, in specialized baby formulae goatmilk can be a
valuable component due to its digestibility of fat and protein.

Goat milk is readily digestible. The small fat globules and the small protein
agglomerates facilitate the action of the digestive enzymes on the milk. Moreover the
goat milk-protein gel formed in the stomach is softer than that formed by cow milk.
This is also beneficial to the digestibility. The fat contains relatively large amounts of
short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, which are readily digestible.
Differences Between Cows milk and goats milk **
Digestibility - goats milk considered more easily digested
Milk fat globule - smaller in goats milk than cows milk
Calcium content - higher in goats milk than cows milk
Iron content - lower in goats milk than cows milk
Vitamin C content - about the same in both milks
Vitamin D content - about the same in both milks
Short chain fatty acid content - higher in goats milk than cows milk
** the composition of goats milk and cows milk varies with breed, season of the year
and composition of diet

Major Concerns on Goat milk production


 In spite of high potential improving goat milk yield and lactation length of dairy
goats, especially in India, least attention has been paid to it through integration of
better awareness/extension, feeding and genetics.

 Least unbiased medical research to provide evidence and promotional facts has
been conducted, although local indigenous research is very much needed to reduce
discrimination against goats and substantiate the many anecdotal experiences
about the medical benefits from goat milk consumption, which abound in trade
publications and the popular press. Goats have many unique differences in
anatomy, physiology and product biochemistry from sheep and cattle, which
support the contention of many unique qualities of dairy goat products for human
nutrition.

 A few countries like France have pioneered a very well-organized industry of goat
milk production, processing, marketing, promotion and research, which has
created a strong consumer clientele like in no other country, but deserves very
much to be copied for the general benefit to human nutrition and goat milk
producers. The physiological and biochemical facts of the unique qualities of goat
milk are little exploited, especially not the high levels in goat milk of short and
medium chain fatty acids, which have recognized medical values for many
disorders and diseases of people.
 The new concept of tailor making foods to better fit human needs has not been
applied to goat milk and its products so far, otherwise the enrichment of short and
medium chain fatty acids in goat butter, and their greater concentration compared
to cow butter, could have become a valued consumer item. Also revisions to human
dietary recommendations towards admitting the health benefits of some essential
fats supports, the idea of promoting goat butter. While goat yoghurt, goat cheeses
and goat milk powder are widely appreciated around the world, goat butter is not
produced anywhere commercially in significant volume.
Basic perspectives of Goat milk sale promotion

The major producer centered factors for goat milk marketing in present conditions are

1. Regularise the cash flow from goat rearing to promote stall and complete
feeding in goats
2. Make business suitable for Micro finance/SHG based loan products as the
regular repayment with these institutions with a higher rate of interest are
required.
3. To reduce the drudgery in the business to make it a decent occupation by
families (without negatively affecting child education and women self image).
4. To enhance awareness about pure bred dairy goats and quality breeding to
promote superior dairy breed in the area

The consumer level advantages assumed of establishing goat milk marketing are

1. Easily digestible quality milk suitable for children and aged people.
2. Accessibility of comparatively low priced non allergic goat milk to allergic
patients, bone fractured inpatients in hospitals.
3. Health drinks for growing children and adults.
4. Comparatively low cost milk for tea and coffee.
5. Free from Preservatives, antibiotics, or bovine growth hormones milk

Some Countries and Companies involved in Goat milk market

Having a little less treaded path, there is dearth of experiences in setting goat milk
procurement system in India however it is happening in nearby Asian countries like
China, Sri Lanka on significant scale. Holland, France, Australia and USA has worked
on goat milk production, procurement, processing and marketing on significant scale.
Whereas USA and France have large goat farms producing and processing goat milk,
China and Sri Lanka is building on community level goat milk collection, processing
and marketing.
Need and Relevance of study

Ibtada has promoted saving and credit based women institutions and has been
facilitating these organized member in strengthening livelihood issues. Ibtada has
been working goat based livelihood for last 5 years and has supported significant
number of families through village based goat health care facilities, building goat as
assets and providing breeding and feeding services.

Ibtada through its field based program has realized that major improvement in goat
feeding, breeding and health care can only be achieved if regular cash flow can be
ensured at community level. Ibtada’s experiences has shown that goat in the area has
significantly high potential for milk production provided sufficient quality feed is
provided to lactating goats. However as goat milk has no formal market value and
trend of marketing goat milk is very limited, farmers are not feeding properly and
hence suffers from many other management problems like delayed maturity, irregular
kidding and low milk yield (low kids growth). The problem has become cyclic in nature
on pattern of low investment- low return and again low investment. Given the present
context, it becomes difficult to motivate farners for adoption of improved feeding and
breed selection practices and last 4 years work of Ibtada has shown that in spite of
significant improvement in health care and management, the focus on stall fed feeding
or supplementation with rich feed/ home grown fodder has remained very low.

Ibtada as per its mission is also concerned about quality of life in present goat rearing
system and envisions making it women friendly through promoting significant part of
gat feeding as stall fed. Such practices will call for flow of daily cash to families, which
can be invested to feeding and management upkeep of goats.

The basic premises and experiences of Ibtada, has made it imperative to understand
the present goat milk production system and its procurement feasibility in depth so
that a informed and logical choices for delving into goat milk procurement and selling
business can be made.

The present study is explorative in nature around these issues and tries to find out a
economics based logical decision in this context.

