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Original Title: Hydrodynamic and Kinematic Models of Traffic

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MODELS OF TRAFFIC

Consider 2 points on a one-way road assumed to be homogeneous:

1 2

Δx

x

Let:

Ni : number of cars passing station i during time interval Δt

qi : flow (volume) passing station i during Δt

Δx : distance between stations

Δt : duration of simultaneous counting at stations 1 and 2.

By definition,

Ni

qi (3.13)

t

N

With q ; N qt (3.14)

t

Then

( N 2 N 1 ) N

k ; (positive for build up)

x x

N kx (3.15)

qt kx

q k

0 (3.16)

x t

If the medium is considered continuous and finite elements are allowed to

become infinitesimal:

q k (3.17)

0;

x t

With q uk

(uk ) k

0;

x t

Expanding:

k k u (3.18)

u k 0;

t x x

Recall that u f (k )

du u x u k (3.19)

u' ; u'

dk x k x x

k k k

u ku' 0;

t x x

k k

(u ku' ) 0. (3.20)

t x

Analogous to fluid flow, the equation of motion expressing the acceleration of

du c 2 k

(3.21)

dt k x

k

If is positive, then traffic flow has a tendency to slow down.

x

k

On the other hand, if is negative, the traffic flow tends to go faster.

x

Let us generalize the fluid-flow analogy equation:

du k

c 2 k n . (3.22)

dt x

With speed u f ( x, t ).

du u x u t u u

u

dt x t t t x t

u u k

u c2k n 0

x t x

u u k k

but u'

t k t t

u k k

u u' c 2 k n 0

x t x

using Eq. 3.19:

k k k

u' u u' c 2 k n 0

x t x

k c2k n k (3.23)

u 0

t u' x

This has exactly the same form as Eq. 3.20. Equating Eqs. 3.20 and 3.23:

k c2k n k k k

u (u ku' ) 0

t u' x t x

c2k n

u (u ku' )

u'

du

ck ( n 1) / 2

dk

Considering that u and k always have an inverse relationship, the negative sign

du (3.24)

ck ( n1) / 2

dk

Greenshield’s model (n = 1)

du

ck 0 c ; du cdk u

dk

u ck a . uf

u u f ck

kj k

uf

also when u = 0, k = kj. Therefore c

kj

k

u u f 1 (3.25)

k

j

Other Macroscopic Models:

Greenberg’s model: n 1.

Parabolic model: n 0.

Element n 1 n 1 n0 n 1

Constant of uf um uf (n 1)u f

proportionality,

c kj 2k 1j / 2 2k (j n 1) / 2

u-k relation k kj k 1 / 2 k ( n 1) / 2

u u f 1 u u m ln u u 1 u u 1

k

j k k j k j

f f

Optimum kj kj 4 2

kj n 3 ( n1)

density, km

9 kj

2 e 2

Optimum uf c uf n 1

speed, um u f

2 3 n 3

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