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MANUAL

ON
SOIL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Rajeev Kumar & B.K. Agarwal

DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE

BIRSA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY


KANKE, RANCHI – 834 006 (JHARKHAND)
LABORATORY PRECAUTIONS
1. General precaution

Working in the laboratory involves the use of different kinds of


chemicals, glasswares and other apparatus and sophisticated
equipments. To avoid any damage or accident the following precautions
must be taken:

1. Use apron or laboratory coat

2. All acids are highly corrosive and alkalies are highly caustic.
Therefore, use them carefully and do not spill them over your clothes,
body, the table or floor.

3. Handle glassware with care. Broken glass may cause injuries on the
parts of your body. Handle it properly and avoid breakage.

4. Many chemicals are highly poisonous. Therefore, do not suck them


with mouth. Use suction bulbs or auto pipettes.

5. Instruments are very costly and their repair is very time consuming.
Therefore, handle them carefully.

6. Take the help of laboratory attendant for your requirements of


chemicals, solutions and glassware and any other clarification.

2. First aid

In spite of these precautions if any mishap occurs during the conduct of


analysis, adopt the following first aid safety measures:

3. Burns

a. Cloth burns:

Apply tannic acid jelly, Burnol or butesin picrate ointment on slight


burns caused by dry heat in which the skin is not broken.

b. Skin burns due to acid

First wash with water thoroughly, then with saturated solution of


NaHCO3 and finally with water. If acid burns are serious, apply any

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disinfectant after the washing treatment. Allow the skin dry and cover
the burnt skin with burnol.

c. Alkali on the skin:

The treatment is same as in the case of acid burns except that in


second washing use 1% acetic acid instead of saturated solution of
NaHCO3.

d. Organic substances on the skin:

Wash the skin thoroughly with rectified spirit, then with soap and
warm water.

4. Cuts

Allow minor cuts to bleed for a few seconds. If the cut is due to glassware
breakage then remove the glass particles. Apply a disinfectant and
bandage. In serious cuts, consult the doctor at once after washing the
part with disinfectant.

5. Eye accident

In all case consult the doctor at once. Meanwhile, first aid should be
done.

a. Acids in the eyes:

Wash the eye with 1% NaHCO3 if the acid is dilute. In case of


concentrated, it should first be washed with a large amount of
water and then thoroughly with the bicarbonate solution.

b. Caustic alkali in the eyes:

Proceed as for acid in the eyes, but wash with 1% boric acid
solution instead of bicarbonate.

6. Poisons

a. Acids

If acid is sucked in the mouth, drink a lot of water, followed by


lime water or milk of magnesia.

b. Intake of caustic alkalies:

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Drink a lot of water followed by vinegar, lemon or orange juice,
solution of citric or lactic acid.

c. Other poisons:

If salts of heavy metals have swallowed, give milk or white of an


egg. If compounds of arsenic or mercury have been swallowed, give
an emetics like one teaspoonful of mustard, or one teaspoonful of
common salt or zinc sulphate, in a tumbler or warm water. Rush
immediately for medical help.

d. Harmful gases:

The victim should at once be removed to the open air and the
clothing of the neck should be loosened. Inhale NH3 vapours to
counteract cl2 or Br2 fumes, if inhaled in small amounts. Gargles
with NaHCO3 solution are also helpful.

7. Fires

Turn out all the gas burners and switch off all the electric hot plates in
the vicinity. Remove the things which may burn. Dry sand may be
employed if fire extinguisher is not readily available.

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SOIL TESTING

Fertility of a soil can be assessed by analyzing various available


nutrients present in the soil. Fertilizer recommendations for various
crops and cropping sequences can be made on the basis of fertility
status of a soil. Besides this, problematic soil can be ameliorated on
the basis of soil test values.

Soil sampling and processing

Among the various steps of soil testing programmers, soil sampling


is the most vital step. For collecting a representative soil sample, the
following points must be considered:-

1. The sample must represent the field it belongs to.

2. A field can be treated as a single sampling unit if it is appreciably


uniform. Generally an area not exceeding 0.5 ha is taken one
sampling unit.

3. Variation in slope, colour, texture, crop growth should be taken


into account for sampling. Separate samples should be taken from
areas differing in these characteristics.

4. Sampling from recent fertilized plots, bunds, channels, marshy


lands and areas near trees, wells, compost pits or other non
representative locations must be carefully avoided.

5. Sampling should not be done from an area about 2-3 meters along
sides of a large field.

6. Larger areas may be divided into appropriate number of smaller


homogenous units for better representation.

Depth of sampling

The penetration by plant roots is an important consideration in


deciding the depth of sampling. Therefore, following factors may be
kept into consideration:

1. For cereals, vegetables and other seasonal crops the samples


should be drawn from 0 – 15 cm i.e plough layer.

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2. For deep rooted crops or longer duration crops like sugarcane, or
under dry farming conditions, samples from different depths
depending on individual requirements should be obtained

3. For plantation crops or fruit trees, prepare composite sample from


soil collected at depths of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-100 cm from 4 to
5pits dug in about 0.5 ha field at the time of planting.

4. For saline –alkali soils, salt crust if visible on the soil surface, or
suspected should be sampled separately and record the depth of
sampling. Generally, the sample may be drawn up to 15 cm depth
from surface for testing salinity and alkalinity/ acidity.

5. In case composite samples are drawn below 15 cm as for certain


flowering plants like roses, the depth from which soil samples
have been taken should be indicated.