Study Objectives

1. To assess volume of available goat milk and seasonal fluctuation in major


goat rearing villages around Pratapgarh
2. Analyse cost economics of procurement of goat milk
3. Understand consumer level facilitating and constraining factor in goat milk
sale
4. Suggest an appropriate strategy for goat milk market development in Ibtada
& promoted SHG context.
Study Process and Methodology

Study has been conducted in two interlined but separate parts. The first part
focused into estimation of goat milk production and surplus in major goat milk
producing villages of Pratapgarh area.

The second part has been to conduct consumer interview in urban settings of
Jaipur and Alwar to assess perception about goat milk and basic process of
expectation for goat milk sale channel and forms.

The methodology adopted had been random sample based household survey to
find goat population and availability f goat milk season wise. The survey was
conducted in August and September and it was considered as rainy season for the
area. Based on the sample household milk yield a prediction for village level milk
yield has been made with a range of minimum and maximum milk yield. The
prediction has taken into account the reported milk yield at family level as the basis
and predicted similar trend for other goat rearing families as on average basis.
Study has used simple estimation technique of following the trend of sample
families milk yield (20 sample) for the village.

As the estimation is based on sample size of 41% of total families as chances of


estimation being closer to reality has been high. The study has collected data from
200 families (20 from each village) and made estimation of milk availability for
478 families residing in the area. The estimation has been based on village wise
sample milk availability.

The result has been tested for wet average, herd average and basic dairy principles
to verify the trend has been in line with dairy industry standards and management
experiences.

The sample based study has been supplemented with intensive focused group
discussion in various villages and hamlets so that findings from the data and
qualitative observation can be tallied and trend can be analysed. A total of 6
Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) in the area by 3 professionals as a group has
been carried out.

Sampling Process

The sample size for each village has been taken as 20. It has been selected
randomly within the village giving due representation to various hamlets within the
village. The sample percentage has ranges from 25% to 71% of total population in
each village, making it well over 20% set as criteria to cover representation. Within
village , the sample selection has been random. However data has high
representation of poor goat rearers as the surveyor were more known to SHG
members, who are selected on a wealth ranking basis.
Sampling on urban set up survey has been random with selection of respondents
from wider area of the city. Jaipur and Alwar two cities have been covered in the
present study.

Tools and Techniques

Present survey has utilized Three basic questionnaire developed for the purpose
(Annexure I, II & III). The basic questionnaire designed for the purpose has following
three focus –
1. Village profile – Filled one for a village
2. Surplus milk recording sheet of randomly selected sample farmers – for each
sample farmer and 20 per Village
3. Understanding consumer perception about goat milk, present milk purchase
trend and basic product criteria

The first questionnaire has tried to capture the village profile in terms of estimation of
Goat rerarers at hamlet wise (called Dhani in the study area) and village wise. It tries
to find out the total number of goat rearers, operational dairy and prevailing milk sale
price. It also tries to capture the rough estimation of goat milk in the village estimated
by villagers.

Likewise second format is targeted to know the wet & dry Goat numbers and milk yield
of sample milk producers from each village.

The third set of questions has been design to understand consumer perception about
goat milk, present milk purchase trend and basic criteria for product designing.

Sample Size

A total of 200 Goat rearer household survey from 10 villages in Pratapgarh has been
achieved. The basic information of thse 10 villages has alo been captured in format I.

On consumer side, 225 respondents from Jaipur and 300 respondets from Alwar has
been intensively interviewed in the present study.

Field work Design and Duration

The goat rearer level data collection and Focused group discussion has been completed
in between 25th August to 31st September,09.
The consumer side interview in Jaipur was conducted in October, 2009. The Alwar
consumer interview has been completed in November and December.
The goat rearer level data has been collected by the field staff of Ibtada, who has
primary creditability with respondent. The urban interviews were completed by some
hired trained surveyors from urban area and 10%sample check has been completed
before feeding into computer.
Sample characteristics

Herd Structure

Percentage
Percentage (Wet to
S. kids to Dry Wet Total
No Name of Village Average Herd Size adults Goats Goats goats)
Total Adult Kids
1 Hardev ki dhani 10.2 6.25 3.95 63.2 3.85 2.4 23.5
2 Agar 11.65 8.95 2.7 30.2 4.3 4.65 39.9
3 Bhadaz 15.45 10.2 5.3 52.0 6.3 3.9 25.2
4 Bhawnta 11 7.5 3.55 47.3 4 3.5 31.8
5 Narhet (Rajput) 4.7 3.5 1.2 34.3 2.75 0.75 16.0
6 Kalpara 18.2 13.7 4.5 32.8 9.7 4 22.0
7 Neejhara 15.1 9.6 5.5 57.3 4.2 5.4 35.8
Ramdas
8 (Samara) 5.05 3.55 1.5 42.3 2.25 1.3 25.7
Jhikdya &
9 Tagariya 8.3 6.25 2.1 33.6 1.75 4.5 54.2
10 Sanwastar 17.1 9.6 7.5 78.1 5 4.6 26.9

As evident from sample characteristics, most of families in selected are keeping more
than 10 goats with kids ratio to adult ranging from 30 to 78. Looking into non kidding
season of goats, this ratio might have change in the month of November after kidding.
This shows that kidding is highly seasonal in the area. Similarly the wet percentage has
been much below of 70% in ideal management condition. It will be important to keep
50% goats under wet condition to have continous and significant milk yield at farmer
level. The present wet ratio in sample is much below than desired (16 to 39). As per
data, Kids less than 6 month has been less than 2 in most of cases (refer data table-).
This reflects the kid percentage has been much below expectation.

