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ELASTIC STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS. GEOMETRIC DISCONTINUITIES
IN FLAT BARS OR STRIPS OF ISOTROPIC MATERIAL

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IN FLAT BARS OR STRIPS OF ISOTROPIC MATERIAL

1. INTRODUCTION

This Item presents data on stress concentration effects that occur in flat bars or strips when they are loaded

in tension or bending. A stress concentration factor is defined as the ratio of the highest stress to a reference

stress calculable from simple two-dimensional theory.

Throughout this Item the term “bars or strips” applies to bodies having solid thin rectangular sections.

Where the thickness is large in relation to the in-plane dimensions, the stress concentration factor could be

slighter higher than that predicted by this Data Item, and will vary through the thickness, see Data Item No.

93030*.

The various geometries for which data are presented are listed on Table 1.1. For each geometry the cross

section on which the reference stress is based is given in the appropriate section. The symbol K indicates

that the reference stress is based on the gross cross section of the bar or strip, ignoring the discontinuity,

and the symbol K' indicates that the reference stress is based on the net cross section at the discontinuity.

The data apply only to isotropic materials that obey Hooke's Law. However, over the practical working

range most engineering materials conform substantially in these respects and for these the data may be used

without significant error. If the stress concentration factor is such that the maximum stress is above the

limit of proportionality of the material, the stresses will be redistributed and will give rise to residual stresses

on unloading.

The notation for each section quotes both lbf in and SI Units, but any coherent system of units may be used.

Figures 5.1 to 5.5 were constructed from results of a finite element analysis and recent photoelastic work,

see Derivations 28 and 29, which are in complete agreement for fillets in tension with W/w = 2.0 and r/w

greater than 0.1. For geometries outside this range the agreement between the results decreases as r/w

decreases. The stress concentration factors obtained from the recent photoelastic results can be up to 17

per cent lower than those gained from the finite element results for r/w between 0.02 and 0.2. Figures 2.1

to 4.2 and 5.6 to 5.8 were constructed from earlier photoelastic results and with the exception of Figure

2.2, theoretical results as well. The earlier photoelastic results used in this Data Item tend to give stress

concentration factors up to 10 per cent lower than those of the finite element data.

*

Data Item No. 93030 "Three-dimensional elastic stress concentration factors. Plain or countersunk hole in a wide plate subjected to

tension, bending or pin loading".

Issued August 1969

with Amendments A to C

1

69020

TABLE 1.1 INDEX TO DISCONTINUITIES AND LOADING CONSIDERED

Section

Form of discontinuity Loading

number

Hole Tension

Bending in plane

of strip 2

Bending out of

plane of strip

Transverse slot

Tension 3

edge Bending 4

Tension

5

Bending

Notches and

fillets on both Tension

5

edges Bending

Tension

5

Bending

2

69020

2. CIRCULAR HOLES

2.1 Notation

d diameter of hole m in

f s = K s f ref

where f ref = P/Wt (for Figures 2.1 and 2.3) N/m2 lbf/in2

2

f ref = 6M /Wt (for Figure 2.2) N/m2 lbf/in2

2

f ref = 6M ⁄ W t (for Figure 2.4) N/m2 lbf/in2

t thickness of bar m in

W width of bar m in

2.2 Notes

Figure 2.1. Values of K1 are plotted against d/W for various values of h/W for a circular hole in a flat bar

or strip in tension. The tension load is uniformly distributed across sections of the bar some distance away

from the hole. The maximum stress occurs at site 1 on the edge of the hole at the point nearest to the edge

of the bar.

Figure 2.2. Values of K1 and K2 are plotted against d/W for various values of t/W for a hole centrally placed

in a flat bar or strip subjected to out-of-plane bending. The maximum stress occurs at sites 1 on the edge

of the hole at the points nearest to the edge of the bar.

