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## ELASTIC STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS. GEOMETRIC DISCONTINUITIES

IN FLAT BARS OR STRIPS OF ISOTROPIC MATERIAL

1. INTRODUCTION

This Item presents data on stress concentration effects that occur in flat bars or strips when they are loaded
in tension or bending. A stress concentration factor is defined as the ratio of the highest stress to a reference
stress calculable from simple two-dimensional theory.

Throughout this Item the term “bars or strips” applies to bodies having solid thin rectangular sections.
Where the thickness is large in relation to the in-plane dimensions, the stress concentration factor could be
slighter higher than that predicted by this Data Item, and will vary through the thickness, see Data Item No.
93030*.

The various geometries for which data are presented are listed on Table 1.1. For each geometry the cross
section on which the reference stress is based is given in the appropriate section. The symbol K indicates
that the reference stress is based on the gross cross section of the bar or strip, ignoring the discontinuity,
and the symbol K' indicates that the reference stress is based on the net cross section at the discontinuity.

The data apply only to isotropic materials that obey Hooke's Law. However, over the practical working
range most engineering materials conform substantially in these respects and for these the data may be used
without significant error. If the stress concentration factor is such that the maximum stress is above the
limit of proportionality of the material, the stresses will be redistributed and will give rise to residual stresses

The notation for each section quotes both lbf in and SI Units, but any coherent system of units may be used.

Figures 5.1 to 5.5 were constructed from results of a finite element analysis and recent photoelastic work,
see Derivations 28 and 29, which are in complete agreement for fillets in tension with W/w = 2.0 and r/w
greater than 0.1. For geometries outside this range the agreement between the results decreases as r/w
decreases. The stress concentration factors obtained from the recent photoelastic results can be up to 17
per cent lower than those gained from the finite element results for r/w between 0.02 and 0.2. Figures 2.1
to 4.2 and 5.6 to 5.8 were constructed from earlier photoelastic results and with the exception of Figure
2.2, theoretical results as well. The earlier photoelastic results used in this Data Item tend to give stress
concentration factors up to 10 per cent lower than those of the finite element data.

*
Data Item No. 93030 "Three-dimensional elastic stress concentration factors. Plain or countersunk hole in a wide plate subjected to
Issued August 1969
with Amendments A to C
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Section
number
Hole Tension
Bending in plane
of strip 2
Bending out of
plane of strip
Transverse slot
Tension 3

## Notch on one Tension

edge Bending 4

Tension
5
Bending

Notches and
fillets on both Tension
5
edges Bending

Tension
5
Bending

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2. CIRCULAR HOLES

2.1 Notation

d diameter of hole m in

## Ks stress concentration factor at site s indicated defined by

f s = K s f ref

where f ref = P/Wt (for Figures 2.1 and 2.3) N/m2 lbf/in2
2
f ref = 6M /Wt (for Figure 2.2) N/m2 lbf/in2
2
f ref = 6M ⁄ W t (for Figure 2.4) N/m2 lbf/in2

## P direct load in bar N lbf

t thickness of bar m in

W width of bar m in

2.2 Notes

Figure 2.1. Values of K1 are plotted against d/W for various values of h/W for a circular hole in a flat bar
or strip in tension. The tension load is uniformly distributed across sections of the bar some distance away
from the hole. The maximum stress occurs at site 1 on the edge of the hole at the point nearest to the edge
of the bar.

Figure 2.2. Values of K1 and K2 are plotted against d/W for various values of t/W for a hole centrally placed
in a flat bar or strip subjected to out-of-plane bending. The maximum stress occurs at sites 1 on the edge
of the hole at the points nearest to the edge of the bar.

Figure 2.3. Values of K1 and K2 are plotted against d/W for a hole centrally placed in a flat bar or strip in
tension. The curve for K1 is the h/W = 0.5 curve of Figure 2.1 and is replotted here to facilitate its use in
conjunction with curve K1 in Figure 2.4 in cases of combined loading. Similarly K2 is presented for use
with K2 in Figure 2.4. The maximum stress occurs at sites 1 on the edge of the hole at the points nearest
to the edge of the bar.