The milk yield of sample goats has varies from 0.39 to 0.96 Ltr per day in the area. The
area has shown high diversity in terms of kids percentage, wet percentage and wet
average, depicting high level of management difference in the area. Data also shows
that the milk yield per goat has adverse relations with herd size i.e larger herd size has
per goat lower production than smaller herd size, this has been also observed in FGDs
and field observation in the area.
Findings and Discussions

Based on the 11 major villages under Pratapgarh, the available goat milk has shown
following trend –

Season wise Goat milk production in selected villages

800

700 Goat MY (Rainy) Max


Goat MY (Rainy) Min
Goat MY (Summer) Max
600 Goat MY (Summer) Min
Goat MY (Winter) Max
Goat MY (Winter) Min
Milk Production in Ltrs

500

400

300

200

100

0
Hardev ki Agar Bhadaz Bhawnta Narhet Kalpara Neejhara Ramdas Jhikdya Tagarya Sanwastar
dhani (Rajput) (Samara)
Name of Villages

The consolidated seasonal availability of goat milk in the area has shown following trend
Total estimated Goat milk yield in the area (Season wise)

3000

Total Goat milk yield

2500

2000

Ltrs of milk 1500

1000

500

0
Max Min Max Min Max Min
Goat MY (Rainy) Goat MY (Summer) Goat MY (Winter)
Seasons
Based on focused group discussion, it was estimated that 70% of produced milk (after
kids feeding) has been available as marketable surplus with goat keeping families. The
availability of goat milk as marketable surplus has shown following trend –

Marketable surplus availability (season wise)

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

Ltrs 1000

800

600

400

200

0
Max Min Max Min Max Min
Goat MY (Rainy) Goat MY (Summer) Goat MY (Winter)
Seasons

As evident from above charts, the summer season has best availability of goat milk in
the area followed by winter. Interestingly most of other ruminants like cow and buffalo
yields minimum milk in summer but goat milk has high chance to fill this gap and take
advantages of higher milk price in the market. The high availability of milk in summer
coincides with practice of feeding nutritionally rich tree leaves to goats and availability
of free lands for grazing to goats.

However the surplus ilk available in summer has been in the range of 1800 to 1300
liters. As it can be logically argued that 40% of this milk must have been to local dairy
and milk men the available milk for procurement must have been in the range of 780
to 1100 liter. The availability for procurement in winter will be in the range of 500 to
800 liters. The rainy season availability will be in the range of 350 to 500 liter. So the
operation range of milk procurement business can be from 350 liters per day to 1100
liters per day. The lean and flush season ration will be 1:3. This ratio is a little lower
from other milk dairy operations. As the volume of operation is very low, winter milk
collection has to be economically viable. The economics of milk procurement has been
presented in subsequent section.
Findings of Field observation and FGDs

Breed
As per field observation the major breeds in the area is crosses of Sirohi and has
physical attributes like colour and pattern of Sirohi goats. However breed is not true to
type and lots of variation. Apart from Sirohi local black colour goats are also visible
which may be Jaisalmeri or Marwari in origin or crosses from those goats. In recent
past, some rearers has kept Totapari bucks and totapari breed of goats are also visible
in the area as the price of male kids of this breed is high.

Feeding Management
As observed in the field the goats are largely kept on grazing with a little
supplementation with concentrates. However in summer people used to feed tree
leaves and foliage and may migrate to high hill area for better fodder availability. The
practice of feeding concentrate at critical stage like advance pregnancy, part tuition
and in milk are known to community and adopted on a limited scale.

Housing
Each family has made a thatched separate house for goats and most often an enclosure
has also been available. However the space requirement of goats in closed houses are
less than specified and can be a cause of concern for pulmonary infections. A basic
modification in housing system and floor improvement will be desired for milking
goats.

Health and Hygiene


The basic sanitation and hygiene in the area is comparatively good. However improved
sanitary practices in milk goat keeping and milking in sanitatised condition are utmost
requirement for enhancing quality of goat milk.

Goat productivity and reproductive performances


The area has high kidding percentage in March – April so these kidded goats continue
to provide milk from late April to June with an shared lactation days of 90 to 120 days
in the area. In study area there are two major season of kidding – One in September –
October and another in March – April. However as per field observation, most of goats
under present low feeding condition are kidding once and farmer prefer to get March
– April kidding for higher milk yield. Estimated 20% of goats kids twice and provides
milk in both the season.

Based on field discussion, it was evident that kidding of goats depends upon proper
feeding and availability of buck on time. Although availability f buck was not reported
as constraint by respondents (quality of buck was serious concern as per field
observation), feeding was a felt and known reason for irregular kidding and low milk
yield.

