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ME231 Lecture 32

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3 & 7) Review

Lecture 32

ME 231: Dynamics

Question of the Day

concept in mechanics?

concept in dynamics? ¦ F ma

¦ Fx ma x mx

Equations of Motion

¦ Fy ma y my

¦ Fz ma z mz

ME 231: Dynamics 2

Outline for Today

Where are we in the course?

Inverse vs. forward dynamics

Kinetics: cause of motion

Possible solutions to kinetics problems

Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law

Plane motion types for rigid bodies

Equations, equations, equations…

Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)

ME 231: Dynamics 3

Where are we in the course?

Concept: What is dynamics?

Chapters 1, 2, 6 Chapters 3, 5, 7, 8

Relationship Relationship

among position, among forces

velocity, and (and

acceleration moments)and

acceleration

ME 231: Dynamics 4

Where are we in the course?

Calculation: How do we use dynamics?

Force. A push or pull Mass. Measure of the resistance

exerted on a body, of a body to linear acceleration.

characterized by: Acceleration. Velocity

magnitude F=ma rate of change with

direction respect to

point of time

application

ME 231: Dynamics 5

Inverse vs. Forward Dynamics

inverse

Velocities

Forces F ma d

dt

d

dt

Positions

Velocities

Forces F ma ³ ³ Positions

forward

ME 231: Dyna

Dynamics 6

Kinetics: Cause of Motion?

Concept: What is kinetics?

8

among forces among position, among forces

(and moments) velocity, and (and

and equilibrium acceleration moments)and

acceleration

ME 231: Dynamics 7

Possible Solutions to Kinetics Problems

– force-mass-acceleration method

– Chapters 3 and 7

Use of impulse and momentum methods

– Chapters 5 and 8

Use of work and energy principles

– Chapter 4

ME 231: Dynamics 8

Step-by-Step Solution Process

1. Kinematics

– Identify type of motion

– Solve for linear and angular accelerations

2. Diagram

– Assign inertial coordinate system

– Draw complete free-body diagram

– Draw kinetic diagram to clarify equations

3. Equations of motion

– Apply 2 linear and 1 angular equations

– Maintain consistent sense

– Solve for no more than 5 scalar unknowns (3 scalar

equations of motion and 2 scalar relations from

the relative-acceleration equation)

ME 231: Dynamics 9

Outline for Today

Where are we in the course?

Inverse vs. forward dynamics

Kinetics: cause of motion

Possible solutions to kinetics problems

Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law

Plane motion types for rigid bodies

Equations, equations, equations…

Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)

ME 231: Dynamics 10

Direct Application of Newton’s 2nd Law

F1 F2 F3 f1 f 2 f 3 miri

¦F ¦f ¦ miri

¦F mr or ¦ F ma

¦ Fx ma x

¦ Fy ma y

¦ Fz ma z

ME 231: Dynamics 11

Rectangular (x-y) Coordinates: Exercise

moving in two-dimensions has a

position vector (r) as a function of

time (t) with coordinates given by

where r is measured in feet and t is in seconds.

accelerating the particle at time t = 3 s.

ME 231: Dynamics 12

Polar (r-T) Coordinates: Exercise

2

r T

O-axis with constant angular

velocity Z and contains a small

cylinder B of mass m whose

radial position is controlled by a

cord passing through the tube

and wound around a drum of

radius b.

component of force FT if the drum has a constant

angular rate of rotation of Z as shown.

ME 231: Dynamics 13

Normal and Tangential (n-t) Coordinates:

Exercise 2

v

a en v e t

U

down from 100 km/h at A to a speed of 50

km/h as it passes C.

the road on the tires at positions A, B, and C.

ME 231: Dynamics 14

Outline for Today

Where are we in the course?

Inverse vs. forward dynamics

Kinetics: cause of motion

Possible solutions to kinetics problems

Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law

Plane motion types for rigid bodies

Equations, equations, equations…

Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)

ME 231: Dynamics 15

Plane Motion Types A

A’ A’

for Rigid Bodies

B

B’ B’

Translation

A

A

A’

Fixed-axis rotation

B

B’

General plane motion

A

ME 231: Dynamics 16

Rigid-Body Translation

rectilinear curvilinear

¦ MG IG 0 ¦ MG IG 0

¦F ma

¦MP mad ¦MA man d A

D 0

¦MA 0 ¦MB mat d B

Z 0

ME 231: Dynamics 17

Rigid-Body Translation: Exercise

cylinders up a 15º incline. The

diameter of each cylinder is

half its height.

acceleration for

the belt without

tipping the

cylinders as it

starts.