Soil sampling procedure

1. For making composite sample, collect small portions of soil upto


the desired depth (0-15 cm or more) by means of suitable
sampling tools from 15 to 20 well distributed spots, moving in a
zig – zag manner from each individual sampling site after
scrapping off the surface litter, if any, without removing soil.

2. From fields having standing crops in rows, draw samples in


between rows.

3. Mix the soil collected from various spots covering the entire area
thoroughly by hand on a clean piece of cloth or polythene sheet.

4. Reduce bulk to about 500gm by quartering process in which the


entire soil mass is spread, divided into four quarters, two opposite
ones are discarded and the remaining two are remixed. Repeat
this process until about 500 gm soil is left.

Sampling tools

Samples can be drawn with the help of (i) tube auger (ii) screw
auger (iii) post hole auger (iv) spade and (v) Khurpi

For sampling of soft and moist soil, tube auger, spade or khurpi is
satisfactory. A screw type auger is more convenient on hard or dry
soil while the post hole auger is useful for sampling excessively wet

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area like rice fields. If a spade or khurpi is used a “V” shaped cut
may be first made upto the plough layer and a uniformly 2 cm thick
slice is taken out from one clean side. Tube auger attached to a long
extension rod is convenient for sampling from lower depths.

The various steps involved in the proper collection of representative


soil samples in the field and their handling are depicted in fig. 1.

Precaution in collection and handling the soil samples is required for


preventing contamination. Following precautions should be taken to
minimize error:

1. Avoid contact of the sample with chemicals, fertilizers or manures.

2. Use stainless steel augers instead of rusted iron khurpi or spade


for sampling for micronutrient analysis.

3. Do not use bags or boxes previously used for storing fertilizers, salt
or any other chemical.

4. Store soil sample preferably in clean cloth or polythene bags.

5. Use glass, porcelain or polythene jar for long duration storage.

Labeling of samples

Label samples for identification. A label of thick paper with


identification mark and other details should be put inside the sample
bag and another label carrying same details tied/ pasted outside the
bag. In case the sample is wet, the label should be written with pencil
or a permanent marker.

Information sheet

In addition to the location, field number, name of cultivator and


identification mark, relevant information about slope, drainage,
irrigation, previous cropping history, fertilizer, manure used etc.
must be recorded and sent along with the soil samples. A format of
information sheet commonly used is given below:

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Sl. Identification depth No. of Area Upland Irrigated Previous When manure
No mark of spots of the or (Y/N) crop fertilizer
sampling sampled field lowland raised applied last

1.

2.

Tick mark (√) the additional test required Recommendation sought for

(S,Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo) (Crop name/ names)

Registration of the samples in the laboratory

As soon as the samples arrive at the laboratory, these are to be


serially registered, given the data, identification mark and other
relevant particulars furnished in the information sheet.

Processing of soil samples for analysis

1. Air dries the soil sample in shade.

2. Crush the soil clods lightly and grind with the help of wooden
pestle and mortar.

3. Pass the entire quantity through 2 mm stainless steel sieve.

4. Discard the plant residues, gravels and other materials retained


on the sieve.

5. If the gravel content is substantial, record per cent of the


sample (W/W).

6. For certain type of analysis (e.g. organic carbon) grind the soil
further so as to pass it through 0.2 to 0.5 mm sieves.

7. Remix the entire quantity of sieved soil thoroughly before


analysis.

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SOIL TESTING PROCEDURES
Soil pH

Instrument: pH meter with glass electrode

Reagent: Standard buffer solution: prepare buffer solutions of pH 4.0, 7.0 and
9.2 by dissolving one commercially available buffer tablets of above pH values
in 100 ml of freshly prepared distilled water.

Procedure
1. Weigh 10 gm of soil sample in 50 ml beaker
2. Add 25 ml of distilled water and stir well by a glass rod and keep for 30
minutes
3. Calibrate the pH meter with standard buffer solution
4. Again stir, just before immersing the electrodes and take pH reading.

Electrical conductivity
Instrument: Electrical conductivity meter

Procedure:

1. Weigh 10 gm of soil sample in 50 ml beaker


2. Add 25 ml of distilled water and stir well by a glass rod and keep for 30
minutes
3. Again stir, just before immersing the conductivity cell into the solution
and take the
electrical conductivity reading.

(Reading of electrical conductivity are presented in milli mhos cm-1)

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Organic Carbon : ( Walkley and Black, 1934)
Glassware required: Conical flask (500ml), volumetric flask (1000ml), Beaker
(500 &100 ml), measuring cylinder (25 ml and 250 ml),
pipette (10 ml) and burette (50ml).

Reagents:

1. Normal potassium dichromate solution ( Dissolve 49.04 gm of AR grade


potassium dichromate in 500 ml distilled water and make the volume 1
litre in a volumetric flask.
2. 0.5N ferrous ammonium sulphate (Dissolve 196.1 gm of ferrous
ammonium sulphate in 500 ml distilled water, add 20 ml of concentrated
sulphuric acid and finally make the volume 1 litre.
3. Concentrated sulphuric acid.
4. Concentrated orthophosphoric acid(85% ).
5. Diphenylamine indicator: Dissolve 0.5 gm of diphenylamine in 100 ml of
concentrated sulphuric acid.

Procedure

1. Weigh 1 gm of soil sample into 500 ml dry conical flask.


2. Add 10 ml of 1N potassium dichromate solution with the help of pipette.
3. Add 20 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid with the help of measuring cylinder.
4. Swirl the flask and keep for 30 minutes.
5. Slowly add 200 ml of water.
6. Add 10 ml of otthophosphoric acid.
7. Add 1 ml of diphenylamine indicator.
8. Titrate the content against 0.5 N ferrous ammonium sulphate till green
colour appears.
9. Run a blank also (without soil).