In depth discussion with goat keepers also suggested that improved feeding can have
following other advantages to goat keepers –
1. Healthy goats yielding more milk so better growth of kids.
2. Regular kidding thus enhancing 60% more kids availability at farm.
3. Enhanced value of goats in the market.
4. Less advance stage abortion (has increased chance in present low feeding
condition).
In spite of these knowledge and awareness, farmers has not adopted the practice of
improved and proper feeding, the shared reasons has been as follows –
1. Low awareness on low cost goat feeding practices.
2. No orientation and avenue for goat milk selling, hence benefit is not visible.
3. Increases cash inflow, requires investment before hand and farmers have no
capital for investment.
4. Goat has been kept on free grazing business and herded by a person throughout
the year. As for a large herd feeding cost will be significant, The quality of goats
are such that they would not respod very positively to larger feeding
proportionately in large herd.
5. Small herd (2 to 5) are yet to properly oriented and demonstrated the benefits,
however normal practice of feeding some grains and home food waste is
prevalent in the area. The quality of goats in such conditions is also better and
high chance of responding to improved feed.

Farmers invariably provided apparent reason that “They hardly used to have food
grains for family throughout the year so how can afford to feed these goats”.

Economics of Goat milk procurement in present area

Estimated availability of milk for procurement

It is assumed that out of total goat milk production, 70% has been available for sale (as
shown in above chart). We assume that 60% of this can be procured through ,
community managed system facilitated by Ibtada. So the effective minimum and
maximum amount to be procured will be -

Season Number of days@ Minimum Maximum (Ltr)


(Ltr)
Summer 110 (March to June) 783 1127
Rainy 120 (July to October) 359 522
Winter 120 (Nov to Feb) 556 799
Average per day estimated milk 560 807
collection
@ - assuming that 15 days will be no milk collection day in year due to festivities and
other reasons.

Based on above figures, roughly as on average 650 ltrs of milk per day can be targeted
for per day procurement from the area.
The estimated cost of procurement

Economics of Goat milk procurement in Pratapgarh area


Basis of Cost
A Fixed cost assumption Number Rate (Rs)
1 Milk collection cans - Large 2 per village 20 2000 40000
2 Milk cans small 2 per village 20 500 10000
3 Electronic tester 1 centrally 1 35000 35000
4 Manual fat testing machines 1 per village 10 2200 22000
5 Lactometer 2 per village 20 150 3000
6 Milk storage tank 1 centrally 1 10000 10000
7 Electrical appliances Fan, cooler 1 8000 8000
8 Almirah, Table & Chair Central office 1 12000 12000
9 Computer with printer Central office 1 40000 40000
Total 180000
Annual depreciation @ 25% 45000
B Variable cost Monthly
1 Chemicals 4 Rs per day/center 10 4 1200
2 Head loads Rs 0.50 per liter 200 0.5 3000
3 Cleaning, washing chemicals Rs 5 per day 10 5 1500
4 Salary of attendent 1 4000 4000
5 Salary of centre manager 1 6000 6000
6 Transport cost Rs 8 per km 100 Km 8 24000
Total Variable cost (Monthly) 39700
Total Annual Variable cost (350
days) 456550
Total Depreciation 45000
Losses due to sour , acidity in
milk 30000
Estimated interest on Fixed cost 5400
Total Cost 536950

Surplus requirement per day


assuming 350 days work 1534.14
Estimated average per day milk
sale potential (as per availability) 650
So margin to be gained per liter
of milk per day 2.36

As evident from table, there are two options – either we have to gain this margin
(As per present existing business experience seems higher through collectivization
of milk and across the season) or enhance the volume of milk procurement as the
price of transportation (60% of cost) will remain more or less same.

However such efforts need to undertake two factors in mind –

1. There will be required significant initial investment in ensuring participation of


goat rearers through effective awareness generation, exposure, discussions and
training. Even with best of effort the milk collection in initial six months will
remain much lower than target and hence a reserve fund to execute such
business plan will be essential.
2. Enhancing volume will also depend on the vendor/marketing agency to which
milk is supplied so that steady increase in demand can be ensured. The price of
procurement at village level will also be a criteria has goat milk at present is
mixed with cow/buffalo milk and sole by milkmen to the consumer. So price
has to be competitive to milkmen to have major share.

Factors to be considered in goat milk procurement

a. Status of competitors – As per present field study, there has been no agency
focused on procuring goat milk so a focused effort will enhance the awareness and
first mover advantages.
The possible competition will be realized from local milkmen and to an extent with
dairy cooperatives where goat keepers with significant milk yield used to pour the
milk. The price in dairy is based on fat content. As goat milk used to have fat
content of around 3.5 to 4 % with prevailing highest rate of 3.6 Rs fat, the available
rate to farmers comes to Rs 12.60 to Rs 14.40. A similar rate will need to be
ensured to goat milk with additional advantage of establishment of milk collection
center at hamlet level to provide easy access. The more transparent system of
payment, frequent payment can be thought of as other advantages along with
building of ownership to attract the goat rearers to present system.

However the major competition may be realized from milkmen. At present


milkmen are inclined to collect goat milk in summer as the cow/buffalo milk is
scarce in this season. As opportunity of adultering goat milk with water is low,
milkmen in general gives lower arte of goat milk than cow and buffalo milk and
many a times avoid it in flush season.

The advantage over milkmen can be given through better regular payment,
services, extending credits, building SHG ownership and conditionality of year the
round milk pouring and higher rate to regular supplier than occasional/
opportunity based supplier. Milkmen also have significant cost in door to door
collection and small amount of goat milk makes it unfeasible for them to collect
from significant number of goat milk producers. Milkmen generally targets families
having both cow/ buffalo milk and Goat milk. So he collects goat milk along with
cow and buffalo milk and sales it after further mixing with water.

