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Reducing Converter (Input 24V Output 5V)


Jose Eduardo Urrea Cabus, Mohammad Baghdadi
Karadeniz Technical University
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Abstract—High efficiency, small size, low cost and constant with a continuously variable turns ratio. Like a transformer,
output voltage are desired specifications for today’s power sup- it can be used to step down or step up a DC voltage source [2].
plies. These conditions can’t be established with linear electronic
devices so that switch mode power supplies are needed. This
project paper focuses especially on the design and simulation A range of DC-DC switch-mode converters are used to
of dc-dc converters. It contains the theoretical derivations and convert an unregulated DC input to a regulated DC output at
parameters equations with design and examples. Changing the a required voltage level. They achieve the voltage regulation
input parameters like inductance, capacitance, and switching by varying the on-off or time duty ratio of the switching
frequency in order to observe the changes in output voltage element. There are two main applications. One is to provide
has been added with a simulation graph [1]. DC- DC Buck
converters are widely used for many different applications of a dc power supply with the adjustable output voltage, for
power electronics. Input DC voltage ripples are decreased and general use. This application often requires the use of an
stabilized with buck converter. In this project paper, conventional isolating transformer. The other main application of DC-DC
Buck converter structure is theoretically analyzed. Simulation converters is to transfer power from a fixed DC supply, which
results for a Buck converter is shown with the chance of different may be rectified AC, to the armature of a DC motor in the
input parameters.
form of adjustable direct voltage [4].
Index Terms—Converters, Simulation, MATLAB, SIMULIK,
DC-DC converter circuits, Thyristor choppers, Buck, boost and
buck-boost converters (dc-dc), Step-down (buck) and step-up
DC converters are widely used for traction motor control in
(boost) choppers, Output voltage and current, Buck converter electric automobiles, trolley cars, marine hoists, forklift trucks,
(dc-dc), Step-down chopper, Output (load) current – maximum and mine haulers. They provide smooth acceleration control,
and minimum values, average value, ripple factor, harmonic high efficiency, and fast dynamic response. DC converters can
analysis. be used in regenerative braking of de motors to return energy
back into the supply, and this feature results in energy savings
I. I NTRODUCTION for transportation systems with frequent stops. DC converters
are used in de voltage regulators; and also ARC used. in
F or the control of electric power or power conditioning, the
conversion of electric power from one form to another
is necessary and the switching characteristics of the power
conjunction with an inductor, to generate a DC current source,
especially for the current source inverter [2].
devices permit these conversions. The static power converters
perform these functions of power conversions. A converter III. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
may be considered as a switching matrix. Commonly speaking
DC-DC Converters, there are three basic types of DC-DC
the use of a swift or switches for the rationale of power conver-
converter circuits, termed as buck, boost and buck-boost. In
sion can be regarded as an SMPS (Switch Mode Power Sup-
all of these circuits, a power device is used as a switch. This
ply) [1]. Choppers are designed using semiconductor devices
device earlier used was a thyristor, which is turned on by
such as power transistors, IGBTs, GTOs, Power MOSFETs,
a pulse fed at its gate. In all these circuits, the thyristor is
and Thyristors. Output voltage can be varied steplessly by
connected in series with load to a DC supply, or a positive
controlling the duty ratio of the device by low power signals
(forward) voltage is applied between anode and cathode
from the control unit [3].
terminals. The thyristor turns off when the current decreases
below the holding current or a reverse (negative) voltage is
II. A PPLICATION OF DC- DC CONVERTERS applied between anode and cathode terminals. So, a thyristor
In many industrial applications, it is required to convert is to be force-commutated, for which additional circuit is to
a fixed-voltage DC source into a variable-voltage de source. be used, where another thyristor is often used. Later, GTO’s
A DC-DC converter converts directly from de to DC and came into the market, which can also be turned off by a
is simply known as a DC converter. A DC converter can negative current fed at its gate, unlike thyristors, requiring
be considered as DC equivalent to an AC transformer proper control circuit. The turn-on and turn-off times of GTOs
are lower than those of thyristors. So, the frequency used in
Jose Eduardo Urrea Cabus, student number: 376202, (email: joseeduardour- GTO- based choppers can be increased, thus reducing the size
rea@gamil.com).
Mohammad Baghdadi, student number: 376169, (email: moham- of filters. Earlier, DC-DC converters were called ‘choppers’,
mad.baghi93@gmail.com). where thyristors or GTOs are used. It may be noted here that
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buck converter (DC-DC) is called as ‘step-down chopper’, a) Class A chopper.


