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SAMPLING AND TESTING

SAMPLING AND TESTING

Objectives

  • Know how to obtain field samples and reduce it to test sample

    • A1-Reducing field sample of aggregate to test sample (ASTM C702,

D75)

  • Determine properties of aggregates through laboratory tests

    • A2-Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate (ASTM C136)

    • A3-Sieve analysis of fine aggregate (ASTM C136)

    • A4-Specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate (ASTM C127)

    • A5-Specific gravity and absorption of fine aggregate (ASTM C128)

    • A6-Unit weight and voids in aggregate (ASTM C29, C127, C128)

    • A7-Total moisture content and surface moisture content of aggregate (ASTM C566, C127, C128)

Reducing field samples

ASTM C702-98 (reapproved 2003)

Standard Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size

Method A: Mechanical splitter (samples must be dried to at least SSD condition)

Method B: Quartering

Method C: Miniature Stockpile (for damp fine aggregate only)

Sample splitters (riffles) for coarse and fine aggregate

Sample splitters (riffles) for

coarse and fine aggregate

Sample splitters (riffles) for coarse and fine aggregate
Quartering on a hard, clean level surface

Quartering on a hard, clean level surface

Quartering on a canvas blanket

Quartering on a canvas blanket

ACTIVITY 1: Reducing field sample

of aggregate to test sample

PURPOSE: To obtain laboratory samples from stockpiles

STANDARD/S: ASTM C702, D75 EQUIPMENT: shovel, scoop, broom

ACTIVITY 1 cont…

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Obtain a sample of aggregate (about 50 kg) from three

places in the stockpile: from the top third, at the

midpoint, and from the bottom third of the volume of the pile.

  • 2. Place the field sample on a hard, clean level surface.

  • 3. Mix the material thoroughly by turning the entire sample three times.

  • 4. Shovel the entire sample into a conical pile.

ACTIVITY 1 cont…

PROCEDURE:

  • 5. Carefully flatten the conical pile to a uniform thickness and diameter by pressing down the apex

with a shovel. (The diameter should be

approximately four to eight times the thickness).

  • 6. Divide the flattened mass into four equal quarters

with a shovel.

  • 7. Remove two diagonally opposite quarters. Brush the cleared spaces clean.

  • 8. Mix and quarter the remaining material until the

sample is reduced to the desired size.

ACTIVITY 2: Sieve analysis of coarse

aggregate (ASTM C136)

PURPOSE:

STANDARD/S:

EQUIPMENT:

SAMPLE:

To determine the particle size distribution and fineness modulus of coarse aggregate by sieving

ASTM C136

balance, sieves, mechanical shaker, oven Dry coarse aggregate

Maximum Aggregate Size [in. (mm)]

Weight of sample (kg)

 

1 ½ (37.5)

15

 

1

(25)

10

¾

(19) or less

5

Activity 2 cont …

FINENESS MODULUS is the sum of the total percentages of material in the sample that is coarser than (cumulative percentages retained) each of the

following sieves and divided by 100: No. 8, No. 4, 3/8

n., 1 ½ in. and larger, increasing in the ratio 2:1.

PROCEDURE:

1. Dry the sample to constant weight at a temperature of

110 o C if the sample is lightweight or is suspected of containing appreciable amount of material finer that

No. 4 sieve.

Activity 2 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 2. Weigh the dry sample accurately.

  • 3. Weigh each empty sieve and the pan.

  • 4. Nest the suitable sieves in order of decreasing size of

opening from the top to bottom. Place the pan at the bottom of the set. Sieves: No. 8, No. 4, 3/8 in., ½ in., ¾ in., 1 in. and higher if needed.

  • 5. Place the sample on the top sieve.

  • 6. Place the lid, and agitate the sieves in the mechanical shaker for about 10 minutes.

  • 7. Weigh the sieves with the material retained.

Activity 2 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 8. Determine the weight in each sieve. The total weight of the material after sieving should check closely with the original weight of the sample. If the amount differs by more than 0.3 percent based on the original weight, the results should not be used.

  • 9. Calculate the percentage coarser than and the

percentage passing.

10 Draw the particle distribution curve and calculate the fineness modulus of the average size of the sample.

Activity 2 cont …

REPORT:

Draw the particle size distribution. Indicate on the plot the applicable ASTM C33 gradation limits. Report the fineness modulus and calculate the effective size, coefficient of gradation, and uniformity coefficient.

