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Substation Automation and RET 670

Protection Training Transformer Protection


Introduction
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Transformer Protection, Monitoring & Control


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Introduction

„ Important element in the power system


„ Interconnection link between two different voltage levels
„ Many sizes and types of power transformer
„ Fuses may provide adequate protection for distribution
transformers
„ Big generator step-up transformers may require
sophisticated protection
„ The repair time may be long
„ Transformer faults may cause substantial losses
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Power Transformer in a power system

„ Generator step-up transformers


„ EHV autotransformers
„ Regulating transformers
„ HV substation transformers
„ MV substation transformers
„ Distribution transformers
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Different vector groups and neutral connections

Yy Yd Dy Yd+z
YN yn0 (d1) YN d1 D yn11 YN d11 + zn
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Different winding arrangements

2 windings 3 windings Autotransformer 2-winding transf.


+ unloaded e.g.. Yy 6 d1 + tertiary + Auxiliary
tertiary e.g.. YN Auto d1 transformer
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Some special types of Power Transformer

„ Three single phase transformers in the three phase


bank
„ Phase shifting transformer
„ Regulating transformer
„ Transformer for HVDC
„ Furnace transformers
„ Transformers for Railway Applications
„ Single Phase transformer
„ Scott Transformer
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

„ Le-Blanc Transformer
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Power Transformer Protection

„ Should Trip during short-circuit and earth-fault


„ Inside of the power transformer tank
„ In the transformer bay
„ At an external fault, as back-up protection
„ Should Alarm or Trip during Abnormal conditions
„ Overload
„ Overvoltage
„ Reduced system voltage
„ Overexcitation
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Factors Contributing to Internal Faults

„ Deterioration and ageing, of insulation


„ Mechanical damage of insulation
„ Damage of conductor, poor contact in joints
„ Tap-changer, wear, mechanical failure
„ Tap-changer switching during overcurrent condition
„ Transient overvoltage, e.g. at lightning or switching
„ Contaminated oil
„ Corona discharge
„ Mechanical forces on windings and bushings
„ Heavy current during external faults, switching-in, or at resonance
„ Overheating
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

„ High load current, Circulation current between parallel transformers,


Reduced or lost cooling, Sustained through-fault current,
Overexcitation or voltage rise with transformer core saturation
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Types of Internal Fault

„ Earth-fault
„ Short-circuit
„ Turn-to-turn Fault
(Very high fault current in the shorted turns; Low fault current at the
transformer terminals)
„ Flash-over from HV to LV winding
(High voltage rise; Usually high fault current)
„ Core Fault
„ Tank Fault
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

„ Reduced cooling
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Consequences of Internal Fault

„ Danger to people
„ Damage of winding, core and insulation
„ Damage of the tank and bushings
„ Escape of oil, possibility of fire
„ Damage to surrounding equipment
„ Disturbance to the power system
„ Possible loss of the transformer for a long time
„ Costly repair or replacement
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Statistic from IEEE Guide

Cause of Transformer Failures 1955-1965 1975-1982


# % # %
Winding failure 134 51 615 55
Tap changer failures 49 19 231 21
Bushing failures 41 15 114 10
Terminal board failures 19 7 71 6
Core failures 7 3 24 2
Miscellaneous failures 12 5 72 6
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All causes 262 100 1,127 100


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Detection of transformer internal faults

„ Phase-phase fault
„ Transformer Differential Protection
„ Buchholz Relay
„ Overpressure Device
„ Underimpedance/Distance Protection
„ Overcurrent Protection (non directional, directional)
„ HV Fuses
„ Earth-fault, Low impedance earthing
„ Restricted Earth-fault Protection
„ Transformer Differential Protection
„ Buchholz Relay
„ Underimpedance/Distance Protection
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

„ Overcurrent or Earth-fault Protection (non directional, directional)


„ HV Fuses
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Detection of transformer internal faults

„ Earth-fault, High impedance earthing


„ Sensitive earth-fault current protection
„ Neutral (residual) overvoltage protection
„ Buchholz Gas Alarm
„ Turn-to-turn fault
„ Buchholz Alarm
„ Overpressure Device
„ Transformer Differential Protection
„ HV to LV winding flash-over
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

„ Transformer Differential Protection


„ Buchholz Relay
„ Overpressure Device
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Factors that Affect Transformer Protection

„ Normal magnetizing currents


„ Magnetizing inrush currents
(switch-on, recovery & sympathetic inrush)
„ Overexcitation magnetizing currents
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Factors that Affect Transformer Protection

„ Magnetizing inrush currents


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Factors that Affect the Inrush Current

„ The source impedance


„ The size of the transformer
„ The location of energized winding (inner, outer)
„ The connection of the windings
„ The point of wave when the switch closes
„ The magnetic properties of the core
„ The remanence of the core
„ The use of pre-insertion resistors
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Characteristics of the Inrush Current

„ Magnetizing inrush current can appear in all three


phases and in an earthed neutral
„ The magnitude of the inrush current may be 10 to 20
times the rated current for the inner winding (typically LV
winding)
„ The magnitude of the inrush current may be 5 to 10
times the rated current for the outer winding (typically
HV winding)
„ Maximum inrush if the switching-in occurs at voltage
zero and the flux increases from the remanent flux
„ The source impedance and the air-core reactance
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

determine the maximum inrush current


„ The inrush current is seldom equal in the phases
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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Consequences of Inrush Current

„ The inrush current has a large DC component that may


saturate the CTs
„ DC saturation of phase and neutral CTs may cause a
false residual current and a false differential current
„ There is a risk that sensitive differential protection,
residual overcurrent protection and neutral point
overcurrent protection may operate incorrectly
„ Phase O/C Protection can maloperate
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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