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ABSTRACT VOLUME

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World Water Week in Stockholm


27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse


ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017
Water and waste: reduce and reuse

Contents
Seminar: Water in the circular economy: opportunities and challenges ..................................... 3
Seminar: Wastewater and health – managing risks, seizing opportunities ............................... 21
Seminar: Financing wastewater treatment and resource recovery .......................................... 43
Seminar: Smart solutions in water and waste management for liveable cities ......................... 51
Seminar: Harnessing opportunities for the safe reuse of wastewater in agriculture ............... 77
Seminar: Water, pollution, and systemic challenges: the case of the textile industry …….... 100
Seminar: Opportunities and limits to water pollution regulations ........................................... 113
Seminar: Governance of water and waste: a key to sustainable development? ..................... 131
Seminar: Understanding the gender dimension of water and waste....................................... 156

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 2


Seminar: Water in the circular economy:
opportunities and challenges

Photo: iStock

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 3


Seminar: Water in the circular economy: opportunities and challenges

Contents
A circular economy approach to wastewater treatment - A Danish example ...................... 5
GreenSpeed - Integrated wastewater treatment and biobased production ........................ 7
Local circular economy loops in between sectors .................................................................. 9
One Water' strategies for corporate engagement ................................................................ 11
Quantifying the circular water economy: The case of Singapore ......................................... 13
Replication of circular sanitation economies enables opportunity ......................................14
Technology innovation in implementing a circular economy strategy .................................16
Urban water services transitioning to a circular economy .................................................... 17
Poster: Managing waste streams in a house - lessons in decentralization...........................19

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 4


A circular economy approach to wastewater treatment - A Danish example
Presenting Mr. Theis Gadegaard, Denmark, Krüger A/S
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Ole Johnsen, Denmark, Billund Water Utility

Highlights
A biorefinery has been built at the existing Grindsted WWTP in Denmark that demonstrates circular economy.
The plant utilizes new technologies that process raw materials consisting of wastewater, separated organic
household waste and organic waste from industries. Outputs are purified water, energy, fertilizer and
feedstock for polymer production

Introduction and objectives


The Billund BioRefinery was developed and built in a PPP-project supported by a grant from the Danish EPA
to demonstrate how Denmark and the utility sector together with technology suppliers can take a circular
economy approach in wastewater and waste handling. Drivers for the project included:
• EU initiatives on Circular Economy
• Finding renewable and storable energy sources
• Danish water sector law requiring savings on utility operations but limiting the types of acceptable
activities
• Local Municipal strategy to lower energy consumption and CO 2 emissions
• Local Municipal strategy to lower nutrient loading on local receiving waters

Methodology approach
The heart of the refinery is the thermal hydrolysis system. The purpose is to recover energy and produce
more refined products from wastewater and organic waste, i.e. biofertilizer, Struvite, biogas, biopolymer and
water for reuse. The nutrients in the wastewater are mainly captured in the WWTP in simultaneous biological
processes and made accessible in excess hygienized biofertilizer. The influent is a mix of domestic and
industrial wastewater and some rainfall from combined sewers generating biological sludge. Household
waste is sorted and collected in paper bags. The industrial waste is delivered by trucks and categorized by
energy density

Analysis and results


The BioRefinery demonstrates new waste and wastewater technologies in a new, fully-integrated
configuration. All processes are interconnected through on-line control “smart” systems that adapt to
alternating load. The amount of remaining biofertilizer is minimized and the yield of CO 2-neutral biogas is
maximized with thermal hydrolysis and double digestion. The BioRefinery is an "open concept" that can
collect all types of organics and convert them into valuable resources, closing the loop of carbon and
nutrients from farm to table and back. To avoid pollutant components in the wastewater (and thus eventually
the biofertilizer), all industries have outlet control of flow, heavy metals content and content of xenobiotic
components. The approval is published by the local authority - Billund Municipality. The biowaste is sorted
and collected at local households and industries. Sludge and organic waste is carefully mixed and codigested
to give energy excess of +200%, turning biogas into electricity and excess heat. Actual Effluent Values 2016
for the WWTP (10 months operation) are as low as 25% of regulatory. The biofertilizer contains 6 kg P/ton and
11 kg N/ton and has a slow rate release in the local agricultural soil. Annual energy production is around 12
Gwh.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 5


Conclusions and recommendation
The biorefinery is a showcase example of the circular economy demonstrating how wastewater utilities can
contribute to the local and national economy and improve the environment. The Danish example business
model has ROI of 8-10 years. The biorefinery is scalable and replicable, and can be built anywhere these raw
materials are available for reasons of hygiene and the environment need to be treated safely; and the output
products can be applied locally, regardless of geography. With the proven technologies, setup and business
case it is recommended for other Wastewater utilities to be proactive as Billund and close the local/regional
loops.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 6


GreenSpeed - Integrated wastewater treatment and biobased production
Presenting Prof. Marianne Thomsen, Denmark, Aarhus University
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Kim Helmo, Denmark, Helmo Consult

Highlights
GreenSpeed may transform wastewater treatment plants into net energy producers
GreenSpeed may provide climate change mitigation services and added value bioproducts

Introduction and objectives


Several Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have implemented energy as well as nitrogen,
phosphorous and carbon management strategies, resulting in several of the Danish WWTPs to become
carbon neutral energy producing plants. Besides reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption,
technologies for combined water treatment and green production is emerging in Denmark and globally.
GreenSpeed wastewater treatment represents a low carbon technology, designed to reduce the energy
consumption and N2O emission, while assimilating CO2, NH4+, PO4- and K by microalgae subsequently used as
a carbon rich resource for biogas production or for the production of high-value products.

Methodology approach
A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of introducing the GreenSpeed technology at existing WWTP in
Denmark were analyzed. The WWTP designs differ regarding: (1) treatment capacity, (2) N and P
management strategies (e.g. chemical precipitation vs. biological treatment), (3) C management strategy
(e.g. biogas and sludge-derived fertilizer production). The increased resource-efficiency obtained from
implementation GreenSpeed were assessed with focus on the potential to reduction in GHG (CH 4 and N2O)
emissions, and substitution of COD consumption with CO 2 release, by microalgal production. The LCA were
accompanied by a cost-benefit structure analysis and performed in accordance with international standards
ISO 14040-44.

Analysis and results


Implementation of GreenSpeed at decentralized WWTPs (≤ 20.000 PE) vs. centralized WWTPs ≥ 100.000 PE
showed differences in the environmental and economic cost-benefit structure. Several environmental and
economic benefits were observed for the decentralized plants, while a reduction in biogas production at the
centralized WWTPs receiving sludge from decentralized WWTPs represents a reduction in the return on
Investment. Pilot plant testing at a two-step WWTP of the size 25.000 PE showed that a GreenSpeed process
volume of 3,240 m3, are able to capture 53-67% of the nitrogen and 15-19% of the phosphorous in the influent
wastewater. Such microalgae assimilation capacity results in reduction in the energy consumption for
aeration during conventional biological treatment. Furthermore, a reduction in the N 2O emission
corresponding to the percent N assimilated in the microalgae biomass is resulting. Pilot testing shows a
continuous growth rate corresponding to 10.8 ton fresh weight microalgae harvest per day with a dry matter
(DM) content of 20%. Data showing a CH4 conversion factor of 300 l CH4/ kg VS points towards a biogas
production per year in the range of 2-3 TJ, which corresponds to an increase in the biogas production at the
test study plant of 36%.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 7


Conclusions and recommendation
Initial studies reveal a budget economic opportunity for decentralized plants in valorizing their resources in
wastewater. The results of the LCA and cost-benefit analysis have identified barriers and opportunities for
WWTPs to become net energy producers contributing to climate change mitigation. Emerging opportunities
for increased revenues from integrated wastewater treatment and biobased production systems have been
identified in terms of protein and antioxidant extraction prior to biogas and fertilizer production. GreenSpeed
is a low carbon resource-efficient wastewater treatment technology providing the opportunity for WTPs to
become climate neutral while returning resources in wastewater back into the economic system.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 8


Local circular economy loops in between sectors
Presenting Dr. Martine Vullierme, France, Veolia
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
Municipalities and industry need to optimize their water management within the watershed in which they
are located. Taking a Circular Economy - CE- approach with water assets maintenance and development can
be the enabling factor for a healthy local economy and in line with the central role of water.

Introduction and objectives


Population growth, economic development, improved quality of life, and limited resources provide the
catalyst for a circular economy approach not only for water, but also its nexus with energy and materials.
Water and the water-material nexus can benefit and be leveraged through the restorative and reuse nature
of CE. Based on their experiences with connecting best practices and applying them in an impactful way for
the benefits of their municipal and industrial customers around the world, the authors have identified and
will share a number of CE pathways, success factors and barriers towards implementation.

Methodology approach
The circular economy is based on the concept that waste is designed out of or extracted from flows at the
onset, and that net material flows are balanced, such that extraction rates do not exceed return or output
rates. As appropriate based on geography and local conditions, evidence shows progress is aligned with the
three CE Design Principles:
• All durables are reused,
• Consumables are used in multiple cascading cycles before safe return into the natural environment,
and
• All natural capital (including energy) is used only to the extent they can be regenerated

Analysis and results


Examples from water scarce regions illustrate the benefits and challenges of the CE approach. The authors
experience reveals that CE best develops in three basic ways:
• by removing the technical, administrative, and governance silos between water and wastewater.
Since 2003, this allowed the Windhoek potable water direct reuse scheme to support 300,000
inhabitants;
• by removing the social and sectoral silos between industries, cities and the civil society. The Durban
(SA) Recycling Plant makes it possible for industry to switch manufacturing processes to recycled
water, using 98% of the city’s reclaimed wastewater. In Honolulu, Hawaii, the 38,000 m3/d municipal
treatment plant produces water for its industrial park and for irrigation.
• By moving beyond infrastructure and operation silos to a holistic, integrated life-cycle view. This
approach is increasingly applied by public utilities in arid zones with a strong push towards Non-
Revenue Water Management such as in Oman, Riyadh or Tangiers). The concept is also applied in
the industry, such as Shell in Qatar where the water generated during the gas-to-liquid process is
fully reused on site, leading to zero liquid discharge management.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 9


Conclusions and recommendation
Current linear economic and business models need to move to a circular model to alleviate escalating demand
for scarce water resources. Technical solutions are already available and more effective ones will continue to
become available. However, implementation of technical solutions can be a challenge if the enabling
environment is not ready. Changes in regulatory and institutional frameworks are necessary to encourage
circular solutions. Effective implementation of CE concepts will require acknowledging and adapting
practices to local conditions, obtaining stakeholder consensus, having accurate metrics, and allowing
adequate time for implementation.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 10


One Water' strategies for corporate engagement
Presenting Dr. Alex Money, United Kingdom, Smith School of Enterprise
Author: and the Environment

Co-Authors:

Highlights
The circular water economy can improve the alignment between corporate water strategy and stakeholder
expectations.
This could catalyse social, economic and political momentum necessary to facilitate broader transitions to
non-linear water use.
It would unlock value that is embedded in water as a corporate asset, rather than a risk liability.

Introduction and objectives


Questions of quality, quantity and social licence are well rehearsed in the literature on corporate water
strategy. I begin by challenging the orthodoxy of current best-in-class approaches by companies to manage
stakeholder expectations - focusing on efficiency and replenishment. From there I present a paradigmatic
model using the circular water economy as a unique and powerful tool to align corporate strategy;
accountability and disclosure; and stakeholder engagement.
Presented as a work in progress, I propose avenues for incorporating circular economy approaches as a tool
to catalyse innovation, enhance stewardship, and benchmark progress towards the sustainable management
of water resources.

Methodology approach
Question: Can the sharing economy paradigm align corporate water strategy with stakeholder expectations,
and unlock the embedded value of water as an asset?
Approach: I will describe gaps between strategy and expectations based on extant best-in-class approaches,
and illustrate how and why a 'one water' methodological approach could close those gaps.
Method: Using real-world exemplars of efficiency and replenishment targets, I will discuss their limitations as
proxy solutions, and contrast this to a 'one water' approach. I will suggest that incorporating the shared
economy into corporate water strategies will expedite the development of new models that facilitate
broader environmental transitions.

Analysis and results


Many companies have public targets to reduce their water use per unit of output. But let us imagine all
incremental efficiency measures have been taken. Now, suppose an exogenous shock results in reduced
water availability. The efficient company has no 'fat in the system' - which means that the shock cannot be
mitigated. As a result there is either a direct effect on operations (making performance more volatile) or the
company has to take a greater share of available water (threatening its social licence). Perversely, a less
efficient water user may not face this Hobson's choice.
This presents philosophical and practical questions as to whether targeting absolute efficiency is the optimal
approach for companies and stakeholders. But rather than the strategy above - that identifies water as a
liability whose use should should be minimised - what are the prospects for a 'one water' strategy that
identifies water as an asset whose value should be maximised?

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 11


In this context, what becomes salient is 'water asset turnover' - a much richer conception of efficiency than
per unit approaches. It allows for the value of water to be recaptured and realised both within and beyond
the operational fence line.

Conclusions and recommendation


Examples of 'one water' frameworks are emerging, e.g. Nestle's Lagos de Moreno dairy factory in Jalisco.
But the approach is still largely dependant on companies' local production imperatives rather than their
global strategic aspirations. The circular water economy can improve alignment between corporate water
strategy and stakeholder expectations. This in turn could catalyse the social, economic and political
momentum necessary to facilitate broader transitions to non-linear water use. It will expedite the
technological innovation necessary to capture a growing share of the value that is embedded in water as a
corporate asset; rather than its risk as a corporate liability.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 12


Quantifying the circular water economy: The case of Singapore
Presenting Dr. Julian Kirchherr, Netherlands, Utrecht University
Author:

Co-Authors: Prof. Asit Biswas, Singapore


Mr. Martin Stavenhagen (Institute of Water Policy, National
University of Singapore)
Mr. Paul Schot (Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University)

Highlights
• Singapore is the world’s model country on the circular water economy
• We provide the very first quantitative assessment of this circular water economy showcasing the
economic value created compared to a linear economy
• Our assessment provides a fact base and a quantification approach for policymakers and water
managers contemplating the transition to a circular water economy

Introduction and objectives


Singapore is internationally recognized as the model country on the circular water economy. Although the
various measures undertaken in Singapore to reduce, reuse and retain water have been described by a variety
of scholars, e. g. Luan (2010), Chen et al. (2011), Tortajada et al. (2013), Tortajada & Joshi (2013), or Lee & Tan
(2016), no holistic quantitative assessment has been undertaken so far on Singapore’s closed water loop. Our
paper intends to address this gap. We quantify the economic value of Singapore’s circular water economy
compared to a linear water economy.

Methodology approach
The economic model developed for this paper refines the modeling approach chosen by Hieminga et al.
(2017) who calculated the economic value of a circular water economy for selected countries, while our break-
even point calculations emulates the approach chosen by Louwen et al. (2016). Our model is iterated with
decision-makers and experts of Singapore’s circular water economy, e. g. policy-makers interviewed at
Singapore’s Public Utilities Board (PUB) and/or Singapore’s Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources
(MEWR).

Analysis and results


Our quantifications indicate that Singapore’s circular water economy creates less economic value in the
short-term than a linear water economy since particularly recycling water is a costly endeavor. However, we
also evidence that the economic value of the country’s circular water economy is far greater than the value
created by a linear water economy in the medium- and long-term since it helps to reduce exacerbating water
scarcity in the country. In particular, our findings on the break-even point are largely in line with previous
quantitative assessments of the circular economy. Various measures are discussed which may further reduce
the amortization period for a circular water economy, while we also outline the particularities of our case
study to highlight the limits on external validity of our findings.

Conclusions and recommendation


Our quantitative assessment indicates that Singapore’s circular water economy creates vast economic value
compared to a linear water economy in the medium- and long-term and is thus instrumental in ensuring
sustainable water access for the country’s private and industrial water users. The quantification approach
outlined in our paper may be replicated by those interested in calculating the economic value implications of
a circular water economy, while our overall assessment provides a fact base for those contemplating the
transition to a circular water economy.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 13


Replication of circular sanitation economies enables opportunity
Presenting Ms. Eleanor Allen, United States, CEO Water For People
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Brenda Achiro Muthemba, Uganda, N/A


Mr. Steve Sugden, United Kingdom
Ms. Kelly Latham, United States

Highlights
Creating a circular economy around human waste - or brown gold - is the ultimate contribution to improving
health, protecting the environment, and generating business opportunities. Making a step-change aligned
with Sustainable Development Goal 6.2 requires new technologies, proven business models, capacity
building, market forces, and government partnerships.

Introduction and objectives


The world is in a state of crisis – one third of the global population still does not have access to a toilet.
Developing disruptive and game-changing approaches are required to overcome this global scourge and
solve this crisis. Water For People has a scalable model in East Africa that is tested and replicable for
decentralized sanitation systems. By coupling sanitation with resource-recovery technologies with business
models and capacity building, we aim to catalyze a sanitation renaissance and through scale and progress
faster towards safely managed sanitation for all.

Methodology approach
The rural and peri-urban areas in East Africa will not be sewered by 2030 (if ever). Water For People plays a
facilitating role to catalyze business opportunities within the market system along the value chain of on-site
sanitation while also providing quality, affordable, and accessible services to the poor. We apply proven
technologies (e.g., desirable toilets, pit life extender, DEFAST, etc.) to cover the entire value chain of
sanitation (toilets, pits/tanks emptying, collection, sludge treatment, and sludge reuse). Our approach builds
upon Water For People’s impact model – Everyone Forever (EF) and our ideal is zero waste.

Analysis and results


EF provides sustained sanitation services for every community member through infrastructure and institution
building. We work with government partners and private sector to help create business opportunities using
market forces that are all part of the circular economy of brown gold.
Business opportunities that Water For People is currently incubating and accelerating are:
• Building toilets
• Improving toilets
• Supporting start-up of pit emptying businesses and continuous development of better pit
emptying technologies
• Reuse of wastewater (where available) for flush toilets
• Building and operating decentralized fecal sludge treatment plants (DEDFAST)
• Working with governments to support smart subsidies to spark sanitation
• Developing sludge products for sale such as fuel briquettes, fertilizers and compost
• Creating and supporting sources of credit for loans for toilets
• Starting call centers and enabling infrastructure for pit emptiers in peri-urban areas
• Partnering with others for large-scale urban treatment works of fecal sludge

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 14


Water For People has 38 sanitation market initiatives in various stages throughout East Africa. The outcome
of developing this circular economy sanitation paradigm is stronger communities that are cleaner, healthier,
and more economically productive.

Conclusions and recommendation


One of the most exciting aspects of decentralized sanitation is the ability to create business opportunities
while also solving a societal problem and working towards SDG6. This change occurs through infrastructure
development as well as through creation and transformation of sanitation services. We are focused on
driving this change with market forces and innovative technologies with a holistic approach and a vision on
creating circular economies. All of this we will do in partnership with government to ensure long-term
success. Our track record is good to date and we are focused on scale and replication.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 15


Technology innovation in implementing a circular economy strategy
Presenting Mr. Cody Friesen, United States, Zero Mass Water
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. William Sarni, United States, Zero Mass Water

Highlights
Alternative sources of water are an integral part of a circular economy strategy for water. In particular, air
moisture capture technology for residential use is a viable technology to move towards an off-grid solution
to providing access to water.

Introduction and objectives


The objective of this presentation is to highlight the importance of water technology innovation in addressing
SDG 6.1. Specifically, how air moisture capture technology "powered" by solar technology can provide an
alternative to centralized drinking water or access to unsafe water. A roadmap of technology identification,
funding and scaling the technology solution will be presented along with recommendations to facilitate
water technology innovation and adoption.

Methodology approach
Universal access to safe drinking water remains a global challenge and traditional approaches have had
limited success. Traditional solutions of deploying centralized water systems or residential systems remain
challenging in emerging markets. "Democratizing" access to safe drinking water through deploying air
moisture capture systems powered by solar systems frees individual families to secure access to safe drinking
water - providing high quality and high security. This innovative off grid approach bypasses many of the
hurdles in deploying large scale and more traditional small scale water systems.

Analysis and results


A case study will presented highlighting the success of bringing together academic research in material
science with proven entrepreneurship and socially mined funding sources from outside the water sector. The
challenges of implementing an innovative water technology will be presented along with a long term strategy
to identify and build a business ecosystem of stakeholders to scale the off grid solution to accessing safe
drinking water. Technical, funding and adoption challenges will be presented along with examples of
successful implementation in the Middle East, Central America, Mexico and the US.