The strategically, the effort should be to provide milk collection opportunity to


purely goat keeping poor families, which is most often not accessed by milkmen in
significant numbers. This will however will increase the cost of procurement and a
significant head load cost has to be kept in business plan.

b. Enhancement of productivity & milk yield at smaller herd size level


For effective procurement of goat milk, it will be essential to enhance the
productivity of goats in general. However the productivity enhancement at small
herd size level will be more advantageous, reason being large herd size keepers
tend to migrate in summer season on hill tops and more often lives away in
remoter area. The milk procurement from large herd size people will require
accessing to them in more remote areas hence enhancing cost of procurement and
milk may not be available in summer season in spite of efforts.

It is also evident that quality of goat milk in terms of sanitary conditions like visible
dirt, hair, droppings are high in large herd size goat keepers and educating them to
keep goats in clean condition and proper care will be difficult, making quality of
goat milk low.

c. Sanitation, housing and reduction in Smell of goat milk

As per observation in the area goats are kept in small congested housing with low
sanitation. There is every chance of getting dissolved smell of urine, dung and
direct mixing of hair and dirt from around goat udder. It will be important to
promote practices of hair cutting around belly, cleaning of udder and sanitized
milking to have milk with basic qualities for procurement. Keeping of buck along
with goats has been one of the major reasons of getting pheromones of buck
dissolved in goat milk and a goaty smell in the milk. Large herd keeping people of
course will hardly follow these systems and will be a major contributor to
deteriorate the quality of milk.
So an intensive awareness cum motivational program around these issues will be
critical to change the present practices in the area, before procurement of milk can
be promoted.

Goat Milk products & Technological options for milk processing

As per available technology various products can be made form goat milk. The
major products successfully made and marketed from Goat milk has been –
1. Pasteurised packaged goat milk (full cream)
2. Goat Milk Paneer
3. Butter
4. Whole Goat milk Powder
5. Skimmed Goat milk/whey Powder - goat milk whey powder is made from pure
goat milk whey without the additions of other sorts of milk whey powder.Goat
whey powder is obtained by concentrating and drying the whey produced
during the manufacture of goat cheese. If so required, the whey can be partially
desalted prior to drying.Goat milk whey powder and partially desalted goat milk
whey powder can be used as an ingredient in children’s and dietary foods, in
dairy products, such as yoghurt, in bakery products, and in confectionery.
6. Goat milk Powder tablets
7. Goat milk chocolates
8. Goat milk Soaps
9. Fermented Goat Milk - The popular goat milk product prepared from
goat milk is fermented goat milk. A special fermented beverage prepared from
goat milk by standardizing it to 2% fat and 10.5% SNF using concentrated goat
skim milk is very popular in the EU and US. It is usually fortified with Vitamin
A and Vitamin D and labeled as protein fortified low fat goat milk
10. Goat milk Ice Cream - Goat milk can be successfully used in the preparation
of ice cream. Since the goat milk is sold at a higher price than that of cow milk,
the ice cream prepared using goat milk is considered as premium one.
11. Infant Foods and milk substitutes - The infant foods and milk substitutes
prepared by using goat milk is very popular in United States and South Africa.
It is available in the form of spray dried and evaporated form especially targeted
at infants.
12. Goat Milk Yoghurt - Goat milk can also be utilized for producing yoghurt by
employing 2% yoghurt culture which developed good aroma and relatively
whiter appearance with moderately firm body, smooth texture and no goaty
odour. The goats grazing on pastures yield milk which contains certain factors
that increase the viscosity of yoghurt.

There is no significant effect on pH, total solid, lactic acid, volatile fatty acids
and tyrosine value when the goat milk is ultrafiltered prior to its use. Moreover,
ultrafiltered goat milk had better quality due to high protein content in
comparison to those obtained from goat milk concentrated by reverse osmosis
or vacuum evaporation. Another advantage is that there is no wheying off defect
when stored at 4°C as in the case of cow milk yoghurt without homogenization.

13. Goat Milk Cheese - Goat milk is highly suitable for the production of
different varieties of soft cheeses that are popular in Europe, France, USA, Spain,
Yugoslavia, Italy etc. The goat milk can be admixed with buffalo milk for the
manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. The cheese made from goat milk had higher
retention of moisture and lower sodium content, higher fat and dry matter content
and the organoleptic quality is definitely superior when compared with cow milk
cheese.

In Italy, cheese made from goat milk are either consumed fresh or ripened for 2
months. For ripening the cheese, white or blue moulds are used in order to
produce a strong flavour and proper rind formation. The cheese made from goat
milk is known for the desirable sharp flavour due to the presence of higher
concentration of medium chain fatty acids. In many states of European Union, the
goat milk cheese is marketed as premium quality.

Trials have been carried out by mixing 10-25% of goat milk in buffalo milk to
produce cheddar cheese, which developed sharp and balanced flavour within 6
months of ripening. At 15% replacement in buffalo milk, the Gouda cheese
developed pronounced flavour. Mozzarella cheese can also be prepared with a
blend of goat and buffalo milk at 50:50 level. Thus goat milk can be used to prepare
various goat milk products. Domiati cheese made from fresh goat milk and ripened
for 90 days exhibited that the rennet type had little effect on the yield, acidity,
moisture content, fat, salt, ratio between soluble nitrogen to total nitrogen, total
volatile fatty acids and non protein nitrogen of cheese.
14. Cosmetic product from Goat milk

 Goat milk mask/face cleaner


 Goat Milk Hand cream Cleanser
 Handmade Goat milk Shop (with moisturizer & honey)

Findings of Study on consumer side survey and Pediatrician interview

As discussed above in methodology section, a focused questionnaire based


interview was also conducted on consumer level perception. An interview of some
pediatricians and hospitals was also conducted to undertake their views and
concerns for goat milk.

