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VOCABULARIO GENERAL Y EXPRESIONES

ā ē ī ō ū

Nî hâo! ¡Hola!
Nî zâo! ¡Buenos días!
Nî men zâo! ¡Buenos días! (a varios otros)
Xièxiè gracias
Zái jiàn! ¡Adiós!
Míng tiān jiān! ¡Hasta mañana!
Xiànzài Ahora
Zuó tiān Ayer
Jīn tiān Hoy
Míng tiān Mañana
jǐ diǎn what time?; when?
Nî shì xuésheng ma? Are you a student?
Duì, wô shì xuésheng Right, I am a student
Bù, wô bú shì xuésheng No, I’m not a student
Wô shì lâoshī I’m a teacher
Nî xuéxí shénma? What do you study?
Wô xuéxí Hànyû I study Chinesse
Nî shì nâ guó rén Where are you from?
Wô shì Zhìlì I from Chile
Ta shì shéi Who is he/she?
Tà shì wô gège Elder brother
Tà shì wô dìdi Younger brother
Tà shì wô jiêjie Elder sister
Tà shì wô mèimei Younger sister

Zhè shì shénme? ¿Qué es esto?


Nà shì shénme? ¿Qué es eso?

qǐng wèn…?: Excuse me, may I ask...?


qîngwèng, xiànzài jî diân? Excuse me, what time is it now?

Nǐ chī shénme? What do you like to eat?


Wǒ chī chǎo fàn. I want to have fried rice.
Nǐ chī miàntiáo mɑ? Do you want to have the noodles?
Bù, xièxiè. Wǒ bù chī miàntiáo. Wô No, thanks. I don’t want to have the noodles. I want to
chī chǎo fàn. have the fried rice.
Nǐ xǐhuɑn shénme shuǐguǒ? What fruits do you like?
Wǒ xǐhuɑn chéngzi. I like oranges.
Nǐ xǐhuɑn xiāngjiāo mɑ? Do you like bananas?
Bù, wǒ bù xǐhuɑn. No, I don’t.

Nî yào shénme? What do you want?


Nǐ chī shénme? What do you like to eat?
Nǐ xǐhuɑn shénme shuǐguǒ? What fruits do you like?
Nî hē shénme? What do you want to drink?
Nî hē shuî ma? Do you want to drink té?

Nǐ yào shénme? What do you want to buy?


Wô yào mâi shuîguô I want to buy some fruits
Zhè zhông pingguô zênme mái? how?; what?; why?
Shí kuài qián sān jīn For 10 yuan, you can buy 1,5 kg
Wô yào sì gè I want to buy 4
Hài yào biéde ma? What else do you want?
Nà zhông júzi tiàn ma? Is that kind of orange sweet?
Nín kêyî chángchang You can taste it
Hên tiàn, yào sān jīn Very sweet. Give me 1,5 kgs
Yígòng shísì kuài liù 14 yuan and 60 cents in total
Xiéxie. Gêi nín qián Thank you. Here is the money

Ni xǐhuɑn shénme yánsè? What color do you like?


Wo xǐhuɑn lán de I like blue
Wo xihuan hei de yánsè I like black color

Zhè ge zênme yàng? What do you think of this?


Wô bù xîhuan zhè ge. I don`t like this one
Wô xîhuan nà ge. I like that one
Zhè jiàn zênme yàng? What do you think of these clothes?
Zhè jiàn tài dà le. This is too large
Zhè jiàn tài xiâo le. This is too small
Zhè jiàn tài lán le. This is too blue
Wô yào nà jiàn. I want that one
Wô yào nà jiàn hong de. I want that red one
Wô yào zhè jiàn bài de. I want that white one

Piányi yīdiǎnr, hǎo mɑ? A little cheaper, OK?


yīdiânr A little (yidiânr se usa después de piányi, es
clasificador de grado)
Zhè ge hâo yīdiânr Ésta es un poco mejor (yīdiânr suena ítiâr)
Zhè jiàn dà yidiânr Ésta es un poco más grande (ropa)
Zhè xiē Estos, estas
nà xiē Esos, esas
Qǐngwèn, shuǐ duōshɑo qián? Kělè Excuse me, how much is the water? And the coke?
duōshɑo qián?
Bucks (dólar informal) kuài
qián money
A: Qîngwèng, xiànzài jî diân? Excuse me, what time is it now?
B: Xiànzài……diàn. It’s ……o’clock.
A: Qîngwèng,… duōshɑo qián? Excuse me, how much is…?