Conclusions and recommendation


Stakeholders need 21st Century technology solutions to achieve SDG 6.1 Accelerating technology innovation
coupled with catalyzing an ecosystem of stakeholders to fund and deploy these technologies shows promise
in ensuring universal access to safe drinking water. Technology innovation and entrepreneurs outside the
traditional water sector can bring new ideas and strategies to address the poor access to safe drinking water.
These entrepreneurs working with the public sector, socially responsible funders and multinationals have
been successful in implementing new solutions to a circular economy strategy.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 16


Urban water services transitioning to a circular economy
Presenting Dr. Astrid Michels, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Author: Internationale Zusammenarbeit

Co-Authors: Ms. Corinne Trommsdorf, International Water Association,


Netherlands
Mr. Andres, Rojo, Die Internationale Gesellschaft für deutsche
Zusammenarbeit, Mexico
Mr. Kittisak Unwerawattana, Die Internationale Gesellschaft
für deutsche Zusammenarbeit, Thailand

Highlights
Four case studies from Mexico, Peru, Thailand and Jordan demonstrate the opportunities for urban utilities
to transition to a circular economy by adopting energy recovering, water reuse, and nutrient recycling
measures. Challenges include access to financing to implement new technologies as well as incentives for a
low carbon water sector.

Introduction and objectives


A resource-hungry future urgently requires the water sector to embrace a paradigm shift from removing
pollutants in wastewater to resource recovery opportunities. By transitioning to a circular economy approach
and towards recycling nutrients, reusing treated wastewater, and recovering clean energy, utilities can
significantly reduce their carbon footprint. Four case studies from across the world (Mexico, Peru, Thailand
and Jordan) demonstrate how utilities are pioneering the way to a low carbon water industry for others to
follow and contribute to carbon targets agreed to under the nationally determined contributions.

Methodology approach
The project ‘Water and wastewater utilities for climate change mitigation (WaCCliM)’ supports climate
change mitigation efforts in the water sector using a cross-sectoral approach that links water, energy and
food security to developing concepts for a climate resilient and low emission water industry.
The project uses a systems approach and considers all components of the urban water cycle from water
supply, wastewater to reuse of water. Pilot measures on energy efficiency, water loss reduction as well as
energy generation from biogas are implemented with lead executing agencies to reduce overall greenhouse
gas emissions.

Analysis and results


Optimising energy use as well as wastewater treatment processes provide opportunities for significant GHG
reductions across the entire urban water cycle. Through energy generation from biogas, energy efficient
pumps, significant amounts of CO2e can be reduced. In the city of Cusco, Peru, for example ~ 4000 t CO2e/a
were avoided through improved sludge management resulting in increased biogas production. Furthermore,
1230 tons CO2e/a can be reduced through refurbishing old pumps with new energy efficient pumps. In the
city of Chiang Mai in Thailand, 130 tCO2e/a can be reduced through more energy efficient pumping stations
and the reduction of infiltration in the sewer network. In Guanajuato, Mexico; the wastewater utility reduced
its carbon footprint by 20% (120tCO2e/a) through energy optimisation measures. Expanding wastewater
service levels led to additional reductions of 2200tCO2e/a.
At the national level, the program provides technical support to water experts and utility staff managers to
improve the political, regulatory and institutional framework and integrate emission reduction measures to
reduce the waters sector carbon footprint. Technical assistance is provided to support the multiplication of
pilot measures, development of incentives for national mitigation strategies and the introduction of
appropriate financing instruments.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 17


Conclusions and recommendation
While utilities are engaging in technologies and practices that support a circular economy, some challenges
remain: remodeling of the water sector towards a sustainable low-carbon future requires country ownership
and the provision of sufficient financing that facilitates the deployment of new technologies. In addition,
robust water sector GHG accounting and monitoring, and sharing best practices within the industry to ensure
wide adoption of an economically viable and sustainable transition to decarbonisation is needed. Investment
in decarbonizing the water sector significantly contributes to meet the Nationally Determined Contributions
agreed in the COP21 Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 18


Poster: Managing waste streams in a house - lessons in decentralization
Presenting Mr. Vishwanath Srikantaiah, India, Biome Environmental Trust
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
Water management, urban, technology, storage, sanitation

Introduction and objectives


Running an ecological design practice provides an opportunity to include management of water and waste-
water in individual buildings and institutions we design.
In the context of Bengaluru,where at a city level water has become a scarce resource,it is possible to easily
integrate rainwater harvesting , greywater recycling, kitchen waste composting, and terrace gardening into
individual homes and institutional buildings such as schools to reduce dependency on external water and
sanitation systems. Not only is harvested rainwater a major supplement but the nutrients from ecosan and
greywater can be used productively for food production at household level.

Methodology approach
Designing of building often avoids services such as water and wastewater infrastructure assuming a link to
the city lines. More often than not buildings in the periphery of a growing city have to create independent
services such as a borewell for water supply and septic tanks for sanitation systems.Analysing rainfall pattern
both storage and recharge systems were designed to hold and reuse rainwater. Greywater tanks were
located to catch clothes wash and bath water and filtered using biological systems for reuse in toilet flushing
and for vegetable cultivation. Ecosan toilets provided urine and dessicated faeces as fertiliser for crops.

Analysis and results


In the design of a large school building it was possible to capture almost all the rainwater falling in a large
sump tank. This water is filtered before being used for drinking. For toilets it is used directly. Greywater
treatment system recycle water for flushing requirement. The school with 200 students is independent of
the city system for water and wastewater management.
In most houses depending on the rooftop area between 100,000 to 200,000 litres of rainwater is harvested
annually.Where a perched aquifer exists an open well provides all the water requirement of the house and is
recharged using rooftop rainwater. Greywater systems recycle almost all shower and washing machine
water. By replacing detergents with ecofriendly soaps it is possible to simplify treatment requirements. Twin
leach pit toilets and ecosan toilets provide safe containment and reuse of faeces.This in turn is reused for
growing rooftop vegetable gardens. Kitchen waste is composted and reused on site. A rooftop provides an
ideal space for reusing greywater and nutrients from human waste as also to harvest rain. About 40 sq. mt.
of roof area can provide water, food and energy security and also take care of waste from a house in
Bengaluru.

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 19


Conclusions and recommendation
By designing for rainwater harvesting,water efficient fixtures,recycling systems,ecosan toilets it is possible
to supplement water requirements to a great extent and complete the food cycle using nutrients from
human and kitchen waste.Ecological design is the way forward in closing the water and nutrient loop.
Architects and engineers can play a crucial role in addressing the water and wastewater management of cities
Simple design tools and filters for rainwater and greywater recycling is needed to help take the design
implementation forward. Building byelaws and tax incentives can be thought of aprropriately for each city to
to encourage such designs .

Abstract Volume – World Water Week 2017 20


Seminar: Wastewater and health –
managing risks, seizing opportunities

Photo: Robert Bos

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

21
Seminar: Wastewater and health – managing risks, seizing opportunities

Contents
A health risk assessment of wastewater use in Ghana ........................................................223
Development of a sanitation safety plan for peri-urban areas, Tanzania .......................... 225
Effects of fecal sludge in wastewater stabilization ponds: Port-au-Prince, Haiti ...............227
Identifying water quality hotspots for contacts with contaminated surface waters ....... 229
Making pathogens visible to guide investment in what matters .......................................... 31
Modelling impacts of waste treatment options.................................................................... 33
National standards for wastewater treatment - what is "safely treated"? ......................... 34
Processes and challenges of faecal sludge management in Odisha, India .......................... 35
Poster: Effective managing risks in cascade of reservoirs .................................................... 37
Poster: Evaluating hazards and risks of water sources in Sultan Kudarat ........................... 39
Poster: Wastewater reuse and the burden of parasitic diseases in Nigeria ......................... 41

22
A health risk assessment of wastewater use in Ghana
Presenting Dr. Prince Antwi-Agyei, United Kingdom, London School of
Author: Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Co-Authors: Prof. Sandy Cairncross, United Kingdom


Dr. Anne Peasey, United Kingdom, University College of
London
Dr. Jeroen Ensink, United Kingdom

Highlights
• Produce contamination should be managed at all domains along the food chain, although prioritising
markets and kitchens would be a more cost-effective approach.
• Awareness of wastewater irrigation health risks alone is insufficient for vendors and consumers to
adopt risk reduction measures, or influence them when buying produce or prepared salad.

Introduction and objectives


Wastewater use in urban agriculture is common as a result of rapid urbanisation, water scarcity, and the high
cost of treating urban wastewater. The use of wastewater holds clear benefits to farmers, but also poses
serious health risks to farmers and consumers of wastewater irrigated produce. This study aimed at
identifying key risk factors for produce contamination at different entry points of the food chain. It also
assesses participants’ awareness and knowledge of wastewater irrigation practices, associated health risks,
and the adoption of health protective measures.

Methodology approach
In the period from September 2012 to August 2013, over 500 produce and ready-to-eat salad samples were
collected from fields, markets, and food stalls in eight neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana during two cropping
seasons, and over 300 soil and irrigation water samples were collected. All samples were analysed for E. coli,
human adenovirus and norovirus using standard microbiological procedures. In addition, almost 700
participants including wastewater farmers, market and street food vendors, chefs and consumers were
interviewed and observed to assess critical exposures associated with the transmission of faecal pathogens
in farmers and consumers.

Analysis and results


The results showed that over 80% of produce samples were found to be contaminated with E. coli, with
median concentrations from 0.64 to 3.84 Log E. coli/g produce. Street food salad was found to be the most
contaminated (4.23 Log E. coli/g), and that consumption of salads did not meet health standards. No street
food sample was found positive for viruses, while less than 10% of produce from farms and markets were
positive for adenovirus. Key risk factors identified for produce contamination included farm soil, the use of
wastewater for irrigation, poor food and environmental hygiene, and operating with a hygiene permit.
Awareness of the source of irrigation water was found to be low, but despite the high awareness of health
risk, consumers did not prioritize health indicators when buying produce from vendors but were motivated
to buy produce, or prepared food based on taste, friendship, cost, convenience and freshness of produce.
For example, only 2% of street food consumers relied on health indicators when buying food from vendors.
Similarly, farmers’ awareness of health risk did not influence their adoption of safer farm practices.

23
Conclusions and recommendation
The study findings suggest that farmers, vendors and consumers may not necessarily adopt risk reduction
measures based only on their awareness or knowledge of wastewater irrigation health risks. The study
recommends the promotion of interventions that would result in more direct benefits to producers and
vendors, together with hygiene education and inspection, hygiene certification and enforcement of food
safety byelaws in order to increase the uptake of the WHO multiple-barrier approach recommended for the
safe use of wastewater for agriculture. Access to credit schemes and improved land security are also
recommended to encourage farmers to adopt risk reduction measures.

24
Development of a sanitation safety plan for peri-urban areas, Tanzania
Presenting Dr. Marta Domini, Italy, CeTAmb LAB, University of Brescia
Author:

Co-Authors: Prof. Sabrina Sorlini, Italy, CeTAmb LAB, University of Brescia


Prof. Guenter Langergraber, Austria, University of Natural
Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)
Mr. Samson Maswaga, Tanzania, MAMADO

Highlights
• The research address the question of sanitation planning in peri-urban areas of low income countries
• Strengths and weaknesses of CLUES and SSP methodologies are examined within their application
to a case study in Tanzania
• The combined use of the tools is shown as successful in potentiate their effectiveness.

Introduction and objectives


The rapid urbanization occurring in most areas of developing countries contribute to worsen the problem of
adequate sanitation infrastructures and services, in particular in peri-urban areas. The study aims to explore
the domain of recent approaches to sanitation planning for improving the sanitation system in peri-urban
wards of the Municipality of Iringa, in Tanzania. In particular, the Sanitation Safety Plan (SSP) approach was
tested to investigate how it could be adapted to a specific context and used for supporting the planning of
an improved sanitation system focused on the safeguard of public health and environment.

Methodology approach
The research was conducted within an international cooperation project under development in peri-urban
wards of Iringa, selected as case study. Two approaches were tested: the Community-Led Urban
Environmental Sanitation (CLUES) and the Sanitation Safety Plan (SSP). The SSP was developed based on
guidelines of the WHO manual at research level and adapted for the specific context. A simplified matrix for
semi-quantitative risk assessment and a tool for prioritizing control measures based on weighted criteria
were developed for the case study. Strengths and weaknesses of these approaches applied in field were
evidenced and a methodology foreseeing their integrated use was proposed.

Analysis and results


The CLUES approach was applied involving stakeholders and communities of peri-urban wards of Iringa and
participatory methods were used for selecting feasible and acceptable sanitation options for designing an
improved sanitation system, named S1. A SSP was developed for the current sanitation system in place,
named S0. A risk assessment was conducted for S0 for each step of the sanitation chain identifying exposure
groups and routes, as well as hazards and related hazardous events. For each risk obtaining high level,
additional control measures were identified and integrated in the design of S1, applying a multi-barrier
perspective. The application of these planning tools resulted in the design of an improved system, and in the
development of an action plan and a monitoring and verification plan for its implementation.
In its application in field, CLUES showed to be a strong tool for involving local communities and institutions
in understanding sanitation problems and defining shared solutions. The SSP demonstrated to be
complementary to CLUES in addressing specifically health risks and issues, assuring that all measures needed
to control and reduce risks for health and environment in the whole sanitation chain were considered.

25
Conclusions and recommendation
The application of planning tools to the case study permitted to evidence strengths and limits of both
methodologies in the specific context, and the added value of combining them for designing an improved
sanitation system with a strong participatory component and based on a multi-barrier approach, for
guaranteeing the health risks control along the whole sanitation chain. The innovation suggested by this
research is the proposal of the integrated use of CLUES and SSP for the design of improved sanitation
systems in peri-urban areas which could be useful for others facing the challenge of sanitation in similar
contexts.

26
Effects of fecal sludge in wastewater stabilization ponds: Port-au-Prince,
Haiti
Presenting Dr. Rick Gelting, United States, Centers for Disease Control and
Author: Prevention

Co-Authors: Ms. Andrea Martinsen, United States, Centers for Disease


Control and Prevention
Mr. Allain Darius, Haiti, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention

Highlights
• Characterized the influent waste (including fecal sludge) arriving at a wastewater lagoon facility in
Port au Prince, Haiti
• Evaluated the performance of the lagoon facility in treating waste
• Recommended potential modifications for existing and future lagoon designs to treat high strength
waste that includes fecal sludge

Introduction and objectives


Most residents of Port au Prince, Haiti, rely on on-site sanitation facilities such as latrines, septic tanks, or
cesspools which require regular emptying and disposal due to their location in dense urban areas. At the
request of the National Water and Sanitation Agency of Haiti (DINEPA), a performance evaluation of one
disposal site, a non-discharging wastewater stabilization pond (WSP), was conducted to determine if the
facility was operating in accordance with its design, to better characterize the influent waste, and to assess
the effect of high-strength fecal sludge on treatment.

Methodology approach
In order to assess the performance of the WSP, grab samples were collected from trucks transporting fecal
sludge (both from septic tanks/cesspools and latrines) to the facility, and from pipes between each lagoon
cell at the facility. On each sampling visit (four total), we collected one sample from each lagoon process
step, as well as samples of septic tank/cesspool waste and latrine waste. As biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD5) was the main criteria used in the design of the facility, this was also the primary indicator used to
assess performance, although analysis of other parameters was also included.

Analysis and results


While the volume of waste entering the WSP is less than what it was originally designed for, the estimated
volumetric loading rate of BOD5 is approximately at capacity. This is primarily due to the high strength of the
fecal waste from latrines. The range of values for BOD5 found in latrine waste was approximately 5,000 to
almost 40,000 mg/L, which is much higher than previous literature would suggest. The facility does appear
to be performing approximately as designed in terms of overall BOD5 reduction, although reductions in each
lagoon cell do not conform to the design.
Accumulation of sludge in lagoon cells has been a significant challenge at the facility, and emptying sludge
from the anaerobic ponds has been required multiple times. Not only can the sludge accumulation increase
the operation and maintenance challenges at the facility, but it may also it may decrease the effectiveness of
treatment.
Although more sampling is required to confirm these results, this evaluation does suggest that design values
for BOD5 in this facility and others receiving fecal sludge from latrines may need to be modified, depending
on the proportion of waste that comes from latrines.

27
Conclusions and recommendation
Characterization of the strength of fecal sludge and treatment of high-strength fecal sludge in traditional
wastewater treatment facilities are not well understood, and more research is needed on these topics.
Possible modifications to this existing facility to help prevent solids overloading include adjusting grates to
prevent larger solids entering the system or pretreatment of high strength fecal sludge in drying beds or by
other means. More routine monitoring of this facility than was possible in this project, including building local
laboratory capacity to perform regular analysis of key parameters, is also needed.

28
Identifying water quality hotspots for contacts with contaminated surface
waters
Presenting Dr. Ilona Bärlund, Germany, Helmholtz Centre for
Author: Environmental Research-UFZ

Co-Authors: Dr. Martina Flörke, Germany, CESR, University of Kassel


Ms. Klara Reder, Germany, CESR, University of Kassel
Prof. Joseph Alcamo, Germany, CESR, University of Kassel

Highlights
Severe pathogen pollution affects around one-third of all river reaches in Latin America, Africa and Asia;
Cities are hotspots of wastewater generation and intake but also rural population is exposed through direct
contact to polluted surface waters;
Modelling can contribute to integrated assessment identifying river reaches potentially at risk

Introduction and objectives


The ongoing socio-economic development together with urbanization presents a challenge for water quality
worldwide, especially in developing and emerging countries. The amount of wastewater from domestic and
industrial sources is rising, which can lead to an increased risk of surface water quality degradation, if the
wastewater is not sufficiently treated before returned to water bodies. This in turn has impacts on
ecosystems and human health. The newly adopted targets for sustainable development include protection
of water quality and sustainable use of water resources. To achieve these goals, appropriate monitoring
strategies and the development of indicators for water quality are required.

Methodology approach
In the pre-study for a ‘World Water Quality Assessment’ a methodology for assessing freshwaters was
developed in order to distinguish river stretches potentially at risk due to degraded water quality. The
continental scale WorldQual model simulates loadings and in-stream concentrations to provide insight into
main sources of pollution and status of water quality. The exposure is described by direct human contact
with potentially polluted surface waters using faecal coliform bacteria (FC) as indicator. High FC levels
correlate with presence of dangerous pathogens. For the assessment a benchmark for safe and unsafe FC
levels was determined from existing water quality standards.

Analysis and results


The pre-study results indicate that severe pathogen pollution already affects around one-third of all river
stretches in Latin America, Africa and Asia. The number of people at risk to health by coming into contact
with polluted surface waters may range into the hundreds of millions on these continents. The temporal
trends from 1990 to 2010 reveal that FC loadings have increased on the average in all three continents. Most
of the FC pollution in Latin America comes from sewered domestic wastes (81%). For Africa, the majority of
FC comes from non-sewered domestic sources (56%), Sub-Saharan countries having the lowest levels of
sanitation coverage. In Asia, about half of FC comes from sewered domestic waste. Only about one-third of
all wastewater in Asia is treated. Among the most vulnerable groups are women and children. Women are at
particular risk because of their frequent usage of water from rivers and lakes for cleaning clothes and
collecting water for cooking and drinking in the household. Children are also at particular risk because of their
play activities in local surface waters and also because they often have the task of collecting water for the
household.

29
Conclusions and recommendation
The results indicate the key role of domestic wastewater as source for FC loadings which are high in areas of
high population density like cities. In general, the manufacturing and agricultural sectors are minor pollution
sources. However, these sectors are at risk if using polluted water for further processing. It is not only about
drinking water, this study highlights the exposure of rural population through direct contact to water.
Because sanitation and water use practices are of major importance, the improvement of wastewater
management is crucial for pollution prevention. Modelling can be used to run scenarios on improved
treatment effects.

30
Making pathogens visible to guide investment in what matters
Presenting Prof. Cynthia Mitchell, Australia, Institute for Sustainable
Author: Futures, UTS

Co-Authors: Dr. Kumi Abeysuriya, Australia


Ms. Katie Ross, Australia
Prof. Juliet Willetts, Australia

Highlights
Liquid streams (effluent, leachate, unintended leakage) from onsite and networked water-based sanitation
systems can pose a significant health hazard, but have received little attention. A new heuristic draws
attention to pathogens, synthesising health and engineering science with local knowledge to help decision-
makers avoid investing in technologies that increase unsafe return.

Introduction and objectives


Liquid streams (effluent, leachate, unintended leakage) from onsite and networked treatment systems for
water-based sanitation can pose a significant health hazard, but to date have received little attention in
Indonesia. The recent focus of development partners and policy makers on faecal sludge management has
led to essential gains, yet reaching ‘safely managed’ sanitation requires a step further, through making
pathogen hazards visible in all discharges, assessing all local exposure paths. Because measuring pathogens
is complex and costly, and significant gaps remain in data and scientific understanding, this can only be
achieved through ‘first principles’, translating existing knowledge into actionable directives.

