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For engineering stress and engineering strain, the original (gauge) dimensions of specimen are employed.

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the original (gauge) dimensions of specimen are employed.

However, length and cross-sectional area change in plastic

region. True stress (ı )މand true strain (İ )މare used for

accurate definition of plastic behaviour of ductile materials

by considering the actual (instantaneous) dimensions.

h True stress (ı )މis the force divided by the actual area: V c F A

F F

h By the constancy of volume: V A
L Ao
Lo , we can obtain:

F
L L Lo

Vc

F

& H

L

1 V c

F

1 H V 1 H

A Ao
Lo Lo Lo Ao

h True strain (İ )މis change in length with respect to the instant length: Lo Ao

L A

ln L Lo & L 1 H Lo ln 1 H

L

Hc ³L0

dL L Hc

1

True Stress and True Strain

h Fig. 21 shows conventional vs true stress-strain diagrams for two different

steels in which the portion beyond ultimate strength is significant. When

necking starts, only way to define the gauge length is to measure it.

are recorded, this portion can be approximated by

a straight line using the fracture area.

True Fracture

of fracture is determined True Stress ( kg / mm2 ) C22 steel x x

by equation below: St

60

St

H cf

1 e

1% Ni Steel

RA x

30 x

True Diagram

RA : reduction in area

Conventional Diagram

e : natural logarithm

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

ıǰf : true fracture strain Figure 21 True Strain (mm / mm)

2

True Stress and True Strain

h There is an approximate linear relationship between true stress and true

strain when plotted on log-log scale, as shown in Fig. 22 for various steels.

h For many materials, the correlation between true stress and true strain has

been found to be approximately represented by equation below:

Vc K
H

c n

K : strength coefficient

n : strain hardening exponent

(i.e. slope of log-log plot)

n = 0 (perfectly malleable solid)

n = 1 (elastic solid)

Figure 22

3

Tensile Properties of Steel

h Alloy content, heat treatment and fabrication (production) process are

the variables affecting tensile and other properties of steel. The following

factors influence the selection procedure of steels:

the range of 19.6 - 20.1 * 104 kg/mm2, regardless of composition or form.

b. Yield and tensile strength of carbon steels are strongly affected by their

carbon content regardless of alloy content. Increasing carbon content will

increase yield and tensile strength, but decrease ductility (see Fig. 23).

strength while others use

yield point. Whichever used

is modified by a factor of

safety to allow uncertainties

in stress calculations and

possible overloads. Figure 23

4

Tensile Properties of Steel

c. Heat treatment gives useful and important properties due to hardenability

in order to obtain proper combination of strength, ductility and toughness.

Heat-treatable steel for non-cylindrical part must be picked based on ruling

section-size (i.e. the maximum diameter of round bar in which the specified

tensile strength or hardness can be produced by employed heat treatment).

factor (0.33 - 0.36) and BHN is the Brinell Hardness Number. Steels with

the same hardness usually have the same tensile strengths.

BHN or strength, alloys steels are more ductile than carbon steels. An alloy

steel can give better strength, ductility and toughness. Thus, it should be

preferred to carbon steel under high stress or impact loading.

an annealed steel is cold worked (by rolling, wire drawing or elongation in

tension), its strength and hardness increase, but its ductility decreases.

5

Factors Affecting Tension and Compression Tests

h In tension or compression test, the specimen is subjected to a gradually

increasing uniaxial load until failure occurs.

h The test is fundamentally dynamic, but due to the low speed of testing

involved, it is considered to be quasi-static for all practical purposes.

h There are several factors affecting these tests (e.g. metallurgical factors

as well as testing and environmental conditions).

1. Variables related to test specimen (size and shape effect)

load and extension measuring device, gripping arrangement)

6

Variables Related to Test Specimen

h In theory, if a material is of uniform quality, the geometrically similar size of

specimens would not affect the test results considerably. However, in

practice, mechanical properties change with size.

h This is called “size effect”,

which is observed in fatigue

and brittle fracture according

to the statistical distribution of

defects in microstructure.

h Different sizes for the same

material would give different

property values (as in table).

7

Variables Related to Test Specimen

h Shape also affects the results.

Fig. 24 shows standard tensile

test specimens (TS 138).

specimens of circular section

are used for uniform straining.

Height-to-diameter ratio (h/d)

is important to avoid buckling

and ensure free shear plane

in case of brittle materials:

Type h/d Purpose

Short 0.9 Testing bearing materials

Medium 3 General purpose uses

Long 8-10 To determine stiffness

Figure 24

8

Variables Related to Test Specimen

h Fig. 25a shows how ductility and shape of stress-strain diagram varies with

Lo/do ratio. The reduction of area is independent of Lo/do for values of > 2

and drastically reduced for values of < 2. This is called “notch sensitivity”.

The term “notch” implies any kind of stress concentration effect.

h Small ratios convert ductile type of stress-strain curves to brittle type (as in

Fig. 25b). Stress concentrations are unimportant where static loads are

acting on ductile materials. However, brittle materials have limited capacity

of plastic flow, so a notch adversely affects strength causing sudden failure.

Figure 25

9

Variables Related to Testing Machine

h Fig. 26 illustrates two commonly used testing machines by which tension

and compression tests in uniaxial direction can be performed. Electronic

version of these testers are also available.

Figure 26

Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine

Screw (Crosshead) Type Testing Machine

1 Frame

2 Tension space

3 Pump

4 Valve

5 Dynamometer

6 Compression space

h The factors related to the testing machine are: strain rate and strain history,

rigidity of machine, load and extension measuring device, gripping devices.

10

Variables Related to Testing Machine

h Strain rate (dİ/dt) is related to the speed of gripping

stress

High strain rate

heads. Fig. 27 shows the effect of strain rate (curve

shifts upwards at higher speeds). Low strain rate

strain rates to be used in testing various materials

Figure 27

are given in tables below: strain

Various ASTM requirements on strain rate Strain rates for metallic materials (DIN)

Material ASTM Max. Crosshead Speed (mm/min) For determination of dı/dt 1 (kg/mm2s)

Tested Ref. To yield To ultimate Load rate upper yield point dİ/dt 0.3 (% / minute)

Metallic E8 0.062 mm 0.5 mm per Maximum 70 For determination of

dİ/dt 10 (% / minute)

materials* per mm of mm of gauge kg/mm2/min lower yield point

Steel prod.* A370 gauge length above to yield For determination of

Gray CI A48 length 10 kg/mm2 tensile strength (before dİ/dt 40 (% / minute)

Specified Grip Speed (mm/min) reaching max. force)

Plastics D638 1.30 5 - 6.35 1.32 - 1.4 kg/s

Hard rubber D530

Soft rubber D142 500

* The values are also recommended in TS 138

11

Variables Related to Testing Machine

h Strain history also modifies the stress-strain diagram. When a material is

subjected to a cycle of loading and unloading, some energy is dissipated

by the specimen, which is called “hysteresis effect”. It is an important

consideration in the treatment of “anelasticity” and “fatigue”.

loading, not only the specimens but also components of machine elongate.

Due to the deformation of machine itself, it is also difficult to maintain

constant strain rate of the specimen, which again affects the test result.

inertia will cause changes in measurements especially at high speeds

when acceleration comes into play. In contrast, electronic systems with

negligible inertia always provide the same measurement at all speeds.

Hence, it is better to use low inertia measuring devices for accurate results.

h Similar to rigidity of machine, gripping devices also must be stiff and rigid

(i.e. no bending effect on the specimen should occur).

12

Variables Related to Testing Machine

13

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