3 views

Uploaded by Jose Cabus

High efficiency, small size, low cost and constant output voltage are desired specifications for today’s power sup- plies. These conditions can’t be established with linear electronic devices so that switch mode power supplies are needed. This project paper focuses especially on the design and simulation of dc-dc converters. It contains the theoretical derivations and parameters equations with design and examples. Changing the input parameters like inductance, capacitance, and switching frequency in order to observe the changes in output voltage has been added with a simulation graph [1]. DC- DC Buck converters are widely used for many different applications of power electronics. Input DC voltage ripples are decreased and stabilized with buck converter. In this project paper, conventional Buck converter structure is theoretically analyzed. Simulation results for a Buck converter is shown with the chance of different input parameters.

- DC Choppers
- Selectinc Inductors for Buck Converters
- Fuzzy based control of Transformer less Coupled inductor based DC-DC converter
- FOE-06-001to006(E)
- chapter 1 introduction to Power Electronic devices
- 86356-00_8
- Chander 2010
- Design and Analysis of Integrated Buck-Boost-Buck Type Unity Power Factor Converter for Low Power Applications
- Chopper Stabilized Amplifiers 101
- Gate questions
- rep.doc
- 01280344 (1)
- Power Eletronics
- SEMIKRON Application-Note Insulation Coordination en 2017-12-07 Rev-03
- Dali et al. 2007
- DNX_DIM600DCM17-A000
- A Non-isolated Hybrid Boost Three Level DC-DC Converter with High Step-up Conversion Ratio
- BCA55 Thyristor Datasheet (Finglai SSR ASH-C-80DA)
- Power Supply Unit Design
- Muthayammal Power

You are on page 1of 8

Jose Eduardo Urrea Cabus, Mohammad Baghdadi

Karadeniz Technical University

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Abstract—High efficiency, small size, low cost and constant with a continuously variable turns ratio. Like a transformer,

output voltage are desired specifications for today’s power sup- it can be used to step down or step up a DC voltage source [2].

plies. These conditions can’t be established with linear electronic

devices so that switch mode power supplies are needed. This

project paper focuses especially on the design and simulation A range of DC-DC switch-mode converters are used to

of dc-dc converters. It contains the theoretical derivations and convert an unregulated DC input to a regulated DC output at

parameters equations with design and examples. Changing the a required voltage level. They achieve the voltage regulation

input parameters like inductance, capacitance, and switching by varying the on-off or time duty ratio of the switching

frequency in order to observe the changes in output voltage element. There are two main applications. One is to provide

has been added with a simulation graph [1]. DC- DC Buck

converters are widely used for many different applications of a dc power supply with the adjustable output voltage, for

power electronics. Input DC voltage ripples are decreased and general use. This application often requires the use of an

stabilized with buck converter. In this project paper, conventional isolating transformer. The other main application of DC-DC

Buck converter structure is theoretically analyzed. Simulation converters is to transfer power from a fixed DC supply, which

results for a Buck converter is shown with the chance of different may be rectified AC, to the armature of a DC motor in the

input parameters.

form of adjustable direct voltage [4].

Index Terms—Converters, Simulation, MATLAB, SIMULIK,

DC-DC converter circuits, Thyristor choppers, Buck, boost and

buck-boost converters (dc-dc), Step-down (buck) and step-up

DC converters are widely used for traction motor control in

(boost) choppers, Output voltage and current, Buck converter electric automobiles, trolley cars, marine hoists, forklift trucks,

(dc-dc), Step-down chopper, Output (load) current – maximum and mine haulers. They provide smooth acceleration control,

and minimum values, average value, ripple factor, harmonic high efficiency, and fast dynamic response. DC converters can

analysis. be used in regenerative braking of de motors to return energy

back into the supply, and this feature results in energy savings

I. I NTRODUCTION for transportation systems with frequent stops. DC converters

are used in de voltage regulators; and also ARC used. in

F or the control of electric power or power conditioning, the

conversion of electric power from one form to another

is necessary and the switching characteristics of the power

conjunction with an inductor, to generate a DC current source,

especially for the current source inverter [2].