Figure 2.3. Values of K1 and K2 are plotted against d/W for a hole centrally placed in a flat bar or strip in

tension. The curve for K1 is the h/W = 0.5 curve of Figure 2.1 and is replotted here to facilitate its use in

conjunction with curve K1 in Figure 2.4 in cases of combined loading. Similarly K2 is presented for use

with K2 in Figure 2.4. The maximum stress occurs at sites 1 on the edge of the hole at the points nearest

to the edge of the bar.

Figure 2.4. Values of K1 and K2 are plotted against d/W for a hole centrally placed in a flat bar or strip

subjected to in-plane bending. The maximum stress occurs at sites 1, shown in the diagram, for d/W values

above 0.46, and at sites 2 for lower values of d/W.

Figure 2.1 is based on Derivations 5 and 16, Figure 2.2 is based on Derivations 13 and 14, Figure 2.3 is

based on Derivations 2, 9, 10, 18 and 23, and Figure 2.4 is based on Derivations 3, 12 and 18 listed in

Section 6.

3

69020

5

h

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

W

3

K1

fmax = K1 fref

where fref = P

Wt

2 1 h

P W P

1

d

1

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

d

W

4

69020

t

4 W

1.0

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

3

0

K1 fmax = K1 fref

0.05 where fref = 6M

2 0.01 Wt2

1

M d

W

M

1

t

1

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

d

W

5

69020

7

K1

4

fs = Ks fref

Ks where fref = P

3 Wt

2

2 1

P W d P

1

2

1

K2

0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

d

W

6

69020

K1

5

2

1

M W d M

4 1

2

fs = Ks fref

3

Ks where fref = 6M

W2t

1

K2

0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

d

W

7

69020

3. TRANSVERSE SLOTS

3.1 Notation

2h length of slot in m

P

where f ref = --------------------------- lbf/in2 N/m2

( W – 2h )t

P direct load in bar lbf N

t thickness of bar in m

W width of bar in m

3.2 Notes

Values of K' are plotted against r/2h for various values of 2h/W for a transverse slot centrally placed in a

flat bar or strip in tension. The curves may be applied with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes to

any of the three types of slot shown in the diagram, i.e.parallel-sided slot with semi-circular ends, narrow

slot with circular ends and elliptical slot. In each case the maximum stress occurs at sites 1 at the ends of

the slot.

8

69020

W

where fref = P

7

(W − 2h)t

0.6

0.7

0.8

K'

0.9

1

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.2

r

2h

9

69020

4. U-TYPE NOTCH ON ONE EDGE

4.1 Notation

f ma x = K'f ref

P

where f ref = ------ (for Figure 4.1) lbf/in2 N/m2

wt

6M

f ref = --------- (for Figure 4.2) lbf/in2 N/m2

2

w t

M bending moment in bar lbf in Nm

t thickness of bar in m

4.2 Notes

Values of K' are plotted against r/w for various values of W/w for a single notch in tension in Figure 4.1

and for a single notch in bending in Figure 4.2.

In both cases the maximum stress occurs at the bottom of the notch. Therefore, fmax values due to combined

tension and bending may be obtained by direct addition. The stress is uniformly distributed over cross

sections remote from the notch in Figure 4.1 and the curves include allowance for bending effects in the

neighbourhood of the notch.

Figure 4.1 is based on Derivations 4, 22, 25 and 27 and Figure 4.2 is based on Derivations 4 and 22 listed

in Section 6.

10

9

r

8

P W 1 P

w

7 W

w

2.00

1.80 fmax = K' fref

6

where fref = P

1.60 wt

5 1.40

K'

11

1.20

4

1.10

W-w=r

3

1.05

1.02

2

1.01

69020

1

10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 101

r

w

69020

W r

w

M W 1 M

2.00 w

1.40

4 1.20

where fref = 6M

2

w t

1.10

3

K' W-w=r

1.05

1.02

2 1.01

1

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20

r

w

12

69020

5. NOTCHES AND FILLETS ON BOTH EDGES

5.1 Notation

P

where f ref = ------ (for Figures 5.1 to 5.4) lbf/in2 N/m2

wt

6M

f ref = --------- (for Figures 5.5 to 5.8) lbf/in2 N/m2

2

w t

L length of notch in m

t thickness of bar in m

5.2 Notes

Figures 5.1 to 5.4 give values of K' plotted against r/w for various values of W/w for notches and fillets in

tension. Figures 5.5 to 5.8 give values of K' plotted against r/w for various values of W/w for notches and

fillets in bending.