Methodology approach
This paper (based on Mitchell et al. (2016) Waterlines 35(2):163-181) proposes the Pathogen Hazard Diagram
(PHD) to describe, visualise and assess pathogen removal/survival through common wastewater treatment
systems and remaining hazards, particularly those in liquid streams. Firstly we identify the accidental
misunderstandings generated by common representations of pathogen removal. Secondly, we use available
scientific evidence on pathogen hazard reduction mechanisms and treatment efficacy of different
technologies and management approaches (encompassing the diversity of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and
helminth responses) to populate the new heuristic tool. The tool is then applied to assess water-based
sanitation systems and policies in urban Indonesia.

Analysis and results


The term ‘pathogen’ is often absent: wastewater system design/performance focuses on chemical/biological
pollutants, not microbiological. When pathogen numbers are noted, exponential terms are used because the
numbers are large: every day an infected person produces 104-106 helminth eggs. Similarly, expected
treatment performance is communicated in log reductions: sealed tanks reduce helminths by 0-2 log10. 2 log
removal corresponds to 99%, which sounds effective. But are we concerned about reduction in relation to
influent, or hazard in the effluent? The minimum infective dose is 100-101, meaning 100-10,000 (102-104) doses
leave the tank. Communicating treatment performance in terms of potential infective doses discharged
focuses on what matters most for human safety.
We propose a new heuristic tool, the PHD, as a prototype for assessing local hazards in the absence of
pathogen data. Responses to particular removal/inactivation mechanisms often vary between viruses,
bacteria, protozoa, helminthes classes. In contrast, filtration and sorption are efficacious across all classes.
The PHD combines existing health and engineering science with local knowledge and system contexts to
assess pathogen treatment efficacy. It reveals Indonesia’s policy of replacing traditional unsealed pits that

31
facilitate filtration/sorption with well-sealed septic tanks could increase ‘unsafe return’ (where treatment
units are above groundwater).

Conclusions and recommendation


A decade ago WHO defined the key determinants of pathogen risk, but these do not seem to be part of
sanitation planning and implementation, in Indonesia and perhaps elsewhere. Explicitly considering
pathogens in terms of the hazard that remains, including in intended and unintended liquid discharges, can
guide investment towards wastewater treatment systems that reduce the hazard to public health where
exposure paths exist. As a stopgap until better/local data is available, the PHD is an attempt to make this
possible for local sanitation planners, delivery partners, and policy makers, requiring only local knowledge
and general sanitation reference knowledge.

32
Modelling impacts of waste treatment options
Presenting Ms. Upasana Yadav, India CEPT University, Ahmedabad
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Meera Mehta, India CEPT University, Ahmedabad


Mr. Mahroof M., India, CEPT University Ahmedabad
Mr. Paresh Chhajed, India, CEPT University, Ahmedabad

Highlights
The impact of poor waste management on environment and public health is well documented. Cities face the
twin challenges of providing safe sanitation and improved environment. The model framework of SaniPlan
provides a tool for simulating outcomes of various options and enables informed decision making.

Introduction and objectives


It is critical to plan for safe wastewater conveyance, treatment and reuse. The model, Saniplan, is an aid to
decision makers to choose appropriate sanitation technology that is efficient (in service provision) and
affordable. The model SaniPlan simulates impacts of various options on service outcomes. The health impacts
are captured through impact of technology selection on environmental parameters. The model also takes
into account capital and operating costs of various options and enables design of a financing plan.

Methodology approach
The tool SaniPlan developed at CEPT University under the PAS Project, is a modular tool that help iterative
decision making towards achieving safe sanitation. Health outcomes are captured through impacts on
environmental parameters. The assessment module analyses the entire sanitation service chain of sanitation.
Service levels are measured through specific performance indicators. These indicators are linked to the
Performance Assessment System (pas.org.in) which is an exercise carried out in India. The tool incorporates
various improvement actions (e.g. actions related to septage collection, conveyance, treatment, septic tanks
refurbishment etc.) that cities can choose to implement as part of their sanitation improvement plan. An
environment and health impact assessment module has been overlaid to the model.

Analysis and results


The tool has been successfully used in two small cities in India to plan for improving sanitation situation across
the whole service chain. These two cities, Wai and Sinnar in Maharashtra, are dependent on onsite sanitation.
Open defecation, practiced by 10% of the population has been curbed. The challenge now is to plan and
implement a safe system for conveyance, treatment and disposal of waste. The SaniPlan model was used to
formulate a viable fecal sludge management plan. This plan is currently being implemented.
The SaniPlan model is designed to simulate service level impacts of various actions. Recognising that it
becomes difficult for city level decision makers to run the Excel based model and see the impacts of various
actions, a simple dashboard was linked to this model. The dashboard helped the decision makers to
understand financial and service level impacts of various actions.

Conclusions and recommendation


Evidence-based decision making is advocated by city governments. However, there are no ready tools that
support such decision making. Application of SaniPlan in small towns in Maharashtra, India suggests that
decision-makers are receptive to such comprehensive frameworks that can assess service outcomes, costs
and financing plan leading to design of tariffs.

33
National standards for wastewater treatment - what is "safely treated"?
Presenting Ms. Kate Medlicott, Switzerland, World Health Organization
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Daniel Berdat, Consultant for WHO

Highlights
SDG Indicator 6.3.1 calls for the measurement of “safely treated” wastewater. But what is safely treated?
Safe for public health, safe for ecosystems or both? What do countries national standards consider safe? And
what can be used as an international benchmark for “safely managed reporting under the SDGs? This paper
presents finding from analysis of national standards and discusses implication for global reporting,
regulation, and implementation of quality monitoring.

Introduction and objectives


SDG Indicator 6.3.1 calls for the measurement of “safely treated” wastewater. A definition of safely treated
is needed in order to classify data and have met the SDG target. Yet, desired levels if wastewater treat vary
depending on the intended next use and exposure environment. In 2016 a treatment working group (TWG)
recommended normative definitions of safe treatment to using a treatment ladder with rungs according data
type of increasing relevance for public health.
This study gathered and reviewed national standards on wastewater treatment with the objective of
comparing with TWG recommendations for globally comparable reporting and asks what is “safely treated”?
Safe for public health, safe for ecosystems or both? What do countries national standards consider safe? And
what can be used as an international benchmark for “safely managed reporting under the SDGs? This paper
presents finding from analysis of national standards and discusses implication for global reporting.

Methodology approach
The TWG recommendation of a treatment ladder with rungs according data type of increasing relevance for
public health was used a point of departure. A systematic search for national standards was conducted
through WHO country office and national counterparts ands well as internet searches. Data on treatment
requirements was extracted from the national standards retrieved and classified according to the proposed
ladder rungs – no treatment, technology based (eg primary, secondary tertiary treatment), environmental
compliance based (BOD, COD, SS) and Public Health compliance based (e.g. e.coli).

Analysis and results


Analysis in ongoing at the time of submission. Preliminary findings indicate that:
• National standards are predominantly based on environment parameters (BoD, CoD)
• Regional reporting initiatives such as the EU Urban Wastewater directive seeks technology based
data although countries have more detailed national standards and compliance reporting covering
environmental and often public health parameters.
• Some countries (proportion TBD in final analysis) have a ranges of treatment qualities based on the
receiving environment and human exposure scenario.

Conclusions and recommendation


Conclusions and recommendations of relevant for 6.3.1 “safely treated” classification will be added in July
when the research is complete.

34
Processes and challenges of faecal sludge management in Odisha, India
Presenting Mr. Prasanta Mohapatra, India, Orissa Water Supply and
Author: Sewerage Board

Co-Authors:

Highlights
This article provides an overview of the processes and challenges of implementing faecal sludge
management in Odisha State, India. The key processes are selection and establishing a low cost system for
faecal sludge treatment and engaging a private operator to run the cesspool fleet to transport the sludge.

Introduction and objectives


About six million urban residents of Odisha state in India rely on onsite sanitation facilities. Over time, large
quantity of partly digested faecal matter are accumulated in them. Effluent containing high BOD and
pathogens spills to the immediate environment posing grave danger to human health. Episodes of jaundice
were reported in many towns in the summer of 2014 with few deaths due to contamination of drinking water
pipelines. This article provides the processes followed and challenges faced during implementation of the
faecal sludge management (FSM) project in the State.

Methodology approach
In 2015, the state decided to implement FSM in its urban areas. In Odisha, nearly half of the urban population
live in its 9 big towns. So, initial thrust was given to providing FSM service in the nine populated towns. Best
practice and field study on full FSM service elsewhere in Asia were studied as the same were not available in
the country. The existing state sanitation strategy was reviewed and FSM was incorporated as a key
component to achieving city sanitation. FSM guideline was formulated to assist urban local bodies.

Analysis and results


The pilot sanitation survey revealed that discharge of untreated faecal sludge from household into open
drains have deteriorated the water quality in four perennial rivers serving as source of raw water for seven
towns. For maximum impact of FSM service, nine populated towns out of total 110 towns of Odisha were
chosen sheltering nearly half of urban population. The adopted faecal sludge treatment units consist of
sludge receiving chamber, screen channel, settling cum thickening tank, sludge drying bed and co-
composting of dried sludge and, anaerobic baffled tank, horizontal constructed wet land, and a polishing
pond for treatment of liquid effluent. Transparent public procurement processes were followed for (i)
construction of treatment facility, (ii) procurement of cesspool vehicles and (iii) engaging private operators
to manage fleet of cesspool vehicles in these towns. The towns received capex grant from the government
for the first two activities considering their weak financial base. The households pay fee towards faecal
sludge emptying/collection service. The fee shall cover the cost of operation and maintenance of the vehicles
for transport of faecal sludge to the treatment plant. In the future, a part of the fee will go towards operation
of the treatment plant.

35
Conclusions and recommendation
The challenges faced during implementation of the project was majorly related to availability of land for
construction of treatment facility. To avoid land disputes, site for treatment facility henceforth shall be
located near the solid waste management facility. Community participation is very important for the FSM
project. The FSM project is now planned for adoption in small towns of Odisha. The cesspool vehicles and
treatment facilities will be operated by private players. The State will provide fund to close the gap between
revenue generated and actual expenditure to keep the system functional and viable.

36
Poster: Effective managing risks in cascade of reservoirs
Presenting Ms. Nataliia Rozhenko, Ukraine, Frantsevich Institute for
Author: Problems of Materials Science of NASU

Co-Authors:

Highlights
New approach and model are presented for prognostication of concentrations of contamination in rivers and
reservoirs. It gives effective strategy of pollution reduction in surface water for sustainable development and
health-protective wastewater management. Cascade of the Dnieper reservoirs (Ukraine) was analyzed.

Introduction and objectives


The Dnieper basin includes nearly 50% of the total area of Ukraine and contributes with about 80% of the total
volume of Ukrainian water resources. It is possible to decrease negative influence of work of industry on
Dnepr by optimization of management by a flow for sustainable development. For practice a task of pollution
reduction is important in connection with the necessity of prognostication of the state of water resources,
to their fitness for the use, possible influencing of contamination on population on an environment, and also
estimation of efficiency, possible water safe measures.

Methodology approach
A mathematical model which united exactness one-dimensional, simplicity and small time of computer
realization of the simplified (by an ordinary chamber) model was developed simultaneously overcoming
failings each of them.
A model is foreseen description of conduct of contamination in running reservoirs in solution, on suspension
and in the layer of the ground deposits, an exchange takes into account water-bottom, water-suspension,
time of transporting on a reservoir and influencing of diffusion, what is provide possibility of design of wide
spectrum of contaminations for more effective impact assessment and safety planning.

Analysis and results


Water of Dnepr is used for the supply about 30 million people, 50 cities and industrial centres, about 10 000
industrial enterprises, 2200 agricultures, 1000 communal services, 50 large irrigational systems. Presence
hydroelectric power plants (HPP) enable to utilize their modes of operation for adjusting of contamination
of reservoirs. Changes of the modes exploitation HPP can be applied for diminishing of the harmful
influencing of contaminations on a population and environment. On the basis of research of influencing of
the modes of exploitation HPP on the size of concentration of contamination possibility of application of the
offered model is shown for determination of influencing of water protection measures on quality of water.
At the use of model by varying of the hydrological mode requirements and limitations, laid on different water
users, can be easily taken into account, the ecological consequences of the different modes of exploitation
are quickly counted HPP and the optimum mode of operation is certain. There are conflict of interest
practitioners and policy-makers: hydropower companies, irrigation, industry, water supply, fishing, water
transport, recreation, ecology.

37
Conclusions and recommendation
The main problem - coexistence different practitioners and policy-makers in control of cascade of the Dnieper
reservoirs. The work demonstrates some possibilities to improve communication of practitioners and policy-
makers in the Dnieper basin. Accurate modeling and system approach can provide with more effective impact
assessment on contaminations in wastewater systems and helth-protective wastewater management.

38
Poster: Evaluating hazards and risks of water sources in Sultan Kudarat
Presenting Mr. Yolwin Jed Perales, Philippines, University of the
Author: Philippines- Diliman

Co-Authors:

Highlights
• Sultan Kudarat heavily relies on water sources studied for food, water and household chores.
• There is no current research on the potential risks and condition of these water sources in Sultan
Kudarat.
• The province needs to make and revise policies based on the results of the research.

Introduction and objectives


Water pollution is one of the major concerns in the Philippines most especially in rural areas where proper
healthcare, sanitation and water purification are often expensive and limited. This study aims to
quantitatively determine the levels of toxic heavy metals cadmium and lead from two major fresh and two
major seawater sources in the province of Sultan Kudarat. This study also aims to calculate the projected
blood levels of the heavy metals to children and correlate the presence of these metals to common health
and biodiversity problems encountered by the communities living beside the water bodies.

Methodology approach
The research used an experimental design in determining the amount of heavy metals in the four bodies of
water concerned by obtaining appropriate amount of sample using proper sampling techniques replicated
three times. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to measure the amount of metals in the
samples. A through historical and archiving research supplemented by interviews and surveys were also
conducted to government officials and residents living around the vicinity of the bodies of water studied to
gather data of health and biodiversity problems they encountered and related it to the results of the
instrumental analysis and current industrial operations in the area.

Analysis and results


Results showed that the two heavy metals are present in all four water bodies with varying concentrations.
All fresh water and one seawater body went above the allowed safety limit of 0.005 ppm and projected blood
safety level of 10ug/dL for lead. On the other hand, all fresh water samples and one seawater sample
exceeded the allowed safety limit for cadmium of 0.005 ppm but had an acceptable projected blood level. It
was also been found from the historical research that the number of marine species thriving into the fresh
water bodies in 1980s was around 50-60 before quarrying, logging and other industrial processes were
conducted in the area. Currently, only 20-30 marine species could be found in these fresh water bodies. On
the other hand, there are also above average number of cases of diarrheas, frequent fever and nausea most
especially on children of the residents living near the bodies of water from year 2000 onwards, which can be
side effects of the high presence of heavy metals in the water. One of the seawater is also notably cleaner
and having lower concentrations of heavy metals compared to the other because of the intensive fishing and
other marine commercial activities conducted on the latter seawater body tested.

39
Conclusions and recommendation
It can be concluded that all water bodies studied are not safe and risky for human and animal consumption.
These bodies of water are also experiencing deterioration of biodiversity as well as impacting their
neighboring habitats through disruption of food chain. Industrial processes conducted in the community
where water bodies are located contributed a lot in degrading the quality of the waters. Stricter policies
should be implemented to preserve the biodiversity of these bodies of water, to alleviate the health risks that
may cause by excessive heavy metals concentration and to preserve the quality of the waters.

40
Poster: Wastewater reuse and the burden of parasitic diseases in Nigeria
Presenting Ms. Nneka Ozowara, United States, Baltimore City Community
Author: College

Co-Authors: Dr. Oliver Odikamnoro, Nigeria, Ebonyi State University

Highlights
The presence of the metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica and the infective stages of other parasites in
irrigation water was investigated. The study revealed that life cycle stages of Fasciola gigantica, eggs of
Ascaris lumbricoides as well as infective larvae of hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis were recovered
from the water sources.

Introduction and objectives


Most rural farmers in eastern Nigeria villages practise some form of irrigation for their crops. Thus, water
from broken drains, run-off from open defecation sites and night soil dumps are carried in channels through
the farmlands causing potential risk of infection with parasitic helminthes. The infective stages attach to the
surfaces of the vegetables. In addition, the soil and water bodies are seeded with parasite eggs and larvae
thereby exposing the farmers to multiple infection. Irrigation of farmlands in developing countries including
Nigeria is done using untreated wastewater and raw manure of domestic animal origins as fertilizer.
Mitigation measures are needed.

Methodology approach
Soil-transmitted helminthiases have remained a common health problem of rural farmers in southeast
Nigeria. The study was conducted by investigating the life cycle stages of the parasite in irrigation water
sources using sedimentation, centrifugation methods and microscopic examination respectively. Ten rural
farming communities in southeast Nigeria were selected for the study. The study revealed that life cycle
stages of helminthes are present in irrigation water bodies in both wet and dry seasons between February,
2013 to January, 2016. The analysis of variance showed that there is a statistical significant difference between
water sources in having life cycle stages of the parasite (P<0.05).

Analysis and results


The study revealed that eggs, cercaria and metacercaria stages of F. gigantica and the infective stages of
Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Strngyloides stercoralis parasites implicated in irrigation water.
Therefore, the recurrent transmission of helminthises among rural farmers in these areas may be as a result
of regular contact with infested water sources used for the cultivation of vegetables and other crops. This
situation is worsened by ignorance. The seasonal distribution of the parasitic stages of Fasciola gigantica and
other parasites as recorded in the present study showed that rainy season favours the presence of these
parasites. This agrees with earlier documented works showing that infective forms are more abundant during
the wet seasons. The highest prevalence of these parasites was recorded in rainy season (99.9). This is
characterized with abundant rain, high moisture contents and low temperature suitable for optimum
development of the parasite life cycle stages. It was also established that metacercaria of Fasciola species
may survive for more than one year on pastures depending on moisture and temperature. This is supported
by Weldesilassie (2010) on the examination of vegetable collected from commercial markets which showed
that the vegetables were contaminated with many types of parasite eggs and cysts.

41
Conclusions and recommendation
The transition from a rain-fed to irrigation agriculture favours the development and propagation of water-
borne infections to both humans and livestock. The present study identified parasitic contaminants of
irrigation water, organic manure and sewage for vegetable production; suggesting that the parasites
identified may pose. Occupational risks to the farming communities and consumers. The practice of using
wastewater for irrigation offers many opportunities, but poses human health risks which is associated with
consumption of contaminated vegetables irrigated with wastewater. Safe and adequate drinking water
should be provided in order to reduce the use of contaminated water which is highly incriminated with
parasitic helminthes.

42
Seminar: Financing wastewater
treatment and resource recovery

Photo: Yegor Korzh

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

43
Seminar: Financing wastewater treatment and resource recovery

Contents
Business models for resource recovery and reuse in wastewater sector ........................... 45
Public-private partnerships for resource recovery and reuse in low-income countries ..... 47
Using investment guarantees to leverage private sector financing .................................... 49

44
Business models for resource recovery and reuse in wastewater sector
Presenting Dr. Miriam Otoo, Sri Lanka, International Water Management
Author: Institute

Co-Authors: Dr. Pay Drechsel, Sri Lanka, International Water Management


Institute

Highlights
The paper shows that different wastewater reuse related business models have great potential to support
the sustainability of wastewater management enterprises, by reducing operational and maintenance (O&M)
costs and/or use generated revenues from recovered resources to bridge financial gaps and complement
other supporting mechanisms for making wastewater management more attractive.

Introduction and objectives


There are significant opportunities to generate social benefits from wastewater treatment and also monetize
the reuse value in ways that enable public and private sectors to achieve higher degrees of cost recovery or
to generate profits for a better delivery of wastewater services. As we make a paradigm shift towards more
market-driven options for wastewater management, it is timely to analyze emerging business models for
testing and dissemination in the public and private sectors. The presentation will show successful examples
of wastewater reuse business models including: water recovery for irrigation, nutrients and energy recovery
and carbon credits in developing countries.

Methodology approach
The conceptual framework was based on an in-depth assessment of empirical wastewater reuse cases to
understand factors driving their success and sustainability; and scalability barriers. The assessment drew on
data from 25 developing country case studies, together with a broad range of information sources (literature
review, key informant and focus group interviews, secondary and primary quantitative data). Using
standardized indicators, the cases were assessed based on key criteria that shed light on the financial flows,
production factors, resources or capacities requirements, management structure, and economic benefits to
help understand the financial sustainability, scalability and development impact potential of the models.