devices permit these conversions. The static power converters

perform these functions of power conversions. A converter III. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

may be considered as a switching matrix. Commonly speaking

DC-DC Converters, there are three basic types of DC-DC

the use of a swift or switches for the rationale of power conver-

converter circuits, termed as buck, boost and buck-boost. In

sion can be regarded as an SMPS (Switch Mode Power Sup-

all of these circuits, a power device is used as a switch. This

ply) [1]. Choppers are designed using semiconductor devices

device earlier used was a thyristor, which is turned on by

such as power transistors, IGBTs, GTOs, Power MOSFETs,

a pulse fed at its gate. In all these circuits, the thyristor is

and Thyristors. Output voltage can be varied steplessly by

connected in series with load to a DC supply, or a positive

controlling the duty ratio of the device by low power signals

(forward) voltage is applied between anode and cathode

from the control unit [3].

terminals. The thyristor turns off when the current decreases

below the holding current or a reverse (negative) voltage is

II. A PPLICATION OF DC- DC CONVERTERS applied between anode and cathode terminals. So, a thyristor

In many industrial applications, it is required to convert is to be force-commutated, for which additional circuit is to

a fixed-voltage DC source into a variable-voltage de source. be used, where another thyristor is often used. Later, GTO’s

A DC-DC converter converts directly from de to DC and came into the market, which can also be turned off by a

is simply known as a DC converter. A DC converter can negative current fed at its gate, unlike thyristors, requiring

be considered as DC equivalent to an AC transformer proper control circuit. The turn-on and turn-off times of GTOs

are lower than those of thyristors. So, the frequency used in

Jose Eduardo Urrea Cabus, student number: 376202, (email: joseeduardour- GTO- based choppers can be increased, thus reducing the size

rea@gamil.com).

Mohammad Baghdadi, student number: 376169, (email: moham- of filters. Earlier, DC-DC converters were called ‘choppers’,

mad.baghi93@gmail.com). where thyristors or GTOs are used. It may be noted here that

2

whereas boost converter (DC-DC) is a ‘step-up chopper’. b) Class B chopper.

In the case of chopper, no buck-boost type was used. With c) Class C chopper.

the advent of bipolar junction transistor (BJT), which is d) Class D chopper.

termed as a self-commutated device, it is used as a switch, e) Class E chopper.

instead of a thyristor, in DC-DC converters. This device

(NPN transistor) is switched on by a positive current through

the base and emitter and then switched off by withdrawing

the above signal. The collector is connected to a positive

voltage. Nowadays, MOSFETs are used as a switching device

in low voltage and high current applications. It may be noted

that as the turn-on and turn-off time of MOSFETs are lower

as compared to other switching devices, the frequency used

for the DC-DC converters using it (MOSFET) is high, thus,

reducing the size of filters as stated earlier. These converters

are now being used for applications, one of the most important

being Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS). Similarly, when

application requires high voltage, Insulated Gate Bi-polar

Transistors (IGBT) are preferred over BJTs, as the turn-on

and turn-off times of IGBTs are lower than those of power

transistors (BJT), thus the frequency can be increased in the

converters using them. So, mostly self-commutated devices

of transistor family as described are being increasingly used

in DC-DC converters [5].

variable DC voltage from a source of constant DC voltage,

[Figure 1]. Therefore, chopper may be thought of as DC

Figure 2. Chopper configurations.

equivalent of an AC transformer since they behave in an

identical manner. Besides, the saving in power, the DC

3. According to circuit operation

chopper offers greater efficiency, faster response, lower

maintenance, small size, smooth control, and for many a) First-quadrant chopper: The output voltage and both

applications, lower cost, than motor-generator sets or gas must be positive (ClassA).

tubes approaches [3]. b) Two-quadrant chopper: The output voltage is positive

and current can be positive or negative (ClassC) or the

output current is positive and the voltage can be positive

or negative (ClassD).

c) Four-quadrant chopper: The output voltage and cur-

rent both can be positive or negative (ClassE).