Mêi: every / Tiān: día Mêi tiān: every day

qîng wèn, fùjìn yôu dìtiêzhàn ma? Excuse me, is there an underground station near here?
Yôu, zài nàr Yes, it’s over there
Duìbuqî, wô bù zhīdào Sorry, I have no idea
méiguanxi That’s all right
Wèishénme? Why?
Yīnwèi Because
Nî zênme le? What’s wrong with you?
Xiànzài nî zênmeyàng? How do you feel now?
Wô tóu téng Cefalea; head ache
Wô sângzi téng sore throat
téng Ache; dolor
Wô fā shāo have fever
Nî xiūxi xiūxi ba You’d better have a rest
ba at the and of the sentence Advice; sugerencia, consejo

Jīntiān nî qù gongzuò ma? Are you going to work today?

…zài nâr? Shuî zài nâr? Where is …? ¿El agua, dónde está?
…zài shàngbain. Shuî zài shàngbain. Está arriba. El agua está arriba.
…zài xiabian. Yú zài xiabian. Està abajo. El pescado está abajo
… zài qiánbian Está adelante; go ahead
… zài hòubian Está atrás
… zài zuôbian Está a la izquierda
… zài yòubian Está a la derecha
qîng wèn, xîshôujiān zài nâr? Excuse me, where is the restroom?
xîshôujiān zài zuôbian The restroom is on the left
Xièxie nî Thank you
búkèqi De nada
qîng wèn, fùjìn yôu chāoshì Excuse me, is there a supermarket near
ma? here?
yôu, wâng qián zôu, Yes, go ahead toward
wâng means toward a direction.
qián means ahead, front.
yòu right direction
zuô left direction
zôu to walk, go.
guâi To turn
wâng qián zôu walk toward ahead
wâng yòu guâi turn toward right direction
wâng zuô guâi turn toward left direction
… zài qiánbian Está adelante; go ahead
… zài yòubian Está a la derecha
… zài zuôbian Está a la izquierda
… zài hòubian Está atrás

Zhè ge Esta, esto (clasificador de cosa)


Zhè jiàn Esta (clasificador de ropa)
nà ge Ese, esa (cosa)
nà jiàn esa (ropa)
tài dà le demasiado grande
Tài guì le demasiado caro
tài lán le demasiado azul
tài demasiado
dà grande
xiâo pequeño
Guì caro
Piányi barato
Bù Guì not expensive
Duìbuqǐ sorry
Bú guì, bú guì No, it’s not expensive
zài nàr it’s over there
zài nâr? Where is …?
zôu
means to walk, go.
zuô
left direction
shàngbian arriba
xiàbian abajo
zuôbian izquierda
yòubian derecha

FRASES FORMALES MUY ÚTILES

Qîng wèn yí xià Excuse me, may I ask...? pleased


Qîng zài shuō yí cì please, repeat that.
Nî huì shuō yīng wén ma? Can you speak English?
Shén me shí hòu? ¿Cuándo?
Zên me qù nà lî How do you get there?
Zhè ge zhōng wén zên me How do you say this in Chinese?
shuō?
Pián yi yì diân Cheaper
Hên gāo xìng rèn shi nî I’m pleased to meet you

A: Do you like this one? Nǐ xǐhuɑn zhè ge mɑ/ Nǐ xǐhuɑn zhè jiàn ma ?
B: I don’t like this. This is too small Wǒ bù xǐhuɑn zhè ge/ jiàn. Zhè ge/ jiàn tài xiǎo le.
A: How about that one? Nǐ xǐhuɑn nà ge/ jiàn mɑ? ó Nà ge/ jiàn zěnme yàng?
B: That is good. I want that one. Nà ge/ jiàn hǎo. Wǒ yào nà ge/ jiàn.