Analysis and results


1. Social and environmental value can be maximized while targeting cost recovery especially in regions
where water is a scarce resource and reclaimed water is of high importance for agriculture as noted
in Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. Some notable cases recovered 50 – 75% of operational costs, although
financial cost recovery can be limited given the commonly subsidized freshwater tariffs or free
groundwater access.
2. For medium to small-scale community-based wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), additional
value propositions such as the sale of fish fed with fodder grown with the nutrients wastewater
offers, can exponentially increase cost recovery potential for WWTPs (e.g. Ghana, Bangladesh and
India). RRR to achieve high cost recovery also extends to larger-scale WWTPs through highly
efficient energy recovery mechanisms (e.g. Jordan).
3. These successful enterprises of wastewater reuse leverage key partnerships to reduce investment
costs and increase access to markets for their outputs. Results also suggest that the structure of
business arrangements (i.e. innovative cost sharing models with clear benefit-sharing mechanisms,
revenue models, management structure) has significant impacts on overall benefits to the involved

45
parties. Complex managerial systems of multi-partnerships can result in inefficiencies and higher
operational costs when responsibilities of key partnerships are not clearly defined.

Conclusions and recommendation


Market-driven mechanisms are increasingly being adopted in the wastewater sector to catalyze higher
degrees of cost recovery or profit generating to better deliver waste management services. Innovative and
strategic partnerships have an important role to play in the success of wastewater reuse related business
models, although complex managerial systems and unclear benefit-sharing can hinder the sustainability of
the partnerships and invariably that of the wastewater reuse enterprise.

46
Public-private partnerships for resource recovery and reuse in low-income
countries
Presenting Ms. Katharina Felgenhauer, Ghana, International Water
Author: Management Institute

Co-Authors: Dr. Josiane Nikiema, Ghana

Highlights
Public-private partnerships (PPP) can enhance resource recovery and reuse (RRR) but remain challenging to
implement.
Practitioners require more skills and capacity to run viable PPP but receive insufficient guidance, especially in
low-income settings.
IWMI’s analysis of PPP in RRR in Ghana can inform tools to guide PPP practitioners in RRR.

Introduction and objectives


Resource recovery and reuse (RRR) can help alleviate the wastewater crisis by easing the waste burden and
generating additional income. Public-private partnerships (PPP) can enhance RRR capacity and viability but
differences in mandate, strategic focus, procedures and interface management complicate partnership
building across sectors. Practitioners require better skills and more capacity to run PPP effectively and
efficiently but they face a gap in PPP guidance, especially in low-income settings. IWMI seeks to develop
recommendations and tools for PPP in RRR, drawing on lessons from first-hand implementation experience
in Ghana.

Methodology approach
IWMI has successfully brokered and implemented PPP in RRR in Ghana. The analysis of these cases exposes
success factors and bottlenecks along all stages of PPP management, including partnership brokerage,
feasibility assessment, contract management, objectives-oriented planning, business models, financing
options, execution, monitoring and evaluation, risk management, and options for being more gender-
inclusive. Framework conditions have been screened for pull and push factors as well as barriers to full
stakeholders’ involvement. The resulting lessons can inform PPP practitioners in RRR and potentially fill gaps
in existing PPP guidance and tools.

Analysis and results


IWMI’s reference cases from Ghana demonstrate how PPP in RRR can be set up while addressing skills and
capacity gaps. Guidance derived from these cases include:
1. The identification and attraction of suitable partners can be challenging for all sides. Clear strategies
and commitments to overcome remaining capacity gaps need to be included in the PPP setup and
business planning.
2. Partners need to build capacity across operational and leadership functions to negotiate between
sectors. Joint management and supervisory bodies can lower transaction costs.
3. The development of functional cost- and risk-sharing mechanisms requires full cost and benefit
transparency between stakeholders. Willingness to cooperate is fundamental but subject to risks
over time.
4. Marketing, supply chain development and logistics for RRR products are key components of PPP
inception and implementation especially when value chains are weak.
5. New partners and financing mechanisms can bridge funding gaps, especially in upfront investments.

47
6. Insufficient involvement of and alignment with stakeholders throughout the inception and
implementation processes can hinder synergies and put the PPP at risk.

Conclusions and recommendation


There is a need and an opportunity for practical tools for PPP in RRR because existing tools insufficiently
respond to the realities of practitioners, especially in low-income settings. Lessons from IWMI’s case studies
and other examples can be translated into practical recommendations which complement existing PPP tools
and address the particular requirements of public and private sector partners in RRR. Such PPP guidance will
leverage viable business models for RRR and support investment decisions.

48
Using investment guarantees to leverage private sector financing
Presenting Ms. Malinne Blomberg, Cote d'Ivoire, African Development
Author: Bank

Co-Authors:

Highlights
Investment guarantees are used to mitigate risks faced primarily by private players.
Whilst extensively used in sectors like energy, and transport, they are rarely used in water and waste.
This presentation demonstrates how guarantees can be used to bring additional and new financing to RRR
infrastructure and services.

Introduction and objectives


The private sector can bring much needed new funds to RRR efforts, but their potential remains largely
untapped, often explained by the socio-political and historically public nature of water and waste. However,
the private sector is interested, but finds investments risky, and beneficiaries’ affordability constraints makes
it difficult to balance the risk and reward of investments.
Investment guarantees are products designed to mitigate risk to make investments feasible. They are
extensively used in sectors like energy, and transport, yet hardly used in water and waste. This presentation
demonstrates how investment guarantees can be used to foster additional financing.

Methodology approach
Establishment of high-level overall volumetric demand, the consequential demand for funding, the
challenges to private sector participation, the history of PSP in Africa and the reasons why existing guarantee
instruments are not being used. This was followed by assessing the potential realistic demand for guarantees
and how this can be promoted and by whom. The assignment concludes with a feasibility study of the
proposed instruments and recommendations on operationalisation. The study is based on primary and
secondary information sources. Hypotheses and recommendations were tested with private sector
stakeholders for relevance and underwent a peer review by the AfDB.

Analysis and results


A multi-pronged approach involving multiple investment facilitation actions will effectively support private
investment.
1. Policy and sector reform to ensure realistic political decisions regarding tariffs and subsidisation
policies, determining the ability to service loans or to generate acceptable returns on investment. A
policy environment that reconciles the conflicting goals of providing safe and affordable water,
while ensuring a commercially viable system is needed;
2. Tailoring existing Partial Risk Guarantee (PRG) product to create a specific water and sanitation
guarantee. This will mitigate the main cause for market failure and limited engagement by the
private sector, which is loss due to the failure of governments to set tariffs at cost recovery level, or
the failure to provide subsidies for long term creditworthiness;
3. Marketing and brokerage functions to make private and public sector operators, financial
institutions and other W&S stakeholders aware of the potential and how to build risk mitigation
products into projects;

49
4. Development of a pipeline of bankable projects, including the use of blended finance. When the
transaction volume has increased, a specific investment guarantee facility may be set up for water
and waste;
Concrete suggestions will be provided for all of the above.

Conclusions and recommendation


Through a multi-pronged approach, and collaboration amongst stakeholders, a pipeline of water and waste
projects that use guarantees will be built and investment funds mobilised from the private sector, oftentimes
blended with public funds. In Africa it is estimated such investments can be ramped up from about $250
million/year over the next two years, to the range of $6billion/year in about 10 years. A large portion of this
will be for RRR.

50
Seminar: Smart solutions in water and
waste management for liveable cities

Photo: The Big Picture/Google Maps

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

51
Seminar: Smart solutions in water and waste management for liveable
cities

Contents
Application of the UWU model for urban water use management ................................... 553
People’s initiatives for improving livable urban slums through ecological management 555
Rethinking urban water management: Improving water security..................................... 557
Reuse oriented faecal sludge management in Kenyan towns ........................................... 559
T ▪ PARK: Leveraging the energy/water nexus in sludge treatment .....................................61
True or false: ‘pilots never fail, and never scale’? .................................................................. 62
Valuing sustainable urban drainage systems for water smart cities .................................... 64
Poster: Green infrastructure in context: Public health and ecosystem services ................. 66
Poster: Holistic Surface Water and Groundwater Management for Sustainable Cities ..... 68
Poster: How to revitalize decentralized wastewater treatment plants in Nepal ................ 70
Poster: Interactive map of urban wetlands ........................................................................... 72
Poster: Runoff and site suitability analysis of rain water harvesting structures ................. 74
Poster: Using urine as a smart solution for sustainable food production ........................... 76

52
Application of the UWU model for urban water use management
Presenting Dr. Daniel Costa dos Santos, Brazil, Federal University of
Author: Paraná

Co-Authors:

Highlights
The IUWM approach offers real possibilities for water sustainability;
The IUWM approach allows stakeholders to deal with a complexity of water use;
It is necessary to consider a public vision for water management in urban areas;

Introduction and objectives


Given the dialectical conflict between a conservative approach and uncontrollable environmental changes, a
new paradigm emerges in which the planning and management of water resources use requires a new
approach. To deal with this context, the Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) approach offers
contributions which aim to bring responses to these changes through alternatives that face this new
paradigm. Thus, the aim of this work is to present an application of Urban Water Use (UWU) model which
was developed under the IUWM and strategic planning approaches. This application was addressed to
Almirante Tamandaré City, Brazil.

Methodology approach
The UWU Model, while base of a case study, was applied in Almirante Tamandaré. The UWU is composed by
six steps: input data, vision building, scenarios elaboration, measures selection, outcomes and final
evaluation. With input data collected, it is possible to build the vision by indicators selection. The scenarios
consider external factors such as growth population rate, temperature and gross domestic product per
capita. The measures are conceived based on Water Demand Management, Decentralized Sanitation,
ECOSAN and SUDS philosophies. To conduct the final evaluation it is estimated the Effectiveness Index (EI)
which establishes a hierarchy among group of measures.

Analysis and results


According to the Methodology Approach the measures were selected, as follow: Measure 01 - water
consumption reduction by low-flush toilet; Measure 02 - greywater for toilets, cleaning and irrigation;
Measure 03 - reduction of water loss in the distribution pipelines; Measure 05 - reuse of water using treated
wastewater for agriculture; Measure 09 - expansion of the current wastewater treatment plant; Measure 11
- construction of new sanitation system. With these measures 4 groups were composed to apply the UWU.
Observing the results for this specific case study, the Group II (composed of measures 1, 3, 5 and 11), and the
Group IV (composed of measures 1 and 2), presented the best performance considering that they achieved
the highest EI values. The EI values obtained for Groups II and IV were 4.0 and 4.1 respectively, which were
classified as “good”. In these results it is important to highlight measures such as water consumption per
capita reduction in buildings and decentralized wastewater treatment plants implantation because they are
the cheapest and promote good results. Thus, with Water Demand Management and Decentralized
Sanitation measures it was possible to build the management plan for water conservation in Almirante
Tamandaré.

53
Conclusions and recommendation
It was possible to observe in this case study that the best strategies were Water Demand Management and
Decentralized Sanitation. With these strategies it was possible to build a management water conservation
plan for Almirante Tamandaré. The UWU application has demonstrated some flexibility to manage variables,
due to the easiness to review the vision and to change the external factors. However, it is important to pay
attention to the input data step and to fit coefficients in equations according to each studied reality. And for
final evaluation it is recommended to have sensibility and knowledge enough to make good decisions.

54
People’s initiatives for improving livable urban slums through ecological
management
Presenting Mr. Md. Azahar Ali Pramanik, Bangladesh, Society for People's
Author: Action in Change and Equity (SPACE)

Co-Authors: Ms. Sabekun Naher, Bangladesh, Society for People's Action in


Change and Equity (SPACE)

Highlights
Adamjee slum dwellers efficiently manage newly installed innovative water, sanitation and waste recycling
facilities to prevent diseases. They also manage stormwater keeping drainages functional during heavy rains
and floods. Managing fecal sludge and solid wastes into organic fertilizers, they promote healthy
environment, foods safety, promote marketing eco-products and urban-rural partnership.

Introduction and objectives


In each block, Adamjee slum dwellers are organized into groups for solving WASH and environmental
difficulties. Installing solar operated water pumps, community eco-toilets, solar lighting and rainwater
harvesters in one block, they experience encouraging results in energy savings, onsite fecal sludge
management and accessing safe water to 100% households. New drainage and self-financed wastes
management initiatives keep environment clean, what they have planned to implement in other blocks.
People's initiatives in recycling and reusing wastes for making healthy residence give scope to conduct this
study. This paper dedicates in presenting people-initiated models to wider audiences for scaling up.

Methodology approach
In quest of study question "How poor slum-dwellers have made their residences suitable to better live", the
study was designed and framed for conducting. Participatory approaches have been followed for conducting
the study. A set of data collection tools comprising of questionnaire for household survey, Key Informant
Interview, face to face interviewing, transect walks, observation sheets and Focus Group Discussion were
developed and trained data collectors collected data. To ensure quality of data, senior staffs directly
supervised monitored and rechecked 10% of collected data. Findings have been documented by critically
analyzing the qualitative and quantitative aspects of data.

Analysis and results


According to baseline study, about 10,000 lower income people from 1265 households live in Adamjee Colony
with two squire kilometres area. It is divided into six blocks; an average 200 households with 1,000
populations live in each. Baseline findings reveals there were six demolished and unhygienic community
latrines, severe water crisis, unhealthy waste dumps, clogged old drainage expose frequent health-threats.
The report further reveals 100% children suffer from 7 to 10 times episodes of diarrhoea, stunting-growth
trends found among 70% children, 80% mothers face intestinal and urinal infections, medical cost of each
household was around US$ 150 to 350. Social cohesions among households were too weak. These unwanted
effects aggravated their sickness and poverty levels.
Study after one year interventions in selected block with 218 households reveals 100% households have access
to safe water, 85% households hygienically use Community Eco-toilets; recycle human excreta into organic
fertilizers and market those. 100% households hygienically wash hands in critical times, keep children clean
and manage wastes efficiently as part of social norms and control. Diarrheal diseases among children and
medical expenses significantly decreased. Community drainages drain out stormwater. Positive results of the
initiative have inspired neighbours for scaling up the same facilities.

55
Conclusions and recommendation
Despite over crowded population, severe water and sanitation crisis, improper waste management, water
logging due to older and clogged drainage, the poor slum dwellers of Adamjee slums have reorganized them
to prevent negative implications through undertaking an innovative initiative towards healthy and livable
environment. The innovative new initiatives include integration of hardware and software mixed
interventions e.g. assessing community needs, social preparation, Eco-friendly innovative technologies,
strengthening community capacities for monitoring, linking with resource organizations, resources recycle
for marketing, recovering partnership between urban and rural settings and involving multi-stakeholders
towards suitable lives in urban cities to address the targets of SDG.

56
Rethinking urban water management: Improving water security
Presenting Dr. Dinesh Mehta, India CEPT University, Ahmedabad
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Meera Mehta, India CEPT University, Ahmedabad


Ms. Upasana Yadav, India, CEPT University, Ahmedabad
Ms. Aditi Dwivedi, India, CEPT University, Ahmedabad

Highlights
The paper highlights susceptibility of cities in semi-arid regions to water scarcity. Climate change and
resultant uncertain weather patterns are forcing cities to take extreme steps to combat water crisis. The
paper describes efforts initiated by community based organization at reviving the lakes and recharging
groundwater in cities in India.

Introduction and objectives


Bhuj, a city located in an arid region of Kutch in India, has suffered water scarcity in recent years. Community
efforts have revived the traditional wisdom and explored alternative water sources to work towards
becoming water secure. The study highlights the unique example of participatory urban water management
approach through the efforts made by the community and local NGO. These efforts combine a deep
knowledge of the history of water resources and in-depth technical assessment through participatory water
management process. These efforts have led to influencing the new Development Plan and local government
programmes.

Methodology approach
Water resources management approach in Bhuj incorporates a strong technical knowledge in disseminating
information to the citizens through a citizens’ forum called as Jal Strot Sneh Savardhan Samiti (JSSS). In the
initial stages the forum was supported by NGO in the form of studies, research, data collection, capacity
building, planning and monitoring. Along with this, they also undertook technical interventions and pilot
demonstrations in the revival of the lake, flood control, groundwater recharge, rain water harvesting and
decentralized water supply systems. It is envisaged that these efforts will make the city water secure through
sustainable water resource management.

Analysis and results


Building up of the technical knowledge base and disseminating this knowledge to the citizens through strong
citizens’ forum is a key to the success of urban water resource management in Bhuj. Dissemination of the
technical information to the citizens through simple messages and various awareness activities were also
helpful. One learns from these efforts that sensitisation of local officials, capacity building of civil society and
government officers and demonstrations through pilot projects are essential for successful urban water
management. Another lesson is that it is essential to create specific institution and institutionalize the various
processes of PGWM to make it sustainable. It also shows that citizens need to be involved in planning,
implementing and monitoring. The whole process of integrated urban planning and renewal of traditional
water system should be backed by a governance system that ensures sustainable efforts. The urban water
resource management approach adopted in Bhuj has served as a background for initiating similar efforts in
other cities to build their resilience in water security.

57
Conclusions and recommendation
The case of Bhuj shows a unique approach and offers valuable lessons in urban water resource management.
Smartest way to de-risk from future uncertainty is to begin with the conservation of local water resource
rather than depending on distant sources. There is a need to bring back that traditional knowledge to ensure
self-sufficiency in water resources.

58
Reuse oriented faecal sludge management in Kenyan towns
Presenting Ms. Alexandra Dubois, Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Author: Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Co-Authors: Mr. James Murage, Kenya, Water Services Trust Fund


Mr. Ismail M. Shaiye, Water Services Trust Fund
Mr. Simon Okoth, Kenya, Water Services Trust
Fund/Stockholm Environment Institute

Highlights
 Improvement of environment through intermediate sludge management for cleaner cities and
reduced groundwater and water bodies pollution.
 Reuse of faecal sludge coming from the DTF as soil conditioner or fertiliser, reducing the use of
chemical fertilizer.
 Possible reuse of treated effluent from the DTF as irrigation water.

Introduction and objectives


Kenya’s urban population continues to grow at an alarming rate of 4.2% annually. However, there is no
commensurate development of basic water and waste water management infrastructure. Of about 13 million
urban population, only 11% have access to sewerage services. The remaining 89% depend on onsite sanitation
systems characterized by poor sludge management. To address the situation, a national sanitation up-scaling
programme has been initiated in Kenya. The programme aims at improving sanitation services in urban areas
of Kenya through implementation of citywide resource oriented sanitation built on the principles of natural
systems for wastewater management and processing for reuse.

Methodology approach
The management of faecal sludge from onsite toilets is an infamously difficult problem in urban communities.
Often, sludge is dumped directly to the environment, with likely negative impacts on health. However, there
are opportunities in properly managing the faecal sludge through decentralized treatment facilities (DTFs)
with the aim of reusing the processed sludge for soil conditioning and the treated effluent for irrigation.
Utilities often accept responsibility only for sewerage, and not for FSM despite their institutional mandates
for sanitation service provision. The programme exploits this legal mandate for the utilities to construct DTFs
and promote reuse of the recycled resources.

Analysis and results


The intervention is currently being up-scaled in over 20 towns that do not have sewer networks. To date, a
total of 7 DTFs have been constructed with the capacity to treat 24m3 of sludge per day and serve 10,000
beneficiaries each per day. A total of 70,000 people are expected to benefit from the FSM systems. The DTFs
are small scale decentralized wastewater treatment plants which cater for sludge from dry and wet toilets
brought in by the exhausters trucks among other sludge transportation equipments. The DTFs are designed
to be located conveniently within the towns to provide sludge treatment for toilets which are of a standard
that permits emptying. The Fecal sludge management is achieved through the transportation system and
decentralized treatment facilities (DTFs). One key feature of the DTF design is the incorporation components
for processing sludge by-products such as organic compost, soil conditioner, and treated effluent for
irrigation as well as biogas. A robust business model has been formulated along the operations of the DTF
including sales of the processed sanitation by-products. Already the programme through the utilities have
constituted sanitation teams and have also developed guides for the DTF operators on how to co-compost.

59
Conclusions and recommendation
Marketing of the end-products of sanitation is not easy as utilities lack the capacities to market. Robust social
marketing strategy that referring to the best practices in sludge management is already being implemented.
There is potential for the DTF s approach to treat sludge to contribute to improved sanitation services while
also creating opportunities for farmers to use the natural manure recycled from faecal sludge and treated
water for irrigation. The use the sector structures and engagement of community groups as sanitation teams
gives the reuse of manure from sludge and effluent credence thus marking the turning point for sludge.