Figure 2.4. Values of K1 and K2 are plotted against d/W for a hole centrally placed in a flat bar or strip
subjected to in-plane bending. The maximum stress occurs at sites 1, shown in the diagram, for d/W values
above 0.46, and at sites 2 for lower values of d/W.

## The data in Figures 2.1 to 2.4 do not apply to filled holes.

Figure 2.1 is based on Derivations 5 and 16, Figure 2.2 is based on Derivations 13 and 14, Figure 2.3 is
based on Derivations 2, 9, 10, 18 and 23, and Figure 2.4 is based on Derivations 3, 12 and 18 listed in
Section 6.

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5
h
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
W

3
K1

fmax = K1 fref
where fref = P
Wt

2 1 h
P W P
1
d

1
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
d
W

## FIGURE 2.1 TENSION

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t
4 W
1.0
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
3
0

K1 fmax = K1 fref
0.05 where fref = 6M

2 0.01 Wt2

1
M d
W
M
1

t
1
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
d
W

## FIGURE 2.2 BENDING OUT OF PLANE

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7
K1

4
fs = Ks fref
Ks where fref = P
3 Wt
2

2 1
P W d P
1

2
1
K2

0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

d
W

## FIGURE 2.3 TENSION

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K1

5
2

1
M W d M
4 1

2
fs = Ks fref
3
Ks where fref = 6M
W2t

1
K2

0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

d
W

## FIGURE 2.4 BENDING

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3. TRANSVERSE SLOTS

3.1 Notation

## f max maximum stress in bar lbf/in2 N/m2

2h length of slot in m

## f max = K'f ref

P
where f ref = --------------------------- lbf/in2 N/m2
( W – 2h )t
P direct load in bar lbf N

## r radius of end of slot in m

t thickness of bar in m

W width of bar in m

3.2 Notes

Values of K' are plotted against r/2h for various values of 2h/W for a transverse slot centrally placed in a
flat bar or strip in tension. The curves may be applied with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes to
any of the three types of slot shown in the diagram, i.e.parallel-sided slot with semi-circular ends, narrow
slot with circular ends and elliptical slot. In each case the maximum stress occurs at sites 1 at the ends of
the slot.

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W
where fref = P
7
(W − 2h)t

0.6

0.7

0.8

K'

0.9

## For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1

1
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.2

r
2h

## FIGURE 3.1 TENSION

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4. U-TYPE NOTCH ON ONE EDGE

4.1 Notation

## K' stress concentration factor defined by

f ma x = K'f ref
P
where f ref = ------ (for Figure 4.1) lbf/in2 N/m2
wt
6M
f ref = --------- (for Figure 4.2) lbf/in2 N/m2
2
w t
M bending moment in bar lbf in Nm

## r radius of bottom of notch in m

t thickness of bar in m

## w minimum width of bar in m

4.2 Notes

Values of K' are plotted against r/w for various values of W/w for a single notch in tension in Figure 4.1
and for a single notch in bending in Figure 4.2.

In both cases the maximum stress occurs at the bottom of the notch. Therefore, fmax values due to combined
tension and bending may be obtained by direct addition. The stress is uniformly distributed over cross
sections remote from the notch in Figure 4.1 and the curves include allowance for bending effects in the
neighbourhood of the notch.

Figure 4.1 is based on Derivations 4, 22, 25 and 27 and Figure 4.2 is based on Derivations 4 and 22 listed
in Section 6.

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r
8
P W 1 P
w

7 W
w
2.00
1.80 fmax = K' fref
6
where fref = P
1.60 wt

5 1.40
K'
11

1.20
4

1.10
W-w=r
3
1.05

1.02
2
1.01

69020
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10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 101

r
w

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W r
w
M W 1 M
2.00 w
1.40
4 1.20

## fmax = K' fref

where fref = 6M
2
w t
1.10
3
K' W-w=r
1.05

1.02
2 1.01

1
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20

r
w

## For accuracy of Figures see note in Section 1

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5. NOTCHES AND FILLETS ON BOTH EDGES

5.1 Notation

## f max = K'f ref

P
where f ref = ------ (for Figures 5.1 to 5.4) lbf/in2 N/m2
wt
6M
f ref = --------- (for Figures 5.5 to 5.8) lbf/in2 N/m2
2
w t
L length of notch in m

## r radius of fillet or bottom of notch in m

t thickness of bar in m

## w minimum width of bar in m

5.2 Notes

Figures 5.1 to 5.4 give values of K' plotted against r/w for various values of W/w for notches and fillets in
tension. Figures 5.5 to 5.8 give values of K' plotted against r/w for various values of W/w for notches and
fillets in bending.

