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Kinetics: F=ma (Ch.

3 & 7) Review
Lecture 32

ME 231: Dynamics
Question of the Day

What is the most important


concept in mechanics?

Free Body Diagram

What is the most important


concept in dynamics? ¦ F ma
¦ Fx ma x mx
Equations of Motion
¦ Fy ma y my
¦ Fz ma z mz
ME 231: Dynamics 2
Outline for Today

 Question of the day


 Where are we in the course?
 Inverse vs. forward dynamics
 Kinetics: cause of motion
 Possible solutions to kinetics problems
 Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law
 Plane motion types for rigid bodies
 Equations, equations, equations…
 Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)
ME 231: Dynamics 3
Where are we in the course?
Concept: What is dynamics?

Chapters 1, 2, 6 Chapters 3, 5, 7, 8

Kinematics Kinetics Dynamics

Relationship Relationship
among position, among forces
velocity, and (and
acceleration moments)and
acceleration

ME 231: Dynamics 4
Where are we in the course?
Calculation: How do we use dynamics?

Newton’s 2nd Law


Force. A push or pull Mass. Measure of the resistance
exerted on a body, of a body to linear acceleration.
characterized by: Acceleration. Velocity
‡ magnitude F=ma rate of change with
‡ direction respect to
‡ point of time
application

ME 231: Dynamics 5
Inverse vs. Forward Dynamics

inverse
Velocities

Forces F ma d
dt
d
dt
Positions

Velocities

Forces F ma ³ ³ Positions

forward

ME 231: Dyna
Dynamics 6
Kinetics: Cause of Motion?
Concept: What is kinetics?

ME 202 Chapters 1, 2, 6 Chapters 3, 5, 7,


8

Statics Kinematics Kinetics

Relationship Relationship Relationship


among forces among position, among forces
(and moments) velocity, and (and
and equilibrium acceleration moments)and
acceleration

ME 231: Dynamics 7
Possible Solutions to Kinetics Problems

 Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law


– force-mass-acceleration method
– Chapters 3 and 7
 Use of impulse and momentum methods
– Chapters 5 and 8
 Use of work and energy principles
– Chapter 4

ME 231: Dynamics 8
Step-by-Step Solution Process

1. Kinematics
– Identify type of motion
– Solve for linear and angular accelerations
2. Diagram
– Assign inertial coordinate system
– Draw complete free-body diagram
– Draw kinetic diagram to clarify equations
3. Equations of motion
– Apply 2 linear and 1 angular equations
– Maintain consistent sense
– Solve for no more than 5 scalar unknowns (3 scalar
equations of motion and 2 scalar relations from
the relative-acceleration equation)
ME 231: Dynamics 9
Outline for Today

 Question of the day


 Where are we in the course?
 Inverse vs. forward dynamics
 Kinetics: cause of motion
 Possible solutions to kinetics problems
 Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law
 Plane motion types for rigid bodies
 Equations, equations, equations…
 Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)
ME 231: Dynamics 10
Direct Application of Newton’s 2nd Law

F1  F2  F3    f1  f 2  f 3   miri
¦F  ¦f ¦ miri

¦F mr or ¦ F ma
¦ Fx ma x
¦ Fy ma y
¦ Fz ma z

ME 231: Dynamics 11
Rectangular (x-y) Coordinates: Exercise

A particle with mass of 10 slugs


moving in two-dimensions has a
position vector (r) as a function of
time (t) with coordinates given by

x(t) = t2 – 4t + 20 , y(t) = 3 sin(2t)


where r is measured in feet and t is in seconds.

Determine the magnitude of the net force (F)


accelerating the particle at time t = 3 s.

ME 231: Dynamics 12
Polar (r-T) Coordinates: Exercise

a r  rT e  rT  2rT e


2
r T

Tube A rotates about the vertical


O-axis with constant angular
velocity Z and contains a small
cylinder B of mass m whose
radial position is controlled by a
cord passing through the tube
and wound around a drum of
radius b.

Determine the tension T in the cord and T-


component of force FT if the drum has a constant
angular rate of rotation of Z as shown.
ME 231: Dynamics 13
Normal and Tangential (n-t) Coordinates:
Exercise 2
v
a en  v e t
U

A 1500-kg car enters an s-curve and slows


down from 100 km/h at A to a speed of 50
km/h as it passes C.

Determine the total horizontal force exerted by


the road on the tires at positions A, B, and C.
ME 231: Dynamics 14
Outline for Today

 Question of the day


 Where are we in the course?
 Inverse vs. forward dynamics
 Kinetics: cause of motion
 Possible solutions to kinetics problems
 Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law
 Plane motion types for rigid bodies
 Equations, equations, equations…
 Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)
ME 231: Dynamics 15
Plane Motion Types A
A’ A’
for Rigid Bodies

B
B’ B’
 Translation
A
A
A’

 Fixed-axis rotation
B
B’
 General plane motion
A

ME 231: Dynamics 16
Rigid-Body Translation

rectilinear curvilinear

¦ MG IG 0 ¦ MG IG 0
¦F ma
¦MP mad ¦MA man d A
D 0
¦MA 0 ¦MB mat d B
Z 0
ME 231: Dynamics 17
Rigid-Body Translation: Exercise

A cleated conveyor belt transports solid


cylinders up a 15º incline. The
diameter of each cylinder is
half its height.