ACTIVITY 3: Sieve analysis of fine

aggregate (ASTM C136)

PURPOSE:

STANDARD/S:

EQUIPMENT:

SAMPLE:

To determine the particle size distribution and fineness modulus of fine aggregate by sieving

ASTM C136

balance, sieves, mechanical shaker, oven

500 g of dry fine aggregate

Activity 3 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Dry the sample to constant weight at a temperature of 110 O C.

  • 2. Weigh the dry sample, the empty sieves and the pan.

  • 3. Nest the suitable sieves in order of decreasing size of opening from the top to bottom. Place the pan at the bottom of the set. Sieves: No. 100, No. 50, No. 30, No. 16. No. 8, and No. 4.

  • 4. Place the sample on the top sieve.

  • 5. Place the lid, and agitate the sieves in the mechanical

shaker for about 10 minutes.

Activity 3 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 6. Weigh the sieves with the material retained. Determine the weight in each sieve. The total weight

of the material after sieving should check closely with

the original weight of the sample. If the amount differs

by more than 0.3 percent based on the original weight,

the results should not be used.

  • 7. Calculate the percentage coarser than and the percentage passing.

  • 8. Draw the particle distribution curve and calculate the fineness modulus of the average size of the sample.

Activity 3 cont …

REPORT:

Draw the particle size distribution. Indicate on the plot the ASTM C33 gradation limit. Report the fineness modulus and calculate the effective size, coefficient of gradation, and uniformity coefficient.

ASTM C33

Grading requirements for fine aggregates

Sieve No.

Percent passing

   

3/8 in (9.5 mm)

 

100

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

95

100

No. 8 (2.36 mm)

80

100

No. 16 (1.18 mm)

50

85

No. 30 (0.600 mm)

No. 100 (0.150 mm)

25

60

No. 50 (0.300 mm)

10 30 2 10

ACTIVITY 4: Specific gravity and

absorption of coarse aggregate

PURPOSE:

STANDARD/S:

EQUIPMENT:

SAMPLE:

To determine the specific gravity (bulk and apparent) and absorption capacity of coarse aggregate.

ASTM C127

balance, wire basket (of 3.35 mm or finer wire mesh), water tank, oven

Minimum of 4,000 g test sample for aggregate of maximum nominal size of 1 in. The sample

should not have particles of size less than 4.75

mm (No. 4)

ACTIVITY 4 cont …

DEFINITIONS:

Specific gravity is the ratio of weight in air of a unit volume of a material to the weight of an equal volume of water.

Bulk specific gravity is the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of aggregate (including the permeable and impermeable voids in the particles, but not including the voids between the particles) to the weight of an equal amount of water.

Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of the impermeable portion of the aggregate to the weight of an equal volume of water.

Absorption is the increase in weight of aggregate due to water in the pores but not including water adhering to the outside surface of the particles

expressed as a percentage of dry weight.

ACTIVITY 4 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Weigh the test sample: A (g).

  • 2. Immerse the aggregate in water at room temperature for a period of 24

+/- 4 h .

  • 3. Remove the sample from the water. Roll it in a large absorbent cloth until all visible films of water are removed. The sample is now in saturated surface dry (SSD) condition.

  • 4. Weigh the sample to obtain it saturated surface dry weight: B (g).

  • 5. Place the SSD sample in the wire basket and determine the weight in water: C (g). Note that the wire basket should be immersed to a depth sufficient to cover it and the test sample during weighing.

  • 6. Remove the sample from the wire basket

ACTIVITY 4 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 7. Dry the sample to constant weight at a temperature of 110 +/- 5 o C (approximately 24 h ), and weigh: D (g).

  • 8. Calculate the specific gravity and absorption.

Bulk specific gravity, dry = A / (B-C)

Bulk specific gravity, SSD = B / (B-C)

Apparent specific gravity = D / (D-C)

ACTIVITY 4 cont …

REPORT:

Report the specific gravity to the nearest 0.01 and absorption values to the nearest 0.1%.

ACTIVITY 5: Specific gravity and

absorption of fine aggregate

PURPOSE:

STANDARD:

EQUIPMENT:

SAMPLE:

To determine the specific gravity (bulk and apparent) and absorption capacity of fine

aggregate.

ASTM C128

balance, pycnometer (or a volumetric flask of 500 cm 3 capacity or a fruit jar fitted with a pycnometer top), oven

About 500 g of fine aggregate

ACTIVITY 5 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Weigh the test sample: A (g).

  • 2. Cover the test sample with water, either by immersion or by the addition of a least 6% moisture to the sample, and permit to stand for 24 +/- 4 h .