A: Qîngwèng, xiànzài jî diân? Excuse me, what time is it


now?
B: Xiànzài……diàn. Now, it’s ……o’clock.
jǐ diǎn what time? when?
Zǎoshɑng 6:00 AM hasta las 8:00 AM.
Shàngwǔ 8:00 AM a 12:00 AM
Zhōngwǔ para las 12:00 AM (mediodía)
Xiàwǔ 12:00 AM a 20:00 PM
Wǎnshɑng 8:00 PM a 12:00 PM
Xiàn zài Ahora

Qìchē automóvil
zìxíngchē bicicleta
chūzūchē taxi
sījī conductor

zìjǐ sí mismo
rìjì diario
Jìzhě periodista

6:00 a.m. zǎoshɑng liù diǎn


7:00 a.m. zǎoshɑng qī diǎn
10:00 a.m. shàngwǔ shí diǎn
12:00 p.m. zhōngwǔ shí’èr diǎn
2:00 p.m. xiàwǔ liǎng diǎn
5:00 p.m. xiàwǔ wǔ diǎn
11:00 p.m. wǎnshɑng shíyīdiǎn

chǎo fàn fried rice


chǎo miàn fideos, tallarines fritos.
miàn tiáo tallarines.
jiaozi empanaditas.
Bāozi bollos Al Vapor Con Rellenos.
niúròu carne de vacuno niú: vacuno
jīròu Chicken jī: pollo ròu: carne
zhūròu cerdo zhū: cerdo
fish yú
shūcài vegetables
xīhóngshì tomate

shuǐguǒ Fruits
píngguô Apples
chéngzi. oranges
júzi orange
xiāngjiāo Bananas
pútao Grape uvas
táozi Peach durazno, melocotón
lí Pear pera

shuî té
Kāfēi café
píjiǔ cerveza
niúnǎi leche

xuéxiào escuela
gongzuò trabajo

Wô zâoshang liù diân qîchuáng. I get up at 6 in the morning. (madrugada)

Wô zâoshang qī diân chī zâofàn. I have the breakfast at 7 in the morning.

Wò shàngwû jiû diân gōngzuò. I go to work at 9 in the morning.

Wô zhōngwǔ shí’èr diân chī wûfàn. I have the lunch at 12 o’clock. (mediodía)

Wô xiàwû liù diân huí jiā. I go home at 6 in the afternoon.

Wô wânshang bā diân chī wânfàn. I have the dinner at 8 PM in the evening

Wô wânshang shíyī diân shuìjiào. I go to sleep at 11 PM in the evening

Xiànzài, xiàwǔ sān diǎn. It’s 3:00 in the afternoon now.

Wô zâoshang liù diân qîchuáng. I get up at 6 in the morning. (madrugada)


Wô zâoshang qī diân chī zâofàn. I have the breakfast at 7 in the morning.
Wò shàngwû ji diân gōngzuò. I go to work at 9 in the morning.
Wô zhōngwǔ shí’èr diân chī wûfàn. I have the lunch at 12 o’clock. (mediodía)
Wô xiàwû liù diân huí jiā. I go home at 6 in the afternoon.
Wô wânshang bā diân chī wânfàn. I have the dinner at 8 PM in the evening
Wô wânshang shíyī diân shuìjiào. I go to sleep at 11 PM in the evening
Xiànzài, xiàwǔ sān diǎn. It’s 3:00 in the afternoon now.

zâoshang early morning qîchuáng To get up chī zâofàn desayuno


shàngwû morning gōngzuò To go to work
zhōngwǔ noon chī wûfàn almuerzo
xiàwû afternoon huí jiā To go home
wânshang evening chī wânfàn cena
wânshang evening shuìjiào go to sleep

Yàzhōu (Asia)

Waiter: What do you like to eat? Nǐ chī shénme?