Calculations:

Let Titre value with sample be T and with blank be B

% Organic carbon = 10(B-T) x 0.003 x 100


B wt. of soil

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Available Nitrogen: Alkaline permanganate method (Subbiah and Asiza,
1956)

Glassware and apparatus:


1. Distillation unit
2. Measuring cylinder (100ml)
3. Pipette (20ml/10ml)
4. Burette (50ml)
5. Conical flask (250 ml)
6. Gas burner

Reagents required:

1. 0.32% potassium permanganate solution: Dissolve 3.2 gm of


potassium permanganate in 1 litre of distilled water in 1 litre
volumetric flask.
2. 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution: Dissolve 25 gm of sodium hydroxide
in 500 ml of distilled water and make the volume 1 litre.
3. 2% boric acid: Dissolve 20 gm of boric acid in 500 ml water and make
the volume 1 litre.
4. Mixed indicator: Mix three parts of bromocresol green and one part of
methyl red indicator.
5. 0.02 Normal sulphuric acid: Prepare 0.1 N sulphuric acid by diluting
2.8 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid in 1 litre distilled water. Take
200 ml of 0.1 N su;phuric acid and dilute to 1 litre that will give 0.02
N sulphuric acid.

Procedure:
1. Place 20 gm of soil in a distillation flask
2. Add 20 ml distilled water and 100 ml of 0.32% potassium
permanganate solution. Add little paraffin wax to avoid contact with
upper part of the neck of the flask.
3. Pipette 20 ml of 2% boric acid solution in 250 ml conical flask and
add few drops of mixed indicator to it. Dip the end of the delivery tube
into it.
4. Pour 100ml of 2.5% sodium hydroxide into the distillation flask and
cork it immediately.

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5. Distill the ammonia gas from distillation flask which will be collected
into the boric acid mix indicator solution. Collect approximately 50 ml
of distillate.
6. Titrate the collected solution against 0.02 N sulphuric acid till the
green colour disappears.

Calculation:

Amount of 0.02 N H2SO4 consumed in titration = X ml


Available Nitrogen Kg/ha = 14 x 0.02 x X x 2.24 x 106
1000 x wt. of soil
= 31.36 x volume of 0.02 N H2SO4 used for
titration

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Available Phosphorus (Bray and Kurtz, 1945)

Equipment and apparatus: Conical flask 100 ml capacity, funnel, volumetric


flask (1000 ml, 100 ml, 50 ml and 25 ml capacity), glass beaker
(500ml and 100ml), measuring cylinder (100ml and 25 ml ),
graduated pipette (1ml, 2ml and 5ml), spectrophotometer or
colorimeter and mechanical shaker.

Reagents required:
1. Bray,s P1 solution: 0.03 N NH4F + 0.025N HCl (Dissolve 1.11 gm of
ammonium fluoride of AR grade in 1 litre volumetric flask and to it
add 2.16 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and make up the
volume one litre)
2. Reagent A:
i. Dissolve 12gm of ammonium molybdate in about 250 ml of warm
distilled water.
ii. In a separate beaker dissolve 0.291 gm of antimony potassium
tartarate in 100 ml of warm distilled water.
iii. After cooling both the solution mix both the solution.
iv. 5 N H2SO4: Prepare one litrre of 5N sulphuric acid by diluting 140
ml of conc. H2SO4 to one litre.
v. After cooling mix ammonium molybdate, antimony potassium
tartarate and 5 N H2SO4 in 2 litre volumetric flask and make the
volume 2 litre.

vi. Paranitrophenol Indicator: Dissolve 0.5 gm of p- nitrophenol in 100


ml of distilled water.
vii. 2% ammonia solution (dilute 2ml of ammonia solution to 100 ml)
viii. 5N H2SO4: Dilute 14 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid to 100
ml to get 5N H2SO4.
3. Reagent B (Ascorbic acid solution): Dissolve 1.056 gm of ascorbic acid
in 200 ml of the molybdate solution ( Reagent A) and mix it well.
Prepare it fresh as and when required.

Procedure:
1. Weigh 2.5 gm of soil in 100 ml conical flask
2. Add 25 ml of BrayP1 solution and shake for 5 minutes on a
mechanical shaker
3. Filter the solution in reagent bottle.

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4. Pipette out suitable amount of aliquot (2-5ml) in 25/50 ml volumetric
flask
5. Adjust the pH with the help of p-nitrophenol, 2% ammonia solution
and 5N sulphuric acid
6. Add 2 ml of ascorbic acid solution (Reagent B) and make up the
volume.
7. Run a blank sample (without soil) by following similar above steps.

Preparation of standard curve:

1. 100 ppm P solution: Dissolve 0.439 gm of potassium dihydrogen


phosphate (KH2PO4) in 1 litre volumetric flask and add 5 ml of
concentrated sulphuric acid and make up the volume 1 litre.
2. 2 ppm P solution: Pipette out 2 ml of 100 ppm P solution in 100 ml
volumetric flask and make the volume 100 ml
3. In 50 ml volumetric flask add 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ml of 2 ppm solution to
get 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16 and 0.20 ppm P solution and add 2ml of
ascorbic acid solution (Reagent B) and make the volume to 50 ml.
4. After 10 minutes take the reading of standard P solution as well as of
samples at 660 nm wavelength on spectrophotometer.