60
T ▪ PARK: Leveraging the energy/water nexus in sludge treatment
Presenting Mr. Laurent Auguste, Senior Executive Vice President of Veolia
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Dominique Gatel, Director – Water Public Affairs, Veolia


Ms. Anita KWOK, Hong Kong

Highlights
T ▪ PARK is the first sludge treatment facility in Hong Kong, treating sludge from 11 of Hong Kong’s sewage
treatment plants to achieve the government’s vision of sustainable waste management and waste to energy.
To facilitate community acceptance and raise awareness, it incorporates an environmental education center.

Introduction and objectives


Hong Kong has major challenges as one of the world’s most densely populated cities. Ongoing upgrades of
its sewage treatment plants have resulted in significant improvement of the marine environment but
generate large quantities of sludge. Landfilling had been the only means of sludge disposal but the increase
has shortened the capacity and stability of the landfills.

Methodology approach
T ▪ PARK combines technical innovations with creative measures for wider community acceptance. The intent
was to build a facility that addresses the water, waste, and energy challenges and simultaneously provides
opportunity for community awareness and acceptance. To manage the sludge volume, four fluidized bed
incineration trains operate at 850°C and can handle a daily capacity of 2,000 tons of wet sludge containing
30% dry solids. Steam generated from the process produces energy for onsite use and export to the grid.

Analysis and results


T ▪ PARK began operation in April 2015 and has already proven to be a success in meeting its technical and
environmental requirements. It is currently treating 1,100-1,200 tonnes of sludge per day. Sludge volume is
reduced by 90% and all internal power requirements are met with steam-generated electricity derived from
burning of sludge, with the excess power exported to the grid. An on-site desalination plant provides all of
T ▪ PARK’s water supply. Zero effluent discharge is achieved through onsite use of treated wastewater for
process, cleaning, flushing and irrigation requirements. The Environmental Education Center opened in June
2016 and has attracted strong interest from the public with almost 40,000 total visitors over the initial six
months. T ▪ PARK has also won numerous awards for its design that successfully integrates a large-scale
industrial facility with its surrounding environment. The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department
has thus demonstrated that a large-scale waste treatment facility can be built and operated embracing the
principles of environmental sustainability (self-sufficiency for water and energy), circular economy (giving
value to what had none) and achieve acceptance by the community by providing both an educational and
leisure experience.

Conclusions and recommendation


T ▪ PARK provides a sustainable solution to manage the growing amount of sludge from more extensive
sewage treatment in Hong Kong. Reducing landfill usage, it also turns waste into energy, paving the way for
a sustainable source of electricity. T ▪ PARK has created a new model for development of such facilities,
incorporating innovative and creative features to raise awareness and encourage public acceptance.

61
True or false: ‘pilots never fail, and never scale’?
Presenting Ms. Titia Wouters, Netherlands, VIA Water
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Willemijn Nagel, Netherlands, VIA Water


Ms. Jacqueline Barendse, Netherlands
Mr. Aart van der Horst, Netherlands
Mr. Sjef Ernes, Netherlands

Highlights
 Showing promising water innovations in urban Africa of African innovators;
 New approach of searching for the African initiatives focusing on local ownership and sustainability;
 Simultaneously learning and innovating leads to a higher rate of successful innovations potentially
making the transition to a sustainable business or social change

Introduction and objectives


VIA Water is a Dutch programme that supports innovative solutions for urban water, waste and sanitation
problems (‘pressing needs’) in seven African countries: Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda and
South-Sudan. The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs funds VIA Water. UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water
Education and Aqua for All are carrying out the programme. Our goal is to realise about 60 applicable
innovations and to have an inspiring, active learning Community operational. At Stockholm, we will share our
experiences and start an interactive discussion on the sustainability of pilot projects, that just come out of
the research phase.

Methodology approach
VIA Water’s intention is to identify critical success factors of social innovations in the African urban context.
For this research, VIA Water supports a postdoctoral researcher (from Rwandese origin). VIA Water designed
a learning strategy, in which three levels of learning are defined; project, programme and concept. On each
level VIA Water carries out activities to uptake the knowledge collected there.
These activities entail Learning Tours, workshops, competitions and follow‐up VIA Water Cafés in the
countries concerned. Also country reviews were carried out by the African Studies Centre in Leiden.

Analysis and results


VIA Water is in the midst of its operations. On all three learning levels, see above, we have collected important
learnings/results that we want to share with the Stockholm crowd. Our project owners will be present to tell
their story.
Some preliminary results:
1. To keep focussing on the continuity of the pilot after conclusion, is key to success. Who is potentially
interested, what is your market, what is the willingness to pay?
2. Key success factor is to give projects access to networks and financing to assure the continuity.
Trying to get away from grant funding.
3. Combining innovating and learning is unique and of added value
4. Innovations in sanitation often focus on closing the value chain, adding economic value
5. Many innovations look at the usage of ICT in the water sector
6. Dynamics in the urban context help to attract innovations
7. The importance of skills development for African project leaders (business development, project
management, technological knowledge)
8. The importance of connecting African innovators with international implementers to share
knowledge and experiences

62
We dare to argue that under the conditions mentioned above, the statement above: ‘pilots never fail and
never scale’ can be considered as false.

Conclusions and recommendation


The major steps taken by VIA Water in two years: over 523 applications received, resulted in 36 contracts and
another 26 in the pipeline with an (online) Community.
With 82% of the applicants coming from African lead partners, the goal is reached of getting most initiatives
coming from partners abroad.
But the biggest challenge is in the phase after conclusion of each VIA Water project. Without the extra
support on improving skills, investing in coaching, linking participants to potential investors and making the
learning more hands‐on, the projects remain pilots and not sustainable solutions to pressing urban water
needs.

63
Valuing sustainable urban drainage systems for water smart cities
Presenting Ms. Katie Spooner, United Kingdom, Business in the
Author: Community

Co-Authors:

Highlights
Business in the Community (BITC) has worked with leading developers and water companies in the UK to
develop a business case for sustainable drainage systems (SuDS). This project has sought to demonstrate the
direct and multiple benefits of SuDs so that they can be integrated with future urban planning

Introduction and objectives


SuDs supports improved water management and quality in cities. These systems can be a mix of hard and
green infrastructure that can store water for reuse or to slow its progress to the water course, making them
a key tool for supporting climate resilient cities.
This project assessed the investment costs vs. savings in surface drainage charges to assess payback periods
as well as quantifying multiple benefits to encourage investments in SuDS for cities. By demonstrating the
value of SuDS we hoped to encourage wider use of the approach both by retrofitting existing buildings and
within new builds.

Methodology approach
The concept was that non-domestic customers, working with schools initially, could be incentivised to
implement SuDS through re-investing subsequent savings from surface water charges.
Greater Manchester was chosen as the pilot area as it is a region that places direct costs on surface water
charges. there are currently over 1,000 schools paying together over £4.3m in surface water charges to
United Utilities per year. If they could all move down one charging band, this could save over £2m which could
be reinvested to cover the costs of SuDS measures in the short-term and educational benefits in the medium
term.

Analysis and results


This project has identified that there is potential to create a model that can make it easier to significantly
increase the uptake of SuDS in the North West, using Surface Water Drainage Charges to help incentivise
implementation. This could work for individual organisations, but would be most effective at a programme
level (city/city region or collection of smaller conurbations). While the project focused on schools the process
could work as well with businesses, local authorities, the NHS etc. and could lead to more holistic solutions
at a landscape level.
Between January and March 2017 we will be valuing the multiple benefits of SuDS and engaging with a
government led national level review of how SuDS can be mainstreamed into UK urban planning. From July
2017 we will also be starting a pilot to design and implement SuDS in three sites as part of a practical
demonstration of this project. This additional work will be presented to participants of the conference as part
of a comprehensive example of the value of SuDS that can be applied globally.
This work was project was a partnership with Arup, Costain, MWH, Marshalls and United Utilities supported
by the UK government(DEFRA).

64
Conclusions and recommendation
By identifying the additional benefits for water quality, air quality, biodiversity and making our cities better
places to live and work the benefits of SuDS can be applied to a global context. Urban planners, national
policy makers and developers can be incentivised to invest in SuDs as part of a strategy of smart solutions in
water for climate resilient and liveable cities. Whilst this case study is based in the UK, SuDS technologies are
globally applicable and accessible.

65
Poster: Green infrastructure in context: Public health and ecosystem
services
Presenting Dr. Laura Schifman, United States, NRC Postdoc with U.S.
Author: Environmental Protection Agency

Co-Authors: Dr. Alessandro Ossola, United States, NRC Postdoc with U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency
Christopher Nytch, MS – Doctoral Candidate, Environmental
Sciences Dept., University of Puerto-Río Piedras Campus
Dr. William Shuster, United States, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
Danny Wiegand, MSPH, PE – Environmental Engineer, US
Environmental Protection Agency
Matthew Hopton, PhD – Research Ecologist, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency

Highlights
Integrating socio-hydrology and public health principles into urban stormwater management can inform
urban planning to incorporate resilience to changes in climate forcing and vector ecology. We present two
case studies that identify potential green infrastructure benefits toward public health in subtropical urban
areas (Caguas, PR and New Orleans, LA).

Introduction and objectives


Using interdisciplinary approaches to urban water management strategies can yield benefits for
sustainability. While green infrastructure (GI) has primarily been used to increase infiltration and reduce
runoff in urban areas, targeted situating of GI can provide additional socio-ecological benefits such as habitat
for biodiversity, enhanced public space and communities, and reduced heat island effects. By situating GI in
the broader context of the city as a socio-hydrologic system, we emphasize that traditional stormwater
management services and anticipated public health benefits can be jointly realized. We present two case
studies where contextual GI emphasizes public health and stormwater management.

Methodology approach
We describe a planning approach for contextual GI that targets the persistence of standing water after
rainfall in subtropical urban areas, thus disrupting and alleviating the severity of vector-borne disease
transmission and infection. To develop portfolios of suitable landscapes for GI toward both stormwater and
vector control, we used remotely sensed data of vegetation, topography, and rainfall patterns in conjunction
with field measurements on soil parameters and surface hydrology, in relation to the abundance of Aedes
aegypti and A. albopictus populations in Caguas, PR and New Orleans, LA.

Analysis and results


Landscape and mosquito data are overlaid and zonal statistics calculated to generate easily interpretable
maps that differentiate among site suitability for GI using color-coded areas in red (low suitability), yellow,
and green (high suitability). This approach is used to rate sites where GI could be prioritized and installed to
provide multiple ecosystem services.

66
Conclusions and recommendation
This interdisciplinary work recognizes that GI can serve multiple objectives that cut across social,
environmental, and institutional gradients in cities. We argue the importance of integrating both field and
remotely-sensed data for use in designing GI with the intent to control stormwater runoff and limit or
eliminate Aedes spp. habitat. Finally, incorporating eco-hydrological principles into city planning can
strengthen resilience to changing socio-environmental conditions and help implement innovative solutions
for dealing with coupled human-water issues, particularly those related to public health management and
watershed planning that enhances urban areas.

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Poster: Holistic Surface Water and Groundwater Management for
Sustainable Cities
Presenting Prof. Chrysi Laspidou, Greece, University of Thessaly,
Author: Department of Civil Engineering

Co-Authors: Mr. Dimitrios Kofinas, Greece, University of Thessaly, Civil


Engineering Department
Mr. Nikolaos Mellios, Greece, University of Thessaly,
Department of Civil Engineering
Dr. Stamatia Rizou, Greece, Singular Logic S.A.

Highlights
Water4Cities project will focus on water management, urban infrastructure management, sensor networks,
data mining, data visualization, system integration and urban planning. Due to the multi-disciplinary nature
of the project, staff exchanges will allow partners working closely together to deliver high quality results and
contribute towards urban water sustainability.

Introduction and objectives


This work is part of the new Horizon 2020 project "Water4Cities" funded by the EC Horizon2020 Marie
Skłodowska-Curie RISE program. Urban water management becomes progressively more challenging in the
view of population growth and increasing complexity of water management infrastructure. In this line,
Water4Cities project will enable water providers and public authorities to critically evaluate the existing
water ecosystems at city level in respect to the water supply, waste water treatment, reuse potential and the
effect the growing population has on the water ecosystem and endangered species.

Methodology approach
The Water4Cities project will rely on sensor technologies, data and visual analytics to enable localization,
visualization and analysis of urban water (both surface water and groundwater) at a holistic urban setting
providing services to multiple water stakeholders. More specifically, the Water4Cities project aims to develop
the necessary models and associated platform that will enable water providers and relevant stakeholders to
monitor in real-time the urban water resources, support their decisions for optimal urban water management
causing minimal environmental impact and involve policy makers, corporations and the public to provide the
support for sound and balanced decision-making.

Analysis and results


The project will contribute in sustainable management of urban water by relying on the design of a holistic
integrated methodology for urban surface water and groundwater monitoring and management, the
construction of a beyond the state-of-the-art data collection mechanism and the enablement of real-time
spatiotemporal visualization of water resources for sustainable urban water management. It will provide
water managers the appropriate tools that will enable them to assess the implications of their decisions, such
as groundwater over-exploitation, trade-off between energy and water use, different land uses and the
effects of climate change on available water resources. Example decision support services are: a)improved
groundwater management (e.g., planning of infrastructure such as location of municipal waterwells,
planning of groundwater abstraction, enrichment of groundwater), b)improved water supply planning (e.g.
selection of optimal water source w.r.t. energy and water use, water quality), c)improved water reuse
potential (e.g., assessment of waste/storm water, water treatment) and d)implications of different land uses:
city managers and urban planners will have all relevant information and data to decide the effects of a new
project—such as a hotel, a swimming pool, a golf course, buildings with underground garages—expansion
of tourism sector, etc.

68
Conclusions and recommendation
Overall the scarcity of groundwater data and their poor exploitation through existing ICT tools, calls for new
solutions assisting groundwater management. However, groundwater management cannot be seen in
isolation from the overall urban water ecosystem. Both surface water and groundwater should be viewed as
part of the extended urban water ecosystem with its spatiotemporal availability, quantity, quality and
competing uses being taken into account. Unlike existing approaches, Water4Cities will conduct research on
an integrated approach to tackle multiple issues concurrently, and assist in understanding trade-offs
between different measures and investments and in optimizing resource use in the urban water ecosystem.

69
Poster: How to revitalize decentralized wastewater treatment plants in
Nepal
Presenting Ms. Susanne Shatanawu, Netherlands, Simavi
Author:

Co-Authors: Jimena Duram, Netherlands


Ms. Saskia Geling, Netherlands, Simavi

Highlights
• Assessment of the functionality and management of decentralized waste water systems in
Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
• The understanding of factors that affect functionality, sustainability and management of
decentralized wastewater treatment plants.
• The inclusion of private sector in the management of decentralized wastewater treatment plants.

Introduction and objectives


Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) have popularity as an alternative to centralized
wastewater treatment systems. In this study, the authors present an integrated analysis of the functionality
of wastewater treatment plants installed in Kathmandu Valley, in order to understand the factors that affect
its functionality and management and design frameworks that allow long-term sustainability. The
introduction of DEWATS in Nepal has facilitated improved environmental conditions and usage of biogas and
sludge. However, problems persist in sustainability and management. A possible solution to this challenge is
the consideration of a multi-stakeholder approach and the inclusion of private sector management

Methodology approach
The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase took place in the month of December (Winter
Season) in which the existing DEWATS inside the Kathmandu valley were explored. The operational
conditions of the treatment plants were prioritized to make a category based on it and the site conditions of
the plants in full or partial operation were assessed. The second phase of the study was conducted in April
(Summer Season) for comparative analysis variation in functionality, flow pattern and site conditions.

Analysis and results


In the case of the municipal plants, the application and management aspect is very weak and the significant
reasons for the failure of such systems are lack of periodic maintenance, lack of ownership, lack of monitoring
from the concerned authorities and lack of awareness among users. In the case of institutional plants, the
scenario is opposite and functioning of the system is given priority. The reason behind this is about proper
care, maintenance and management system. A possible solution is private sector management or public-
private partnership approach. In order to assure transparency and a good relationship, a system for
accountability of all activities must be developed.
However, the study still revealed that the majority of the systems visited were operating at least partially and
there were a lot of positives to take from the 8 selected for detailed study. The more awareness among the
user committee and ability to maintain the systems led to increased functionality; positive examples were
shown in Shreekandapur and Kathmandu University where ownership was taken and the condition of the
system significantly improved over the course of the study.

70
Conclusions and recommendation
The study shows that treatment plants fail during the operation phase and their sustainability is a bigger issue
in Nepal. The major limitation behind the failure of the systems is weak management and low involvement
from major stakeholders during the operation phase. The study highlights several recommendations useful
for the guaranteeing better performance of wastewater units that concern: 1) the empowerment of the
caretakers of the system; 2) the collection of wastewater treatment tariff from the users; 3) incorporation of
proper biogas and sludge production in the design; 4) the engagement of private sector entrepreneurs.

71
Poster: Interactive map of urban wetlands
Presenting Ms. Camila Teutsch, Chile, Patagua
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Francisco Vasquez, Chile/Colombia, Independent


Researcher

Highlights
 Multi-stakeholder participation is being promoted for urban wetlands protection and management.
 An integrated approach is being used to study urban wetlands as part of a green infrastructure
system, highlighting their relevance regarding stormwater management, water supply, public space
and climate change control.
 Relevant public information on environmental and urban water issues is being produced.

Introduction and objectives


The enormous array of environmental services that wetlands provide is hardly appreciated in Southern Chile.
Real estate development has become a major threat to these valuable ecosystems, hence the urgency of
making them visible and raising awareness among city inhabitants and decision makers. The Interactive Map
of Urban Wetlands aims to contribute as an innovative tool for integrated urban water management. The
initiative is currently being piloted in two towns through a participatory process that is shaping the online
platform to better fit the needs of different types of users, and that is also gathering information to feed the
map.

Methodology approach
This is a social innovation project which has multi-stakeholder participation at its core. The participatory
process involves collaborative mapping, workshops, focus groups and other activities, which bring together
representatives of local governments, civil society organisations, education institutions, and the productive
sector. The participatory approach has been undertaken to identify information needs as well as to gather,
produce and validate part of the information that will feed the map. Also, extensive research has been
undertaken to understand what makes a social mapping platform useful, practical and alive.

Analysis and results


Although research is still ongoing at the time of writing, some key preliminary results can be highlighted:
1. Different stakeholders have different baseline knowledge on urban wetlands, but they are all eager
to contribute to the mapping process and to get involved in wetland protection and management.
2. There is clear scope to use the interactive map of urban wetlands as a tool to support the ongoing
process of updating urban development guidelines for both pilot towns involved.
3. Participatory mapping has resulted in valuable information on urban wetlands at a high level of cost-
efficiency.
4. The multi-stakeholder participatory approach has enabled cross-sectoral collaboration for urban
water management.
5. Active participation of local governments and other decision-makers has contributed to the
engagement of other relevant stakeholders.
6. Different stakeholders have different information requirements and see different potential for the
interactive map of urban wetlands. However, some of their shared information needs are: i) current
and past wetland location; ii) land ownership/ public space potential; iii) urban biodiversity; iv) risk

72
and protection areas; v) development projects; vi) existing and potential paths and trails; vii)
touristic spots and highlights.
7. Research shows that collaborative mapping platforms tend to lose strength when they are too
ambitious in terms of the scope of information they cover and the applications they offer.

Conclusions and recommendation


Participation of multiple stakeholders is key for the design, development and information gathering of an
IWRM tool such as the Interactive Map of Urban Wetlands. In order to be successful and sustainable, this
kind of platform needs to be as simple and intuitive as possible (less is more). Once the interactive map is
adjusted to its final version, there is clear scope for replication in other territories.

73
Poster: Runoff and site suitability analysis of rain water harvesting
structures
Presenting Prof. Kumar Veluswamy, India, ACRI-TNAU
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Alagu Raja R A, India, Thiagarajar College of Engineering,


Madurai
Mr. Antony Joe M, India, TCE Madurai
Mr. Subbu Venkatraman R, India, TCE Madurai
Mr. Balasubramaniyan S, India, TCE, Madurai

Highlights
 Suitable water harvesting sites are identified to create macro level rainwater harvesting structures.
 The runoff potential map generated for this work will be useful for various applications such as flood
risk zone analysis, crop suitability area analysis.

Introduction and objectives


A smart city is an innovative city that uses technology to improve the quality of life which has to support
growing population’s needs along with efficient management of natural resources. Increasing population
density in cities creates more demand for water. Among essential natural resources, available water has
already become a commodity due to its scarcity. Rain is the primary source of water. Due to climate change,
rainfall pattern becomes unpredictable and extreme events as floods and droughts occur often. Moreover,
Groundwater is being exploited in a worrisome manner. Therefore it is critical to harvest rainwater to
recharge groundwater.