Each figure gives values of K' for a particular class of notch or fillet as listed in Table 5.1. Also listed in
the table are the numbers of the derivations (see Section 6) upon which the figures are based.

## Figure is based upon Derivations

numbers (see Section 6)
U-notch 5.1 29
Notch with L/w = 0.25 5.2 1, 4, 7 and 29
Notch with L/w = 1.0 Tension
5.3 1, 4, 7 and 29
Fillet 5.4 28 and 29
U-notch 5.5 29
Notch with L/w = 0.25 5.6 4, 7, 8, 11 and 20
Notch with L/w = 1.0 Bending
5.7 4, 7, 8, 11 and 20
Fillet 5.8 7, 8, 11 and 20
The maximum stresses due to tension and bending occur at the sites 1 indicated in the diagrams, that is at
the bottom of the U-notch in Figures 5.1 and 5.5 and in the fillet-radii close to their junction with the straight
edge of the reduced section in the remainder of the figures.

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9

8
W
w
2.00
r
1.60
1
7 1.40
P W w P
1

6
fmax = K' fref
where fref = P
wt
5 1.20
K' For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.
14

4 1.10

W - w = 2r
1.05
3

1.02

2 1.01

69020
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10-3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r
w


9

8
r r
1 1

P W w P

7 1 1

## fmax = K' fref

6 W where fref = P
w
wt
2.00
For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.
5
K' 1.60
15

1.40

4
1.20

3
1.10

1.05 W - w = 2r U - notch

2
1.02
1.01

69020
1
10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r
w


9

8
r r
1 1
P W w P
1 1
7
L

## fmax = K' fref

6
where fref = P
wt
W
w
For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.
5 2.00
K'
16

1.60

1.40
4

1.20

3
1.10

1.05 W - w = 2r
2
1.02
1.01 U - notch

69020
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10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r
w


9

8 r
1
P W w P
1
7

6
where fref = P
wt

## W For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.

5 w
K'
17

2.00
1.60
4 1.40

1.20
3
1.10

1.05 W - w = 2r
2
1.02
1.01

69020
1
10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r
w

## FIGURE 5.4 FILLETS IN TENSION


9

8
r
1
M W w M

1
7
W
w
1.10
2.00
1.60 fmax = K' fref
6 1.40 where fref = 6M
1.20
w2t

## 1.05 For accuracy of figures see note in Section 1.

5
K'
18

4
1.02

3 1.01 W - w = 2r

69020
1
10-3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100

r
w

## FIGURE 5.5 U – NOTCHES IN BENDING

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5

rr
11
W
4 w M W w M
2.00 11
1.60
1.40
L
1.20

3
K' fmax = K' fref
where fref = 6M
1.10
w2t
W - w = 2r 1.05
2
U - notch
1.02
1.01

1
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20
r
w
L
FIGURE 5.6 NOTCHES WITH FLAT BOTTOMS IN BENDING, ---- = 0.25
w

r r
1 1
4 W
M W w M
w
2.00
1 1
1.40
1.20 L

## 3 fmax = K' fref

K' where fref = 6M
w2t
1.10

1.05
W - w = 2r
2
1.02
1.01

1
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20
r
w
L
FIGURE 5.7 NOTCHES WITH FLAT BOTTOMS IN BENDING, ---- = 1.0
w

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4
W M W w M
w
2.00 1
1.40
1.20
3 fmax = K' fref
K' where fref = 6M
w2t
1.10