The consumer survey has covered Jaipur and Alwar two towns with 225 samples
from jaipur and 396 Samples from Alwar to understand consumer level response.

A. Jaipur City

Sample characteristics

In random sample the representation of different colonies of Jaipur has been as


follows –

Name of Colony No. of


respondents
Mansarover Colony 45
Mahesh Nagar 48
Malviya Nagar 46
Pratap Nagar 40
Jagatpura 48
Total 227

The professional engagement of interviewed respondent has shown following


representation –

No. of
S. No Profession respondents % of total
1 Business 50 22
2 Service 39 17
3 Student 31 14
Unskilled Wage
4 earner 43 19
5 Skilled wage earner 36 16
6 Housewife 25 11
7 Unemployed 3 1
227 100
As evident the survey has targeted most of the families from lower and middle class
and opinions of different occupation people have been reflected.

The sample respondent has following family structure –

Criteria Children below Adult over 50


12 years Years
Nil 79 103
1 43 48
2 47 67
3 21 5
More than 3 35 2
No response 2 2
Total 227 227

Table shows that at least one children below 12 years has been in 66% household
whereas 55% household has at least one adult of above 50 years. The number of
children per family is 355 in 148 families so the average child per family is 2.39
whereas the average adult of 50 yrs per family is 1.69. As per sample it is clear that
children surpass the number of adults (>50 yrs) in the sample. The trend is
incidentally representing urban demography of Jaipur city.

The classification of respondent as per gender is as follows –

Gender Number % of Total


Female 32 14
Male 195 86
227 100

Findings and discussions

Present Milk purchase system

Full
Milk Purchase pattern cream Tond Total Percentage
Dairy packets 32 148 180 92
Milkmen 16 16 8
Total response
received 196 100

As per sample survey, it was observed that majority of the people (91%) has been
purchasing milk as dairy packets and 82% of dairy packet purchaser are taking tond
milk for consumption. The present practices suggest that community has high
preference for packaged milk.
18 (8%) families are purchasing milk directly from cow/ buffalo owner. Their collective
purchase is 22.5 liters of cow milk and 47.5 liters of buffalo milk

Perception about Goat Milk

Perception Number Percentage


It is good 190 84
It is bad 23 10
Do not know 14 6
227 100

Majority of the respondent (84%) perceived goat milk as good, 6% has not clue about
and 10% respondent has a negative perception about goat. The data shows high chance
of acceptability of goat milk in the market. However the response needs to be taken in
light of profile of respondent. As no classification of respondent has been achieved ,
the overall perception about goat milk seems very positive.

In response to further question of whether they would prefer to buy goat milk if
available in market the response has been –

Response No of respondent Percentage


Yes 169 77
No 51 23
Total 220 100

The response has been almost in accordance with perception as 77% of total responded
has positive response. It is well interrelated that majority of those who has positive
perception has also decided to purchase goat milk, however the purchase positive
percentage has been slightly lower than perception.

Preferences for packaged and open loose milk

On response to the presentation of goat milk and quality factor through pasteurised
packaged milk and loose open sale, the response received has shown following trend –

Type Number Percentage


Packaged 144 65
Loose fresh 67 30
Either way 11 5
222 100

Of total 222 respondents , who expressed their opinion, 65% wish to get it in packaged
form and 30% in loose and fresh form. It is clear that majority of the community in
such urban set up prefers packaged milk.
Opinion on Rate of goat milk (willingness to pay rates)

Rate (Rs per No of respondent


Liter) willing to pay Percentage
20-22 17 8
18 to 20 16 7
15 to 18 58 26
Less than 15 134 60
Total 225 100

As evident from table, 60% of respondent are willing to pay around Rs 15 per liter for
goat milk. However significant number of families (26%) are willing to pay upto Rs 18
per liter of goat milk. The survey has been conducted in winter months so the rate
perceived might be compared with winter rates.

B. Alwar City

Sample characteristics
In random sample the representation of different colonies of Alwar has been as follows –

Name of Colony No. of


respondents
Buddh vihar 24
Dhoudpur 27
Hasan Khan 14
Indra Colony 15
Kala Kuan 27
Karm Chari Colony 19
Ladia 10
Manumarg 16
Naya Bas 15
NEB 21
Shiva Ji Park 31
Sector 1 to 10 171
Others 6
Total 396
As evident from the above table, the sample respondent has been from over 22
settlements/colonies of Alwar town and has wide coverage. The views expressed has
wide geogaraphical representation of Alwar city.
The professional engagement of interviewed respondent has shown following
representation –
No. of
S. No Profession respondents % of total
1 Business 110 28
2 Service 104 26
3 Student 26 7
Unskilled Wage
4 earner 20 5
5 Skilled wage earner 39 10
6 Housewife 92 23
7 Unemployed 5 1
396

As evident the survey has targeted most of the families from middle class (53%
respondents are either business owners or in service) and opinions of different
occupation people have been reflected.