Calculation:

Available P (ppm) = Volume of BrayP1 solution added to soil x final volume(50) x


Conc(ppm)
Weight of soil aliquot
taken (ml)
Available P Kg/ha = Available P (ppm) x 2.24

Available P2O5 Kg/ha = Available P Kg/ha x 2.29

Precautions to be taken during P estimation:

The glassware to be used for P estimation must be free of contamination


with phosphorus. Clean the glassware with sulphuric acid – dichromate
solution and wash them thoroughly with tap water followed by rinsing with
distilled water.

Olsen’s method of P estimation (Olsen et. al. 1954)

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Olsen’s method is used for P estimation of neutral- alkaline soils

Equipment and apparatus: Conical flask 100 ml capacity, funnel, volumetric


flask (1000 ml, 100 ml, 50 ml and 25 ml capacity), glass beaker
(500ml and 100ml), measuring cylinder (100ml and 25 ml ),
graduated pipette (1ml, 2ml and 5ml), spectrophotometer or
colorimeter and mechanical shaker.

Reagents required:

• 0.5 M Na HCO3: Dissolve 42 gram of Na HCO3 in about 500 ml of


distilled water and makeup the volume one litre. Adjust the pH to 8.5
using dilute NaOH solution or dilute HCL.

• Reagent A:

• Dissolve 12gm of ammonium molybdate in about 250 ml of warm


distilled water.

• In a separate beaker dissolve 0.291 gm of antimony potassium


tartarate in 100 ml of warm distilled water.

• After cooling both the solution mix both the solution.

• 5 N H2SO4: Prepare one litrre of 5N sulphuric acid by diluting 140


ml of conc. H2SO4 to one litre.

• After cooling mix ammonium molybdate, antimony potassium


tartarate and 5 N H2SO4 in 2 litre volumetric flask and make the
volume 2 litre.

• Paranitrophenol Indicator: Dissolve 0.5 gm of p- nitrophenol in


100 ml of distilled water.

• 5N H2SO4: Dilute 14 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid to 100


ml to get 5N H2SO4.

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• Reagent B (Ascorbic acid solution): Dissolve 1.056 gm of ascorbic acid
in 200 ml of the molybdate solution (Reagent A) and mix it well.
Prepare it fresh as and when required.

Procedure:

• Weigh 2.5 gm of soil in 100 ml conical flask

• Add 50 ml of Olsen’s reagent and add a pinch of Dargo G-60(


Charcoal powder) and shake for 30 minutes on a mechanical shaker

• Similarly run a blank also without soil.

• Filter the solution in reagent bottle.

• Pipette out suitable amount of aliquot (2-5ml) in 25/50 ml volumetric


flask

• Add a drop of p-nitrophenol, yellow colours devdelops, neutrilise the


yellow colour by adding 5N sulphuric acid

• Add 2 ml of ascorbic acid solution (Reagent B) and make up the


volume.

Preparation of standard curve:

• 100 ppm P solution: Dissolve 0.439 gm of potassium dihydrogen


phosphate (KH2PO4) in 1 litre volumetric flask and add 5 ml of
concentrated sulphuric acid and make up the volume 1 litre.

• 2 ppm P solution: Pipette out 2 ml of 100 ppm P solution in 100 ml


volumetric flask and make the volume 100 ml

• In 50 ml volumetric flask add 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ml of 2 ppm solution to


get 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16 and 0.20 ppm P solution and add 2ml of
ascorbic acid solution (Reagent B) and make the volume to 50 ml.

• After 10 minutes take the reading of standard P solution as well as of


samples at 660 nm wavelength on spectrophotometer.

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Calculation:

Available P (ppm) = Volume of BrayP1 solution added to soil x final volume(50) x Conc(ppm)

Weight of soil aliquot taken (ml)

Available P Kg/ha = Available P (ppm) x 2.24

Available P2O5 Kg/ha = Available P Kg/ha x 2.29

Precautions to be taken during P estimation:

The glassware to be used for P estimation must be free of contamination


with phosphorus. Clean the glassware with sulphuric acid – dichromate
solution and wash them thoroughly with tap water followed by rinsing with
distilled water.

Available Potassium in Soil:

Instruments required
1. Flame photometer
2. Mechanical shaker
3. pH meter

Apparatus
1. Conical flask (100 ml)
2. Funnel and filter paper
3. Beaker (500ml)
4. Volumetric flask (100ml, 1000 ml)

Reagents:
1. Neutral normal ammonium acetate: Dissolve 77.08 gm of ammonium
acetate in about 800 ml of distilled water in one litre volumetric flask.

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Adjust the pH to 7.0 with dilute acetic acid and ammonia solution and
make the volume to one litre.
2. Standard K solution: Prepare 1000 ppm K solution by dissolving 1.908
gm of dried KCl salt in 1000 ml distilled water.
3. Working standard K solution: Dilute 0.5 ml, 1 ml, 1.5 ml and 2.0 ml of
1000 ppm K solution to 100 ml to get 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm K solution.