Methodology approach
This paper presents a GIS-based approach for identifying the suitable sites for rainwater harvesting structures
in Madurai, one among 100 cities in India selected by Government of India. Site selection is made using runoff
potential of location, soil characteristics, slope details and land use pattern data. Runoff potential map is
generated using Soil Conservative Service –Curve Number method. Slope map is derived from the contour.
Land-use Land-cover data are obtained from NRSC, Hyderabad. Precipitation data is received from Global
weather data, Texas A & M University. These spatial data are processed with GIS software to obtain the
required thematic layers.

Analysis and results


An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) – weighted overlay analysis is performed using GIS with priority values
for different spatial layers. The purpose of the weighted overlay analysis is to apply a common scale of values
to diverse and dissimilar data input to create an integrated analysis. The layers used for this work are LULC
map, soil map, slope map and runoff potential map. Each layer has its own influence, based on its importance
and necessity. So different weightages are assigned to each layers. As a result of this process, the suitable
macro level rain water harvesting sites such as farm pond, percolating tank and check dam are identified. The
runoff potential map was also generated and it will be useful for applications such as flood risk zone analysis,
crop cultivation area analysis. From the study area of Madurai district, the Madurai metropolitan area alone
is extracted for validating the result. From the validation process, it is cleared inferred that the areas
highlighted are highly suitable for setting up the rain water harvesting structures.

74
Conclusions and recommendation
Rain water harvesting structures are critical to conserve the scarce resource. It will be helpful to check floods
during rainy season. Madurai is now facing acute shortage of water and getting it from long distance.
Growing urban area and shrinking water bodies in the city makes the need for creation of more water storage
structures to cater both agricultural need and drinking purpose. With that view, Madurai is selected for
identification suitable sites to create water harvesting structures utilizing remote sensing and GIS
technologies and several suitable sites are identified for macro level rain water harvesting structures.

75
Poster: Using urine as a smart solution for sustainable food production
Presenting Mr. Joel Ssekabembe, Uganda, Kawuku Womens Group
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
 Urine was tested and evaluated as a crop fertilizer in small scale farming.
 Urine contributes to significant yield improvements among urban farmers.
 Social barriers against diffusion are negotiable.
 Action research can create pathways towards sustainability.

Introduction and objectives


Urine though understood as a human waste,it is valuable for enriching soils for sustainable food production
in developing countries like Uganda. Urine fertilization is valued as a low cost and low risk practice
contributing to significant yield, increases food security and lower poverty levels especially in this era of
enormous climate change with worn out soils. Kawuku Women's Group is promoting the use of urine among
small scale urban farmers as a smart solution for sustainable food production in Uganda. However, the scale
up of the project is still a challenge which needs to be addressed.

Methodology approach
 Urine is collected and stored in 5 gallons capacity from bathrooms among the mobilized
communities.
 In one (1) gallon of urine you add 4 gallons of water to dilute the urine because it is strong and
concentrated.
 Apply the urine to the outer perimeter of each plant that you feed.
 Give one (1) pint to each plant and water the plants thoroughly after applying the urine.

Analysis and results


 Using urine as a fertilizer enriches the soils and contributes to sustainable food production in urban
areas.
 Urine contributes to yield improvement and positive farmer evaluation.
 Urine fertilization is a low cost and low risk yet it contributes to food security and increases urban
farmers incomes.
 It is an appropriate method for purposes of sustainable land management, food security and urban
livelihoods.
 The importance of culture and social norms should be recognized but not taken as absolute barrier
to diffusion of the practice.

Conclusions and recommendation


In conclusion, urine fertilization should be acknowledged as a smart solution for sustainable food production
and land management, food security and urban poverty reduction and livelihood. It is important for
agricultural research to collaborate with urban farmers in all stages of development in research for
affordable, locally anchored and sustainable practices. It is also important to to support the scaling up of such
projects in more and larger areas for better results.

76
Seminar: Harnessing opportunities for the
safe reuse of wastewater in agriculture

Photo: Kim Andersson

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

77
Seminar: Harnessing opportunities for the safe reuse of wastewater in
agriculture

Contents
Connecting practitioners across the Asia Pacific - the Kini Initiative ................................... 79
Global spatial assessment of indirect wastewater reuse in irrigated croplands ..................81
Irrigation with wastewater – experiences from Nigerian Fadama development project .. 83
Leveraging traceability to promote agricultural use of wastewater treatment biosolids . 85
Reuse of wastewater in agriculture in Bangladesh ............................................................... 87
Safe use of wastewater in LAC: status and capacity needs .................................................. 89
Sustainable wastewater reuse for agricultural application ...................................................91
Wastewater reuse for community livelihood enhancement Wadi Musa case study .......... 93
Poster: Effect of urine on maize yield - Prospects for food security .................................... 95
Poster: Evaluating filtration types of wastewater for agricultural irrigation systems........ 97
Poster: Strategic approach for waste water reusing in agriculture in Palestine ................. 99

78
Connecting practitioners across the Asia Pacific - the Kini Initiative
Presenting Ms. Karen Delfau, Australia, International WaterCentre Alumni
Author: Network

Co-Authors: Mr. Ralph Ogden, Australia

Highlights
Agriculture requires 80% of water resources in the Asia Pacific. The Kini Initiative connects practitioners and
brokers knowledge between Australia and the rest of the Asia Pacific to share and promote effective best
practices for water management in the Asia-Pacific, a key component of which is water recycling and reuse.

Introduction and objectives


The Kini Initiative is a research-based knowledge sharing initiative that brokers knowledge and connects
practitioners to support improved, integrated water management in practice. This presentation shares key
knowledge and insights from the Kini Interview series, and looks at the priorities and opportunities for
improved water and wastewater governance and management to address water scarcity and drought,
particularly in the agriculture sector in the Asia Pacific. The Kini Initiative is a joint activity of the Australian
Water Partnership and the International WaterCentre Alumni Network.

Methodology approach
Extensive research has been undertaken to understand (1) knowledge needs and (2) mechanisms for
accessing knowledge by practitioners in the Asia Pacific. The Kini Interview series provides long-form
interviews with leading water management practitioners in Australia and throughout the Asia-Pacific to
identify innovative approaches and evidence-based best practices to addressing water management and
water scarcity challenges throughout the region, particularly in the agriculture sector.

Analysis and results


At the time of writing, research is ongoing, however key themes have emerged to support knowledge
management and water management.
In terms of knowledge management, learning through virtual means must be complemented by face-to-face
interaction. High-value content (such as the Kini Interviews and supplemental articles) should be shared
through existing means (e.g., no new platform is required).
For water management, three key themes have emerged:
1. Understanding the resource is the essential first step to managing water and wastewater. Not only
should this understanding include quantifiable data and relevant information, but it should also
include an understanding of the users and stakeholders, the values associated with water, and the
benefits derived from water.
1. Cross-sectoral approaches are what will allow for the full realization of benefits (including associated
health, food, energy, waste, WASH).
2. Knowledge exchange helps stakeholders to be able to think strategically, and when needed, change
behaviors/act accordingly in order to effectively tackle water management challenges.

79
Conclusions and recommendation
Relationships are at the core of knowledge transfer, and the Kini Initiative works to link practitioners
throughout the Asia-Pacific to support learning and the implementation of Integrated Water Management
to address water scarcity challenges, particularly in the agricultural sector. Where Australia has developed
technologies, policies, and tools for addressing water scarcity challenges (including wastewater recycling and
reuse), the transfer of this knowledge and its eventual uptake requires a long-term, integrated approach.

80
Global spatial assessment of indirect wastewater reuse in irrigated
croplands
Presenting Dr. Anne Thebo, United States, University of California,
Author: Berkeley

Co-Authors: Dr. Pay Drechsel, Sri Lanka


Prof. Eric Lambin, United States, Stanford University
Prof. Kara Nelson, United States, University of California,
Berkeley

Highlights
This study develops the first spatially-explicit estimate of irrigated croplands with a high likelihood of
irrigating with untreated, although often diluted urban wastewater. 35.9 Mha of irrigated croplands were
located in catchments highly influenced by urban wastewater flows. 29.3 Mha were located in areas with low
levels of wastewater treatment.

Introduction and objectives


Urban population growth is rapidly outpacing the development of infrastructure for the safe collection and
treatment of wastewater, leading to the widespread discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater
to surface water bodies. Downstream of many urban areas are large areas of irrigated croplands reliant on
these same surface water sources. Urban wastewater is a reliable, nutrient rich source of water for
downstream farmers, but can present health risks without appropriate protections. Our study presents the
first spatially-explicit global estimates of the magnitude and distribution of irrigated croplands with a high
likelihood of irrigating with untreated, although often diluted, wastewater.

Methodology approach
Case studies document the widespread use of untreated wastewater in irrigated agriculture, but due to the
practical and political challenges of conducting a true census of this practice, its global extent is not well
known except where reuse has been planned. Cognizant of the limitations of past attempts to characterize
wastewater irrigation, we instead opted to develop a GIS-based decision tree classification algorithm. These
methods were developed to primarily quantify indirect reuse. Major sources of data used in this analysis
included MIRCA2000 (irrigated croplands), WRI AQUEDUCT database, AQUASTAT and other compilations on
wastewater treatment.

Analysis and results


Our study presents the first spatially-explicit global estimates of the magnitude and distribution of irrigated
croplands (a) influenced by urban wastewater flows; and (b) having a high likelihood of irrigating with
untreated, although often diluted, wastewater.
55.1 Mha of irrigated croplands were located within 40 km downstream of or within an urban area. This area
of downstream irrigated croplands (DSIC) constitutes approximately 26 percent of the global irrigated
croplands identified by Portmann et al. We found 35.9 Mha (65%) of DSIC were located in catchments with
high levels of dependence on urban wastewater flows. These same catchments were home to 1.37 billion
urban residents. 91% of wastewater dependent DSIC were located within 10 km of urban areas. Of these
irrigated croplands, 86 percent (29.3 Mha) are located in countries where less than 75 percent of wastewater
receives some form of treatment. Five countries, China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, and Iran, accounted for 25.1
Mha (85.7%) of DSIC with a high likelihood of untreated reuse.

81
Conclusions and recommendation
Considerable strides have been made in increasing access to improved sanitation in urban areas, but
investments in wastewater treatment continue to lag behind. Even when untreated wastewater constitutes
a small percentage of flow, concentrations of pathogens in irrigation water can far exceed those
recommended in WHO guidelines. This study sheds further light on the often complicated ways in which
urban areas impact agricultural water quality in downstream peri-urban and rural environments. Further work
is needed to ensure that urban sanitation policies not only address the protection of surface water quality
for ecological reasons, but also recognize the water quantity and quality needs of downstream farmers.

82
Irrigation with wastewater – experiences from Nigerian Fadama
development project
Presenting Prof. Sridhar Mynepalli, Nigeria, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
 Nigeria embarked on Fadama farming since 1996 resulting in improved food security and quality of
life of farmers.
 Wastewaters, municipal and industrial effluents were widely used for irrigation which became risk
factors.
 There is need for improved irrigation water quality and implementation of stringent water quality
guidelines.

Introduction and objectives


Nigeria is a beneficiary of National Fadama (low-lying flood plains) Development Project, initiated in 1990s by
the World Bank. The project is in Phases I, II and III , covering all 36 States and further funded by African
Development Fund and other Donors. Simple and low-cost improved irrigation technologies were adopted.
Farmers, however, practiced use of wastewater, effluents and polluted waters for irrigation and realized
increased economic crops: up to 65% (Vegetables), 334% (wheat) and 497% (Rice) with improved quality of
life. This paper described the quality of irrigation waters being used and their impacts.

Methodology approach
Exhaustive data were collected from various States in northern, middle and southern belts, but this paper
limits to Taraba State. Data collection methods included community visits, in depth interviews and sampling
of irrigation water samples. Standard methods followed using American Public Health Association. Water
quality assessment was made using pH, Electrical conductivity, Chloride, major cations (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+),
zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni). In addition, boron, CO3,
HCO3 and NO3 were measured. Water quality risk factors were computed.

Analysis and results


The critical parameters of irrigation water are the salt content, toxic chemicals, carbonates and bicarbonates
and essential nutrients. The pH values 5.86±0.15 and 5.60±0.05 obtained from Taraba River (Gassol) and
ground water (Bali) were below the permissible limit. The electrical conductivity, CO3, HCO3, Mg, Na, K, and
Cl were low; Zinc, Manganese, Iron and Nickel were within the permissible limits, Copper was higher
(mg L-1) in Garin Dogo (Stream, 3.10±0.10), Garin Dogo (Ground water, 10.23±0.21) and Garin Dogo (Tube well,
1.31±0.03); Cr levels in Taraba river (Gassol), Garin Dogo (Stream), Garin Dogo (Ground water), Bali (Ground
water) and Garin Dogo (Tube well) ranged between 1.19±0.004 and 1.51±0.01 which were above permissible
levels. The risk factors are open defecation, discharge of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes, and
navigation. Eutrophication and growths of aquatic macrophytes were conspicuous and Water-borne
infections (Schistosomiasis, diarrhea) were common. The serious emerging risk factors were technology
related agrochemicals arising from excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. Use of Gammaline for fishing
was widely practiced resulting in elevated levels in fish: Gamma BHC 5.4 to 35.2, and dieldrin 1.2 to
10.2 mg/Kg-1.

83
Conclusions and recommendation
Fadama initiative by the Nigerian Government since 1996 is most welcome by the farming populations. Where
there is water, there is food and farmers enjoyed improved quality of life economic gains. However, with
subsidized farming inputs and irrigation equipment, farmers used any available waters such as wastewaters,
effluents from small and medium scale industries, and polluted and eutrophic water bodies for irrigation thus
compromising water quality and public health risks. There is need to improve irrigation water quality through
technology use and implementing stringent water quality guidelines for effective reuse of precious water
resources.

84
Leveraging traceability to promote agricultural use of wastewater
treatment biosolids
Presenting Ms. Maelenn Poitrenaud, France, SEDE Environnement
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
In order for a sustainable and economic land application of treated sludge, a robust method to verify and
validate the supply chain and life cycle from plant to land is necessary. This includes traceability, action where
violations and discrepancies occur, and effective measurement and reporting.

Introduction and objectives


The wastewater treatment process produces biosolids as a by-product. Biosolids have significant fertilizing
and organic value, and can be used in agriculture for fertilization of plants and soils (by composting). Because
of the inherent risks that could be present, proper management of the material and credible tracking of use
is necessary. SEDE -VEOLIA is the European market leader in the recovery of organic wastes produced by
communities and industries. To support controlled and safe reuse of biosolids, traceability of the quality and
use is key. The authors will describe the SUIVRA software created by SEDE-VEOLIA.

Methodology approach
SUIVRA can monitor any type of products, on both quantitative and qualitative basis, over a period of several
years. The software can be linked to a geographical information system that can display the plots used for
land application on a map base. The functional developments incorporated for connectivity with GIS make
Suivra a high-performance and user-friendly software program. The two applications are closely linked and
guarantee the traceability of the land application operations. SUIVRA’s functionalities enable users to check
the regulatory compliance status of sludge and by-products at any time, relative to expectations.

Analysis and results


Proper land application of sludge may replace on average 30% of Potassium and Magnesium, 40% of Nitrogen
and 100% of Phosphorous of the needed fertilization in regions where this land application practice is
common. SUIVRA provides farmers, waste producer and local authorities with a comprehensive record of
the land spreading campaign, with various reports. SUIVRA is also an ideal tool for the establishment of the
nutrient management plans. Analyses are performed to determine the optimized nutrient balance and the
heavy metal content of the soil, and the results are automatically imported into SUIVRA. This land-plot
management system is used to establish the spreading schedule. The quantities of sludge required to fertilize
the crops are determined for each plot of land. Where necessary, the balance of nutrients to be supplied in
chemical form following land spreading is also calculated.
Today, SUIVRA data base integrates:
 3 million tonnes of solid urban and industrial by-products
 5 million m3 of food industries effluents processed
 10 000 farmers over 1 000 000 ha of landbank

85
Conclusions and recommendation
Software applications such as SUIVRA allow land use application of biosolids to be done in a traceable and
verifiable manner. This traceability helps alleviate concern over misuse and pollution impacts. As a result, a
very sustainable use of a waste product can be more widespread. Currently, SUIVRA is being applied in
France, Belgium, United-Kingdom and in the Republic of Ireland. The software is conducive for use by
regulatory agencies in every country.

86
Reuse of wastewater in agriculture in Bangladesh
Presenting Prof. Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Bangladesh
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
 Context of wastewater reuse in agriculture and aquaculture and its pros and cons.
 Critical evaluation of present practices associate to fecal contamination of greywater and its impact
on health and environment.
 Recommendations for safe and sustainable reuse of wastewater.

Introduction and objectives


Worldwide feresh water sacarcity is compelling the reuse (combining water and nutrient recycling) of
wastewater, greywater and fecal sludge in agriculture and aquaculture at a rapid pace. In Bangladesh,
wastewater, greywater and fecal sludge are being traditionally used in agriculture by the farmers in rural as
well as in peri-urban areas, particularly in the drought-prone parts. But this may pose risks to human health
and ecosystem. This paper attempts to identify the benefits, challenges, social acceptance and institutional
arrangements of wastewater reuse in the country and identify the management initiatives for its sustainable
reuse.

Methodology approach
Most of the data in this study were collected from two Bangladeshi cities, Dhaka and Rajshahi. Statistically
representative wastewater samples were collected randomly towards the end of dry season in 2015 for
laboratory analysis. The study also presents findings of a questionnaire survey having a total sample of 250
households for Dhaka and 150 households for Rajshahi that were selected and interviewed using a semi-
structured questionnaire focusing wastewater disposal and fecal sludge management. Then governance
issues and secondary data are reviewed particularly for rural areas, where wastewater is reused in agriculture
and aquaculture to address the situation coherently.

Analysis and results


The most important benefits of wastewater reuse have been found as the availability of wastewater over all
seasons and reduced chemical fertilizer requirements. The farmers reported that the crops grown with
wastewater irrigation are socially acceptable as they do not face any difficulty to sell them in the market.
Interviews with the key stakeholders indicate that a long term institutional arrangement for sustainable reuse
of wastewater is available. They identified various problems associated with wastewater that includes
incidents of pest and excess weed in the crop field, smells, skin diseases, mosquito nuisance and damage to
irrigation pumps due to the high solid waste content. Test results revealed that the biological quality
parameters in the wastewater used in agricultural and aquacultural purposes do not satisfy the FAO and WHO
guidelines values. This also has a very high degree of microbial contamination. More than 63% of the
respondents in Dhaka expressed their concern that putting fecal sludge here and there contaminates
greywater, affects human health and has negative consequences on environment in general. This percentage
is lower (37%) in Rajshahi compared to Dhaka, but there is a certain level of awareness among people about
the undesirable consequences of this act.

87
Conclusions and recommendation
Reuse of wastewater has an increased benefit due to higher crop production with minimum fertilizer cost in
Bangladesh. But there are possibilities of incidents of pest and excess weed in the crop field as well as health
impacts of farmers. Microbiological and biological quality parameters in the wastewater used in agriculture
and aquaculture exceed FAO and WHO guidelines values. This demands much more attention on the
implementation of simple yet cost-effective alternatives to wastewater treatment plants to improve
wastewater quality, improving wastewater application methods, control of human exposure for their
sustainable utilization in the context of ecosystem perspective.

88
Safe use of wastewater in LAC: status and capacity needs
Presenting Mr. Javier Mateo-Sagasta, Sri Lanka, none
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
 Great potential to safely reuse the resources embedded in the 30 km 3 of municipal wastewater
produced every year in the region
 To reach its potential and meet the SDG 6.3 the region needs to develop capacities and facilitate the
replication of the existing but still limited success stories

Introduction and objectives


LAC is the most urbanized region in the world. Its urban settlements produce more than 30 Km 3 of municipal
wastewater every year. The resources embedded in these wastewater (e.g. water and nutrients) would be
enough to irrigate and fertilize millions of hectares, but these resources remain greatly untapped. This
presentation will review the available regional data on wastewater treatment and reuse in agriculture and
analyze the key capacities that need to be developed to transition to a safer and more productive use of
these waters in agriculture, all illustrated with sceptic examples form the region.

Methodology approach
We will present the results of a review of cases, literature and secondary data provided by a large number of
regional stakeholders to answer the following questions:
 How much wastewater is produced, treated and reused in agriculture in the region?
 What are the key capacities that need to be developed for a safer and more productive use of
wastewater in agriculture?
 What are some bright examples that if replicated across the region could accelerate the transition
for more and safer reuse?
The capacity needs assessment is partly based on the consultative workshops undertaken under an FAO-
WHO-UNEP-UNWDPC-UNU-INWEH-ICID-IWMI project.