The sample respondent has following family structure –

Criteria Children below Adult over 50


12 years Years
Nil 134 141
1 85 89
2 98 150
3 43 10
More than 3 32 5
No response 4 1
Total 396 396

As per data 88% (350) of randomly selected sample respondents have either a young
boy (less than 12 years of age) or an aged person in the family and only 12 % family has
no young or aged person in the family. Table shows that at least one children below 12
years has been in 33% household whereas 35% household has at least one adult of
above 50 years. The number of children is 574 in 261 families so the average child per
family is 2.19 whereas the average adult of 50 yrs per family is 1.73 (440 adult in 253
families). As per sample it is clear that children surpass the number of adults (>50 yrs)
in the sample. The trend is incidentally representing urban demography of Alwar city.

The classification of respondent as per gender is as follows –

Gender Number % of Total


Female 182 46
Male 214 54
396 100
Findings and discussions

Present Milk purchase system

Full
Milk Purchase pattern cream Toned Total Percentage
Dairy packets 66 36 102 27
Milkmen 152 152 41
From cattle direct visit 120 120 32
Total response
received 374 100

As per sample survey, it was observed that preference for milkmen and direct milk
collection from khatals are high in Alwar city and surpasses dairy packets purchase
significantly. The trend shows a quite deviation from Jaipur, where trend is more
positive towards dairy packets purchase. This difference may be attributed to
preferences (notional understanding) of fresh milk in small towns and dominance of
milkmen in the market.

32% families are purchasing milk directly from cow/ buffalo owner.

Perception about Goat Milk

Perception Number Percentage


It is good 280 71
It is bad 28 7
Do not know 88 22
396 100

Majority of the respondent (71%) perceived goat milk as good, 22% has not clue about
and 7% respondent has a negative perception about goat. The response is almost in
congruence with Jaipur consumer survey although percentage of people not sure
about it has increased significantly in Alwar from Jaipur. But looking into respondent
profile it can be logically guessed that economic class of respondent at Alwar are
comparatively better than Jaipur and that might have reflected in perception
differences.

The data shows high chance of acceptability of goat milk in the market. As no
classification of respondent has been achieved , the overall perception about goat milk
seems very positive.
In response to further question of whether they would prefer to buy goat milk if
available in market the response has been –

Response No of respondent Percentage


Yes 282 71
No 114 29
Total 396 100
The response has been almost in accordance with perception as 71% of total responded
has positive response. It is well interrelated that majority of those who has positive
perception has also decided to purchase goat milk, the purchase percentage has
remained exactly similar to positive perception.

Preferences for packaged and open loose milk

On response to the presentation of goat milk and quality factor through pasteurized
packaged milk and loose open sale, the response received has shown following trend –

Type Number Percentage


Packaged 255 66
Loose fresh 106 28
Either way 23 6
384 100

Of total 384 respondents , who expressed their opinion, 66% wish to get it in packaged
form and 28% in loose and fresh form. The patterns of preferences for packaged milk
has been almost similar to Jaipur city (65%).
It is clear that majority of the community in even smaller town like Alwar prefers
packaged milk.

Opinion on Rate of goat milk (willingness to pay rates)

Rate (Rs per No of respondent


Liter) willing to pay Percentage
20-22 6 2
18 to 20 105 27
15 to 18 163 42
Less than 15 116 29
Total 282 100

As evident from table, 42% of respondent are willing to pay around Rs 15 per liter for
goat milk. However significant number of families (29%) are willing to pay upto Rs 18
per liter of goat milk. The survey has been conducted in winter months so the rate
perceived might be compared with winter rates.

A study on perception of medical professionals towards Goat Milk as feed


supplement to Aged and adolescent

As a part of study, a semi structured interview of reputed pediatricians (medical


professionals’ specialized in child diseases) of Alwar was conducted. Four
pediatricians were interviewed in detail.

The response of three doctors were quite positive in accepting goat milk as nutritional
supplements for growing children, however their major concern was absence of folic
acid in goat milk, which causes some acute nutritional deficiency if a new born child is
kept only on goat milk as nutrition. There second concern was pasteurization and
cleanliness of goat milk, which needs to be maintained to promote it as nutritional
supplements. Whereas three of the Doctors having hi own nursing home, was with
opinion that he could prescribe goat milk to aged people and growing children if it is
available in sanitized packaged condition, one was averse to do so as this may promote
folic acid deficiency in the children.

It was observed that availability of much of research or authentic knowledge around


goat milk was absent with medical professionals. There has been no known research
on goat milk feeding in recent past in India available to medical professionals

Key factors for successful marketing of goat milk products will be:

 Consumer perception of safety and nutrition


 Quality of flavor, texture and appearance
 Diversification and fulfill need of different market segment
 Attractiveness of packaging
 Relative price of products
 Establishment of proper distribution and marketing channels
Recommended Strategy for Ibtada to intervene in Goat milk procurement
& Marketing

As per present data and observation on goat milk production availability, its
distribution and seasonality, Ibtada will have to take a long term strategy as the
challenges are multiple and multifaceted. It is suggested that being first such pioneer
work on liquid milk procurement, Ibtada should take the whole process in various
phases. These phases can have clear cut process, activities and targeted outcome so
that each phase can form the ground for next phase.