You: I want to have fried rice. Wǒ chī chǎo fàn.
Waiter: Do you want to have the noodles? Nǐ chī miàntiáo mɑ?
You: No, thanks. I don’t want to have the noodles. I want to have the fried rice.
You: Bù, xièxiè. Wǒ bù chī miàntiáo. Wô chī chǎo fàn.

xǐhuɑn to like
yào to want
Yôu to have
chī to eat
hē to drink
xiè to thank
qîchuáng To get up
chī zâofàn To have the breakfast
chī wûfàn To have the lunch
chī wânfàn To have the dinner
wǎn cān evening meal; dinner
gōngzuò To go to work
huí jiā To go home
shuìjiào To go to sleep
mâi To buy
Qí zíxíngchē to ride by bici
Qù to go to
Zuò dì tiê to sit by underground
Zuò gōnggòngqì chē to take the bus
Kāi chē ir en automóvil
Wô qí zíxíngchē voy en bici.
Wô zuò dì tiê voy en metro.
zhīdào To know

dìtiêzhàn underground station


chāoshì supermarket
shāngdiàn mall
yínháng bank
xîshôujiān the restorant
gōngyuán park
zìzhùcān Autoservicio en comida
dēnglong linterna
rénshēng life
jiǔ diàn wine shop, pub (public house,) hotel restaurant

Duì correcto, recto (suena tuei)


Hǎochī delicioso
hâo Bien, bueno
Hên hao! Muy bien!
Fùjìn nearby

chūntiān Primavera (chuentien)


xiàtiān verano
qiūtiān Otoño (chioutien)
dōngtiān invierno

Blue lán
Black hei
White bái
Red hóng
Yellow huáng
Green lü, not "loo". Lü

Friend: What fruits do you like? Nǐ xǐhuɑn shénme shuǐguǒ?


You: I like oranges. Wǒ xǐhuɑn chéngzi.
Friend: Do you like bananas? Nǐ xǐhuɑn xiāngjiāo mɑ?
You: No, I don’t. Bù, wǒ bù xǐhuɑn.

Seller: What do you want to buy? Nǐ yào shénme?


You: I want chicken. Wǒ yào jīròu.
Seller: Do you want the fish (as well)? Nǐ yào yú mɑ?
You: No, thanks. Xièxiè, wǒ bú yào.
Seller: Do you want vegetables? Nǐ yào shūcài mɑ?
You: Yes, I want some vegetables. Wǒ yào shūcài.
Nî yào shénme? What do you want?
Nǐ chī shénme? What do you like to eat?
Nǐ xǐhuɑn shénme shuǐguǒ? What fruits do you like?
Nî hē shénme? What do you want to drink?
Nî hē shuî ma? Do you want to drink té?

What do you want to have/eat? Wô yaô niúròu.


What fruit do you like? Wô xîhuan chéngzi
Do you want beef? Yaô
Do you like vegetables? Xîhuan
What do you drink? Wò hē Kāfēi
I will have the dumpling. Wô chī Jiaozi.
I like apples. Wô xîhuan píngguô.
No, I don’t. I want pork. Bù, wô bù xîhuan. Wô xîhuan zhūròu.
Yes, I like vegetables. Xîhuan. Wô xîhuan shūcài.
I drink tea. Wô hē chá.

Mêi tiān nî zênme qù xuéxiào? How do you go to school every day?


Mêi tiān nî zênme qù gongzuò? How do you go to work every day?
Mêi tiān nî kāi chē qù gongzuò ma? Do you go to work by car everyday?
Wô zôu lù. Nî ne? Yo voy a pie. ¿Y tú?
Wô zôu lù qù xuéxiào. Yo voy a pie a la escuela
Mêi tiān nî kāi chē qù gongzuò ma? Do you go to work by car everyday?
bù, wô bù kāi chē. Wô zuò gōnggòngqì chē. No, I don’t go by car. I take the bus.