Determine the maximum


acceleration for
the belt without
tipping the
cylinders as it
starts.
ME 231: Dynamics 18
Fixed-Axis Rotation
free-body kinetic
diagram diagram

 Mass center’s circular motion easily expressed in n-t


coordinates
 Plane-motion
equations:
¦ F m a ¦ M G I G  ¦ M O I O
ME 231: Dynamics 19
Fixed-Axis Rotation: Exercise

Determine the angular acceleration and the


force on the bearing at O for (a) the narrow
ring of mass m and (b) the flat circular disk of
mass m immediately after each is released from
rest with OC horizontal.
ME 231: Dynamics 20
General Plane Motoin:
Combined Translation and Rotation

¦MP I G   mad
¦F ma ¦ MG IG ¦ MP I P    u ma P
ME 231: Dynamics 21
General Plane Motion: Exercise

A truck has a mass of 2030 kg and carries a


1500-mm-diameter spool of cable with a mass
of 0.75 kg per meter of length. There are 150
turns on the full spool. The empty
spool has a mass of 140 kg with
radius of gyration of
530 mm.

Determine the tension T


in the cable when the truck
starts from rest with an
acceleration of 0.2g.
ME 231: Dynamics 22
Outline for Today

 Question of the day


 Where are we in the course?
 Inverse vs. forward dynamics
 Kinetics: cause of motion
 Possible solutions to kinetics problems
 Direct application of Newton’s 2nd Law
 Plane motion types for rigid bodies
 Equations, equations, equations…
 Exam 2a breakdown (kinetics: F=ma)
ME 231: Dynamics 23
Equations, Equations, Equations…
Particle Kinetics: F=ma

Lecture Equations

18. Newton 2nd Law ¦ F ma ¦ Fy ma y my


19. Eqs. of Motion
20. Rectilinear ¦ Fx ma x mx ¦ Fz ma z mz
¦ Fr mar ¦ Fn man
21. Curvilinear
¦ FT maT ¦ Ft mat
t2
G mv G1  ³ 6F dt G 2
27. Lin. Imp. Mom.

6F G
t1
'G 0
H O 1  ³t 6M O dt H O 2
t2
H O r u mv
28. Ang. Imp. Mom.
¦ MO H  1
'H O 0
O

G mv H G ¦  i u mi  i H P H G   u mv
29. Sys. Imp. Mom.
H O ¦ ri u mi v i ¦ M G H G ¦ M P H G   u m a
ME 231: Dynamics 24
Equations, Equations, Equations…
Rigid Body Kinetics: F=ma

Lecture Equations

18. Newton 2nd Law ¦ MG H  ¦ M P I G   mad


G
22. Gen. Eqs. Mot. I 
H ¦  i u Fi ¦ M P I P    u ma P
23. Gen. Eqs. Mot. II G
¦ F ma ¦ M G IG ¦ M O I O
24. Fixed-Axis Rot. I O I G mr 2 I O mkO2
25. Gen. Plane Mot. I ¦ M P I P    u ma P ¦ M P I G   mad
¦ F ma ¦ M G I G 
26. Gen. Plane Mot. II
G mv H G IG H P I G   mvd H O IO
 ¦M
¦F G  ¦M
H  ¦M
H 
H
31. Body Imp. Mom. G G P P O O

H G 1  ³t H G 2
t2 t2
G1  ³ 6F dt G2 6M G dt
t1 1

ME 231: Dynamics 25
Exam 2a Breakdown (particle kinetics: F=ma)

40
35
number of points

30
25
20 40 40
34 34
15 30
26
10
5
0 0
18. Newton 19. Eqs. of 20. Rectilinear 21. 27. Lin. Imp. 28. Ang. Imp. 29. Sys. Imp.
2nd Law Motion Curvilinear Mom. Mom. Mom.

lecture

ME 231: Dynamics 26
Exam 2 Breakdown (rigid body kinetics: F=ma)

70
60
number of points

50
40 70
30
20 34 40 40 40
26
10
0 0
18. Newton 22. Gen. Eqs. 23. Gen. Eqs. 24. Fixed-Axis 25. Gen. 26. Gen. 31. Body Imp.
2nd Law of Motion I of Motion II Rotation Plane Mot. I Plane Mot. II Mom.

lecture

ME 231: Dynamics 27
For Next Time…

 Review Chapters 3 & 7


 Review Lectures slides
– http://rrg.utk.edu/resources/ME231/lectures.html
 Review Examples from class
– http://rrg.utk.edu/resources/ME231/examples.html

 Exam #2a on Friday (11/9)

ME 231: Dynamics 28