Procedure:
1. Weigh 5 gm of soil in 100 ml conical flask
2. Add 25 ml of ammonium acetate solution and shake for five minutes on
mechanical shaker.
3. Filter the solution
4. Measure K concentration in the filtrate using flame photometer after
stadardization of the instrument with the help of potassium standard
solution.
Calculation:

Available K Kg/ha = amount of ammonium acetate added to soil x


reading (ppm) x 2.24
Weight of soil
Available K2O Kg/ha = Available K Kg/ha x 1.2

Available Sulphur:
Apparatus and glassware:
1. Volumetric flask (1000 ml, 100ml, 25ml)
2. Beaker 500 ml and 100 ml
3. Conical flask (100ml)
4. Funnel
5. Filter paper
6. Pipette ( 25 ml, 10ml and 5ml)
7. Spectrophotometer
8. Mechanical shaker
Reagents:
1. 0.15% Cacl2 : Dissolve 1.5 gm of Cacl2.2H2O in about 500 ml of distilled water
and dilute it to 1000 ml.
2. 0.25% gum acacia solution: Dissolve 2.5 gm of gum acacia in 200 ml of warm
water and dilute it to one litre.
3. Barium chloride
Procedure:

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1. Weigh 5 gm of soil in 100 ml conical flask.
2. Add 25 ml of 0.15% Cacl2 and shake for half an hour on a mechanical shaker.
3. Filter the solution in a reagent bottle.
4. Pipette out 10-15 ml of the aliquot in 25 ml volumetric flask, to it add 1ml of
0.25% gum acacia solution.
5. Add approx. 1 gm of barium chloride and finally make up the volume up to 25
ml and take the reading at spectrophotometer at 440nm wavelength.
6. Run a blank (without soil) also by following the above steps.
Standard stock solution of sulphur (2000ppm): Dissolve 1.089 gm of AR grade
potassium sulphate in 100 ml distilled water.
Working standard sulphate solution (10 ppm): Dilute 5ml of 2000 ppm sulphur
solution to 1 litre
Preparation of standard curve: Pipette out 2.5, 5, 7.5,10 and 12.5 ml of 10 ppm
sulphur solution into 25 ml volumetric flask for 1,2,3,4 and 5 ppm sulphur solution.
To it add 1 ml of 0.25 % gum acacia solution and approx. 1 gm of barium chloride
and make up the volume to 25 ml. calibrate the spectrophotometer with the standard
sulphate solution and take the samples reading.
Calculation:
Available sulphur Kg/ha = ml of Cacl2 added to soil x Final volume x
Reading(ppm) x 2.24
Weight of soil vol.of aliquot

Available Boron
Apparatus and glassware:
1. Distillation flask and condensers
2. Reagent bottle
3. Funnel
4. Filter paper
5. Pipette
6. Measuring cylinder
7. Volumetric flask(25 ml, 100ml and 1000 ml)
8. Spectrophotometer
Reagents:
1. 0.01 M Cacl2 : Dissolve 1.47 gm of AR grade CaCl2 .2H2O in 200 ml
distilled water and make the volume one litre .
2. Buffer solution: Dissolve 250 gm of ammonium acetate and 15 gm of
EDTA ( Ethyline diamine tetra acetic acid) in 400 ml of distilled water
and add slowly 125 ml of glacial acetic acid.

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3. 1% L-Ascorbic acid solution: Dissolve 1 gm of L-Ascorbic acid
solution in 100 ml of distilled water.
4. Azomethine-H reagent: Dissolve 0.45 gm of azomethine –H in 100 ml
of 1 % L- ascorbic acid solution. Prepare a fresh reagent when it is
needed.
Procedure:
1. Weigh 20 gm of soil in a distillation flask and add 40 ml of
0.01MCacl2 solution.
2. Boil the content for 10 minutes
3. After cooling filter the solution in a reagent bottle
4. Run a blank also (without soil).
5. Pipette out 15 ml of filtrate in 25 ml volumetric flask
6. Add 2 ml of buffer solution and 2 ml of Azomethine-H solution
7. After half an hour take the reading on spectrophotometer at 420 nm
wavelength.
Preparation of standard curve:
1. Boron standard stock solution: Dissolve 0.570 gm boric acid in one
litre of distilled water to obtain a stock solution of 100 ppm.
2. Working standard B solution: Take 5 ml of the stock solution
(100ppm) in a 100 ml volumetric flask and dilute to 100 ml, this will
give rise to 5 ppm B solution.
3. Pipette out 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml of 5 ppm B solution into 25 ml
volumetric flask to get 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 ppm B solution
4. Add 2 ml buffer solution and 2 ml Azomethine-H solution and after
half an hour take the reading at 420nm on a spectrophotometer.

Calculation:
Available Boron (ppm) = ml of Cacl2 added to soil x Final volume x
Reading(ppm)
Weight of soil vol.of filtrate
Available Boron Kg/ha = Available boron (ppm) x 2.24
DTPA extractable Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn

Instruments
1. Mechanical shaker
2. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS)

Reagents
1. Dilute HCl: AR grade HCl diluted 5 times with double distilled water.

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2. DTPA extractant: Dissolve 1.967 gm of AR grade diethyline triamine
penta acetic
acid (DTPA) and 1.47 gm of Ca Cl2.2H2O(AR grade) in about 25 ml
of double
distilled water followed by add 13.3 ml of Trietanolamine (TEA).
Transfer the
solution to one litre volumetric flask. Just before making up the
volume, adjust pH
to 7.3 with dilute HCl. This reagent has 0.005M DTPA, 0.01M Ca
Cl2.2H2O and
0.1M Tri ethanol amine

Procedure
1. Weigh 10 gm of soil sample in 100 ml conical flask
2. Add 20 ml of the DTPA eatractant and shake for 2 hour on a
mechanical shaker.
3. Filter the solution through Whatman No. 1 filter paper
4. Feed the standard working solutions and prepare a standard curve by
plotting AAS reading against the element concentrations.
5. Measure the element concentration in the filtratet using AAS.

