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GA Tech ECE6331 HW#1 Solutions

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ECE6331

P1.

a. The firing angle 𝛼 is predetermined. We need to set up the average of rectifier side

voltage i.e. 𝑉𝑑1,𝑎𝑣𝑔 to be equal to the nominal DC voltage i.e. 500𝑘𝑉. Moreover, since the

equivalent inductors are very large (𝐿 = 0.98𝐻),we assumed that current ripple is

negligible.

The nominal power should be extracted from the rectifier which means that

𝑉𝑑1,𝑎𝑣𝑔 ∗ 𝐼𝑑1 = 500𝑘𝑉 ∗ 𝐼𝑑1 = 1000𝑀𝑊 = 𝑃𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 Eq. 1

Hence,

𝐼𝑑1 = 2𝑘𝐴 Eq. 2

𝑽𝒅𝟐 = 𝑉𝑑1,𝑎𝑣𝑔 − 2 ∗ 2.5 ∗ 𝐼𝑑1 = 500 − 5 ∗ 2 = 𝟒𝟗𝟎𝒌𝑽 Eq. 3

In order to obtain transformer tap, we need to calculate the voltage of the secondary side of the

transformers. This configuration is composed of two rectifiers which are in series and their input

voltages have 30° phase difference. In other words,

𝑉𝑑1,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 𝑉𝑑,𝑎𝑣𝑔 + 𝑉𝑦,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = [𝑉𝑑0 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼 − 𝑅𝑐 𝐼𝑑1 ] + [𝑉𝑑0 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼 − 𝑅𝑐 𝐼𝑑1 ] Eq. 4

Where

3 Eq. 5

𝑅𝑐 = 𝑋

𝜋 𝑙𝑘

𝐸𝑙𝑙,𝑛 2⁄ 3452⁄

Eq. 6

𝑋𝑙𝑘,𝑝 = 0.15 ∗ 𝑍𝑏 = 0.15 ∗ 𝑆𝑛 = 0.15 ∗ 600 = 29.756Ω

However, 𝑋𝑙𝑘 referred to the secondary side of both transformers is derived as 𝑋𝑙𝑘,𝑠 =

29.756⁄ . where 𝑎 = 𝐸𝑙𝑙,𝑝⁄

𝑎2 𝐸𝑙𝑙,𝑠 . Moreover, 𝐸𝑙𝑙,𝑝 and 𝐸𝑙𝑙,𝑠 are the line to line primary and

3

𝐸

1.35 𝑙𝑙,𝑝⁄𝑎 = 1.35 ∗ 345⁄𝑎. We assume that tap is mounted on the secondary side. Hence, we

need to find 𝑎.

By replacing 𝑅𝑐 and 𝑉𝑑0 in Eq. 4,

𝑉𝑑1,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 500 = 2𝑉𝑑0 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼 − 2𝑅𝑐 𝐼𝑑1 = 2 ∗ 1.35 ∗ 345⁄𝑎 ∗ cos(15) − 2 ∗ 28.415⁄𝑎2 ∗ Eq. 7

Hence,

𝐸𝐿𝑁,𝑝 𝐸𝐿𝑁,𝑝

𝑌 − 𝑌 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟔𝟒, 𝑌 − ∆ 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟔𝟎𝟕

𝐸𝐿𝑁,𝑠 𝐸𝐿𝐿,𝑠

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

b. For calculating power factor, the following equation is used

𝑉𝑑 Eq. 8

𝑝. 𝑓 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙 = ⁄𝑉

𝑑0

However, this equation should be used for each rectifier individually. Since, the average voltage

𝑉

of rectifiers is the same. Therefore, 𝑉𝑑 = 𝑉𝑦 = 𝑑1⁄2 = 250𝑘𝑉. In addition, 𝑉𝑑0 = 1.35 ∗ 𝐸𝑙𝑙𝑠 =

250 Eq. 9

𝑝. 𝑓 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙 = = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟗𝟑 𝒍𝒂𝒈𝒈𝒊𝒏𝒈 → 𝝋 = 𝟐𝟔. 𝟕

279.9

Magnitude of current is approximately the same as the fundamental harmonic. Because the 5𝑡ℎ

and 7𝑡ℎ harmonics of transformer currents are removed. Hence, the next harmonic of source

1

current is 11𝑡ℎ harmonic whose magnitude is of the magnitude of the fundamental current. If

11

′

we assume that 𝐼 𝑎1 is the fundamental current magnitude of the secondary side of 𝑌 − 𝑌

transformer and 𝐼̃′ 𝑎1 is the fundamental current magnitude of the secondary side of 𝑌 − Δ

transformer, 𝐼𝐴1 as the fundamental current magnitude of the source is derived as follows,

