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PASSIVE VOICE

Compiled by :

Name : Farah Agniya


Class : X MIPA 2

SMA NEGERI 7 BANJARMASIN


2018/2019
PREFACE

Assamu'alaikum Wr. Wb.

Thank to Almighty God who has given His blessings for the writer to finish this English
assignment entitled "Passive Voice". The writer also wish to express her gratitude for those who
have guided in completing this paper.

The purpose of this writing is in order to fulfill the assignment from Mrs. Maryuni Ulfah, S.Pd.
This English paper contains the definition of Passive voice and how to use it in tenses and other
forms.

Hopefully, after reading this assignment, the readers will be able to understand passive voice
more and apply it on writing or daily conversation.

With decent heart, the writer hopes for the readers' willingness to give their critics and
suggestions about this paper.

Banjarmasin, 15 December 2018

Writer

Farah Agniya
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 : Introduction

1.1 Background of Paper


1.2 Problem Formulation
1.3 Purpose of Paper

Chapter 2 : Discussion

2.1 Definition and Function of Passive Voice

2.2 When to Use Passive Voice

2.3 Passive Voice in Tenses

2.4 Other Passive Voice Forms

2.5 Misuse of Passive Voice

Chapter 3 : Conclusion

3.1 Conclusion

3.2 Suggest

References
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Paper

When we talk about the grammar of a language then that comes to mind is how to arrange the
words contained in the language into a series of meaningful, which can be understood both by
the speakers and the hearing. Therefore, learn grammar in English is to learn how to use the
word in a standard sentence patterns in English. Passive voice is one of the grammar in English,
which is very important to make a standard sentence in English.

1.2 Problem Formulation


1) What is the definition of passive voice?
2) What is the function of passive voice?
3) When to use passive voice?
4) How to use passive voice in tenses?
5) What is other forms of passive voice?
6) When is passive voice misused?

1.3 Purpose
1) Knowing the definition of passive voice.
2) Knowing the function of passive voice.
3) Knowing when to use passive voice.
4) Knowing how to use passive voice in tenses.
5) Knowing other forms of passive voice.
6) Knowing when passive voice is misused.
CHAPTER 2

DISCUSSION

2.1 Definition and Function

“Passive voice is a type of sentence or clause in which the subject receives the action of the verb,
or the verb form used when the subject of a sentence is affected by the action”.

The passive writing voice occurs when something that is ordinarily “done by” the subject
of a sentence is “done by” the object of a sentence. In the passive writing voice, whatever is
doing the action of the sentence is not the grammatical subject of the sentence. In an active
sentence, the person or thing responsible for the action in the sentence comes first. In a passive
sentence, the person or thing acted on comes first, and the actor is added at the end, introduced
with the preposition “by.”

The passive form of the verb is signaled by a form of “to be”: in the sentence above, “was
formulated” is in passive voice while “formulated” is in active. In a passive sentence, we often
omit the actor completely:

Passive Voice Examples:

 The work was completed by Jaime.

Even though “Jaime” completed the work, “Jaime” is not the grammatical subject of this
sentence. The subject of this sentence is “work.”

In passive sentences, the thing that seems to be doing the action will be ordered chronologically
after the verb.

 The ball was hit by Johnny.

Again, in this sentence, rather than say, “Johnny hit the ball.” the ball becomes the subject of the
sentence.
2.2 When to Use

In some sentences, passive voice can be perfectly acceptable. You might use it in the following
cases:

1. The actor is unknown:

The cave paintings of Lascaux were made in the Upper Old Stone Age. [We don’t know
who made them.]

2. The actor is irrelevant:

An experimental solar power plant will be built in the Australian desert. [We are not
interested in who is building it.]

3. You want to be vague about who is responsible:

Mistakes were made. [Common in bureaucratic writing!]

4. You are talking about a general truth:

Rules are made to be broken. [By whomever, whenever.]

5. You want to emphasize the person or thing acted on. For example, it may be your main
topic:

Insulin was first discovered in 1921 by researchers at the University of Toronto. It is still
the only treatment available for diabetes.

6. You are writing in a scientific genre that traditionally relies on passive voice. Passive
voice is often preferred in lab reports and scientific research papers, most notably in the
Materials and Methods section:

The sodium hydroxide was dissolved in water. This solution was then titrated with
hydrochloric acid.

In these sentences you can count on your reader to know that you are the one who did the
dissolving and the titrating. The passive voice places the emphasis on your experiment
rather than on you.