1.05
W - w = 2r
2
1.02
1.01

1
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.20

r
w

## For accuracy of Figures see note in Section 1

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6. DERIVATION

Theoretical Studies:
1. INGLIS, C.E. Stresses in a plate due to the presence of cracks and sharp corners.
Trans. Instn nav. Archit., part 1, 1913.
2. HOWLAND, R.C.J. On the stress in the neighbourhood of a circular hole in a strip under
tension. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A. Vol. 229, 1930.
3. HOWLAND, R.C.J. Biharmonic analysis in a perforated strip. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A.
STEVENSON, A.C. Vol. 232, p. 155, 1933-34.
4. NEUBER, H. Kerbspannungslehre. Springer, Berlin, 1937. Translated as Theory
of notch stresses. Edwards, J.W., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1946.
5. SJÖSTRÖM, S. On the stresses at the edge of an eccentrically located circular hole
in a strip under tension. The Aeronautical Research Institute of
Sweden. FFA Report 36, 1950.
6. WIGGLESWORTH, L.A. Stress relief in a cracked plate. Mathematika, Vol. 5, 1958.
7. SOBEY, A.J. Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes in infinite
sheets. ARC R & M 3407, 1965.
Experimental Studies:
8. WEIBEL, E.E. Studies in photoelastic stress determination. Trans. am. Soc. mech.
Engrs, Applied Mechanics Division, Vol. 56, 1934.
9. WAHL, A.M. Stress concentration produced by holes and notches. Trans. am. Soc.
BEEUWKES, R. mech. Engrs, Applied Mechanics Division, Vol. 56, 1934.
10. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration photoelastically determined. Trans.
am. Soc. mech. Engrs, Vol. 57, p-A67, 1935.
11. FROCHT, M.M. Photoelastic studies in stress concentration. Mech. Engng, Vol. 58, p.
485, August 1936.
12. RYAN, J.J. Photoelastic analysis of stress concentration for beams in pure
FISCHER, L.J. bending with a central hole. J. Franklin. Inst., No. 225, Part 1, p.
513, 1938.
13. GOODIER, J.N. An extension of the photoelastic method of stress measurement to
LEE, G.H. plates in transverse bending. Trans. am. Soc. mech. Engrs, Vol. 63,
p. A187, 1941.
14. DRUCKER, D.C. The photoelastic analysis of transverse bending of plates in the
standard transmission polariscope. Trans. am. Soc. mech. Engrs,
Vol. 64, p. A161, 1942.
15. LING, C.B. Stresses in a notched strip under tension. J. appl. Mech., Vol. 14,
December 1947.
16. MINDLIN, R.D. Stress distribution around a hole near the edge of a plate under
tension. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 56, 1948.

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17. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration for slotted bars in tension and
LEVEN, M.M. bending. J. appl. Mech., Vol. 18, March 1951.
18. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration for slotted bars in tension and
LEVEN, M.M. bending. Trans. am. Soc. mech. Engrs, Applied Mechanics Division,
Vol. 73, p. 107, 1951.
19. FROCHT, M.M. Factors of stress concentration in bars with deep sharp grooves and
LANDSBERG, D. fillets in tension. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1951.
20. HARTMAN, J.B. Factors of stress concentration for flat bars and shafts with central
LEVEN, M.M. enlarged section. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1951.
21. FROCHT, M.M. A photoelastic investigation of stress concentrations due to small
fillets and grooves in tension. NACA tech. Note 2442, 1951.
22. LEVEN, M.M. Stress concentration factors for a single notch in a flat bar in pure
FROCHT, M.M. and central bending. Proc. Soc. exp. Stress Analysis, Vol. 11, No. 2,
1954.
23. JESSOP, H.T. Results of photoelastic investigation of stresses in a tension bar with
SNELL, C. unfilled hole. Jl R. aeronaut. Soc., Vol. 59, p. 64, January 1955.
JONES, I.
24. HETENYI, M. Method for calculating stress concentration factors. J. appl. Mech.,
LIU, T.D. Vol. 23, September 1956.
25. COLE, A.G. Photoelastic determination of stress concentration factors caused by
BROWN, A.F.C. a single U-notch on one side of a plate in tension. Jl R. aeronaut.
Soc., Vol. 62, p. 597, August 1958.
26. DIXON, J.R. Stress distribution around a central crack in a plate loaded in
tension; effect of finite width of plate. Jl R. aeronaut. Soc., Vol. 64,
p. 141, March 1960.
27. NORRIS, G.M. SCF due to circular cut-out in the side of a plate of finite width
subjected to uniform tension. National Gas Turbine Establishment,
Pyestock, UK. March 1977.
28. O'BRIEN, E.W. Unpublished photoelastic test data received from British Aerospace
Airbus Ltd, Experimental Stress Analysis Group, Bristol, UK, 1993.
Finite Element Studies:
29. BRENNAN, D. Elastic stress concentration factors for planar elements with circular
TOURNEY, F. profile notches. University of Strathclyde report to Engineering
GRAY, T.G.F. Sciences Data Unit, 1993.