Eq. 10

𝐸 1

𝒊𝑨𝒎𝒂𝒙 ≈ 𝐼𝐴1 = 𝐿𝐿𝑠⁄𝐸 ∗ (𝐼 ′ 𝑎1 + 𝐼̃′ 𝑎1 ) = ∗ (2√3⁄𝜋 ∗ 𝐼𝑑1 + 2√3⁄𝜋 ∗ 𝐼𝑑1 )

𝐿𝐿𝑝 1.664

= 𝟐. 𝟔𝟓𝒌𝑨

Therefore, 𝑰𝑨 ≈ 𝟐𝟔𝟓𝟎 < −𝟐𝟔. 𝟕°

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

c. Modeling of the system is done in Simulink environment. The parameters of both of

transformers are set up as shown in Figure 1. Moreover, Figure 2 shows complete view of

the Simulink model of the 12 pulse rectifier.

Figure 2 Simulink model of the 12 pulse rectifier

The three phase universal bridge is used for the three phase rectifiers. But, the type of switch is

selected to be thyristor. In addition, parameters such as forward bias voltage, snubber

capacitance and etc. are set up to make thyristors like an ideal case.

As shown in Figure 4 , Pulse Generator is a block which is used to synchronize pulse generation

for both rectifiers. The first input is the firing angle i.e. 𝛼 in degrees. Moreover, it needs a

reference voltage signal for firing angle. Accordingly, PLL is used for providing the reference

angle for the second input of Pulse Generator. Moreover, this block has two outputs which are

the gate signals for rectifiers. There is another block which is called 3- phase source is a

subsystem. It is not a built-in Simulink block. This block is defined to avoide many wires in the

block.

Moreover, the DC voltage is adjusted to 490𝑘𝑉 which is connected to the rectifier through two

series RL branch. The results of simulation are reported in multiple figures by applying

parameters achieved in part ‘a’.

As shown in Figure 5, the voltage 𝑉𝑑1 is approximately 500𝑘𝑉. Figure 6 shows the voltage with

more resolution, which confirms the fact that 𝑉𝑑1 is a dc voltage with small ripples. I order to

calculate fundamental harmonic of source current Powergui FFT Analysis Tool is used. By using

this tool , all of the harmonics are calculated and a list of them is reported. Here, the fundamental

harmonic of source current is important.

Figure 6 Vd1 with more resolution

To summarize the results, table is provided as follows,

Table 1 comparison of expected values with simulation results

𝑉𝑑1 𝐼𝑑1 𝐼𝑎𝑐 𝑝. 𝑓

499.8𝑘𝑉 𝑀𝑎𝑥(𝑉𝑑1) ≈ 1989𝐴 𝑀𝑎𝑥(𝐼 𝑑1 ) 𝑀𝑎𝑔: 2624 𝐴 𝜑 = −26.3°

(with 530𝑘𝑉) (with ≈ 1995𝐴 → cos 𝜑

ripple) small = 0.897 𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝑀𝑖𝑛(𝑉𝑑1) ripples) 𝑀𝑖𝑛(𝐼𝑑1 )

≈ 454𝑘𝑉 ≈ 1981𝐴

Expected Values

500𝑘𝑉 2000𝐴 2650𝐴 0.893 𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔

Regarding the table, while it was assumed that rectifier voltage 𝑉𝑑1 is a pure DC voltage, it

contains some ripple which refers to the fact that the transmission line has inductances which are

ignored in calculations. The same justification exists for 𝐼𝑑1 which contains some ripple. The

negligible difference between expected values and results refers to the fact that some parameters

like turns ratio are rounded which make a very small difference.

The commutation overlap angle 𝜇 is shown in Figure 8. It should be mentioned that the three

phase voltage shown in this figure is the line to line voltage of the source reflected to the

secondary side. Because the secondary voltage after the leakage reactance is non-sinusoidal.

By using the commutation time, commutation overlap angle can be calculated as follows,

For 𝑌 − ∆ rectifier, commutation overlap angle is the same. Figure 9 shows 𝑉𝑑 and 𝑉𝑦 voltages

simultaneously. As it can be seen in this figure, both rectifiers burden half of total voltage which

means that their voltage are the same and equal to 250𝑘𝑉. In addition, their input voltage have a

30° phase difference.

Figure 8 demonstration of commutation angle 𝜇

The secondary side line currents of transformers are shown in Figure 10. These two currents

should have 30° phase difference. Confirmation of this fact is demonstrated in Figure 11. As

shown in this figure, the time difference between currents is 𝑡 = 0.0014𝑠. By transforming this

value to degree, we have ∆𝜃 = 𝑡 ∗ 60 ∗ 360 = 30.2° .