4. According to commutation method

a) Voltage-commutated choppers.

b) Current-commutated choppers.

c) Load-commutated choppers.

d) Impulse-commutated choppers.

Figure 1. Basic chopper configuration.

fication according to the input-output voltage levels as Step-

DC chopper can be classified as: down chopper (Buck converter)

1. According to the input-output voltage levels

a) Step-down chopper: The output voltage is less than the IV. S TEP - DOWN CHOPPER (B UCK CONVERTER )

input voltage. A buck converter [Figure 3] is a step down DC-DC converter

b) Step-up chopper: The output voltage is greater than consisting primarily of inductor and two switches (generally

the input voltage. a transistor switch and diode) for controlling inductor. It

c) Step-up-down chopper: The output voltage is less or fluctuates between connection of induction to source voltage

greater than the input voltage. to mount up energy in inductor and then discharging the

2. According to the directions of output voltage and inductor’s energy to the load [1]. The output (load) voltage

current and current waveforms for both are shown in [Figure 4].

3

voltage across the inductor is VL = Vi − Vo . The current flow-

ing through inductor linearly rises. The diode doesn’t allow

current to flow through it since it is reverse-biased by voltage.

For Off case (i.e., when switch pictured above is opened), the

diode is forward biased and voltage is VL = −Vo (neglecting

drop across diode) across the inductor. The inductor current

which was rising in ON case now decreases [1].

Figure 6. Output voltage and current ripples in a buck converter: (a) Inductor

voltage, (b) Output current and (c) Output voltage (not sinusoidal).

continuous load current assuming that the current rises or falls

linearly. For a constant current flow in the inductor L, it is

Figure 4. Output voltage and current waveforms.

assumed that the current rises and falls linearly. In practical

circuits, the switch has a finite, nonlinear resistance. Its effect

V. I DEAL CIRCUIT ANALYSIS can generally be negligible in most applications depending on

the switching frequency, filter inductance, and capacitance, the

In a buck converter, the average output Va is less than the

inductor current could be discontinuous [4].

input voltage, Vs . The circuit diagram of a buck regulator has

shown below in [figure 5] and this is like a step-down converter

Under ideal assumptions: ideal switch, ideal capacitor and

[1].

ideal inductor, these converters can be described using ordi-

nary differentiation equations as follows:

dvc

C = iL − vc /R − i0 (1)

dt

diL

L = uvin − vc (2)

dt

where, i0 is the load current. Introduce the following state,

time and load normalization:

r

vc iL L t

Figure 5. Circuit diagram of an ideal buck converter. x1 = , x2 = , τ=√ ,

vin vin C LC

√

The freewheeling diode D conducts due to energy stored

r

LC i0 L

in the inductor; and the inductor current continues to flow γ= , d=

R vin C

through the inductor (L), the capacitor (C), load and diode

(D). The inductor current falls until transistor S is switched Then the normalized state equations of three converters are

on again in the next cycle [1]. as follows:

4

This limits the otherwise high peak current that would be

ẋ1 = γx1 + x2 − d (3)

limited by the resistance alone [1].

