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Substation Automation and RET 670

Protection Training Transformer Protection


Overexicitation
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Up to two instances available
„ Connection of analog signals to the overexcitation function

OEX1-
OEXPVPH
I3P
U3P

OEX1-
OEXPVPH
I3P
U3P
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ It follows from the fundamental transformer equation…..
E = 4.44 · f · n · Bmax · A
…..that the peak magnetic flux density Bmax is directly proportional to the
internal induced voltage E, and inversely proportional to the frequency f,
and the turns n – overexcitation results from a too-high applied voltage, or
below-normal frequency
„ Disproportional variations in E and f may give rise to core overfluxing –
such an overexcitation condition will produce
„ Overheating (of the non-laminated metal parts, as well as an increase
in the core and winding temperature)
„ Increase in magnetizing currents
„ Increase in vibration and noise
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

„ Protection against overexcitation is based on calculation of the relative


Volts per Hertz (V / Hz) ratio
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ The transformer capability requirement for continuous operation requires
that transformers shall be capable of operating continuously, at no load, at
10% above rated voltage (Ur) at rated frequency (fr)
„ Therefore, at no load, the ratio of the actual transformer voltage to the
actual frequency should not exceed, on a sustained basis, 1.1 times the
ratio Ur to fr, i.e.

Ur
E/f ≤ 1.1
fr
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Relative excitation M
E/f
M=
Ur/fr

For an unloaded power transformer, M = 1 for any E and f, where the ratio
E/f is equal to Ur/fr
„ A power transformer is not overexcited as long as

M ≤ V/Hz>

with V/Hz> expressed in pu


Setting: V/Hz>, is the maximum continuously allowed no-load voltage at
rated frequency, set as a % of UBase/fr
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

„ Relative overexcitation is thus defined as

overexcitation = M – V/Hz>
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ The measured input voltage is U, not E – the overexcitation function will
calculate the internal induced voltage E if XLeak (the leakage reactance of
the winding to which the overexcitation function is connected) is known –
if not known, the overexcitation function will then take the measured
terminal voltage U as the induced voltage E
Setting: XLeak
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Measured voltage: positive sequence, or single phase-to-phase
Setting: MeasuredU
„ Measured current: the particular voltage which is used determines the two
currents that must be used
Setting: MeasuredI (it is extremely important that MeasuredU and
MeasuredI are set to same value)
„ If, for example, voltage UL1L2 is used, then currents IL1 and IL2 must be
used – from these two currents, the current IL1L2 = IL1 – IL2 will be
calculated internally
„ If three phase-to-earth voltages are used, then the function shall be set to
measure positive sequence voltage – consequently, the three phase
currents must be used, with the function set to measure the positive
sequence current
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Connection
„ The overexcitation protection function can be connected to any power
transformer side, independent of the direction of power flow
„ A side with an on-load tap changer must not be used
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Operating time
„ Two characteristics (curve types) available
„ IEEE
„ Tailor-made
Setting: CurveType

„ IEEE curve

0,18 * k
top =
(M – V/Hz>)2
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

Setting: kForIEEE
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ IEEE curve
„ Two definite time delays impact the inverse delay
„ tMax: maximum cut-off operate time at low degrees of
overexcitation
Setting: tMax
„ tMin: minimum cut-off operate time at high degrees of
overexcitation, i.e. for inverse delay times less than tMin
Setting: tMin
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ IEEE curve
Beyond Mmax, i.e. beyond the relative overexcitation

Mmax – V/Hz>

the operate time will always be tMin

Mmax = V/Hz>>

with V/Hz>> is expressed in pu


Setting: V/Hz>>, is the maximum no-load voltage at rated
frequency, where the inverse curve should be replaced by a short
definite time delay, set as a % of UBase/fr
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ IEEE curve

delay in s

tMax

under - inverse delay law


excitation

overexcitation
tMin

0 M max - V/Hz> Overexcitation M-V/Hz>


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

M=V/Hz> M max Excitation M

V/Hz> Emax E (only if f = fr = const)