Note: Over the past several years, there has been a movement within many science
disciplines away from passive voice. Scientists often now prefer active voice in most
parts of their published reports, even occasionally using the subject “we” in the Materials
and Methods section. Check with your instructor or TA whether you can use the first
person “I” or “we” in your lab reports to help avoid the passive.
2.3 Passive Voice in Tenses

1. Simple Present Tense

Subject + be (am, is, are) + past participle + (by agent)

Active: Paul steals your motorcycle

Passive: Your motorcycle is stolen by Paul

2. Simple Past Tense

Subject + be (was, were) + past participle + (by agent)

Active: Andra cleaned these plates yesterday

Passive: These plates were cleaned by Andra yesterday

3. Simple Future Tense

Subject + will + be + past participle + (by agent)

Active: Simon will return Mr. Andi’s books tomorrow

Passive: Mr. Andi’s books will be returned by Simon tomorrow

Be going to

Subject + be (is, am are) going to + be + past participle + (by agent)

Active: Doctor is going to treat the patient soon

Passive: Patient is going to be treated by doctor soon

4. Present Continuous Tense

Subject + be (am, is, are) + being + past participle + (by agent)

Active: Rose is feeding the cat now

Passive: The cat is being fed by Rose now


5. Past Continuous Tense

Subject + be (was,were) + being + past participle + (by agent)

Active: The thief was robbing the bank

Passive: The bank was being robbed by the thief

6. Present Perfect Tense

Subject + Have/ Has + Been + past participle + (by agent)

Active: I have finished the book

Passive: The book has been finished by me

7. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Subject + Had + Been + past participle + (by agent)

Active: Lisa has been doing English assignment all day

Passive: English assignment had been done by Lisa all day

8. Future Perfect Tense

Subject + will + have + been + past participle + (by agent)

Active: You will have finished your report by this time next week

Passive: My report will have been finished by me by this time next week
2.4 Other Passive Voice Forms

1. Conditional Type

1) Type 1

If + S + be + V3 + by phrase +, + S + will be + V3 + ROTS

Active: If the minister of education reads learn ESL book, he will give Jalali a big
prize

Passive: If learn ESL book is read by the minister of education, Jalali will be given a
big prize by him.

2) Type 2

If + S + be2 + V3 + by phrase +, + S + would/could + be + V3 + ROTS

Active: If the minister of education read learan ESL book, he would give Jalali a big
prize.

Passive: If learn ESL book was read by the minister of education, Jalali would be
given a big prize by him.

3) Type 3

If + S + had been + V3 + by phrase +, + S + would/could + have + been +V3 +


ROTS

Active: If the minister of education had read learn ESL book, he would have given
Jalali a big prize.

Passive: If learn ESL book had been read by the minister of education, Jalali would
have been given a big prize by him

2. Passive voice with infinitives


The infinitive passive voice is used after modal verbs and other most verbs normally followed by
an infinitive.

 You have to be tested on your English grammar.


 John might be promoted next year.
 She wants to be invited to the party.
 I expect to be surprised on my birthday.
 You may be disappointed.
3. Passive Voice with Gerunds
Gerunds are used after prepositions and verbs normally followed by a gerund.
 I remember being taught to drive.
 The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.
 The children are excited to be taken to the zoo.
 Most film stars hate being interviewed.
 Most film stars hate to be interviewed.
 Poodles like to be pampered.

4. Using “To Need” in Passive Construction


 The ceiling needs painting - The ceiling needs to be painted.
 My hair needs cutting - My hair needs to be cut.
 That faucet needs fixing - That faucet needs to be fixed.
2.5 Misuse of Passive Voice

1) Passive sentences can get you into trouble in academic writing because they can be vague
about who is responsible for the action:

Both Othello and Iago desire Desdemona. She is courted. [Who courts Desdemona?
Othello? Iago? Both of them?]

2) Academic writing often focuses on differences between the ideas of different researchers,
or between your own ideas and those of the researchers you are discussing. Too many
passive sentences can create confusion:

Research has been done to discredit this theory. [Who did the research? You? Your
professor? Another author?]

3) Some students use passive sentences to hide holes in their research:

The telephone was invented in the nineteenth century. [I couldn’t find out who invented
the telephone!]

4) Finally, passive sentences often sound wordy and indirect. They can make the reader
work unnecessarily hard. And since they are usually longer than active sentences, passive
sentences take up precious room in your paper:

Since the car was being driven by Michael at the time of the accident, the damages
should be paid for by him.
CHAPTER 3

CONCLUSION

3.1 Conclusion

Passive voice is one of English grammar that is very important. Passive voice show us
when something that is ordinarily “done by” the subject of a sentence is “done by” the object of
a sentence. Passive voice can also be used in tenses and other forms.

3.2 Suggest

The writer would like to say her gratitude to the readers who have spent their time to read
this paper and also an apology if this paper isn’t anywhere near perfect. The writer hopes this
paper will be very useful in the future.
REFERENCES

Underwood, Alice. “Passive Voice – Grammar Tips”. 15 December 2018.


https://www.grammarly.com/blog/passive-voice/

Education First. “Passive Voice”. 15 December 2018. https://www.ef.com/wwen/english-


resources/english-grammar/passive-voice/

Nordquist, Richard. “Passive Voice Definition and Examples”. 15 December 2018.


https://www.thoughtco.com/passive-voice-grammar-1691597

Azbahasainggris. “16 Rumus Passive Voice – Pengertian – Jenis – Contoh”. 15 December 2018.
https://azbahasainggris.com/rumus-passive-voice

Bismo. “Active and Passive Voice of Conditional Clauses”. 15 December 2018.


https://www.learnesl.net/active-and-passive-voice-of-conditional-clauses/

Education First. “Alternative ways to form the passive voice”. 15 December 2018.
https://www.ef.com/wwen/english-resources/english-grammar/alternative-ways-form-passive-
voice/