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THE PREPARATION OF THIS DATA ITEM

The work on this particular Data Item, which is a revision and extension of part of Item No. 65004, was
monitored and guided by the Stress Analysis and Strength of Components Committee, which first met in
1964 and now has the following membership:

Chairman
Prof. C.E. Turner – Imperial College of Science and Technology

Vice-Chairman
Prof. T.G.F. Gray – University of Strathclyde

Members
Mr A.J. Batchelor – Independent
Dr I.J. Bickley – Mirrlees Blackstone (Stockport) Ltd
Dr M.S.G. Cullimore – Independent
Dr L.C. Laming – Imperial College of Science and Technology
Mr A.B. Smith – Lloyd’s Register of Shipping
Mr J.V. Vint – Independent

The Item was accepted for inclusion in the Structures Sub-series by the Aerospace Structures Committee
which first met in 1940 and has the following membership:

Chairman
Mr J.H. van der Sloot – Fokker B.V., Schipol, The Netherlands

Vice-Chairman
Mr J.K. Bennett – British Aerospace plc, Space and Communication Division

Members
Dr P. Bartholomew – Royal Aerospace Establishment, Farnborough
Mr K. Fitzsimons – Westland Helicopters Ltd
Mr P.J. Mitchelmore – British Aerospace plc, Civil Aircraft Division
Mr K.R. Obee – Independent
Mr B. Popham – British Aerospace Space Systems Ltd
Mr M.S. Pressnell – University of Hertfordshire
Mr M. Ranson – British Aerospace Defence Ltd
Prof. A. Rothwell – Technische Universiteit Delft
Mr P. Stocking – Cranfield University
Mr K. van Katwijk* – European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
*
Corresponding Member

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This Item was also accepted for inclusion in the Fatigue Sub-series by the Fatigue Committee which first
met in 1955 and has the following membership:

Chairman
Dr R.N. Wilson – Royal Aerospace Establishment, Farnborough

Members
Mr K.E. Cheverton – Independent
Mr D. Crouch – British Aerospace Defence Ltd, Dynamics Division, Stevenage
Dr M.S.G. Cullimore – Independent
Dr P.R. Edwards – P.P. Data Ltd
Dr J.M. Finney* – Aeronautical Research Laboratory, Airframes and Engines
Division, Victoria, Australia
Mr J. O'Hara – British Aerospace Defence Ltd, Military Aircraft Division,
Brough
Dr M. Miller* – Boeing Commercial Airplane Co, Seattle, USA
Dr R.A. Newley – Dowty Aerospace Gloucester Ltd
Mr D. Painter – Westland Helicopters Ltd
* – Deutsche Airbus, Hamburg, Germany
Prof. Dr L. Schwarmann
Mr A.R. Simpson – British Aerospace (Regional Aircraft) Ltd, Woodford
Mr T. Swift * – Federal Aviation Administration USA
Dr R.J. Wanhill* – National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR, The Netherlands.
*
Corresponding Member

The technical work involved in the assessment of the available information and the construction and
subsequent development of the Data Item was undertaken by

## Mr D.A. Nurthen – Engineer.

The person with overall responsibility for the work in this subject area is Mr M.E. Grayley, Head of Strength
Analysis Group.

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