Preparation of standard curve:

Working standard for Cu and Zn

1. Prepare 100 ppm Cu and Zn solution by diluting 10 ml of


commercially available 1000 ppm standard solution of Cu and Zn to
100 ml.
2. Prepare 10 ppm standard solution by diluting 10 ml of 100 ppm Cu
and Zn solution to 100 ml.
3. Prepare working standard solution of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm by
diluting 5, 10, 15 and 20 ml of 10 ppm solution to 100 ml.

Working standard for Fe and Mn

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1. Prepare 100 ppm Fe and Zn solution by diluting 10 ml of commercially
availabl 1000 ppm standard solution of Fe and Mn to 100 ml.
2. Prepare 25 ppm standard solution of Fe and Mn by diluting 25 ml of 100
ppm solution to100 ml.
3. Prepare working standard solution of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 ppm of Fe and Mn
by diluting 8, 16, 24 and 32 ml of 25 ppm solution to 100 ml.

Precautions

All the glassware to be used for micronutrient analysis must be clean


properly with the help of double distilled water to get better result.

Calculation:

Available (DTPA extractable) micronutrient in soil (mg/Kg or ppm) = A x20 =


Ax2
10
Where, A stands for the element concentration in the filtrate in ppm.

APPENDIES
Appendix I
Percent concentration, specific gravity, Normality and amount needed for making 1N solution
of some commonly used liquid reagents
Reagents Conc. Sp. Gr.(gm/ml) Normality Quantity (ml)
(% w/w) at 20o C (Approx.) required for 1
Litre of 1N solution
Acetic acid glacial 99.0 1.06 17.5 58
Ammonium hydroxide 28.3 0.91 15.0 67
Hydrochloric acid 39.0 1.19 11.8 78
Nitric acid 71.0 1.42 15.6 62
Phosphoric acid 85.0 1.70 44.0 23
Sulphuric acid 96.0 1.84 36.0 28

21
Appendix II
Some important conversion factors
N x 1.286 = NH4
N x 4.43 = NO3
Organic carbon x 1.724 = Organic matter
P x 2.29 = P2O5
K x 1.20 = K2O
Acre x 2.471 = Hectare = 2.24 x 106 Kg soil (Plough layer)
Milli equivalence per litre x equivalent weight = ppm
ppm (Parts per million) = micro gm per ml = mg per litre = mg per Kg.
mm per opening = 16/ mesh per inch

Appendix III
Rating chart for soil test values of primary and secondary nutrients
Nutrients Rating
________________________________
Low Medium High
Organic carbon (%) < 0.50 0.50 – 0.75 > 0.75
Available N (Kg/ha) < 280 281 – 560 >560
Available P (Kg/ha) < 10 11 -25 >25
Available K (Kg/ha) < 120 121 – 280 > 280
Available S (mg/Kg) < 10 10 -20 >20

Appendix IV

Rating chart for soil test values of micro nutrients


Nutrients Rating
________________________________
Deficient Sufficient
Available Boron (mg/Kg) < 0.50 > 0.50
Available Zinc (mg/Kg) < 0.50 > 0.50
Available Fe (mg/Kg) < 4.50 > 4.50
Available Mn (mg/Kg) < 2.0 > 2.0
Available copper (mg/Kg) < 0.20 > 0.20

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Appendix- V

Procedures for preparing 1000 ppm standard solutions

Element Procedure for making 1 litre standard solution

Calcium Dissolve 2.4973 gm of CaCO3 in 25 ml of 1 N HCl, and make the volume 1 litre

Phosphorus Dissolve 4.39 gm of AR grade Potassium dihyrogen phosphate in 100 ml distilled


water and to it add 5 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid and makeup the volume 1 litre.

Potassium Dissolve 1.9067 gm of AR grade KCl in 100 ml distilled water and make the
volume 1 litre

Sulphur Dissolve 5.434 gm of AR grade potassium sulphate in 100 ml of distilled water


and make the volume 1 litre.

Boron Dissolve 5.72 gm of Boric acid in 100 ml of warm distilled water and make the
volume 1 litre.

Iron Dissolve 1.00 gm of Fe metal (99.99% pure) in 100 ml of 3.5 N H2SO4 and make
the volume 1 litre.

Copper Dissolve 1.00 gm of Cu metal (99.99% pure) in 50 ml of 1:1 HNO3 and make the
volume 1 litre.

Manganese Dissolve 1.00 gm of Mn metal (99.99% pure) in 50 ml of 6 N HCl and make the
volume 1 litre.

Zinc Dissolve 1.00 gm of Zn metal(99.99% pure) in 50 ml of 1:1 HCl and make the
volume 1 litre.