whereas boost converter (DC-DC) is a ‘step-up chopper’. b) Class B chopper.
In the case of chopper, no buck-boost type was used. With c) Class C chopper.
the advent of bipolar junction transistor (BJT), which is d) Class D chopper.
termed as a self-commutated device, it is used as a switch, e) Class E chopper.
instead of a thyristor, in DC-DC converters. This device
(NPN transistor) is switched on by a positive current through
the base and emitter and then switched off by withdrawing
the above signal. The collector is connected to a positive
voltage. Nowadays, MOSFETs are used as a switching device
in low voltage and high current applications. It may be noted
that as the turn-on and turn-off time of MOSFETs are lower
as compared to other switching devices, the frequency used
for the DC-DC converters using it (MOSFET) is high, thus,
reducing the size of filters as stated earlier. These converters
are now being used for applications, one of the most important
being Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS). Similarly, when
application requires high voltage, Insulated Gate Bi-polar
Transistors (IGBT) are preferred over BJTs, as the turn-on
and turn-off times of IGBTs are lower than those of power
transistors (BJT), thus the frequency can be increased in the
converters using them. So, mostly self-commutated devices
of transistor family as described are being increasingly used
in DC-DC converters [5].

A DC chopper is a static device (switch) used to obtain


variable DC voltage from a source of constant DC voltage,
[Figure 1]. Therefore, chopper may be thought of as DC
Figure 2. Chopper configurations.
equivalent of an AC transformer since they behave in an
identical manner. Besides, the saving in power, the DC
3. According to circuit operation
chopper offers greater efficiency, faster response, lower
maintenance, small size, smooth control, and for many a) First-quadrant chopper: The output voltage and both
applications, lower cost, than motor-generator sets or gas must be positive (ClassA).
tubes approaches [3]. b) Two-quadrant chopper: The output voltage is positive
and current can be positive or negative (ClassC) or the
output current is positive and the voltage can be positive
or negative (ClassD).
c) Four-quadrant chopper: The output voltage and cur-
rent both can be positive or negative (ClassE).
4. According to commutation method
a) Voltage-commutated choppers.
b) Current-commutated choppers.
c) Load-commutated choppers.
d) Impulse-commutated choppers.

In our project we concentrate more on defining the classi-


Figure 1. Basic chopper configuration.
fication according to the input-output voltage levels as Step-
DC chopper can be classified as: down chopper (Buck converter)
1. According to the input-output voltage levels
a) Step-down chopper: The output voltage is less than the IV. S TEP - DOWN CHOPPER (B UCK CONVERTER )
input voltage. A buck converter [Figure 3] is a step down DC-DC converter
b) Step-up chopper: The output voltage is greater than consisting primarily of inductor and two switches (generally
the input voltage. a transistor switch and diode) for controlling inductor. It
c) Step-up-down chopper: The output voltage is less or fluctuates between connection of induction to source voltage
greater than the input voltage. to mount up energy in inductor and then discharging the
2. According to the directions of output voltage and inductor’s energy to the load [1]. The output (load) voltage
current and current waveforms for both are shown in [Figure 4].
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Figure 3. Buck Converter.

When the switch pictured above is closed (i.e., On-state), the


voltage across the inductor is VL = Vi − Vo . The current flow-
ing through inductor linearly rises. The diode doesn’t allow
current to flow through it since it is reverse-biased by voltage.
For Off case (i.e., when switch pictured above is opened), the
diode is forward biased and voltage is VL = −Vo (neglecting
drop across diode) across the inductor. The inductor current
which was rising in ON case now decreases [1].

