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HYDRODYNAMIC AND KINEMATIC

MODELS OF TRAFFIC
Consider 2 points on a one-way road assumed to be homogeneous:

1 2

Δx
x
Let:
Ni : number of cars passing station i during time interval Δt
qi : flow (volume) passing station i during Δt
Δx : distance between stations
Δt : duration of simultaneous counting at stations 1 and 2.
By definition,

Ni
qi  (3.13)
t

Let ΔN = (N2 – N1)

N
With q  ; N  qt (3.14)
t

Let k : increase in density between stations 1 and 2 during period t.

Then

( N 2  N 1 )  N
k    ; (positive for build up)
x x

 N  kx (3.15)

or equating Eq. 3.14 and Eq. 3.15:

 qt  kx

q k
 0 (3.16)
x t
If the medium is considered continuous and finite elements are allowed to

become infinitesimal:

q k (3.17)
  0;
x t

This is well known as the continuity equation.

With q  uk

(uk ) k
  0;
x t

Expanding:

k k u (3.18)
 u  k  0;
t x x
Recall that u  f (k )

Applying chain rule:

du u x u k (3.19)
 u'  ;  u'
dk x k x x

Substituting Eq. 3.19 in Eq. 3.18:

k k k
u  ku'  0;
t x x

k k
 (u  ku' )  0. (3.20)
t x
Analogous to fluid flow, the equation of motion expressing the acceleration of

du  c 2 k
 (3.21)
dt k x

where c is a constant of proportionality.

k
If is positive, then traffic flow has a tendency to slow down.
x

k
On the other hand, if is negative, the traffic flow tends to go faster.
x
Let us generalize the fluid-flow analogy equation:

du k
 c 2 k n . (3.22)
dt x

With speed u  f ( x, t ).

du u x u t u u
   u
dt x t t t x t

Combining the above with the general equation,

u u k
u  c2k n 0
x t x
u u k k
but   u'
t k t t

u k k
u  u'  c 2 k n 0
x t x
using Eq. 3.19:

k k k
u' u  u'  c 2 k n 0
x t x

Dividing the above equation by u ' :

k  c2k n  k (3.23)
 u   0
t  u'  x

This has exactly the same form as Eq. 3.20. Equating Eqs. 3.20 and 3.23:

k  c2k n  k k k
 u     (u  ku' ) 0
t  u'  x t x

 c2k n 
 u    (u  ku' )
 u' 

u'2  c 2 k n1 ; u' 

du
 ck ( n 1) / 2
dk
Considering that u and k always have an inverse relationship, the negative sign

is added on the right side of the equation.

du (3.24)
 ck ( n1) / 2
dk
Greenshield’s model (n = 1)
du
 ck 0  c ; du  cdk u

dk

u  ck  a . uf

When k = 0; u =uf. Therefore a = uf.

u  u f  ck
kj k

uf
also when u = 0, k = kj. Therefore c 
kj

This gives the u-k relationship for Greenshield’s model:

 k
u  u f 1   (3.25)
 k 
 j 
Other Macroscopic Models:
Greenberg’s model: n  1.

Parabolic model: n  0.

Element n 1 n  1 n0 n  1
Constant of uf um uf (n  1)u f
proportionality,
c kj 2k 1j / 2 2k (j n 1) / 2
u-k relation  k  kj    k 1 / 2    k  ( n 1) / 2 
u  u f 1   u  u m  ln  u  u 1     u  u 1    
 k 
 j   k    k j     k j  
f f

   
Optimum kj kj 4 2
kj  n  3  ( n1)
density, km
9 kj 
2 e  2 
Optimum uf c uf  n 1 
speed, um  u f
2 3  n  3