ẋ2 = −x1 + u (4)

where, with an abuse of notation, ‘.’ represents the deriva-

tion with respect to the normalized time, τ .

and an equivalent series resistor (ESR) of the capacitor, Rc

can be added to the above model [6].

dvc

C = iL − vc /R − i0 (5)

dt

dvc

v0 = vc + Rc C (6)

dt

diL

L = uvin − v0 − RL iL (7)

dt

Inserting the second equation into the first leads to:

dvc Rc dvc

C = iL − vc /R − C − i0

dt R dt

Rc dvc

(1 + )C = iL − vc/R − i0

R dt Figure 7. The waveform of the inductor current

voltage, it stores energy. Also the inductor controls the percent

Rvc RRc of the ripple and determines whether or not the circuit is

v0 = + (iL − i0 )

R + Rc R + Rc operating in the continuous mode.

and the overall model is

dvc R vc

=C (iL − − i0 )

dt R + Rc R

(8)

diL Rvc RRc RRc i0

L = uvin − − (RL + )iL +

dt R + Rc R + Rc R + Rc

(9)

Rvc RRc

v0 = + (iL − i0 )

R + Rc R + Rc

(10)

The operating frequency determines the performance of the

switch. Switching frequency selection is normally determined

by efficiency requirements. There is now a rising trend in Figure 8. Continuous mode of operation

research work and new power supply designs in increasing the

switching frequencies. The higher is the switching frequency,

the smaller the physical size and component value. At higher

frequencies the switching losses in the MOSFET increase,

and therefore reduce the overall efficiency of the circuit.

At lower frequencies the required output capacitance and

inductor size increases, and the volumetric efficiency of the

supply degrades. The trade-off between size and efficiency

has to be evaluated very carefully [3].

rate (limit the current in rush) through the power switch when

the circuit is ON. The current through the inductor cannot

change abruptly. When the current through an inductor trends Figure 9. Discontinuous mode of operation

5

required saturation current rating, which is turn dictates the Vs k(1 − k)

4 Vc = (12)

approximate size of the inductor. 8LCF 2

VII. SIMULATION RESULTS OF DC - DC CONVERTER

The [Figure 12] shows the Simulink diagram for a Buck

converter. This will be our circuit design. There is only one

applied input whose value can be varied for the user.

Figure 10. Output voltage ripple of inductor Figure 12. Buck converter.

Saturating the inductor core decreases the converter effi- The system is converted into subsystem whose input is given

ciency while increasing the temperature of the inductor and the by a step signal and output is taken at scope at [figure 13 and

diode. The size of inductor and capacitor can be reduced by 14].

the implementation of high switching frequency, multi-phase

interleaved topology, and a fast hysteric controller. A smaller

inductor value enables a faster transient response; it also results

in larger current ripple, which causes higher conductor losses

in the switches, inductor, and parasitic resistances. The smaller

inductor also requires a larger filter capacitor to decrease the

output voltage ripple. Critical value of inductor Lc , for buck

converter

(1 − k)R

Lc = L = (11)

2f

Figure 13. Current output result.

Critical inductance Lc is the minimum value of the

inductor for a given k, f and R before the converter enter

the discontinuous conduction mode (dcm) of operation.

is its capacitance and equivalent series resistance, ESR. Since

the capacitor’s ESR affects the efficiency, low ESR capacitors

will be used for best performance. For reducing ESR, it is

also possible to connect few capacitors in parallel. The output

filter capacitors are chosen to meet an output voltage ripple

specifications, as well as the ability to handle the required

Figure 14. Voltage output result.

ripple current stress.

The input-output connections of the model is shown in

[Figure 12]. The first input to the model is the switch signal

eight 1 or 0. The second one defines the DC source voltage and

internal resistance. The third input is used to define the output

current. The model has two outputs, the output voltage and the

inductor current, which are the states of the system.The model

can be configured with a number of parameters as the user

prefer. These parameters are: the capacitance, C, inductance,

L, the internal resistance of the capacitor and the inductor, RC

and RL respectively.

Figure 11. Ripple voltage in buck capacitor For our design, we use the following values described in

[Table 1], there were obtained from the equations described

For Buck converter the peak-to-peak ripple voltage is, above.

6

Converter Parameter

L 4.1 µH

RL 80 mΩ

C 376µF

RC 5mΩ

F 100KHz

D 0.42

R 1Ω

Table 1.