  • 3. Decant excess water with care to avoid loss of fines. Spread the sample on a flat non-absorbent surface exposed to a gently moving current of warm air, and stir frequently to secure homogeneous drying. Continue until the sample approaches a free-flowing condition. When the specimen has reached a surface dry condition, it is called saturated surface dry (SSD).

  • 4. Weigh the SSD sample: B (g).

  • 5. Fill the pycnometer with water to the top and weigh: C (g).

  • 6. Remove part of the water, and introduce the SSD sample into the pycnometer.

ACTIVITY 5 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 7. Fill with additional water to approximately 90% of its capacity

  • 8. Roll, invert, and agitate the pycnometer to eliminate all air bubbles.

  • 9. Bring the water level in the pycnometer to its calibrated capacity.

10. Determine the total weight of the pycnometer, specimen, and water: D (g).

11. Remove the sample from the pycnometer, dry to constant weight at a temperature of 110 +/- 5 o C (approximately 24 h ), cool and weigh: E (g).

ACTIVITY 5 cont …

PROCEDURE:

12. Calculate the specific gravity and absorption.

Bulk specific gravity, dry = A / (C+B-D)

Bulk specific gravity, SSD = B / (C+B-D)

Apparent specific gravity = E / (C+E-D)

Absorption = 100 x (B E) / E

ACTIVITY 5 cont …

REPORT:

Report the specific gravity to the nearest 0.01 and absorption values to the nearest 0.1%.

ACTIVITY 6: Unit weight and voids

in aggregate

PURPOSE:

STANDARDS:

EQUIPMENT:

To determine unit weights of and voids in a sample of fine, coarse, or mixed aggregates

ASTM C 29, 127, 128

balance,

5/8-in-diameter tamping rod (24 in.

long), cylindrical metal measure (minimum capacity of ½ ft3 for coarse aggregate of size not larger than 1 ½ in. and of 1/10 ft3 for fine aggregate)

SAMPLE:

Aggregate dried

to constant weight, preferably

in an oven at 110 +/- 5 o C

ACTIVITY 6 cont …

DEFINITIONS:

  • Air void is a space filled with air.

  • Unit weight or bulk density is the weight in air of a unit volume of a permeable material (including both permeable and impermeable voids)

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Find the empty weight of the metal measure.

  • 2. Fill the measure one-third full with the dry sample.

  • 3. Rod the layer of aggregate with 25 strokes (Do not allow the rod to strike the bottom of the measure.)

ACTIVITY 6 cont …

  • 4. Fill the measure two-thirds full, level and rod as in step 3.

  • 5. Fill the measure overflowing and rod as in step 3.

  • 6. Level the surface of the aggregate with a finger and tamping rod such that any slight projection of the larger pieces of coarse aggregate approximately balances the larger voids in the surface below the top of the measure.

  • 7. Weigh the measure with the aggregate and find the net weight of the aggregate: A.

  • 8. Calculate the unit weight: B.

Unit weight or bulk density, B = (A/V) lb/ft 3 or kg/m 3

where V is the volume of the measure.

ACTIVITY 6 cont …

9. Calculate the void content or percent void

Void (%) = 100 x ( S x W

- B) / ( S x W )

where S is the bulk specific gravity (dry basis) from Activity 4 or 5 and W is the unit weight of water (62.4 pcf or 999 kg/m 3 ).

REPORT: Calculate unit weight and void for coarse aggregate and find aggregate samples. Comment on the results.

ACTIVITY 7: Total moisture content and surface moisture content of aggregate

PURPOSE:

STANDARD/S:

EQUIPMENT:

SAMPLE:

To determine the percentage of total moisture and surface moisture in a sample of aggregate.

ASTM C 566, 127, 128

balance, oven

A minimum of 4,000 g of coarse aggregate (1 in. maximum size) or 500 g of fine aggregate

ACTIVITY 7 cont …

DEFINITIONS:

  • Moisture content (total) is the weight of water in the particles expressed as a percentage of the dry weight of the particles.

  • Absorption is the increase of weight of aggregate due to water in the pores but not including the water adhering to the outside surface of the particles expressed as a percentage of the dry weight.

  • Surface moisture is equal to the difference between the total moisture content and the absorption.

ACTIVITY 7 cont …

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Weigh the sample: A (g).

  • 2. Dry the sample to constant weight in an oven at 110 +/- 5 o C for approximately 24 h and cool.

  • 3. Weigh the dried sample: B (g).

  • 4. Calculate the moisture content.

Total moisture content = 100 x ( A B) / B Surface moisture content = total moisture content absorption Absorption is calculated in Activity 4 or 5

REPORT: Report the total moisture content and surface moisture content to

the nearest 0.1%.