Figure 6. Output voltage and current ripples in a buck converter: (a) Inductor
voltage, (b) Output current and (c) Output voltage (not sinusoidal).

The waveforms for voltage and current are shown in for


continuous load current assuming that the current rises or falls
linearly. For a constant current flow in the inductor L, it is
Figure 4. Output voltage and current waveforms.
assumed that the current rises and falls linearly. In practical
circuits, the switch has a finite, nonlinear resistance. Its effect
V. I DEAL CIRCUIT ANALYSIS can generally be negligible in most applications depending on
the switching frequency, filter inductance, and capacitance, the
In a buck converter, the average output Va is less than the
inductor current could be discontinuous [4].
input voltage, Vs . The circuit diagram of a buck regulator has
shown below in [figure 5] and this is like a step-down converter
Under ideal assumptions: ideal switch, ideal capacitor and
[1].
ideal inductor, these converters can be described using ordi-
nary differentiation equations as follows:
dvc
C = iL − vc /R − i0 (1)
dt
diL
L = uvin − vc (2)
dt
where, i0 is the load current. Introduce the following state,
time and load normalization:
r
vc iL L t
Figure 5. Circuit diagram of an ideal buck converter. x1 = , x2 = , τ=√ ,
vin vin C LC

The freewheeling diode D conducts due to energy stored
r
LC i0 L
in the inductor; and the inductor current continues to flow γ= , d=
R vin C
through the inductor (L), the capacitor (C), load and diode
(D). The inductor current falls until transistor S is switched Then the normalized state equations of three converters are
on again in the next cycle [1]. as follows:
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to fall, it tends to sustain the current by acting as a source.


This limits the otherwise high peak current that would be
ẋ1 = γx1 + x2 − d (3)
limited by the resistance alone [1].
ẋ2 = −x1 + u (4)
where, with an abuse of notation, ‘.’ represents the deriva-
tion with respect to the normalized time, τ .

In more general cases, a body resistor of the inductor, RL


and an equivalent series resistor (ESR) of the capacitor, Rc
can be added to the above model [6].
dvc
C = iL − vc /R − i0 (5)
dt
dvc
v0 = vc + Rc C (6)
dt
diL
L = uvin − v0 − RL iL (7)
dt
Inserting the second equation into the first leads to:
dvc Rc dvc
C = iL − vc /R − C − i0
dt R dt
Rc dvc
(1 + )C = iL − vc/R − i0
R dt Figure 7. The waveform of the inductor current

Hence, The key advantage is when the inductor is used to drop


voltage, it stores energy. Also the inductor controls the percent
Rvc RRc of the ripple and determines whether or not the circuit is
v0 = + (iL − i0 )
R + Rc R + Rc operating in the continuous mode.
and the overall model is
dvc R vc
=C (iL − − i0 )
dt R + Rc R
(8)
diL Rvc RRc RRc i0
L = uvin − − (RL + )iL +
dt R + Rc R + Rc R + Rc
(9)
Rvc RRc
v0 = + (iL − i0 )
R + Rc R + Rc
(10)

VI. D ESIGN ANALYSIS OF DC - DC CONVERTER


The operating frequency determines the performance of the
switch. Switching frequency selection is normally determined
by efficiency requirements. There is now a rising trend in Figure 8. Continuous mode of operation
research work and new power supply designs in increasing the
switching frequencies. The higher is the switching frequency,
the smaller the physical size and component value. At higher
frequencies the switching losses in the MOSFET increase,
and therefore reduce the overall efficiency of the circuit.
At lower frequencies the required output capacitance and
inductor size increases, and the volumetric efficiency of the
supply degrades. The trade-off between size and efficiency
has to be evaluated very carefully [3].