Analysis and results


More than 60% of the 30 Km3 of municipal wastewater produced in LAC every year is discharged to the
environment without any treatment, missing opportunities for safe and planned reuse. As a result about 25%
of the rivers in the region are affected by severe fecal pollution and an estimate of almost 2 Million hectares
use polluted water to irrigate, posing relevant health and environmental risks. Nevertheless there are bright
examples of economic and finance models, reuse safety plans, effective policies, technologies and cost-
effective investments that if replicated across the region would accelerate the adoption of safe reuse
practices.

89
Conclusions and recommendation
Countries in the region need to assess in depth their capacity needs for a safer and more productive use of
wastewater in agriculture in at least these focus areas: i) better data and diagnosis of wastewater
management, ii) more institutional coordination and policy integration, iii) broader use of the WHO 2006
guidelines and iii) better business models and incentives for safe reuse.
The region needs to design cooperative initiatives to promote that countries learn from each other and
replicate success reuse stories across the region.

90
Sustainable wastewater reuse for agricultural application
Presenting Ms. Aleksandra Lazic, Sweden, Xylem Inc.
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Christian Baresel, Sweden, IVL Swedish Environmental


Research Institute

Highlights
Reuse of municipal wastewater is the responsible solution to manage water scarcity, but configuring the
most sustainable treatment system is challenging. This study offers an approach based on sustainability tools
(e.g. environmental and economic evaluations, effluent performance and plant size) in the configuration of
the agriculture reuse treatment systems.

Introduction and objectives


Water reuse for agriculture can be achieved with additional tertiary and disinfection steps, however it is
important to analyze these steps from both environmental and economic outcomes.
The goal of this project is to optimize wastewater treatment processes for sustainable agriculture reuse of
treated wastewater. The starting point is to assess the environmental and economic profile of two treatment
trains that combine the secondary treatment (sequencing batch reactor, SBR) with two different tertiary
treatment technologies. The environmental impact assessment of the treatment trains is done using life cycle
assessment. The economic evaluation was performed using life cycle cost.

Methodology approach
Two (2) different treatment trains for water reclamation for agriculture and urban use were evaluated for
three different full-scale sizes 20,000, 100,000 and 500,000 PE.
The environmental assessment is carried out with LCA methodology according to ISO 14044 (2006). The goal
is to compare the environmental profiles of treatment lines, which deliver reclaimed water for the same
purpose.
The upstream boundary of the assessed system is the wastewater at the point of intake to the SBR. The
downstream boundary considers all the effluents including reclaimed water and sludge treatment (aerobic
sludge stabilization step (AD), thickening (TH) and dewatering (DW)).

Analysis and results


Results of the study allowed designing a sustainability tool integrating the environmental, economic and
treatment performances of the two selected treatment lines and three studied plant sizes. The outcome of
the tool provides a comprehensive understanding of the degree of sustainability of the treatment train for a
specific application and raises visibility of the factors that have the greatest effect on the environmental
impacts, the investment and operational costs.
Generally, tertiary treatment steps with disinfection have only a small impact on the overall environmental
impact even though those steps upgrade the water quality to non-potable water reuse standards. Within the
tertiary treatment and disinfection step, energy consumption of UV contributes the most.
Evaluation of the Life Cycle Cost revealed that for each of the selected treatment trains, the operating cost
(OPEX) is larger than the investment cost (CAPEX) over the 20 years of lifetime of the plant. In addition, the
energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of the total operating costs based on European energy and
labor prices.

91
Conclusions and recommendation
This study shows that various wastewater treatment trains can achieve the same reuse effluent quality while
having different environmental and economic impacts. Sustainability tools (effluent quality, LCA, LCC, energy
consumption, footprint, water efficiency) can be used to provide a more complete understanding of the
environmental, economic and social impacts when selecting the most sustainable reuse treatment train of
certain size.

92
Wastewater reuse for community livelihood enhancement Wadi Musa case
study
Presenting Dr. Loay Froukh, Jordan, JWSRO/NGO
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
This paper presents a success story for sustainable development project in Wadi Musa where wastewater
reuse is used to alleviate the poverty and create jobs for the local community.This will to support Jordan wide
strategy to encourage beneficial reuse of wastewater and will contribute to achieve SDG's 1 (poverty), 2 (food
security) and 6 (water and sanitation).

Introduction and objectives


Wastewater reuse in Wadi Musa is a landmark water reuse pilot project which aimed at enhancing the
livelihood in the local community. The project main objectives are:
 To help improve the livelihoods of the local community
 To reduce the pressure on the groundwater
 To protect health and environment in Wadi Musa area
The project is located approximately 10 km north of Petra and it was the first community based project
established in Jordan. Up to 100 hectares is irrigated with reclaimed water for growing fodder crops mainly
AlfaAlfa. 80 farmers and their families benefited from this project.

Methodology approach
Using the integrated rural water management approach and adopting the water conservation and reuse
strategy,Wadi Musa wastewater reuse project was established to irrigate 100 hectares in the first phase. A
main conveyance system (3 km) with booster stations to pump water from Wadi Musa wastewater treatment
plant to farms downstream. In order to run the project an NGO farming Association was established to be
responsible on the project.The Women form 20% of the farmers.The HF and JWSRO provided the technical
support to farmers to maintain the irrigation system and so it can provide optimum use of wastewater.

Analysis and results


It was found that the treated wastewater was suitable for growing fodder crops in Wadi Musa farms. The
yield of the crops is higher by 20-30% from using freshwater. This is basically due to high nutrients such as N
and P in the water. The avergae generated income per farmer is around 500 Jordanian Dinar which is more
than poverty limit (150 Jordanian Dinar per family). This provided the farmers with a sustainable source of
income and contributed to drop in migration from rural/remote areas to cities.
However, the main challenge was to control the rise in salinity. In year 2014 to 2016 the salinity levels are
increasing with time (some records in recent years reached 1000 ppm) which affected the efficiency of the
irrigation system by blockage of drip irrigation network by 20-30%. It also affected the booster stations
efficiency to drop by 10-20.

93
Conclusions and recommendation
The Wadi Musa case study is a success reuse story which lead to;
 A source of income for the local community members has been secured
 A revolving fund has been established which will invest at least 20% of the annual revenues of the
cooperative to support the future expansion
 Social stabilization and reduction of migration from rural to urban.
 Women farmers involvement in farming activities and association decision process
 Protection of the tourism environment around Petra
 Contribution to achieve SDG's: 1 (poverty), 2 (food security) and 6 (water and sanitation).

94
Poster: Effect of urine on maize yield - Prospects for food security
Presenting Dr. Oliver Odikamnoro, Nigeria, Ebonyi State University
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Oluchukwu Odikamnoro, Nigeria, Ebonyi State


University

Highlights
The effect of human urine on the growth and yield of three local varieties of maize was investigated on the
research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria. Results
revealed that human urine significantly influenced the growth rates and yield of the varieties of maize.

Introduction and objectives


Human urine is rich in nitrogen and can be used to fertilize crops. It also contains nutrients like phosphorus,
potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Urine constitutes only 1% of the total wastewater generated. However,
it contains the largest proportion of plant nutrients found in wastewater. Reuse of the nutrients contained
in urine will reduce environmental pollution. The advantages of urine as fertilizer will be immense as it will
serve as a substitute to commercial fertilizer. It can be of great use in meeting the fertilizer demands of rural
farming communities in developing countries. In Nigeria, maize remains a major cultivated cereal

Methodology approach
The experiment was designed to determine the effectiveness of human urine as a viable and beneficial source
of plant nutrients in comparison to other sources of nutrients. The experiment was a 5x3 factorial laid out in
a randomized complete block design (RCBD). It had factor A as five sources of fertilizer (human urine, poultry
manure, urea, NPK 15:15:15, and control). Factor B was three local maize varieties. This gave a total of 15
treatment combinations replicated three times, giving a total of 45 plots. Urine treatment was applied on all
three varieties of maize and compared with other nitrogen sources.

Analysis and results


The results of the experiments clearly showed that all three maize varieties responded positively to the
treatments (human urine, poultry manure, urea, NPK 15:15:15) except the control that had no form of fertilizer
applied to it.It was shown that human urine significantly influenced the growth rates and yields of all three
maize varieties, followed closely by NPK 15:15:15, urea, and lastly poultry manure. Maize varieties fertilized
with human urine produced similar results as those fertilized with other sources of nitrogenous fertilizer. This
agreed with earlier documented works by other authors which affirmed that the urea or ammonium-N in
urine compares well with that of urea and inorganic fertilizer. In the taste assessment test, tasters could not
differentiate between maize treated with human urine and those grown with other sources of fertilizer. Thus,
tasters did not prefer any particular maize sample as all the maize were evaluated as being good-tasting. This
showed that human urine does not affect or alter the taste of any crop it is fertilized with. This experiment
was able to show the viability of the use of human urine as fertilizer. This means that human urine can be
used at the convenience of a home to grow crops.

95
Conclusions and recommendation
Previous documented works by different authors have successfully demonstrated the benefits of using
human urine as fertilizer. The results of this study affirmed these earlier works. Urine can be harvested by
constructing community urine diverting latrines in residential neighbourhoods. Simple and water-less urinals
can be constructed near the garden for collecting the urine for use in the field. Urine can also be collected
from private homes and stored before use. This work has high implication for policy. Governments at all levels
should promote ecological sanitation and en-corporate it into relevant agricultural, health, and
environmental policies and programmes.

96
Poster: Evaluating filtration types of wastewater for agricultural irrigation
systems
Presenting Mr. Michael Davidson, United States, Davidson Consultants
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
This presentation provides a comparative study of three filtration systems of wastewater for agricultural use.
This research includes: a taxonomy and description of the properties of wastewater salient for agricultural
use; a comparison of the amount of water disposed during operation; available options for wastewater
filtration; and generalizable outcomes

Introduction and objectives


The reliance on wastewater for agricultural use is increasing and it is imperative to understand how this water
resource should be optimally managed. A key element for utilizing wastewater is filtration. This study
evaluated the utility of automatic self-cleaning filtration of wastewater in agricultural settings using three
case studies. The objectives of the presentation include: explain and discuss the properties of wastewater;
explain the properties, characteristics, types and options of filtration; explicate the filtration requirements
for all irrigation regimens; conduct a cost-benefit comparison of typical filtration options; and compare the
disposal characteristics of flush water.

Methodology approach
This study compared the performance of three methods of filtration for agricultural use of wastewater in
California. This is a quantitative comparison of sand media filtration, automatic self-cleaning disk filtration
and automatic self-cleaning screen filtration. The purpose of the study was to determine the rate of flushing,
quantity of flushing effluent, time for flushing sequence. The source for all three system is the same;
wastewater provided by Ventura County. Each system had identical inputs: flow, filtration degree, water
source, pressure and operative demands. The evaluation covered one irrigation season of 100 days.

Analysis and results


The three filtration options performed well. The objective was to evaluate the flushing performance of each
filter system. Each filter option provided equivalent degrees of filtration and performed well in the eyes of
the grower. The sand media filter system flushed about 4 times per day (424 times per season); the disk filter
system flushed about 11 times per day (1144 times per season); the screen filter flushed about 15 times per
day (1515 times per season). Each flush of the sand media filter took 12 minutes and flushed 11340 liters; the
disk filter took 3 minutes to flush and flushed 2268 liters; and the screen filter took 0.25 minutes to flush and
flushed 95 liters. For the season, the media filter flushed 4,808,160 liters; the disk filter flushed 2,594,592
liters and the screen filter flushed 143,925 liters. Each filtration flush disposes of effluent water. Even though
the screen filter flushed 3.5 times more frequently than the sand media system and 1.3 times more frequently
than the disk filter system, it disposes about 3% of the total water disposed by sand media filters and about
6% of the total water disposed by disk filters.

97
Conclusions and recommendation
Wastewater is of significant utility for agricultural purposes. A key consideration for irrigation system using
wastewater is filtration type. An important characteristic of filtration systems is the amount of water that is
disposed during the automatic flushing sequence. It is important to reduce the amount of wastewater that
is disposed and, conversely, make greater use of total available wastewater. This research illustrates
important inferences about the utility of self-cleaning screen filtration. Self-cleaning screen filters provide a
reliable and generalizable solution for reducing wastewater disposal for irrigation systems.

98
Poster: Strategic approach for waste water reusing in agriculture in
Palestine
Presenting Mr. Bahaa Obaid, Palestinian Territories, OBAID Integrated
Author: Solutions

Co-Authors: Dr. Basheer Obaid, Germany, OBAID Integrated Solutions


Ms. Shahrazad Obaid, Germany, OBAID Integrated Solutions

Highlights
This research presents a new approach to encourage the society and farmers to use treated waste water
through public awareness, Farmers incentives and sustainable treated water supply for agriculture.

Introduction and objectives


In Palestine, 70% of water is used in irrigation. Reusing of wastewater will reduce the scarcity of Water and
reducing salinity of Groundwater. This research presents a new approach to encourage the society and
farmers to use treated waste water through public awareness, Farmers incentives and sustainable treated
water supply for agriculture.

Methodology approach
Research methodology is based on three phases: Survey analysis for 100 farmers, Intensive Public awareness
and Implementing approach on selected Pilot area in North Gaza.
This paper presents a pilot study in Gaza and will address Public Awareness Program implemented in pilot
area. This paper also shows the analysis of Detailed social-cultural Survey about using of treated water in
Agricultural.

Analysis and results


69% of participation agree to use treated water in agriculture uses when there a sustainable supply for it. 75%
of farmers agree to use treated water when there is incentives for that. Majority of farmers selected Installing
pipes and reducing treated water tariff as the most important incentives. The reused water quality was
observed in the pilot area which is acceptable and according to international standards. Several parameters
have been measured such as salinity, chloride, nitrogen, heavy metalsnow and etc.

Conclusions and recommendation


Public awareness is an important role to use treated water in agriculture as an alternative water resources.
Incentives encourage farmers to use treated water. Using of treated water will reduce the health risks and
ground Water contaminations.

99
Seminar: Water, pollution, and systemic
challenges: the case of the textile industry

Photo: iStock

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

100
Seminar: Water, pollution, and systemic challenges: the case of the textile
industry

Contents
From field to fashion: examining textile’s grey water footprint ......................................... 102
Taking textile water stewardship to the next level ............................................................ 104
Targets and textiles: target setting in the private sector ....................................................105
The ZDHC wastewater discharge guideline for the textile industry ................................... 107
Wastewater management in Egyptian textile industry sector ......................................... 1099
Poster: Sustainable management practices to the textile industry for growing economy 111

101
From field to fashion: examining textile’s grey water footprint
Presenting Ms. Ruth Mathews, Netherlands, Water Footprint Network
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Alexandra Freitas, Netherlands


Dr. Ertug Ercin, Netherlands
Dr. Guoping Zhang, Netherlands

Highlights
Water Footprint Assessment of polyester and viscose fibres, field cotton and washing, dyeing and finishing
mills shows that the grey water footprint is by far the largest share of textile’s total water footprint and that
this water footprint is often in locations already suffering from poor water quality.

Introduction and objectives


The textile industry is ranked as the second largest polluter globally, after oil industry, with a large share of
that pollution ending up in water, making fresh water unfit for other uses and with severe consequences on
human health and ecosystems. With production (from raw materials to garment finishing) often taking place
in areas under already unsustainable water pollution levels, this analysis aims at understanding the impact of
textile production in water quality throughout different production stages, by calculating the grey water
footprint of polyester, cotton and cellulosic fibres and for textile washing, dyeing and finishing mills.

Methodology approach
Quantification of the impacts of textile production on water resources has been mainly focused on water
consumption. This study analysed the impact of textile at different stages of production – raw materials,
fibres production and washing, dyeing and finishing – by applying the Water Footprint Assessment
methodology. The grey water footprint, i.e., the volumes of freshwater required to assimilate pollution to
meet specific water quality standards (grey water footprint) was calculated for each production stage and
for different fibre types and the environmental sustainability of this water footprint was assessed against
local pollution levels and their socioeconomic efficiency against benchmarks.

Analysis and results


The studies focused on the Water Footprint Assessment of the production of polyester and viscose fibres
globally, production of field cotton in three states of India and on textile processing mills in China and
Bangladesh. Results showed that more than 98% of polyester and viscose’s water footprint is grey water
footprint from industrial processing, and these can reach 30,000 m3/tonne of fibre, depending on the
processes and practices applied. The grey water footprint of filed cotton varies dramatically across the
different agricultural practices, reflecting the level of toxicity of the pesticides used, or the overuse of
nutrients, reaching in some cases 500,000 m3/hectare. In textile processing mills, the grey water footprint
also represents the largest share of the total water footprint, and can be as high as 563 litres per square
meter of fabric. The majority of all production sites analysed for fibres, fields and mills, are located in areas
with unsustainable water pollution levels, which worsens the impact of textile production in these regions.
Results also indicate, that management practices and processing choices, both at industrial and farm levels
largely influence the size of the grey water footprint, i.e. level of pollution caused.

102
Conclusions and recommendation
Adopting better practices and processes without compromising production can significantly contribute to
the reduction of freshwater pollution by the textile industry and consequently enhance water quality where
textile is produced. The grey water footprint of textile production assists selection of the most effective
practices for reducing the industry’s impact on freshwater quality and can be used to prioritise locations in
most need of investment into improved practices. These practices include better choices in the chemicals
used, both at industrial and field levels, chemical reuse and closed-loop cycle production at industrial level,
and enhancement of wastewater disposal and treatment methods.

103
Taking textile water stewardship to the next level
Presenting Ms. Charlotta Jarnmark, Sweden, Pierre Borjesson
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
 Global textile companies bring proof of impact, cleaning up their internal business.
 Collective action push out of existing footprint and sets off a multiplication of impact into new areas,
new sectors.
 Movement from a footprint approach to understanding collective action

Introduction and objectives


The aim of this research is to deeper showcase the effect of water stewardship collective action on a
multitude of scales.
On a basin level, companies working with risk mitigation that engage local and regional decision makers, local
industry and finance interests creates not only tailor made local solutions to water challenges, but also
increases the critical mass that transforms governance, creating ripples by the pure pressure of water risks.
A company that claims water stewardship, next step is increasing the amplitude of the wave, expand, recruit
more companies for water stewardship and grow engagement to a global scale.

Methodology approach
The stewardship journey, from a clean fish in a dirty pond to a clean brand in a dirty world.

Analysis and results


Where does the scaling up of a successful water steward impact take us?
Looking for global governance support and setting science based targets for water is an adaptive processs
on local scale, but globally it may lead the industry to governing power levels.

Conclusions and recommendation


Event participants to contribute what focus on the expansion that give best impact on water management
globally.

104
Targets and textiles: target setting in the private sector
Presenting Ms. Orla Delargy, Ireland, CDP
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. James Lott, United Kingdom, CDP


Ms. Morgan Gillespy, United Kingdom, CDP
Ms. Ariane Laporte-Bisquit, United Kingdom, CDP

Highlights
The World Bank estimates 20% of industrial water pollution comes from textile production. The high water
intensity of this sector, coupled with increasing demand is straining already stressed water resources. CDP
highlights how textiles companies are setting targets to improve their water management practices.

Introduction and objectives


The textiles industry is estimated to be the second largest polluter of clean water resources, with more than
8,000 chemicals used in various manufacturing process including dyeing and printing. It is therefore
imperative that the textile industry is a leader in water and wastewater management. This presentation will
use data from CDP's water programme in 2016 to provide insights into the targets and goals set by textiles
companies to address their impact on water resources on which they rely.

Methodology approach
Companies need to set targets and goals to bring their water impacts to sustainable levels that reflect the
ecological, economic and social needs of the river basins in which they operate. The textiles industry is no
exception, and must tailor the objectives it sets to the specific challenges it faces. As above, pollution is one
of the key challenges for this sector. In this presentation, the information that textiles companies disclosed
about their targets is analysed. This includes: category of target, motivation for target, base-line year and
proportion of target achieved. Case studies of best practice will be presented throughout.