Figure 11 phase difference between secondary line currents of transformers

The primary side currents of transformers are shown in Figure 12. By using Powergui FFT

Analysis Tool, harmonic contents of primary sides of transformers and also the source current are

reported in the following table. As this table demonstrates, while both of primary side currents

have 6𝑘 ∓ 1, 𝑘 = 1,2,3, .. , their harmonics of 6𝑘 ∓ 1, 𝑘 = 1,3,5, … cancel each other out.

Therefore, the harmonic contents of source current are 12𝑘 ∓ 1, 𝑘 = 1,2, … . Accordingly, not

only does 12-pulse rectifier decrease voltage ripple but also it decreases THD of source current.

Figure 13 which shows the source current is very similar to a sinusoidal waveform, confirms this

allegation

Table 2 harmonic contents of primary side and source currents

No. − 𝑌) − ∆)

1 2618 < −26.3 1312 < −26.3 1312 < −26.4

5 0 ≈ 0.52 < 246 233 < 48.3 233 < 228.2

7 0 ≈ 0.49 < −21.2 147 < −4.9 147 < 175

11 124 < 65.4 62 < 65.7 62 < 65.6

13 80 < 10.7 40 < 11.4 40 < 10.9

Figure 12 primary currents of transformers

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

d. The relationship between 𝑉𝑑1 and 𝐼𝑑1 is achieved by using the following equations.

By using Eq. 12 and Eq. 13 the all the values can be calculated. The following table shows the

results.

Table 3 𝑉𝑑𝑟 -𝐼𝑑𝑟 for various values of 𝑉𝑑2

Simulations results

𝑽𝒅𝟐 (𝒌𝑽) 520 515 510 505 500 495 490 485 480 475 470

𝑰𝒅𝒓 (𝑨) 810 1005 1200 1397 1591 1787 1989 2182 2378 2575 2773

𝑽𝒅𝒓 (𝒌𝑽) 523.9 519.9 515.9 511.9 507.8 503.8 499.8 495.8 491.7 487.7 483.7

Calculation results

𝑰𝒅𝒓 (𝑨) 818 1014 1209 1405 1601 1797 1993 2188 2384 2580 2776

𝑽𝒅𝒓 (𝒌𝑽) 524.1 520.1 516.1 512 508 504 500 495.9 491.9 487.9 483.9

Figure 14 Vdr versus Idr for both of calculation and simulation results

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

e. 𝛼 changes from 5° to a maximum firing angle. Here, the maximum firing angle is not 90°

because the voltage of 𝑉𝑑2 is fixed. Therefore, the output voltage of rectifier should be

greater than 𝑉𝑑2 . Hence, criterion for 𝛼 is derived as follows,

𝐼𝑑1 > 0 → 2 ∗ 𝑉𝑑0 > 𝑉𝑑2 → 2 ∗ 1.35 ∗ 207.4𝑘𝑉 ∗ cos(𝛼) > 490𝑘𝑉

→ cos(𝛼𝑚𝑎𝑥 ) > 0.875 → 𝜶 < 𝟑𝟎°

The following table and Figure 15 show the results of simulation by using 𝑆𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 = 600𝑀𝑉𝐴. As

the results show, by increasing firing angle, both of active and reactive power decrease. This is

the anticipated results because calculations confirm these results. In the following the equation

for both of real and reactive power based on firing angle is derived.

Since losses are ignored in the AC side of the converter, DC side and AC side power are the

same.

𝑃 = 𝑃𝑑𝑐 = 𝑉𝑑1 𝐼𝑑1 = 2(𝑉𝑑0 ∗ cos(𝛼) − 𝑅𝑐 𝐼𝑑1 )𝐼𝑑1 Eq. 14

Moreover,

𝑉𝑑1 − 𝑉𝑑2 2(𝑉𝑑0 ∗ cos(𝛼) − 𝑅𝑐 𝐼𝑑1 ) − 490 2𝑉𝑑0 cos(𝛼) − 490𝑘𝑉 Eq. 15

𝐼𝑑1 = = → 𝐼𝑑1 =

2 ∗ 2.5 5 5 + 2 ∗ 𝑅𝑐

By plugging Eq. 15 into Eq. 14, we have

[2𝑉𝑑0 cos(𝛼)]2 − 490 ∗ 2𝑉𝑑0 cos(𝛼) 2𝑉𝑑0 cos(𝛼) − 490𝑘𝑉 2 Eq. 16

𝑃= − 2𝑅𝑐 ( )

5 + 2 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 5 + 2 ∗ 𝑅𝑐

For reactive power by using, the following equation, we can find an expression for reactive

power based on firing angle.

