You are on page 1of 5


ccccccc ccc  cc
 c  c
Ô  Ô c
CONCRETE:cConcrete is a construction material composed
of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious
materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally
a coarse aggregate made of gravels or crushed rocks such as
limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand),
water, and chemical admixtures.
The word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus"
(meaning compact or condensed), the past participle of
"concresco", from "com-" (together) and "cresco" (to grow).
Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and
placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The
water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other
components together, eventually creating a stone-like material.
Concrete is used to make pavements, pipe, architectural
structures, foundations, motorways/roads, bridges/overpasses,
parking structures, brick/block walls and footings for gates,
fences and poles.

MIX DESIGN: The process of selecting suitable ingredients

of concrete and determining their relative amounts with the
objective of producing a concrete of required strength,
durability, and workability as economically as possible is
termed as concrete mix design.
Requirement of concrete mix design:
a) The minimum compressive strength required from the
structural consideration.
b) The adequate workability necessary for full compaction with
the compacting equipment available.
c) Maximum water cement ratio and/or maximum cement
content to give adequate durability for the particular site
d) Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due
to temperature cycle in mass concrete.
RICE HUSK:. Rice husk is an agricultural residue which
accounts for 20% of the 649.7 million tons of rice produced
annually worldwide. The produced partially burnt husk from
the milling plants when used as a fuel also contributes to
pollution and efforts are being made to overcome this
environmental issue by utilizing this material as a
supplementary cementing material.
Some of such properties are mentioned below. The effect
of grinding on the particle size and the surface area was
first investigated, then analysis was conducted to verify
the presence of amorphous silica in the ash.
Furthermore, the effect of RHA average particle size and
percentage on concrete workability, fresh density,
superplasticizer (SP) content and the compressive
strength were also investigated. Although grinding
RHA would reduce its average particle size (APS), it was
not the main factor controlling the surface area and it is
thus resulted from RHA·s multilayered, angular and
microporous surface. Incorporation of RHA in concrete
increased water demand. RHA concrete gave excellent
improvement in strength for 10% replacement (30.8%
increment compared to the control mix), and up to 20%
of cement could be valuably replaced with RHA without
adversely affecting the strength. Increasing RHA
fineness enhanced the strength of blended concrete
compared to coarser RHA and control OPC mixtures.

CONCLUSION: The use of rice husk in concrete mix design

is not very common in practice, but there are a few amazing
properties of rice husk and it·s ash (RHA)which increases the
compressive strength of the concrete and also reduces the
amount of cement to be used. So there is a lot of scope in this