I take subway to go to work every day. Wǒ měi tiān zuò dìtiě qù gōngzuò.
There is a subway station nearby. Fùjìn yǒu yī gè dìtiě zhàn.
You go straight ahead and turn left. Wǎng qián zǒu. Wǎng zuǒ guǎi.
The station is on the right. Dìtiězhàn zài yòubiɑn.

VIDEO 21
jīntiān tiānqì zênmeyâng? How about the weather today?

jīntiān xià yû It’s going to rain today?


Tiānqì bù hâo The weather is not good
Míngtiān tiānqì hâo bu hâo? Is tomorrow’s weather good or not?
Míngtiān xià xuê It’s going to snow tomorrow
Tiānqì hên lêng It’s very cold
jīntiān duōshao dû? What is the temperature today?
sānshí dù 35 º C
Tiānqì hên rè It’s very hot

zênmeyâng how? how about? how was it? how are things?
Jīntiān today
Míngtiān tomorrow
Tiānqì The weather
xià To fall down
Yû rain
Xuê snow
Lêng Cold (se pronuncia long)
rè Hot ( se pronuncia roa)
duōshao how much; how many; which (number, money)
dû Temperature, degree

VIDEO 22
yuè Mes
Yīyuè, èryuè, sanyuè Enero, Febrero, Marzo
èryuè tiānqì zênmeyâng? How about the weather in February?
èryuè tiānqì hên lêng it’s very cold in February
qīyuè tiānqì hâo bu hâo? July is the weather hâo bu hâo?
qīyuè tiānqì hên rè it’s very hot in July

VIDEO 23
Nî xîhuan shénme jì jiè What season do you like?
Wô xîhuan chūntiān se pronuncia chuentien
chūntiān, xiàtiān, qiūtiān, dōngtiān primavera, verano otoño, invierno
Nî xîhuan chūntiān ma? Do you like spring?
Xîhuan yes, I like it
Wèishénme? Why?
Yīnwèi chūntiān bù lêng bú rè Because, spring it’s not cold and not hot
tiānqì hên hâo The weather is so good
chūntiān se pronuncia chuentien
qiūtiān se pronuncia qioutien
hên So, very; tan;muy
tài demasiado

VIDEO 24
Nî zênme le? What’s wrong with you?
zênme How?
le A particule. You use it at the end of the
sentence to show some change has
completed. Something happened with you
Wô gânmào le I catch cold
gânmào To catch cold
Nî wèi shénme gânmào le? Why/ What’s the matter?
Zuótian tiānqì tài lêng le It’s too cold yesterday
Xiànzài nî zênmeyàng? How do you feel now?
Wô tóu téng Cefalea; head ache
téng Ache; dolor
sângzi téng sore throat
Wô fā shāo have fever
Nî xiūxi xiūxi ba You’d better have a rest
ba at the and of the sentence Advice; sugerencia, consejo
Jīntiān nî qù gongzuò ma? Are you going to work today?

Extended Exercise: I Caught a Cold.


Duìbuqǐ. De nada; lo siento; sorry
Jīntiān wǒ bú qù gōngzuò. Today I don`t go to work
Yīnwèi zuótiān xià yǔ, tiānqì hěn lěng. Because, it’s going to rain today, very cold
Wǒ gǎnmào le. Cogí un resfrío
Xiànzài wǒ tóu téng, fā shāo. Now, I have a headache, fever
Wǒ bù zhīdào míngtiān qù bú qù gōngzuò. No sé si mañana voy al trabajo
zhīdào To know
Běijīng yīyuè shì dōngtiān. En Běijīng enero es invierno
Sìyuè shì chūntiān. Abril es primavera
Qīyuè shì xiàtiān. Julio es verano
Shíyuè shì qiūtiān. Octubre es otoño