©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Tailor-made curve
„ The interval between M = V/Hz> and M = V/Hz>> (Mmax) is
automatically subdivided into five equal subintervals, enabling six
equally spaced operating time points to be defined
Settings: t1Tailor …. t6Tailor
„ A straight line connection between two points is used to calculate the
operating time
„ tMax, the maximum operate time cut-off, and tMin, the minimum
operate time cut-off, as well as the operate time for excitations greater
than Mmax, are equally applicable for the Tailor-made curve as for the
IEEE curve
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Tailor-made curve

delay in s

tMax

under- tMin
excitation Overexcitation M-Emaxcont
0 Mmax - Emaxcont Excitation M
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

Emaxcont Mmax
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2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Cooling
„ As overexcitation causes overheating, allowance for cooling has been
made in the overexcitation function – i.e. an exponential cooling
feature has been implemented
Setting: transformer magnetic core cooling time constant tCooling
„ If the voltage and/or frequency return to normal values from ones
giving rise to overexcitation, normal operating temperature will not be
reached before approximately 5x tCooling minutes
„ If an overexcitation condition would return before normal operating
temperature is reached, the time to trip would be shorter than for an
overexcitation condition starting from a transformer at normal
operating temperature
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ A separately settable alarm level is provided with a definite time delay
Settings: AlarmLevel (as % of the trip level), tAlarm
„ Output trip pulse has a settable pulse length
Setting: TrPulse
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Simplified diagram
BLOCK
AlarmLevel
ALARM
t>tAlarm &
t
tAlarm
M>V/Hz>
t>tMin TRIP
t &
U3P V/Hz> tMin
k
M= M
I3P Calculation
Ei M
of internal (Ei / f) IEEE law
induced (Ur / fr)
1
voltage Ei t
M
Tailor-made law
M>V/Hz>> tMax
Xleak
ERROR
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

V/Hz>>

M = relative V/Hz as service value


©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Function block

‘Analog’ quantity inputs


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection - Settings


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection - Settings
Settings
General settings
Voltage protection
Overexcitation(PVPH,24)

L1L2; L2L3; L3L1; PosSeq


L1L2; L2L3; L3L1; PosSeq
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection - Settings


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection - Settings
Settings
Settings group N1
Voltage protection
Overexcitation(PVPH,24)

Off; On

IEEE; Tailor made


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Service values
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Service values
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Service values
„ Time to trip – TMTOTRIP – is an estimation of the remaining time to
trip if the level of overexcitation remains at the current level
If the overexcitation is so low that the valid delay is tMax, then the
estimation of the remaining time to trip is done with respect to tMax
„ Relative excitation M – VPERHZ
If the value is less than V/Hz> (in pu), the transformer is underexcited
If the value is equal to V/Hz> (in pu), the transformer is exactly on its
maximum continuous excitation limit
E.g. If VPERHZ = 1.100 is shown, with the setting V/Hz> = 110%,
then VPERHZ = V/Hz>, and the transformer is exactly on its
maximum continuous excitation limit
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

If the value is higher than V/Hz> (in pu), the transformer is overexcited
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Overexcitation Protection

„ Overexcitation protection (PVPH, 24)


„ Service values
„ Thermal status – THERMSTA – gives the thermal status in % of the
trip value, which corresponds to 100%
The thermal status should reach 100% at the same time as
TMTOTRIP reaches 0 seconds
If the transformer is then for some reason not switched off, the
THERMSTA will go over 100%
If the time delay according to the IEEE or Tailor-made curve is
overridden by tMax or tMin, the THERMSTA will generally not reach
100% at the same time as TMTOTRIP reaches 0 seconds
E.g. If, for a low level of overexcitation, the very long delay is limited to
tMax, then the trip output will be given before THERMSTA reaches
100%
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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