Each figure gives values of K' for a particular class of notch or fillet as listed in Table 5.1. Also listed in

the table are the numbers of the derivations (see Section 6) upon which the figures are based.

Class of notch or fillet Loading Figure number

numbers (see Section 6)

U-notch 5.1 29

Notch with L/w = 0.25 5.2 1, 4, 7 and 29

Notch with L/w = 1.0 Tension

5.3 1, 4, 7 and 29

Fillet 5.4 28 and 29

U-notch 5.5 29

Notch with L/w = 0.25 5.6 4, 7, 8, 11 and 20

Notch with L/w = 1.0 Bending

5.7 4, 7, 8, 11 and 20

Fillet 5.8 7, 8, 11 and 20

The maximum stresses due to tension and bending occur at the sites 1 indicated in the diagrams, that is at

the bottom of the U-notch in Figures 5.1 and 5.5 and in the fillet-radii close to their junction with the straight

edge of the reduced section in the remainder of the figures.

13

9

8

W

w

2.00

r

1.60

1

7 1.40

P W w P

1

6

fmax = K' fref

where fref = P

wt

5 1.20

K' For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.

14

4 1.10

W - w = 2r

1.05

3

1.02

2 1.01

69020

1

10-3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r

w

9

8

r r

1 1

P W w P

7 1 1

6 W where fref = P

w

wt

2.00

For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.

5

K' 1.60

15

1.40

4

1.20

3

1.10

1.05 W - w = 2r U - notch

2

1.02

1.01

69020

1

10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r

w

9

8

r r

1 1

P W w P

1 1

7

L

6

where fref = P

wt

W

w

For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.

5 2.00

K'

16

1.60

1.40

4

1.20

3

1.10

1.05 W - w = 2r

2

1.02

1.01 U - notch

69020

1

10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r

w

9

8 r

1

P W w P

1

7

6

where fref = P

wt

5 w

K'

17

2.00

1.60

4 1.40

1.20

3

1.10

1.05 W - w = 2r

2

1.02

1.01

69020

1

10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r

w

9

8

r

1

M W w M

1

7

W

w

1.10

2.00

1.60 fmax = K' fref

6 1.40 where fref = 6M

1.20

w2t

5

K'

18

4

1.02

3 1.01 W - w = 2r

69020

1

10-3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r

w

69020

5

rr

11

W

4 w M W w M

2.00 11

1.60

1.40

L

1.20

3

K' fmax = K' fref

where fref = 6M

1.10

w2t

W - w = 2r 1.05

2

U - notch

1.02

1.01

1

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20

r

w

L

FIGURE 5.6 NOTCHES WITH FLAT BOTTOMS IN BENDING, ---- = 0.25

w

r r

1 1

4 W

M W w M

w

2.00

1 1

1.40

1.20 L

K' where fref = 6M

w2t

1.10

1.05

W - w = 2r

2

1.02

1.01

1

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20

r

w

L

FIGURE 5.7 NOTCHES WITH FLAT BOTTOMS IN BENDING, ---- = 1.0

w

19

69020

4

W M W w M

w

2.00 1

1.40

1.20

3 fmax = K' fref

K' where fref = 6M

w2t

1.10

1.05

W - w = 2r

2

1.02

1.01

1

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20

r

w

20

69020

6. DERIVATION

Theoretical Studies:

1. INGLIS, C.E. Stresses in a plate due to the presence of cracks and sharp corners.

Trans. Instn nav. Archit., part 1, 1913.

