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REPUBLIC OF BENIN

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MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
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INSTITUTE SUPERIEUR FOPASE
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YEAR: 3rd YEAR


FILLIERE: BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS

THEME:
DNA AND GENES FONCTIONS

Members of the group: Professor:

1- NASSARA Astrid Dr Christiane ADDA


2-DJITRINOU Nobel
3-GOUNOU Anicha
4-HOUNGBEDJI Windi

ACADEMIC YEAR: 2018


PLAN
INTRODUCTION

i. EXPLANATION OF THE THEME

ii. THE MAIN ROLE OF DNA

iii. THE MAJOR FUNCTION OF DNA

iv. WHERE DO GENES COME FROM?

v. WHAT ARE GENES MADE OF?

vi. GENES FUNTION

vii. RECAP IN MORE DETAIL

SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION

Genes are made from a long molecule called DNA, which is copied and
inherited across generations. DNA is made of simple units that line up in
a particular order within this large molecule. The order of these units
carries genetic information, similar to how the order of letters on a page
carry information. The language used by DNA is called the genetic code,
which lets organisms read the information in the genes. This information
is the instructions for constructing and operating a living organism.
In our writing we will be a little more focus on the functions in each case
that is the gene or DNA.
i. EXPLANATION OF THE THEME

What is a DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic


instructions for the development and function of living things.
All known cellular life and some viruses contain DNA.

What is a gene?

A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are
made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to make molecules
called proteins. However, many genes do not code for proteins. In
humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than
2 million bases. The Human Genome Project estimated that humans
have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes.
Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each
parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of
genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between
people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their
sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each
person’s unique physical features.
Scientists keep track of genes by giving them unique names. Because
gene names can be long, genes are also assigned symbols, which are
short combinations of letters (and sometimes numbers) that represent
an abbreviated version of the gene name. For example, a gene
on chromosome 7 that has been associated with cystic fibrosis is called
the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; its symbol
is CFTR.
Genes are a section of DNA that are in charge of different functions like
making proteins. Long strands of DNA with lots of genes make up
chromosomes. DNA molecules are found in chromosomes.
Chromosomes are located inside of the nucleus of cells.
Each chromosome is one long single molecule of DNA. This DNA contains
important genetic information.
Chromosomes have a unique structure, which helps to keep the DNA
tightly wrapped around the proteins called histones. If the DNA
molecules were not bound by the histones, they would be too long to fit
inside of the cell.
Genes vary in complexity. In humans, they range in size from a few
hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.
Different living things have different shapes and numbers of
chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, or a total of 46. A
donkey has 31 pairs of chromosomes, a hedgehog has 44, and a fruit fly
has just 4.
DNA contains the biological instructions that make each species unique.
DNA is passed from adult organisms to their offspring during
reproduction. The building blocks of DNA are called nucleotides.
Nucleotides have three parts: A phosphate group, a sugar group and one
of four types of nitrogen bases.

ii. THE MAIN ROLE OF DNA

The main role of DNA in the cell is the long-term storage of information.
It is often compared to a blueprint, since it contains the instructions to construct
other components of the cell, such as proteins and RNA molecules.
The DNA segments that carry genetic information are called genes, but other
DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the
expression of genetic information.
In eukaryotes such as animals and plants, DNA is stored inside the cell nucleus,
while in prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea, the DNA is in the cell's
cytoplasm.
Unlike enzymes, DNA does not act directly on other molecules; rather, various
enzymes act on DNA and copy its information into either more DNA, in DNA
replication, or transcribe it into protein.
Other proteins such as histones are involved in the packaging of DNA or repairing
the damage to DNA that causes mutations.
DNA is a long polymer of simple units called nucleotides, which are held together
by a backbone made of sugars and phosphate groups.
This backbone carries four types of molecules called bases and it is the sequence
of these four bases that encodes information.

iii. THE MAJOR FUNCTION OF DNA

The major function of DNA is to encode the sequence of


amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code.
To read the genetic code, cells make a copy of a stretch of DNA in the nucleic
acid RNA.
These RNA copies can then used to direct protein synthesis, but they can also be
used directly as parts of ribosomes or spliceosomes.

iv. WHERE DO GENES COME FROM?

A gene is a basic unit of heredity in a living organism. Genes come from our
parents. We may inherit our physical traits and the likelihood of getting certain
diseases and conditions from a parent.
Genes contain the data needed to build and maintain cells and pass genetic
information to offspring.
Each cell contains two sets of chromosomes: One set comes from the mother
and the other comes from the father. The male sperm and the female egg carry
a single set of 23 chromosomes each, including 22 autosomes plus an X or Y sex
chromosome.
A female inherits an X chromosome from each parent, but a male inherits an X
chromosome from their mother and a Y chromosome from their father.

v. WHAT ARE GENES MADE OF?

A gene consists of a long combination of four


different nucleotide bases, or chemicals. There are many possible combinations.
The four nucleotides are:
• A (adenine)
• C (cytosine)
• G (guanine)
• T (thymine)
Different combinations of the letters ACGT give people different characteristics.
For example, a person with the combination ATCGTT may have blue eyes, while
somebody with the combination ATCGCT may have brown eyes .

vi. GENES FUNTION

Genes decide almost everything about a living being. One or more


genes can affect a specific trait. Genes may interact with an
individual's environment too and change what the gene makes.
Genes affect hundreds of internal and external factors, such as
whether a person will get a particular color of eyes or what diseases
they may develop.
Some diseases, such as sickle-cell anemia and Huntington's disease,
are inherited, and these are also affected by genes.

vii. RECAP IN MORE DETAIL


Genes: carry the codes ACGT. Each person has thousands of genes. They are like
a computer program, and they make the individual what they are.

A gene is a tiny section of a long DNA double helix molecule, which consists of a
linear sequence of base pairs. A gene is any section along the DNA with
instructions encoded that allow a cell to produce a specific product - usually a
protein, such as an enzyme - that triggers one precise action.

DNA:is the chemical that appears in strands. Every cell in a person's body has
the same DNA, but each person's DNA is different. This is what makes each
person unique.
DNA is made up of two long-paired strands spiraled into the famous double helix.
Each strand contains millions of chemical building blocks called bases.

SUMMARY
In summary gene is any section along the DNA with instructions encoded
that allow a cell to produce a specific product - usually a protein, such as an
enzyme - that triggers one precise action.