VIDEO 25
Jīntiān xīngqī jî? What day is it today?
Jīntiān shì xīngqī jî? Se dice de las dos formas
Jīntiān shì xīngqī jī Hoy es lunes
xīngqī jī; xīngqī èr; xīngqī sān; xīngqī sì Lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves
xīngqī wû; xīngqī liù; xīngqī tiān Virrnes, sábado, domingo
A: xīngqī èr nî yôu shí jiān ma? Do you have time on Tuesday?
B: yôu, shénme shì? Yes, why? Shì means fact, thing; por qué hecho
A: wômen yīqî chī wûf fan, hào ma? Let`s have lunch together, ok?; Te parece?
yīqî juntos
wômen yīqî juntémosnos
B: hâo, jî diân? Ok; Bien; When? / What time?
A: Shí ‘èr diân 12:00 o’clock
wômen yīqî hē kāffēi, hào ma? ¿Juntemos nos a beber café, ok?
Duìbuqǐ, wô méiyôu shí jiān Sorry, I have no time
Méiguānxi Never mind
jî diân? When? / What time?
shí jiān time
xīngqī Week; day of the week

VIDEO 26
Nî xîhuan shénme yúndòng? What sport do you like?
yúndòng Se pronuncial yuintong
Wô xîhuan dâ lánqiú I like playing basketball (se dice lanqióu)
Wô xîhuan tī zúqiú I like playing football
Wô xîhuan qí zìxíngchē I like ride a bicycle
Nî mêi tiān dâ lánqiú ma? Do you play basketball everyday?
wô mêi tiān xiàwû dâ lánqiú I play basketball in the afternoon everyday
wô mêi tiān zǎoshɑng pâobù I go running early morning, everyday
pâobù running
yóuyông swimming
dâ To play
tī To kick
dâ lánqiú To play basket
tī zúqiú To kick football
Qí zìxíngchē To ride a bicycle
Wô xîhuan qí zìxíngchē I like to ride bicycle
Wô xīngqī liù qí zìxíngchē Los sábados andar en bici

Pâobù running
yóuyông natación
dâ lánqiú jugar basketball
tī zúqiú fútbol
Qí zìxíngchē andar en bici

VIDEO 27
Nî kàn diànshì ma? Do you watch TV?
Wô mêi tiān zâoshang kàn xīnwèn I watch TV news in the morning
everyday
Wô bù kàn diànshì I don’t watch TV
A: Nî xîhuan kàn shénme What program do you like to
jiémû? watch?
B: Wô xîhuan kàn yīnyuè jiémù I like to watch music program
Wô mêi tiān wânshang kàn yīnyuè I watch music program in the evening
jiémù everyday
kàn To watch
kàn diànshì To watch TV
kàn xīnwèn To watch news
diànshì TV
diànshì jù TV series
xīnwèn news
Tîyù bîsài Sports game /bîsài es match,
competition
dònghuàpiàn cartoon
Jì lùpiàn documentary
Diànyîng movie
Wô xîhuan kàn Tîyù bîsài Me gusta ver sports game
Wô xîhuan kàn dònghuàpiàn Me gusta ver caricaturas
Wô xîhuan kàn I like to watch

VIDEO 28
Zhèli néng shàng wâng ma? Can I surf the Internet here?
Wô yào kàn yóujiàn I need to check my e-mail
Wô chángcháng shàng wâng kàn I often read the news online
xīnwén
Wô chángcháng shàng wâng Liáo I often surf the internet to chat
tiān
Nî yôu shénme àihào? What’s your hobby?
Wô xîhuan kàn shū Me gusta leer
Wô xîhuan tīng yīnyuè Me gusta escuchar música; to listen
Wô xîhuan Lüxíng Me gusta viajar (lûxíng)
shàng wâng surf the Internet
yóujiàn e-mail
yīnyuè música
Liáo tiān To chat
Gòu wù To shop on line
Wánr yóuxì To play game (se dice war yóuxì)
néng can
kàn xīnwén Read the news
àihào hobby
kàn shū leer
tīng yīnyuè escuchar música
Lüxíng viajar