Eq. 17

𝑄 = √𝑆 2 − 𝑃2

345𝑘𝑉 1 √6 Eq. 18

𝑆 =3∗ ∗ (2 ∗ ∗ 𝐼𝑑1 )

√3 1.664 𝜋

Hence, by plugging Eq. 15 into Eq. 18 and then, plugging the resultant equation into Eq. 17,

relationship between reactive power and firing angle is accomplished. Table 4 demonstrates the

results of simulation and calculation. The negligible difference between the values refers to the

fact that all of the harmonics are ignored in calculations. Figure 15 visualizes the results which

confirms that as firing angle increases both of active and reactive power decreases. Moreover,

power factor slightly drops. This means that it is strongly recommended to operate the system in

small firing angles to increase the utilization of the system and also maintaining power factor at

higher levels.

Table 4 influence of changing firing angle on active and reactive power

𝛼(𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒) 5 10 15 20 25

𝑃(𝑝. 𝑢)𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 2.2317 2.008 1.6467 1.155 0.5412

𝑃(𝑝. 𝑢)𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 2.2286 2.0142 1.6609 1.1747 0.5460

𝑄(𝑝. 𝑢)𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 1.03 0.9548 0.8133 0.594 0.2907

𝑄(𝑝. 𝑢)𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 1.0874 0.9954 0.8379 0.6094 0.3027

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P2.

a. The inverter operation is exactly the same as rectifier one, except the fact that firing angle

is larger that 90° (without reactance). Accordingly, the Simulink model which is used

here is the same as the rectifier; However, DC voltage source polarity at the other side of

the line is upside down. Figure 16 shows the model of the inverter mode of operation in

Simulink.

Figure 16 schematic diagram of inverter mode of operation

Since, the rectifier side of the voltage 𝑉𝑑2 is 500𝑘𝑉. Moreover, since it is delivering 𝑃 =

1000𝑀𝑊, we can conclude that the current 𝐼𝑑1 is equal to 2𝑘𝐴. Therefore, similar to the

previous question 𝑉𝑑1 = 500 − 2 ∗ 2.5 ∗ 𝐼𝑑1 = 490𝑘𝑉.

The next step is calculation of 𝑅𝑐 ,

2 3 3 16.254 15.52 Eq. 19

𝑋𝑙𝑘,𝑝 = 0.18 ∗ 230 ⁄585.81 = 16.254Ω → 𝑅𝑐 = 𝑋𝑙𝑘,𝑠 = ∗ 2

= 2

𝜋 𝜋 𝑎 𝑎

𝐸

Where, 𝑎 = 𝑙𝑙,𝑝⁄𝐸 and 𝑋𝑙𝑘,𝑝 , 𝑋𝑙𝑘,𝑠 are leakage reactances reflected to primary and secondary

𝑙𝑙,𝑠

angle 𝜸,the following equation is achieved.

𝑉𝑑1,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 490 = 2𝑉𝑑0 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛾 − 2𝑅𝑐 𝐼𝑑1 Eq. 20

→ 𝒂 = 𝟏. 𝟏𝟏 , 𝑬𝒍𝒍𝒔 ≈ 𝟐𝟎𝟕. 𝟐𝟎𝟕𝒌𝑽

Hence,

1.11

𝑌 − 𝑌 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = 𝟏. 𝟏𝟏, 𝑌 − ∆ 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟒𝟏

√3

Commutation overlap angle 𝜇 is derived as follows,

𝑉𝑑 cos(𝛼)+cos(𝛿) cos(𝛼)−cos(180−𝛾) Eq. 21

= =

𝑉𝑑0 2 2

490

cos(𝛼) − cos(15) − 2 −245

→ = = = −0.876 → 𝜶 = 𝟏𝟒𝟏. 𝟖°

2 𝐸𝑙𝑙,𝑠 ∗ 1.35 279.7

→ 𝝁 = 𝜹 − 𝜶 = 𝟐𝟑. 𝟐°

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

b. As shown in Figure 16, Simulink is used for simulation of inverter. Similar to the rectifier

simulation, parameters of transformers and converters are set up according to the

calculated values in part ‘a’. Figure 17 shows the output voltage of the inverter which is

connected to the 𝑌 − 𝑌 transformer i.e. 𝑉𝑦 . The three phase voltage which is shown here

𝑽𝒔𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒄𝒆

is the voltage source reflected to the secondary side i.e .

𝟏.𝟏𝟏

As this figure shows, 𝑡1 corresponds to the delay time of firing which is related to 𝛼 by

the following equation.

𝑡1 ∗ 60 ∗ 360 = 𝛼 → 𝜶 = 𝟏𝟒𝟐. 𝟔°

Moreover, 𝑡2 corresponds to the commutation overlap angle i.e 𝜇 which is calculated as,

𝑡2 ∗ 60 ∗ 360 = 𝜇 → 𝝁 = 𝟐𝟑. 𝟖°

Accordingly, extinction angle is achieved as

𝜸 = 180 − 𝜇 − 𝛼 = 𝟏𝟑. 𝟔°

Figure 17 voltage output of 𝑌 − 𝑌 inverter i.e. 𝑉𝑦

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