The role of the inductor is to limit the current slew


rate (limit the current in rush) through the power switch when
the circuit is ON. The current through the inductor cannot
change abruptly. When the current through an inductor trends Figure 9. Discontinuous mode of operation
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Peak current through the inductor determines the inductor’s


required saturation current rating, which is turn dictates the Vs k(1 − k)
4 Vc = (12)
approximate size of the inductor. 8LCF 2
VII. SIMULATION RESULTS OF DC - DC CONVERTER
The [Figure 12] shows the Simulink diagram for a Buck
converter. This will be our circuit design. There is only one
applied input whose value can be varied for the user.

Figure 10. Output voltage ripple of inductor Figure 12. Buck converter.

Saturating the inductor core decreases the converter effi- The system is converted into subsystem whose input is given
ciency while increasing the temperature of the inductor and the by a step signal and output is taken at scope at [figure 13 and
diode. The size of inductor and capacitor can be reduced by 14].
the implementation of high switching frequency, multi-phase
interleaved topology, and a fast hysteric controller. A smaller
inductor value enables a faster transient response; it also results
in larger current ripple, which causes higher conductor losses
in the switches, inductor, and parasitic resistances. The smaller
inductor also requires a larger filter capacitor to decrease the
output voltage ripple. Critical value of inductor Lc , for buck
converter
(1 − k)R
Lc = L = (11)
2f
Figure 13. Current output result.
Critical inductance Lc is the minimum value of the
inductor for a given k, f and R before the converter enter
the discontinuous conduction mode (dcm) of operation.

The primary criterion for selecting the output filter capacitor


is its capacitance and equivalent series resistance, ESR. Since
the capacitor’s ESR affects the efficiency, low ESR capacitors
will be used for best performance. For reducing ESR, it is
also possible to connect few capacitors in parallel. The output
filter capacitors are chosen to meet an output voltage ripple
specifications, as well as the ability to handle the required
Figure 14. Voltage output result.
ripple current stress.
The input-output connections of the model is shown in
[Figure 12]. The first input to the model is the switch signal
eight 1 or 0. The second one defines the DC source voltage and
internal resistance. The third input is used to define the output
current. The model has two outputs, the output voltage and the
inductor current, which are the states of the system.The model
can be configured with a number of parameters as the user
prefer. These parameters are: the capacitance, C, inductance,
L, the internal resistance of the capacitor and the inductor, RC
and RL respectively.

Figure 11. Ripple voltage in buck capacitor For our design, we use the following values described in
[Table 1], there were obtained from the equations described
For Buck converter the peak-to-peak ripple voltage is, above.
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Converter Parameter
L 4.1 µH
RL 80 mΩ
C 376µF
RC 5mΩ
F 100KHz
D 0.42
R 1Ω

Table 1.

To control our system to be stable and keep the value of Figure 15. PI controller for Buck Converter
our output stable (5V). By the time that the value of our input
voltage is going to be changed, we used PID and PWM as our
on and off. This on-off pattern can simulate voltages in
feedback.
between full on (5 Volts) and off (0 Volts) by changing
the portion of the time the signal spends on versus the
To describe what we have in our feedback, we are going to
time that the signal spends off. The duration of ”on time”
give some information about PI and PWM controller:
is called the pulse width. To get varying analog values, you
change, or modulate, that pulse width. If you repeat this
A. PI CONTROLLER A proportional-integral controller (PI on-off pattern fast enough with an LED for example, the
controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism (con- result is as if the signal is a steady voltage between 0 and
troller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PI con- 5v controlling the brightness of the LED.
troller calculates an error value as the difference between
a measured process variable and the desired set point. The In the [figures 16] shows the form for our PWM in the
Controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the feedback. And [figures 17, 18 and 19] below, the black
process through the use of a manipulated variable. The lines represent a regular time period. This duration or
controller output is given by equation (13). period is the inverse of the PWM frequency [8].
Z
∆kp + ki ∆dt (13)