To control our system to be stable and keep the value of Figure 15. PI controller for Buck Converter

our output stable (5V). By the time that the value of our input

voltage is going to be changed, we used PID and PWM as our

on and off. This on-off pattern can simulate voltages in

feedback.

between full on (5 Volts) and off (0 Volts) by changing

the portion of the time the signal spends on versus the

To describe what we have in our feedback, we are going to

time that the signal spends off. The duration of ”on time”

give some information about PI and PWM controller:

is called the pulse width. To get varying analog values, you

change, or modulate, that pulse width. If you repeat this

A. PI CONTROLLER A proportional-integral controller (PI on-off pattern fast enough with an LED for example, the

controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism (con- result is as if the signal is a steady voltage between 0 and

troller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PI con- 5v controlling the brightness of the LED.

troller calculates an error value as the difference between

a measured process variable and the desired set point. The In the [figures 16] shows the form for our PWM in the

Controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the feedback. And [figures 17, 18 and 19] below, the black

process through the use of a manipulated variable. The lines represent a regular time period. This duration or

controller output is given by equation (13). period is the inverse of the PWM frequency [8].

Z

∆kp + ki ∆dt (13)

error or deviation of actual measured value (PV) from the

set point (SP) given in equation (14).

∆SP − P V (14)

Figure 16. PWM for Buck Converter

The proportional term produces an output value that is

proportional to the current error value. The proportional

response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a

constant kp , called the proportional gain constant. The

proportional term is given by equation (15):

Pout = kp e(t) (15)

The contribution from the integral term is proportional

to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of

the error. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the

Figure 17. PWM for Buck Converter, F=1000KHz

integral gain, ki and added to the controller output. The

integral term is given by equation (16):

Z t

Iout = ki e(t)dt (16)

0

The system is connected with PI controller as shown in

[figure 15]. Here, the output of the system is subtracted

from the reference input and this difference is applied to

PI controller [7]. Figure 18. PWM for Buck Converter F=1000KHz

B. Pulse Width Modulation , or PWM, is a technique for To show how our feedback is working, we tested our input

getting analog results with digital means. Digital control voltage in different values. The results have shown in [Table

is used to create a square wave, a signal switched between 2]:

7

Figure 23. Voltage output result, input 50V.

24V 5 A 5V skills which have greatly enriched knowledge and understand-

12V 5 A 5V ing through the erudition route which may help one in for the

50V 5 A 5V further progression.

Table 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

In the following [Figures 20, 21, 22, 23]different inputs The authors are very grateful to the Department of EEE,

voltages, we can see the behavior of our outputs by the time Karadeniz Technical University for supporting the equipment

that the values of our inputs voltages are changing: for this research works done.

R EFERENCES

[1] Shafinaz A. Lopa, S. Hossain, M. K. Hasan, T. K.

Chakraborty, ”Design and Simulation of DC-DC Converters”

Presidency University (2015).

[2] Rashid H. Muhammad,”Power Electronics, Circuits,

Devices, and Aplications, Third Edition, Chapter 5 , DC-DC

Converters”.

Figure 20. Current output result, input 12V. [3] Singh D. M., Khanchandani B. K., ”Power Electronics,

2nd Edition, Chapter 8, Choppers” .

[4] Zhang Li, Shepherd William, ”Power Converter Cir-

cuits”, Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights

Reserved. Chapter 15, ”DC-DC Circuits Converter”.

[5] ”Module 3 DC to DC Converters”, Version 2 EE IIT,

Kharagpur.

[6] CAO YI, ”Mathematical models of DC-DC converters”.

[7] Ismail H. Altaş, Fuzzy Logic Control In Energy System

With Design Applications In MATLAB/Simulink, Published

Figure 21. Voltage output result, input 12V. by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London,

United Kingdom,Vol I, 2017.