Appendix-V
NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DIFFERENT CROPS COMMONLY
GROWN IN JHARKHAND (Based on medium soil fertility status)
CROPS Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium
Upland Rice 40 30 20
Rice (Medium land) 80 40 40
Rice Low land 150 60 90
Rice (Hybrid) 150 60 90
Maize(Composit) 120 60 40
Maize (Hybrid) 150 60 40
Ragi 40 30 20
Groundnut 25 50 20
Soybean 25 60 40

23
Safflower 20 20 20
Niger 20 20 20
Kulthi/Ricebean 20 40 20
Arhar/Urd/Moong/ 20 40 20
Gram/Pea/Lentil
Arhar (Hybrid) 30 60 20
Wheat (Timely sown) 120 60 40
Wheat (Late sown) 80 60 40
Wheat (rainfed) 60 30 20
Rai/Toria 50 30 25
Linseed 20 20 20
Til 40 20 20
Potato 120 100 100
Cauliflower 100 60 60
Tomato 100 80 50
Pea(Green) 80 160 60
Frenchbean 40 80 40
Onion 120 60 100
Carrot/Raddish 100 50 75
Bhindi 100 50 50
Capsicum(HYV) 100 60 50
Capsicum(Hybrid) 200 100 400
Bottle gourd/Pumpkin/ 100 60 50
Sponge gourd
Bitter gourd 60 40 40
Parwal 120 60 50
Brinjal 100 50 50
Ginger 80 50 50
• If the soil test value falls under low category apply 25% more nutrients
• If the soil test value falls under High category apply 25% less nutrients
IMPORTANT FACTS & FIGURE
1.Common fertilizers & their nutrient content

Sl.No Fertilizers Per cent


N P205 K20 S Ca
1 Urea 46 0 0 0 0
2 SSP 0 16 0 12
3 DAP 18 46 0 0 0
4 MOP 0 0 60 0 0

2. Amendments for acid soil

Sl.No Liming material Specification

24
Fineness CaO
(mesh) %

1 Powdered Lime Stone 60 28-30


2 Powdered Dolomite 60 28-30
3 Powdered Basic Slag 80 28-30

Minimum Standard for Liming material

Neutralising Value 80-85 %


Ca & Mg contents 20-22 % Ca & 2-7 % Mg
Fineness 80% material should pass through 100 mesh sieve.

2.1 Method of Application :

When the land is ready for line sowing the furrow are opened at the
recommended distance for a particular crop. Powdered lime stone / dolomite/ basic
slag @ 2-3q ha-1 for desired area of land is applied in an open furrows. It is mixed with
soil by feet and than recommended dose of fertilizer is mixed with soil. Seeds are than
sown and covered with soil.

2.2 Preference of Crops : Pigeon pea, Soybean, Gram, Lentil, Peas, Moong, Urd,
Ground nut, Maize.

3.0 Organic Manures :

Sl.No Name of Organic Nutrient %


manure
N P K
1 FYM 0.5 0.3 0.4
2 Compost 1.0 0.8 1.2
3 Vermi Compost 0.85-1.5 1.5 1.5-2.0
4 Neem cake 5.4 1.1 1.5
5 Karanj Cake 4.0 0.9 1.3

3.1 Dose & Method of Application :

25
Sl.No Name of Crop Dose Method of application
Organic
manure
1 FYM Pulse crop 1-2t/acre Soil application at the time of
sowing
Cerals 2-4 t/acre
Vegetable Crops 5-10t/acre
2 Compost Pulse crop 1-2t/acre Soil application at the time of
land preparation.
Cerals 2-4 t/acre
Vegetable Crops 5-10t/acre
3 Vermi Pulse crop 1t/acre Soil application at the time of
Compost land preparation.
Cerals 1-2 t/acre
Vegetable Crops 2-3t/acre
4 Neem cake Pulse crop 1-2q/acre Soil application at the time of
land preparation.
Cerals 2-4 q/acre
Vegetable Crops 5-10q/acre
5 Karanj Pulse crop 1-3q/acre Soil application at the time of
Cake land preparation.
Cerals 2-5 q/acre
Vegetable Crops 5-10q/acre

4.0 Micro & secondary Nutrient Fertilizers :

Sl.NO Nutrient Fertilizer Rate of application


Source
Soil Foliar Spray
application
(Kg/acre)
1. Boron Borax 4-6 0.2% spray
Boric acid 2.5-4.0
2. Sulphur Phosphogypsum 20-40
SSP 100-125
3. Calcium Lime 100-150

26
5.0 Boi-fertilizers

Sl.No Type of Bio Rate of Method of Suitable crops


fertilizer Application Application
1 Rhizobium 200 g/acre Seed Arhar, Moong,
treatment Urd,Soybean
Ground nut ,Pea
Gram ,Lentil
Berseem

2 Azotobactor 200 g/acre Seed wheat, maize,


treatment mustard, and
vegetable(Potato,
Tomato and
Bhindi
etc.)
3 Azospirillum 200 g/acre Seed Jawar, Bajra,
treatment Maize, Ragi ,
small millets
and forege
grasses etc.
4 Phosphate 200 g/acre Seed All pulses,
Solubilizing Bacteria treatment Cerals, Millets
(PSB) etc
5 Blue Green Algue 10 kg/acre Soil Medium and low
(BGA) application land rice
6 Azolla 4-5t/acre Soil Medium and low
application land rice

6. Cost and availability of Fertilizer / Manure/ Bio fertilizer :

Sl.NO Inorganic Fertilizer Price Availability


Rs/50kg Bag
during 2011-12
1 Urea 281.54 LAMPS
2 Urea ( Neem Coated) 295.62 LAMPS
3 DAP 630.00 LAMPS
4 NPK 10:26:26 567.00 LAMPS
5 NPK 12:32:16 588.00 LAMPS
6 MOP 314.38 LAMPS

27
7 Phosphogypsum NA
8 Borax NA
Organic Fertilizer Price (Rs)
9 Compost 40.0/q SSAC, BAU
Ranchi
10 Vermi Compost 5.0/kg Do
11 Neem cake 7.0/kg
12 Karanj Cake 7.0/kg
13 Rhizobium 15.0/100gr SSAC, BAU
Ranchi
14 Azotobactor 15.0/100gr Do
15 Azospirillum 15.0/100gr Do
16 Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria 15.0/100gr Do
(PSB)
17 Blue Green Algae (BGA) 20.0/Kg Do
18 Azolla 20.0/Kg Do
19 Mycorhiza 20.0/Kg Do

7.0 INM practices for Crops grown in Jharkhand :

IPNS strategies for major cropping systems

Cropping IPNS strategy


system
Rice-wheat Green manuring of rice with sun hemp equivalent to 90 kg fertilizer
N along with 40 kg N/ha produces yield equivalent to 120 kg N/ha.

