0 views

Uploaded by Oliver

equivalent stress

- RectangularTanks PCA
- S0002-9947-1945-0014024-0
- Analysis of C-C Short Cylindrical Shells under Internal Pressure using Polynomial Series Shape Function.
- outcome1 t2
- UserNotes Beam Column Tie 20120804
- FT 3-8 Sem 090710
- Prokon - p1a_seismic
- 98m Stack Design Calculations 4
- s Tn Rcs General 001 1
- 76 Pipeline Clark
- Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain 507-525
- EURME 404(Mechanics of Solids 1)
- Strength-of-Materials.doc
- Bending Stress Calculations
- Problem 1 006
- CH6.pdf
- 1663-1663-1-PB.pdf
- Wang Stress Analysis2009
- Shear Design
- Rajat Report on Folding Table

You are on page 1of 4

are as follows:

α1 = 0.72 for f 1c≤ 4000 psi (27.6 MPa); it decreases linearly by 0.04 for every 1000 psi

(6.9 MPa) greater than 4000 psi

α2 = 0.425 for f 1c< 4000 psi (27.6 MPa); it decreases linearly by 0.025 for every 1000 psi

greater than 4000 psi

The decrease in the value of α1 and α2 is related to the fact that high--strength concretes

show more brittleness than low-strength concretes [3].

To derive a simple rational approach for calculations of the internal forces of a section,

the ACI Code adopted an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution, which was

ﬁrst proposed by C. S. Whitney and checked by Mattock and others [2]. A concrete stress ofc

0.85f 1 is assumed to be uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone

bounded by the edges of the cross section and a line parallel to the neutral axis at a distance

a = β1c from the ﬁber of maximum compressive strain, where c is the distance between the top

of the compressive section and the neutral axis (Fig. 3.8). The fraction β1 is 0.85 cfor concrete

strengths f 1 ≤ 4000 psi

Values of β1 for different compressive strengths of concrete, f1 . c

(27.6 MPa) and is reduced linearly at a rate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi (6.9 MPa) of stress greater

than 4000 psi (Fig. 3.9), with a minimum value of 0.65.

The preceding discussion applies in general to any section, and it is not conﬁned to a

rectangular shape. In the rectangular section, the area of the compressive zone is equal to

ba, and every unit area is acted on by a uniform stress equal cto 0.85f 1 , giving a total stress

volume equalc to 0.85f 1 ab,

ab which corresponds to the compressive force C. For any other shape,

the force C is equal to the area of the compressive zone multiplied by a constant stress equal c

to 0.85f 1 .

For example, in the section shown in Fig. 3.10, the force C is equal to the shaded area of

the cross section multiplied by 0.85f 1c:

C = 0.85f 1(6 × 3 + 10 × 2) = 32.3 f 1 lb

c c

The position of the force C is at a distance z from the top ﬁbers, at the position of the

resultant force of all small-element

small forces of the section. As in the case when the stress is

85f 1 , the resultant force C is located at the center of gravity of the

uniform andc equals 0.85f

compressive zone, which has a depth of a.

In this example, z is calculated by taking moments about the top ﬁbers:

? )

6 × 3 × 3 + 10 × 2(1 + 3) 107

z= 2 = = 2.82 in.

6 × 3 + 10 × 2 38

We explained previously that a balanced condition is achieved when steel yields at the same

time as the concrete fails, and that failure usually happens suddenly. This implies that the yield

strain in the steel is reached (εy = fy /Es ) and that the concrete has reached its maximum strain

of 0.003. The percentage of reinforcement used to produce a balanced condition is called the

balanced steel ratio, ρb . This value is equal to the area of steel, As , divided by the effective

cross section, bd :

As(balanced)

ρb =

bd

Figure 3.10 Forces in a nonrectangular section.

where

b = width of compression face of member

d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension

reinforcement

Two basic equations for the analysis and design of structural members are the two equations

of equilibrium that are valid for any load and any section:

1. The compression force should be equal to the tension force; otherwise, a section will have

linear displacement plus rotation:

C=T (3.12)

2. The internal nominal bending moment, Mn, is equal to either the compressive force, C,

multiplied by its arm or the tension force, T, multiplied by the same arm:

Mn = C(d − z) = T (d − z)

(Mu = φMn after reduction by the factor φ.) (3.13)

The use of these equations can be explained by considering the case of a rectangular section

with tension reinforcement (Fig. 3.8). The section may be balanced, underreinforced, or over re-

inforced, depending on the percentage of steel reinforcement used.

Let us consider the case of a balanced section, which implies that at maximum load the strain

in concrete equals 0.003 and that of steel equals the first yield stress at distance dt divided by

the modulus of elasticity of steel, fy /Es . This case is explained by the following steps.

cb 0.003

=

dt − cb fy /Es

From triangular relationships (where cb is c for a balanced section) and by adding the

numerator to the denominator,

cb 0.003

=

dt 0.003 + fy /Es

Substituting Es = 29 × 103 ksi,

I \

87

cb = dt (fy in ksi) (3.14)

87 + fy

where fy is in ksi.