[8] https://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/PWM

VIII. C ONCLUSION

From the simulation results it is found that in case of the

buck converter, the desired output voltages can be obtained by

selecting proper values of inductor, capacitor and switching

frequency. At each stage, targets were set to acquire the nec-

essary skills to meet the criteria of the research and design the

circuits for implementation into the software simulation.This

project gives the opportunity to study new skills and raise

valuable knowledge in circuit designing and problem-solving

8

B IOGRAPHIES

Mr. José Eduardo Urrea Cabus

has done his B.Sc in Electrical and

Electronic Engineering from the

National Autonomous University

of Honduras in the Sula Valley,

Cortés, Honduras. He has served

as an Electrical Engineer in the

private sector in Honduras for

more than two years. Now he

is studying his MSc. degree in

Electrical Engineering at Karadeniz Technical University.

done his BSc and MSc in Power

Electrical Engineering from the Is-

lamic Azad University of Aliabad,

Aliabad, Iran. He has served as a

Power Electrical Engineer in the

private sector in Iran for more than

five years and research about De-

velop optimal sizing and location

of two SVC in distribution net-

works with dispersed photovoltaic

with ICA. Now he is studying his

Phd. degree in Electronic Engineering at Karadeniz Technical

University.

- DC ChoppersUploaded byArinder Singh
- Selectinc Inductors for Buck ConvertersUploaded byMario Masetti
- Fuzzy based control of Transformer less Coupled inductor based DC-DC converterUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- FOE-06-001to006(E)Uploaded byMarius Solca
- chapter 1 introduction to Power Electronic devicesUploaded byAzrinYunus
- 86356-00_8Uploaded byTalha Farooq
- Chander 2010Uploaded byRanimSaif
- Design and Analysis of Integrated Buck-Boost-Buck Type Unity Power Factor Converter for Low Power ApplicationsUploaded byAnonymous UJs2ueP
- Chopper Stabilized Amplifiers 101Uploaded byVISHNURAJ B
- Gate questionsUploaded byRama Karthik
- rep.docUploaded byraju86_eee
- 01280344 (1)Uploaded byKesav Raj
- Power EletronicsUploaded byEduardo Montenegro
- SEMIKRON Application-Note Insulation Coordination en 2017-12-07 Rev-03Uploaded byabaz60
- Dali et al. 2007Uploaded byFacu Amilcar
- DNX_DIM600DCM17-A000Uploaded byMiguel Martins
- A Non-isolated Hybrid Boost Three Level DC-DC Converter with High Step-up Conversion RatioUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- BCA55 Thyristor Datasheet (Finglai SSR ASH-C-80DA)Uploaded bymica
- Power Supply Unit DesignUploaded byfamtalu
- Muthayammal PowerUploaded bySarath Babu
- (2001) E-Book - Electronics and Circuit Analysis Using Matlab - Theory - DiodesUploaded bydhruvv7
- 548-5391-1-PBUploaded byobob12324
- DatasheetUploaded byRuben Rivero
- Sluu087b Flyback Self-Biasing WindingUploaded byPhạm Văn Tưởng
- ETD 820S HomeworkUploaded byTimo
- 109EE0309.pdfUploaded byrijilpoothadi
- CD00074286Uploaded byErgün Gülbiten
- CME_ZTWUploaded byhuoliang
- snva371dUploaded byJavier
- Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Small Switchmode Power SuppliesUploaded byDung Nguyen