ME 231: Dynamics 18

Fixed-Axis Rotation

free-body kinetic

diagram diagram

coordinates

Plane-motion

equations:

¦ F m a ¦ M G I G ¦ M O I O

ME 231: Dynamics 19

Fixed-Axis Rotation: Exercise

force on the bearing at O for (a) the narrow

ring of mass m and (b) the flat circular disk of

mass m immediately after each is released from

rest with OC horizontal.

ME 231: Dynamics 20

General Plane Motoin:

Combined Translation and Rotation

¦MP I G mad

¦F ma ¦ MG IG ¦ MP I P u ma P

ME 231: Dynamics 21

General Plane Motion: Exercise

1500-mm-diameter spool of cable with a mass

of 0.75 kg per meter of length. There are 150

turns on the full spool. The empty

spool has a mass of 140 kg with

radius of gyration of

530 mm.

in the cable when the truck

starts from rest with an

acceleration of 0.2g.

ME 231: Dynamics 22

Outline for Today

Where are we in the course?

Inverse vs. forward dynamics

Kinetics: cause of motion

Possible solutions to kinetics problems

Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law

Plane motion types for rigid bodies

Equations, equations, equations…

Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)

ME 231: Dynamics 23

Equations, Equations, Equations…

Particle Kinetics: F=ma

Lecture Equations

19. Eqs. of Motion

20. Rectilinear ¦ Fx ma x mx ¦ Fz ma z mz

¦ Fr mar ¦ Fn man

21. Curvilinear

¦ FT maT ¦ Ft mat

t2

G mv G1 ³ 6F dt G 2

27. Lin. Imp. Mom.

6F G

t1

'G 0

H O 1 ³t 6M O dt H O 2

t2

H O r u mv

28. Ang. Imp. Mom.

¦ MO H 1

'H O 0

O

G mv H G ¦ i u mi i H P H G u mv

29. Sys. Imp. Mom.

H O ¦ri u mi v i ¦ M G H G ¦ M P H G u m a

ME 231: Dynamics 24

Equations, Equations, Equations…

Rigid Body Kinetics: F=ma

Lecture Equations

G

22. Gen. Eqs. Mot. I

H ¦ i u Fi ¦ M P I P u ma P

23. Gen. Eqs. Mot. II G

¦ F ma ¦ M G IG ¦ M O I O

24. Fixed-Axis Rot. I O I G mr 2 I O mkO2

25. Gen. Plane Mot. I ¦ M P I P u ma P ¦ M P I G mad

¦ F ma ¦ M G I G

26. Gen. Plane Mot. II

G mv H G IG H P I G mvd H O IO

¦M

¦F G ¦M

H ¦M

H

H

31. Body Imp. Mom. G G P P O O

H G 1 ³t H G 2

t2 t2

G1 ³ 6F dt G2 6M G dt

t1 1

ME 231: Dynamics 25

Exam 2a Breakdown (particle kinetics: F=ma)

40

35

number of points

30

25

20 40 40

34 34

15 30

26

10

5

0 0

18. Newton 19. Eqs. of 20. Rectilinear 21. 27. Lin. Imp. 28. Ang. Imp. 29. Sys. Imp.

2nd Law Motion Curvilinear Mom. Mom. Mom.

lecture

ME 231: Dynamics 26

Exam 2 Breakdown (rigid body kinetics: F=ma)

70

60

number of points

50

40 70

30

20 34 40 40 40

26

10

0 0

18. Newton 22. Gen. Eqs. 23. Gen. Eqs. 24. Fixed-Axis 25. Gen. 26. Gen. 31. Body Imp.

2nd Law of Motion I of Motion II Rotation Plane Mot. I Plane Mot. II Mom.

lecture

ME 231: Dynamics 27

For Next Time…

Review Lectures slides

– http://rrg.utk.edu/resources/ME231/lectures.html

Review Examples from class

– http://rrg.utk.edu/resources/ME231/examples.html

ME 231: Dynamics 28

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