For broad outline the phases can be as follows –

Phase I (Preparatory Phase) – 12 months - This phase should look into intensive
training of members on improved dairy goat selection, proper feeding and economics
of dairy goat in the area, developing package of practices of dairy goat management.
The phase should also focus on initiating collectivization of goat milk from producers
and its bulk sale to institutiol (like dairy cooperative/sweet and tea shops) or
individual milkmen on experimental basis. The phase will help in fine tuning the
process and building community participation and understanding on the process.

Phase II (Establishment of Goat milk pasteurization and packaging plant &


establishing milk procurement system) – 24 Months
Once procurement of over 300 liter per day is ensured, this phase should look into
establishing and managing pasteurization and packaging plant for goat milk. Phase
should work on consolidation of procurement and look into various other goat milk
products on experimental basis like Goat Cheese, Goat milk Soap to diversify the
product and cater different segment of market.

Phase III (Diversify goat milk products and intensive market growth) – 24 months
(ongoing)

Based on experimentation, product diversification should be consolidated in this


phase and a strategic market development for more goat milk should be focused to
enhance and accommodate the goat milk from the area.
Annexures

cdjh nw/k cktkj losZ iz'ukoyh


¼miHkksDrk izo`fr½

1- uke--------------------------------------------- 2- mez-------------------- 3-

eksgYyk-----------------------------------------

4- O;olk;--------------------------------- 5- fyax--------------------

6- ?kj esa lnL;ksa dh la[;k


mez la[;k
12 o"kZ ls de
50 o"kZ ls T;knk
7- orZeku esa nqX/k [kjhnus dk rjhdk
1- Ms;jh dk iSdsV & Qqy dzhe VkWUM
2- [kqyk nw/k nqf/k;k ls
3- Ik'kqikyd ds ikl tkdj
8- vxj [kqyk [kjhnrs gSa rks
Ik'kq dk izdkj ek=k
xk;
HkSal
9- cdjh ds nw/k ds ckjs esa vkidks D;k tkudkjh gS \
1- vPNk gS
2- cqjk gS
3- dqN irk ugha gS
10- cdjh ds 'kq} nw/k vxj cktkj esa miyC/k gks rks D;k vki vius cPps ;k ?kj ds
cw<+ksa ds fy, [kjhnuk
pkgsxsa & gkW ugha
vxj gkW rks dkj.k

vxj ugha rks dkj.k


11- cdjh ds nw/k dh miyC/krk fdl rjg ls vki T;knk ilan djsxsa
1- iSdsV esa ¼ik'pqjkbTM½
2- [kqyk rktk

12- vkids fglkc ls cdjh nw?k dk mfpr ewY; D;k gksxk \

1- 20 ls 22 :Ik;s izfr yhVj 2- 18 ls 20 :Ik;s izfr yhVj 3- 15 ls


18 :Ik;s izfr yhVj
4- 15 ls uhps

13- vkids fglkc ls cdjh dk nw/k cspus ds fy, D;k iz;kl t:jh gS &

gLrk{kj losZdrkZ gLrk{kj lwpuk nkrk


Qksu
bZesy

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Format of Letter to Pediatrician

Dear Dr. ……………

Greetings from “The Goat Trust”.

Looking into the advantages of goat milk as superior food for young ones and aged people, we are
conducting a survey with consumers and professionals to map out the facilitating factors and constraints in
promotion of goat milk as marketable product by goat rearers. In context we would request for your response
on following queries –

1. Do you think Goat milk is easily digestible milk for children (over 3 years) and aged people?

2. Do you find convincing that Pediatricians should recommend goat milk as a food for young ones and
growing children?

3. Do you find this opportunity meaningful that we can work with you to popularize the goat milk
(though supplying goat milk at door step to patients referred by you)

4. What is your suggested strategy for promotion and marketing of goat milk? – Should we start with
pasteurized packaged milk or clean fresh milk supplied in sealed can will serve the purpose.

For your reference we are enclosing some medical evidences of goat milk advantages over cow milk.

Looking ahead for meaningful initiatives with you

Regards,
The Goat Trust & Ibtada Team
xkao dk izi= dkM

xkao dk uke ----------------------------------------------------------------------xzke iapk;r--------------------------- DyLVj


dk uke ---------------------------
Cykd ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------ftyk ------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------
Ø <k.kh dk uke cdjh ikydksa dh cdfj;ksa dh
0 vuqekfur la[;k vuqekfur la[;k
1-
2-
3-
4-
5-
6-
7-
8-
9-
1
0-
1
1-
1
2-
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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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2- xkao esa cdjh nw/k dk orZeku ewY;
v- xehZ esa
c- vU; ekSle esa

3- xkWo esa vuqekfur cdjh nw/k


v xehZ esa
c- vU; ekSle esa
cdjh nqX/k mRiknu vkWdM+k xkao dk dksM
xkao dk uke ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DyLVj dk uke ------------------------------------------
Cykd --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ftyk ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
cdjh dh la[;k cdjh nw/k dk cdjh nw/k dh fcØh
Øe fdlku <k.kh mRiknu yh- yh-
dk dk
uke uke dqy cdjh cdjh 6 6 orZeku ebZ lnhZ orZeku ebZ lnhZ
[kkst lw[kh nw/k ekg ekg twu esa twu esa
esa
esa ls ls xehZ xehZ
cMs NksBs esa esa
eknk eknk
1
2
3
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5
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9
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