- AN045_EN.pdfUploaded byAnonymous Z1RHn9E
- AN045_ENUploaded byJose Cabus
- Lyrakis2016Uploaded byJose Cabus
- 5Amt2revSolUploaded byJose Cabus
- LVDCMicrogridperspective14_06_24Uploaded byJose Cabus
- 5Amt2revSol.pdfUploaded byJose Cabus
- Perceptron RuleUploaded byJose Cabus
- Reducing Ground Bounce in Dc Dc Converter ApplicationsUploaded byJose Cabus
- l 1(Ssg)(Pe) ((Ee)Nptel)Uploaded byJose Cabus
- Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm to Reduce the Error Between RBF and Training Data With MATLABUploaded byJose Cabus
- Probabilidad y Estadistica Basica Para Ingenieros - Lorenzo Cevallos - EspolUploaded byFelix Yohan Sancan Molina
- e7b431c86a06d88_ekUploaded byJose Cabus
- Lesson 1 Power ElectronicsUploaded byChacko Mathew
- coprime factorizationUploaded byJose Cabus
- 376202 Jose UrreaUploaded byJose Cabus
- 1-s2.0-S0019995881905787-mainUploaded byJose Cabus
- TS2596SCS_C1602Uploaded byJose Cabus
- vUploaded byJose Cabus
- Cad FuzzysetsUploaded byJose Cabus
- snva577Uploaded byJose Cabus
- Reducing Ground Bounce in Dc to Dc ConvertersUploaded byJose Cabus
- Reducing Ground Bouce in Dc Dc ConvertersUploaded byArunkumar Pb
- e7b431c86a06d88_ekUploaded byJose Cabus
- e7b431c86a06d88_ekUploaded byJose Cabus
- 08005258Uploaded byJose Cabus
- sdasdUploaded byJose Cabus
- Dcdc Selection Guide-eUploaded byJose Cabus
- 3610ffUploaded byJose Cabus
- sadsadsadUploaded byJose Cabus

- c32-1000 Bhp Spec SheetUploaded byPeter John Packiaraj
- Wheel Hub Design DocumentationUploaded byPratikRoy
- Innoval Technology Newsletter 2012/13Uploaded byInnoval Technology
- melissa 2Uploaded byapi-343670182
- CPUUploaded bysenasriram
- CSS-xBand-and-OTHR-radars.pdfUploaded byAdi Prasetyo
- Break Out of or Exit Different Types of Loops in VBA Macros in ExcelUploaded byiksyot
- Logistic Management AssignmentUploaded byFarah Shida Rosli
- The Naturalist in Nicaragua by Belt, Thomas, 1832-1878Uploaded byGutenberg.org
- LearningUploaded byKewkew Azilear
- sap-into-1213948722097753-9.pptxUploaded bysapitvision2015
- 32 Traits of CreativityUploaded byTonya
- Enterprise Systems Manager Monitoring in Richland Kennewick Pasco WA Resume Wayne DollarUploaded byWayneDollar
- PaperUploaded byGeorge
- Free-Flight Measurements of Sphere Drag at Subsonic, Transonic Supersonic, And Hyper Sonic Speeds for Continuum, Transition, And Near-Free-Molecular Flow ConditionsUploaded bypompushka
- MT6750 Android ScatterUploaded bycuen32
- Gilette B Case AssignmentUploaded byRajeev Nair
- 14 Erna ImprovementUploaded byterry_cmh4452
- SCDM-Intro Module02 Creating GeometryUploaded byBruno Gorina
- Ch2 Information TheoryUploaded byRaviKiran
- JAVA Interview QuestionsUploaded byHussain Ahmed
- How_to_Approach_SC_Feb_18.pdfUploaded byErickAmelia
- Promoting Effective Science Teacher Education and Science Teaching a Framework for Teacher Decision Making(2)Uploaded bySaima Putrini R Harahap
- Consumer Trend CanvasUploaded byKool Adam
- 10.1007_s11465-016-0368-zUploaded byLutfi Laila
- QP-QAM06Uploaded byRavi Nookala
- L5 PROCESS SELECTION AND CAPACITY PLANNING.docUploaded byhussainnizzami
- TopUploaded byLeandro Henrique Souza
- DSKI_Part_IUploaded byMuhammad Mahfud Rosyidi
- Dallas Fire-Rescue Memo on post-LODD recommendationsUploaded byTristan Hallman