In an acid Alfisol soil, incorporation of lantana camera 10-15 days


before transplanting of rice helps to increase the N use efficiency.

Apply 75% NPK + 25% NPK through green manure or FYM at 6 t/ha
to rice and 75% NPK to wheat.

28
Inoculation of BGA @ 10 kg/ha provides about 20-30 kg N/ha.
Rice-rice Use of organic sources, such as FYM, compost, green manure, azolla
etc. meet 25-50% of N needs in kharif rice and can help curtailing
NPK fertilizers by 25-50%.

Apply 75% NPK + 25% NPK through green manure or FYM at 6 t/ha
to kharif rice and 75% NPK to rabi rice.

A successful inoculation of blue green algae @ 10 kg/ha provides


about 20-30 kg N/ha.
Rice-potato- Use 75% NPK with 10 t FYM/ha in rice and potato.
groundnut
Sugarcane Combined use of 10 t FYM/ha and recommended NPK increases the
based cropping cane productivity by 8-12 t/ha over chemical fertilizer alone.
systems
Maize based Apply 50% recommended NPK as fertilizer and 50% of N as FYM in
cropping maize and 100% of recommended NPK as fertilizer in wheat.
systems
Soybean-wheat To get 2 t soybean and 3.5 t wheat, apply 8 t FYM/ha to soybean
and 60 kg N + 11 kg P/ha to wheat or apply 4 t FYM + 10 kg N + 11
kg P/ha to soybean and 90 kg N + 22 kg P/ha to wheat.
Pulses Integrated use of FYM at 2.5 t/ha and 50% recommended NPK
fertilizers plus rhizobium inoculation helps in saving of 50%
chemical fertilizers.
Sorghum based Substitute 60 kg N through FYM or green leuceana leaucocephala
cropping loppings to get higher yields and FUE.
system
Cotton 50% of recommended NPK can be replaced by 5 t FYM/ha.
Oilseeds Substitute 25-50% of chemical fertilizer through 10 t FYM/ha to get
(Mustard, higher yield and FUE.
Sunflower etc.)

8. IPNS strategy for different crops

Crop IPNS strategy


Rice NPK + Organic+ BGA
Wheat NPK + Organic
Maize NPK + Organic+ Bio fertilizer+lime
Pigeonpea NPK + Organic+ Rhizobium+lime
Black gram NPK + Organic+ Rhizobium+lime
Rai/Mustard NPK + Organic+lime

29
Groundnut NPK + Organic+ Rhizobium+lime
Vegetable NPK + Organic+ Boron as per soil test+lime
Crops

9. Contact address of Soil Testing Laboratory :

Sl.No District Address of Soil Testing Lab


1. Dumka Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O Khunta Bandh
District : Dumka, Pin : 841 101
2. Dhanbad Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Baliyapur Farm
District : Dhanbad, Pin : 828 201
3. Pakur Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O Maheshpur Farm
District : Pakur, Pin : 816 106
4. Palamu Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O Chianki
District : Palamu, Pin : 822 133
5. West Programme Coordinator
Singhbhum Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O Jaganathpur
District : West Singhbhum, Pin : 833 203
6. Sahibganj Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O Sahibganj Farm
District : Sahibganj, Pin : 816 109

7. Jamtara Programme Coordinator


Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Agriculture farm Bena
District : Jamtara, Pin : 815 351
8. Singhbhum Programme Coordinator
(E) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O Barakhurshi
District : Singhbhum (E), Pin : 832 304
9. Lohardaga Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, KISCO Farm
District : Lohardaga, Pin : 835 302
10. Garhwa Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sub Divisional Agriculture Farm
District : Garhwa Pin : 822 114
11. Giridih Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O Bengabad ( Near Block office)
District : Giridih, Pin : 815 312
12. Simdega Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Seed Multiplication Farm , Bano
District : Simdega, Pin : 835 201
13. Latehar Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Seed Multiplication Farm , Balumath
District : Latehar, Pin : 829 202

30
14. Saraikela- Programme Coordinator
Kharsawan Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gamharia (Block campus), P.O Gamharia
District : Saraikela- Kharsawan, Pin : 832 108
15. Bokaro Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, P.O- Paterwar (Near Block)
District : Bokaro, Pin : 829 121
16. Chatra Programme Coordinator
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Seed Multiplication farm Kullu
District : Chatra, Pin : 825 401
17. Ranchi I/C soil Testing Department of Soil Science & Agriculture
chemistry BAU, Kanke, Ranchi

9. For further advice contact :

Ranchi I/C Soil Testing ,


Department of Soil Science & Agril. Chemistry,
BAU, Kanke Ranchi
I/C Bio fertilizer Production,
Department of Soil Science & Agril. Chemistry,
BAU, Kanke , Ranchi
Agriculture Chemist
Krishi Bhawan, Kanke Road, Ranchi
Ram Krishna Ashram , Mohrabadi, Ranchi
Programme Coordinator of KVKs located in different districts
of state.

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