2. HOWLAND, R.C.J. On the stress in the neighbourhood of a circular hole in a strip under

tension. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A. Vol. 229, 1930.

3. HOWLAND, R.C.J. Biharmonic analysis in a perforated strip. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A.

STEVENSON, A.C. Vol. 232, p. 155, 1933-34.

4. NEUBER, H. Kerbspannungslehre. Springer, Berlin, 1937. Translated as Theory

of notch stresses. Edwards, J.W., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1946.

5. SJÖSTRÖM, S. On the stresses at the edge of an eccentrically located circular hole

in a strip under tension. The Aeronautical Research Institute of

Sweden. FFA Report 36, 1950.

6. WIGGLESWORTH, L.A. Stress relief in a cracked plate. Mathematika, Vol. 5, 1958.

7. SOBEY, A.J. Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes in infinite

sheets. ARC R & M 3407, 1965.

Experimental Studies:

8. WEIBEL, E.E. Studies in photoelastic stress determination. Trans. am. Soc. mech.

Engrs, Applied Mechanics Division, Vol. 56, 1934.

9. WAHL, A.M. Stress concentration produced by holes and notches. Trans. am. Soc.

BEEUWKES, R. mech. Engrs, Applied Mechanics Division, Vol. 56, 1934.

10. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration photoelastically determined. Trans.

am. Soc. mech. Engrs, Vol. 57, p-A67, 1935.

11. FROCHT, M.M. Photoelastic studies in stress concentration. Mech. Engng, Vol. 58, p.

485, August 1936.

12. RYAN, J.J. Photoelastic analysis of stress concentration for beams in pure

FISCHER, L.J. bending with a central hole. J. Franklin. Inst., No. 225, Part 1, p.

513, 1938.

13. GOODIER, J.N. An extension of the photoelastic method of stress measurement to

LEE, G.H. plates in transverse bending. Trans. am. Soc. mech. Engrs, Vol. 63,

p. A187, 1941.

14. DRUCKER, D.C. The photoelastic analysis of transverse bending of plates in the

standard transmission polariscope. Trans. am. Soc. mech. Engrs,

Vol. 64, p. A161, 1942.

15. LING, C.B. Stresses in a notched strip under tension. J. appl. Mech., Vol. 14,

December 1947.

16. MINDLIN, R.D. Stress distribution around a hole near the edge of a plate under

tension. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 56, 1948.

21

69020

17. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration for slotted bars in tension and

LEVEN, M.M. bending. J. appl. Mech., Vol. 18, March 1951.

18. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration for slotted bars in tension and

LEVEN, M.M. bending. Trans. am. Soc. mech. Engrs, Applied Mechanics Division,

Vol. 73, p. 107, 1951.

19. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration in bars with deep sharp grooves and

LANDSBERG, D. fillets in tension. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1951.

20. HARTMAN, J.B. Factors of stress concentration for flat bars and shafts with central

LEVEN, M.M. enlarged section. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1951.

21. FROCHT, M.M. A photoelastic investigation of stress concentrations due to small

fillets and grooves in tension. NACA tech. Note 2442, 1951.

22. LEVEN, M.M. Stress concentration factors for a single notch in a flat bar in pure

FROCHT, M.M. and central bending. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 11, No. 2,

1954.

23. JESSOP, H.T. Results of photoelastic investigation of stresses in a tension bar with

SNELL, C. unfilled hole. Jl R. aeronaut. Soc., Vol. 59, p. 64, January 1955.

JONES, I.

24. HETENYI, M. Method for calculating stress concentration factors. J. appl. Mech.,

LIU, T.D. Vol. 23, September 1956.

25. COLE, A.G. Photoelastic determination of stress concentration factors caused by

BROWN, A.F.C. a single U-notch on one side of a plate in tension. Jl R. aeronaut.

Soc., Vol. 62, p. 597, August 1958.