Where kp is proportional gain, ki is integral gain, and the


error or deviation of actual measured value (PV) from the
set point (SP) given in equation (14).
∆SP − P V (14)
Figure 16. PWM for Buck Converter
The proportional term produces an output value that is
proportional to the current error value. The proportional
response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a
constant kp , called the proportional gain constant. The
proportional term is given by equation (15):
Pout = kp e(t) (15)
The contribution from the integral term is proportional
to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of
the error. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the
Figure 17. PWM for Buck Converter, F=1000KHz
integral gain, ki and added to the controller output. The
integral term is given by equation (16):
Z t
Iout = ki e(t)dt (16)
0
The system is connected with PI controller as shown in
[figure 15]. Here, the output of the system is subtracted
from the reference input and this difference is applied to
PI controller [7]. Figure 18. PWM for Buck Converter F=1000KHz

B. Pulse Width Modulation , or PWM, is a technique for To show how our feedback is working, we tested our input
getting analog results with digital means. Digital control voltage in different values. The results have shown in [Table
is used to create a square wave, a signal switched between 2]:
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Figure 19. PWM for Buck Converter F=1000KHz


Figure 23. Voltage output result, input 50V.

Converter Parameter for different inputs


24V 5 A 5V skills which have greatly enriched knowledge and understand-
12V 5 A 5V ing through the erudition route which may help one in for the
50V 5 A 5V further progression.

Table 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
In the following [Figures 20, 21, 22, 23]different inputs The authors are very grateful to the Department of EEE,
voltages, we can see the behavior of our outputs by the time Karadeniz Technical University for supporting the equipment
that the values of our inputs voltages are changing: for this research works done.

R EFERENCES
[1] Shafinaz A. Lopa, S. Hossain, M. K. Hasan, T. K.
Chakraborty, ”Design and Simulation of DC-DC Converters”
Presidency University (2015).
[2] Rashid H. Muhammad,”Power Electronics, Circuits,
Devices, and Aplications, Third Edition, Chapter 5 , DC-DC
Converters”.
Figure 20. Current output result, input 12V. [3] Singh D. M., Khanchandani B. K., ”Power Electronics,
2nd Edition, Chapter 8, Choppers” .
[4] Zhang Li, Shepherd William, ”Power Converter Cir-
cuits”, Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights
Reserved. Chapter 15, ”DC-DC Circuits Converter”.
[5] ”Module 3 DC to DC Converters”, Version 2 EE IIT,
Kharagpur.
[6] CAO YI, ”Mathematical models of DC-DC converters”.
[7] Ismail H. Altaş, Fuzzy Logic Control In Energy System
With Design Applications In MATLAB/Simulink, Published
Figure 21. Voltage output result, input 12V. by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London,
United Kingdom,Vol I, 2017.
[8] https://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/PWM

Figure 22. Current output result, input 50V.

VIII. C ONCLUSION
From the simulation results it is found that in case of the
buck converter, the desired output voltages can be obtained by
selecting proper values of inductor, capacitor and switching
frequency. At each stage, targets were set to acquire the nec-
essary skills to meet the criteria of the research and design the
circuits for implementation into the software simulation.This
project gives the opportunity to study new skills and raise
valuable knowledge in circuit designing and problem-solving
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B IOGRAPHIES
Mr. José Eduardo Urrea Cabus
has done his B.Sc in Electrical and
Electronic Engineering from the
National Autonomous University
of Honduras in the Sula Valley,
Cortés, Honduras. He has served
as an Electrical Engineer in the
private sector in Honduras for
more than two years. Now he
is studying his MSc. degree in
Electrical Engineering at Karadeniz Technical University.

Mr. Mohammad Baghdadi has


done his BSc and MSc in Power
Electrical Engineering from the Is-
lamic Azad University of Aliabad,
Aliabad, Iran. He has served as a
Power Electrical Engineer in the
private sector in Iran for more than
five years and research about De-
velop optimal sizing and location
of two SVC in distribution net-
works with dispersed photovoltaic
with ICA. Now he is studying his
Phd. degree in Electronic Engineering at Karadeniz Technical
University.