ec = 0.003 0.85fc′

a/2

a a C = 0.85fc′ab

Cb

d

dt

As

T = As f y

ey = fy /Es

b

- RectangularTanks PCAUploaded byCésar Orbe
- S0002-9947-1945-0014024-0Uploaded byRajendra Kamble
- Analysis of C-C Short Cylindrical Shells under Internal Pressure using Polynomial Series Shape Function.Uploaded bytheijes
- outcome1 t2Uploaded byhuyctt
- UserNotes Beam Column Tie 20120804Uploaded byJoseph Johnston
- FT 3-8 Sem 090710Uploaded byVivek Vishwakarma
- Prokon - p1a_seismicUploaded byBrielle Ekira Bermudez
- 98m Stack Design Calculations 4Uploaded byOuseppachan Ambooken
- s Tn Rcs General 001 1Uploaded byHamed Roshanaei
- 76 Pipeline ClarkUploaded byanup_sahani
- Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain 507-525Uploaded byPedro Pinia
- EURME 404(Mechanics of Solids 1)Uploaded bySri Kay
- Strength-of-Materials.docUploaded byMohammed Imran
- Bending Stress CalculationsUploaded byschaali
- Problem 1 006Uploaded byOscar Sanchez
- CH6.pdfUploaded byAguero Aguero
- 1663-1663-1-PB.pdfUploaded byRenner Egalon
- Wang Stress Analysis2009Uploaded byShital Chaudhari
- Shear DesignUploaded byMuhammad Saeed Zafar
- Rajat Report on Folding TableUploaded byRajat Thakur
- ANSYS Stress LinearizationUploaded byTiago Candeias
- An Introduction to Mechanics of Solids>>>>Uploaded byRaushan Jha
- Experimental Model of The Semicircular Laminated Composite Curved BarsUploaded byInternational Journal of Structronics & Mechatronics
- connection designUploaded byjageshwari
- Mech 302- Strength of Materials SyllabusUploaded byHarold Taylor
- EOTA TR029 BONDED ANCHORS.pdfUploaded byJohn Martinos
- Concrete Floors for Light LoadsUploaded bydicktracy11
- BinsUploaded byprachi chauhan
- Notes3 Cracking Flexure-1sxrh32Uploaded byWayne Cheng Zhu
- 28 Days CuringUploaded byNur Hawa

- ESTIMATE by Max FajardoUploaded byJay-Jay Japs
- Design of Anchor ReinforcementUploaded bywudongxiao3953
- Road Traffic SignsUploaded byRonald McRonald
- Design of Industrial TrussUploaded byGurnam Singh Sodhi
- RC Design.pdfUploaded byZerihun Ibrahim
- Structural Steel Design, 5th EdUploaded byMais Maher Aldwaik
- Open Flow ChannelUploaded byNitish Ramdawor
- EssayUploaded byMuhammad Zar
- T1GYM.anlUploaded byOliver
- Design of Industrial TrussUploaded byGurnam Singh Sodhi
- Properties of Philippine Woods & TimberUploaded byEngr'Shemaiah Jimenez
- 89Uploaded byOliver
- Pricelist LettersizeUploaded byOliver
- BCA - Worked Examples Design of Concrete BuildingUploaded bySaw Is Saw
- Kupdf.net Design of Steel Roof TrussUploaded byOliver
- Pricelist RebarsUploaded byOliver
- Presentation Four Types of R&D DariusUploaded byMuhammad Rashid Jaidon ⎝⏠⏝⏠⎠
- Mortar and Grout for Unit MasonryUploaded byOliver

- m13 l18 Grit Chamber ContdUploaded byahmedmagdi2009
- Computational Analysis Of Notched Fin Array Using Natural ConvectionUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flow Simulation Based on Kinetic ModelsUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- 079. Phase RuleUploaded bysantho_sk555
- Notes 58 - Geometric Stiffness - P-DeltaUploaded byumar_contact
- FoT-MM-Syllabus.pdfUploaded byAkshay Dolas
- ASD mid 2 imp uesUploaded byNobleSharma
- MEMS - problemsUploaded byAntonio Gadaleta
- (IIW Collection) a. F. Hobbacher (Auth.)-Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components-Springer International Publishing (2016)Uploaded byLiebherrT
- 05 01 0036 SCGoel Performance Based Plastic DesignUploaded bym4004
- Thermal Resistance of Air CavityUploaded byAhmed Mostafa
- Factors Affecting Beam StrengthUploaded bykalpanaadhi
- DcvUploaded byburhanuddin bhavnagarwala
- real burUploaded byAnyelo Monsalve
- The Theory of One-Dimensional Consolidation of Saturated Clays-Gibson, England & HuseyUploaded byAnonymous GnfGTw
- Sengara, I.W., (2008). Soil-Basement Structure Interaction Analysis on Dynamic Lateral Earth Pressure on Basement WallUploaded byyudhatebe10
- Reichl L.E. a Modern Course in Statistical Physics (2ed, Wiley, 1998)Uploaded byOmar Varela
- Calculating Thermal Bridges and Fabric Moisture - Sebastian Moreno, Passivhaus BelgiumUploaded byGiuseppe Onorevoli
- L-03 Flexural Strengthening of StructuresUploaded byQaiser Iqbal
- CHAPTER 30 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass TransferUploaded byYahir Zamudio
- Light vs SoundUploaded byHadi Hassan
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byRyan Trajano Espalmado
- DETAILED STUDY AND EXECUTION WORK IN POST TENSION SLABSUploaded byrahulgehlot2008
- MHI Technical Review_Supercritical BoilerUploaded byYou Wei Wong
- Calcium Sulphate StudyUploaded byAnonymous PBRD4gnnMf
- Properties of Fluids-AUploaded bymedian27
- HW2 MAT E 202 W18Uploaded byTahir
- BAB 7. Mechanical PropertiesUploaded byRissa
- handbook for durco quarter turn control valveUploaded byrieza_f
- 53_Krys Bangert.pdfUploaded byLuthfi Ady