26. DIXON, J.R. Stress distribution around a central crack in a plate loaded in

tension; effect of finite width of plate. Jl R. aeronaut. Soc., Vol. 64,

p. 141, March 1960.

27. NORRIS, G.M. SCF due to circular cut-out in the side of a plate of finite width

subjected to uniform tension. National Gas Turbine Establishment,

Pyestock, UK. March 1977.

28. O'BRIEN, E.W. Unpublished photoelastic test data received from British Aerospace

Airbus Ltd, Experimental Stress Analysis Group, Bristol, UK, 1993.

Finite Element Studies:

29. BRENNAN, D. Elastic stress concentration factors for planar elements with circular

TOURNEY, F. profile notches. University of Strathclyde report to Engineering

GRAY, T.G.F. Sciences Data Unit, 1993.

22

69020

THE PREPARATION OF THIS DATA ITEM

The work on this particular Data Item, which is a revision and extension of part of Item No. 65004, was

monitored and guided by the Stress Analysis and Strength of Components Committee, which first met in

1964 and now has the following membership:

Chairman

Prof. C.E. Turner – Imperial College of Science and Technology

Vice-Chairman

Prof. T.G.F. Gray – University of Strathclyde

Members

Mr A.J. Batchelor – Independent

Dr I.J. Bickley – Mirrlees Blackstone (Stockport) Ltd

Dr M.S.G. Cullimore – Independent

Dr L.C. Laming – Imperial College of Science and Technology

Mr A.B. Smith – Lloyd’s Register of Shipping

Mr J.V. Vint – Independent

The Item was accepted for inclusion in the Structures Sub-series by the Aerospace Structures Committee

which first met in 1940 and has the following membership:

Chairman

Mr J.H. van der Sloot – Fokker B.V., Schipol, The Netherlands

Vice-Chairman

Mr J.K. Bennett – British Aerospace plc, Space and Communication Division

Members

Dr P. Bartholomew – Royal Aerospace Establishment, Farnborough

Mr K. Fitzsimons – Westland Helicopters Ltd

Mr P.J. Mitchelmore – British Aerospace plc, Civil Aircraft Division

Mr K.R. Obee – Independent

Mr B. Popham – British Aerospace Space Systems Ltd

Mr M.S. Pressnell – University of Hertfordshire

Mr M. Ranson – British Aerospace Defence Ltd

Prof. A. Rothwell – Technische Universiteit Delft

Mr P. Stocking – Cranfield University

Mr K. van Katwijk* – European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

*

Corresponding Member

23

69020

This Item was also accepted for inclusion in the Fatigue Sub-series by the Fatigue Committee which first

met in 1955 and has the following membership:

Chairman

Dr R.N. Wilson – Royal Aerospace Establishment, Farnborough

Members

Mr K.E. Cheverton – Independent

Mr D. Crouch – British Aerospace Defence Ltd, Dynamics Division, Stevenage

Dr M.S.G. Cullimore – Independent

Dr P.R. Edwards – P.P. Data Ltd

Dr J.M. Finney* – Aeronautical Research Laboratory, Airframes and Engines

Division, Victoria, Australia

Mr J. O'Hara – British Aerospace Defence Ltd, Military Aircraft Division,

Brough

Dr M. Miller* – Boeing Commercial Airplane Co, Seattle, USA

Dr R.A. Newley – Dowty Aerospace Gloucester Ltd

Mr D. Painter – Westland Helicopters Ltd

* – Deutsche Airbus, Hamburg, Germany

Prof. Dr L. Schwarmann

Mr A.R. Simpson – British Aerospace (Regional Aircraft) Ltd, Woodford

Mr T. Swift * – Federal Aviation Administration USA

Dr R.J. Wanhill* – National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR, The Netherlands.

*

Corresponding Member

The technical work involved in the assessment of the available information and the construction and

subsequent development of the Data Item was undertaken by

The person with overall responsibility for the work in this subject area is Mr M.E. Grayley, Head of Strength

Analysis Group.

24

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