Analysis and results


In 2016, over 3,000 companies were invited to respond to CDP’s request for water-related information, of
which 36 were from the textiles sector. Just 13 of these 36 textiles companies responded, representing a 36%
response rate. Some of well-known responders include Burberry, Adidas, Coach and Kering. 77% of these
companies set targets (quantitative) and/or goals (qualitative) related to water. Some of the most common
targets among the textiles industry reported to CDP in 2016 were reductions in product water intensity;
improving the monitoring of water use; and seeking a reduction in consumptive volumes. Despite the fact
that the textiles industry is the second largest industrial polluter, only 3 out of the 10 companies set targets
relating to water pollution prevention. Burberry is one of these few, having set a target to eliminate the use
of chemicals that may have an environmental impact by 2020. Companies can also set qualitative goals such
as educating their customers to help them minimize product impact; remediating and restoring watersheds
and ecosystems; and engaging with suppliers to help them improve water stewardship. Such actions can
deliver significant benefits for companies: for example, Adidas AG report cost savings from requiring
suppliers to use approved bluesign chemicals, reducing the need to test upstream suppliers and lowering
operating costs and Kering have developed a Chemical Management Framework to serve as a standard for
their brands and suppliers.

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Conclusions and recommendation
There some excellent examples of proactive action from textiles companies, but the sector can do more to
address its growing impact on water resources. Meaningful targets are needed to address the specific issues
that face the textiles sector, such as water pollution and contamination. As regulation on the textiles industry
tightens, companies will have to practice good water management to remain competitive and ensure that
they retain their social license to operate.

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The ZDHC wastewater discharge guideline for the textile industry
Presenting Mr. John Rydzewski, United States, Nike, Inc.
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Stefan Seidel, Germany, Puma


Mr. Germann Garcia Ibanez, Spain, Inditex
Ms. Rachel Wallace, Netherlands, ZDHC

Highlights
 First of kind guideline to set pass/fail reporting limits and standardizes testing methods for 15
targeted classes of hazardous chemicals
 Defines equivalence among various national standards and regulations for traditional wastewater
parameters
 Creates a three-tiered system to drive continuous improvement on traditional wastewater
parameters for direct dischargers

Introduction and objectives


In the apparel and footwear industry, most manufacturing processes use water and generate wastewater
that requires treatment before reuse or discharge. Treatment processes often are developed to align with
effluent discharge parameters dictated by regulations that govern the receiving waterbody or centralized
wastewater treatment. Many countries have developed wastewater discharge regulations, some specific to
the textile industry, which reduce the potential for human health issues and/or negative environmental
impacts. Leading consumer brands in the textile and apparel industry have recognized an opportunity to
drive performance beyond existing regulations and guidelines; and to address 15 classes of hazardous
chemicals.

Methodology approach
In the apparel and footwear industry, most manufacturing processes use water and generate wastewater
that requires treatment before reuse or discharge. Treatment processes often are developed to align with
effluent discharge parameters dictated by regulations that govern the receiving waterbody or centralized
wastewater treatment. Many countries have developed wastewater discharge regulations, some specific to
the textile industry, which reduce the potential for human health issues and/or negative environmental
impacts. Leading consumer brands in the textile and apparel industry have recognized an opportunity to
drive performance beyond existing regulations and guidelines; and to address 15 classes of hazardous
chemicals.

Analysis and results


Through the years, some multi-brand consortia and individual brands have undertaken the development of
manufacturing facility wastewater discharge guidelines for locations at which wastewater discharge
standards have not yet matured or were considered insufficient. Despite efforts devoted to developing
wastewater discharge regulations, there is no single industry-standard guideline that attempts to standardize
discharge criteria and define equivalence among testing methods. Leading textile and footwear brands, in
conjunction with the Roadmap to Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals (ZDHC) Program, identified an
opportunity where the global supply chain for the footwear and apparel industry would benefit greatly from
a single, industry-standard discharge guideline with standardized analytical methods for monitoring
wastewater quality. In response to brands’ own concerns – and those by raised by civil society organizations
– about water pollution and the use of hazardous chemicals, leading brands and the ZDHC collaborated with
global wastewater treatment experts and civil society organizations to develop wastewater a discharge

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quality guideline for the apparel and footwear industry. This guideline goes beyond regulatory compliance to
help ensure wastewater discharges do not adversely affect the environment or the surrounding
communities, and is the first in the world to develop pass/fail criteria for 15 classes of hazardous chemicals.

Conclusions and recommendation


In December 2016, the ZDHC released to the public first official version of ZDHC Wastewater Discharge
Guideline for the footwear and apparel industry, and is currently piloting the guideline. During World Water
Week, we will discuss the methodology used for the development of the guideline, the results of the pilot,
and next steps for the guideline.

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Wastewater management in Egyptian textile industry sector
Presenting Prof. Rifaat Abdel Wahaab, Egypt, Holding Co.for Water and
Author: Wastewater (HCWW)

Co-Authors:

Highlights
The Egyptian textile industry is one of the corner stone of the Egyptian economic strategy. It has a major
impact on the social economic and environment quality of life. It faces a challenging condition in the field of
quality and productivity due to globalization of the world market.

Introduction and objectives


For the above mentioned reasons, better use of resources, pollution abatement and waste minimization,
improved quality and productivity of textiles, cleaner production opportunities, enhancing the competitive
edge by using innovative technologies, upgrading the scientific knowledge as well as ecological and
technological capabilities of the human resources, in addition to strength the partnership between textile
sector and R&D institutions to make innovative happen as well as inclusion of all stakeholders throughout
the corporate value chain are the most important priorities of Egyptian textile industry to stay competitive
in the long-term and helps to ensure sustainable development and create new jobs.

Methodology approach
The current study intends to search how the Egyptian textile industry can be motivated to reduce their
wastewater pollution through implementing process integrated improvements and abatement technologies.
In the past several improvements projects in the Egyptian textile industry have taken place demonstrating
the viability of the approach of Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Productions. Also as wastewater treatment
technology is widely applied in the wet textile processing industry worldwide the question remains how the
textile industry can be motivated to implement these technologies to the extent required.

Analysis and results


The present study shows that there are several aspects under which the Egyptian industry operates which
should favour its sustainable development:
1. Rising prices of resources which will stimulate their efficient use;
2. Several improvement programmes and service providers demonstrating the viability of resource
efficiency, quality improvement and other technological and managerial improvements;
3. An extensive strategy by the Egyptian government to expand (and modernizing?) the textile
industry;
4. Laws and regulations addressing the various aspects of sustainability;
5. The desire to increase export to European countries and US which will require a higher level of
quality products;
6. Increasing awareness of retailers and brands on sustainability issues in their supply chain;
7. Various business driven initiatives focusing on improving the textile supply chain and notably the
social circumstances in the RMG and banned chemicals in wet textile processing and finishing.
It is worth to highlight that improved technology and equipment operations, metering of resource
consumption, monitoring and implementation of RECP recommendations in utility, process and waste
managements may reduce water consumption on average with 40% and energy with 20%. These both case
study and lesson learnt have been replicated in other industrial establishments within textile industry sector.

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Conclusions and recommendation
The study is highly recommend cleaner production opportunities, and at the same time reduce pollutants
concentrations in the final effluent. Accordingly, the following few pollution prevention opportunities were
recommended:
1. Tight closing of dyestuff containers in the chemical store.
2. Replacement of acetic acid by formic acid.
3. Combining the after “full bleaching or dyeing” neutralization-softening steps in one bath.
4. Expanding the use of bi-functional reactive dyestuffs

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Poster: Sustainable management practices to the textile industry for
growing economy
Presenting Mr. Sohail Ali Naqvi, Pakistan, WWF-Pakistan
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
This paper demonstrates the analysis of implementation of agreements (MEAs) and linkage with local
standards in the textile sector of Pakistan. This project also highlights the sustainable practices in the textile
industry to reduce the water consumption as well as wastewater production in processes with cost-benefit
analysis.

Introduction and objectives


Pakistan has ratified a number of international conventions to improve its position in global market. Textile
industry in Pakistan contributes 8.5% of the country’s GDP and 52% in exports. However, majority of the
industry is unable to implement the MEAs and don’t know the linkage of international standards with locals.
This sector also consumes more water and discharges pollution to water bodies without any treatment. This
project will devise some practices which will make this sector resource efficient as well as develop linkage
between international and local standards.

Methodology approach
We have engaged different groups of textile sectors from weaving to textile processing and did our analysis
on the implementation of Multi-environmental agreements (MEAs) in the industrial sector. We also
conducted surveys for the water consumption per process and wastewater production in the textile sector.
On the basis of our observations, some practices (Smart Environmental Management Practices) were devised
for those industrial sectors to adopt and become resource efficient with cost-benefit analysis. Some
techniques of water replenishment were also suggested from the treated or recycled water to reduce the
load on the water reserves

Analysis and results


Our analysis revealed that there is a gap of implementation of MEAs on ground because of unawareness
among industries. There is a dire need of alignment of local standards with MEAs as a number of industries
are complying local standards which also contribute to the MEAs but a clear linkage is needed. Pakistan has
ratified many international agreements which links directly or indirectly to industrial compliance but
industries are unable to understand.
The survey of industrial sector also showed that there are a series of recommendations for textile industry
to adopt for becoming water efficient named Smart Environmental Management Practices (SEMPs). These
SEMPs comprise of a wide range of techniques for water management with short term to long term solutions
such as from floor washing, reuse of wastewater to technical solution within process like Mercerization
process, dyeing bath etc. This analysis also showed the estimated cost of each intervention with benefits and
payback period. The case study revealed that if an industry invests upto 100,000 Euros in different
interventions, it could save more than 110,000 m3 of water on annual basis with a reduction of 10-15% of
pollution and a payback period of upto 10 months.

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Conclusions and recommendation
The alignment of the local standards with the multi-environmental agreements will make it easy for the
textile industry to understand and implement on ground. The adoption of SEMPs in textile industries will
reduce the resources consumption in the processes as well as increase the production which will be leading
towards the economic benefits and productivity of the country. The SEMPs practices are one of the solutions
of the problem and could be used as guidelines for industries. By arranging training sessions, the compliance
of environmental standards and SEMPs implementation could be made more clear to the industrial sector.

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Seminar: Opportunities and limits to
water pollution regulations

Photo: iStock

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

113
Seminar: Opportunities and limits to water pollution regulations

Contents
Agrochemical use in Argentine farming and its impact on water - Legal implications ...... 115
An operator’s views on wastewater regulations around the world ................................... 117
Integrating water footprint assessment into regulations to meet policy goals ................ 119
Policy strategies for contaminants of emerging concern in water ......................................121
To a paradigm shift in water quality and safety assessment............................................... 123
Wastewater management regulations: challenges and opportunities for Africa .............. 125
Poster: Integrated management of industrial effluents in Montevideo - Uruguay ........... 127
Poster: Water quality and climate change: Science supply vs. demand ............................. 129

114
Agrochemical use in Argentine farming and its impact on water - Legal
implications
Presenting Dr. Clara Maria Minaverry, Argentina, National Cousel for
Author: Scientific and Technical Research, University of Buenos Aires
and National University of Lujan

Co-Authors: Prof. Raul Matranga, Argentina, National University of Lujan


Ms. Melina Macrini, Argentina, National University of Lujan

Highlights
Sustainable Development Goal N° 6 (3) states that by 2030, we must improve water quality by reducing
pollution, and minimize chemicals release.
On the contrary in Argentina, Buenos Aires Provincial Congress is analyzing a bill of law which reduces
agricultural herbicides use distances between fields and households, without protecting water.

Introduction and objectives


Agriculture is the main activity developed in Argentina, and in 2016 a bill of law was partially aproved by
Buenos Aires Provincial Congress focusing on “exclusion zones”. It fixes a distance of 500 meters for
agricultural spraying, but is reduced to a 100 meters for the most toxic products, and to 10 meters for
moderate chemicals.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze regulations and jurisprudence regarding agrochemical use in
Argentina.
The spatial scope chosen was from 2008 until present, where we started to analyse jurisprudence from a
selection of argentine provinces.

Methodology approach
Exploratory phase:
We compiled regulations and jurisprudence about agrochemical use in farming activities in a selection of
provinces of Argentina (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe and Cordoba). We followed the direct documental
observation and the legal hermeneutics methods.
Descriptive phase:
The information taken before was categorized in order to elaborate a description of provincial “cases”.
Analytical phase:
The documental analysis implemented was used to ascertain legal principles and decisions, in order to find
strengths and weakness which are described at the conclusions.

Analysis and results


Sante Fe Province (Peralta case law):
In 2009, judicial courts forbidded agrochemicals spraying in this province, having to apply a distance of 800
meters from houses and of 1500 meters if it was air spraying, due to neibourhoods complaints.
This case described the “environmental paradigm” and recognized nature as a “subject of law”, and gave
more importance to collective goods than to individual ones. It also stated that neighbours were not obliged
to demonstrate their damages, and that Public Administration should provide a technical report (prepared
by a university) showing agrochemical toxicity levels within a period of 6 months.
Cordoba province (Gabrielli case law):
In 2012 a Criminal Court sentenced to 3 years of conditional prison to a farmer and to the pilot who sprayed
agrochemicals in a rural area. The first one was condemned as author of the environmental pollution crime

115
which is regulated by the hazardous waste law, and the pilot was sentenced as co-author. Both were disabled
to manage these toxic products and also were obliged to comply with community work.
One of the most important issues was that courts applied the “Precautionary Principle” in all the analyzed
jurisprudence, and they declared that scientific uncertainty about environmental risks could provoke
irreversible damages to people and nature.

Conclusions and recommendation


In rural areas in Argentina, agrochemicals spraying is frequent in order to maximize agricultural performance.
The main concern is that at the north of Buenos Aires province, researchers are starting to find herbicides in
rivers and streams, affecting water quality and threatening human health.
Nowadays Argentina does not have specific regulations in all provinces, so judicial courts and citizens claims
are developing a leading role in order to minimize environmental damage. Some social researchers question
whether if it is suitable or not to apply criminal sanctions. Our country model is a key issue and might be a
limitation in order to achieve a natural equilibrium.

116
An operator’s views on wastewater regulations around the world
Presenting Mr. Nicolas Le Poder, Belgium, Northern Europe zone
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
The challenges facing wastewater systems stakeholders are to efficiently collect and treat wastewater while
reducing energy, maximizing water reuse and recovering materials at best cost, speed and environmental
efficiency. Global operators such as Veolia are benefit from seeing how different regulations generate
different kind of results over time.

Introduction and objectives


Initially, wastewater discharge regulations are characterized by stringent discharge permits, and
corresponding requirements for processes, such as secondary treatment or other best available
technologies. As conditions in the country improve, regulations are expanded with more tailored approaches
to understand and address impacts on the receiving waters. There is better identification of pollution
sources, such as distinctions between industrial vs. municipal. Regulators then move beyond mainly
enforcement actions, taking more complex and targeted action, which may be translated into proactive fiscal
incentives or more command and control approaches.

Methodology approach
Veolia actively partakes in bidding for construction or operations of wastewater facilities in nearly all
countries, ranging from developing to more mature economies. This diverse experience offers a perspective
to compare situations with different regulatory approaches. From this perspective gathered from their own
experience or from technology transfers, the authors compare regulatory challenge experiences from
various geographies.
The authors will focus more so on the different kind of results obtained and trends noted over time with a
given a regulatory approach than on evaluation of short term results.

Analysis and results


The authors have become familiar with the tools and approaches that regulatory authorities use around the
world, and the resulting variations in the speed and degree of effectiveness in meeting objectives. Examples
of different situations in western and central Europe and elsewhere in the world where Veolia is constructing
or operating wastewater treatment facilities are described in regard to local regulation and local
environmental objectives.
Some examples such as in France,Germany, or Japan demonstrate how environmental objectives have been
continuously upgraded over time by plant refurbishment and upgrades, or operational improvement, or
often a combination of both.
Other examples such as in Eastern or southern Europe or in China illustrate the achievement of meeting
environmental objectives in a limited amount of time.
Going forward, compliance will mean addressing increasingly more stringent requirements that include a
wider range and scope of environmental impacts such as water scarcity (such as in Africa and middle east) or
GHG emissions. Minimizing these more global impacts means contending with differing regulations.

117
Conclusions and recommendation
Pollution control options are influenced by the level of ambition of the local authorities, and reflect an
understanding of pollution impacts, desired level of pollution control, compliance timelines, and the
economic capacity of the country and trust in its development capacity. Countries usually first opt for
traditional and basic wastewater treatment requirements, as SDG Goal 6 suggests: and even this fundamental
approach can take a decade to implement. Over time, more tailored and diverse approaches are necessary
to deal with an increasingly uncertain future, and to deal with longer time frames because stakeholder
support becomes the determining time factor

118
Integrating water footprint assessment into regulations to meet policy
goals
Presenting Dr Christopher Briggs, Executive Director, the Water Footprint
Author: Network

Co-Authors: Dr. Ertug Ercin, Netherlands, Water Footprint Network


Ms. Ruth Mathews, Netherlands, Water Footprint Network
Dr. Guoping Zhang, Netherlands
Giuseppe Frapporti, United Kingdom, UK Environmental
Agency
Mesfin Mekonnen

Highlights
A new regulatory framework integrating water footprint indicators into water abstraction licences and
effluent discharge permits was developed with UK Environmental Agency to help achieve policy goals. By
including both water consumption and water quality indicators, this holistic framework will be instrumental
in allocating pollution loads while protecting the environment.

Introduction and objectives


Current regulations regarding water abstraction and effluent discharges and good compliance rates may not
be sufficient to protect water quality. A holistic approach that embraces water pollution and consumption
under a single framework is needed to understand the sources of problems and to guide the formulation and
implementation of regulations that meet policy goals. Water Footprint Assessment was used to understand
the underlying water management and allocation issues driving poor water quality in both surface and
groundwater and to identify a new regulatory framework that can help the agency solve seasonal and local
water pollution problems.

Methodology approach
To develop a new regulatory scheme that supports sustainable development, we applied Water Footprint
Assessment in 35 sub-catchments located in the UK Environment Agency’s Hertfordshire North London
(HNL) Area. We first calculated green, blue and grey water footprints for the domestic, industrial and
agricultural sectors on a monthly basis for both surface and groundwater. Next, we evaluated monthly blue
water scarcity and water pollution levels for surface and groundwater to assess the sustainability of the water
footprints. Furthermore, we applied a wet and dry climate change scenarios and demographic changes to
predict changes in pollution loads for the year 2060.

Analysis and results


Thirty-four percent of the sub-catchments in UK Environment Agency’s Hertfordshire North London Area
have significant or severe annual average surface water pollution levels. The primary contribution to these
high levels of pollution is coming from the discharge of treated effluent from sewage treatment works. Three
sub-catchments have a significant or severe annual average groundwater pollution level, largely due to the
recharge or infiltration of treated effluent. Based on the Water Footprint Assessment results, a new
regulatory scheme for wastewater discharge permits and water abstraction licenses was proposed that uses
blue water scarcity and water pollution levels in a sub-catchment to approve an application with conditions
or reject it entirely. The conditions reflect the intra- and inter-annual variability of water availability as well as
differences between point and non-point source pollution. This approach will better respect the spatial and
temporal variability of water resources and will better integrate water management for water quantity and
quality, and for surface and groundwater. By using a single indicator, the water footprint, to assess water
consumption and pollution, the study provided insight into the role of water management and the existing
regulatory framework in failing to meet policy goals for water quality and environmental protection.

119
Conclusions and recommendation
Our analysis showed that Water Footprint Assessment and in particular, water pollution levels can provide a
basis for regulatory reform at the catchment level. The grey water footprint and water pollution levels can
be instrumental in managing cumulative effects of point and nonpoint source pollutant discharges. Most
importantly, using a common metric for water quantity and quality management enables integration across
surface and groundwater, scarcity and pollution. Next steps of setting water footprint maximum sustainable
limits, equitable allocations and improved water efficiency will support further improvements in managing
water resources sustainably now and into the future.

120
Policy strategies for contaminants of emerging concern in water
Presenting Dr. Florence Metz, Switzerland, University of Bern, Institute of
Author: Political Science

Co-Authors: Prof. Karin Ingold, Switzerland, University of Bern, Institute of


Political Science
Ms. Laura Herzog, Switzerland, University of Bern, Switzerland

Highlights
 Overview of policies in selected countries regarding contaminants of emerging concern to water
quality
 Results from an international survey with public, private, and civic actors about preferences
regarding command-and-control, market-based, and persuasive instruments
 Results on actors’ support for proactive or reactive approaches to deal with uncertainties related to
emerging pollutants

Introduction and objectives


With growing awareness about newly detected, but unregulated, pollutants in waterbodies, the question
arises of how to politically address these emerging issues to water quality. While traditional policy responses
to water protection reach their limits, new wastewater treatment technologies and innovative monitoring,
screening, and modelling techniques offer promising pathways to secure water quality in the future. This
contribution provides an overview about countries’ and policy actors’ responses to new challenges in water
protection by presenting results from a research project conducted in Switzerland, France, Germany, and the
Netherlands. Results support future regulation decisions in this emerging field of water protection.

Methodology approach
Which policies do countries adopt for contaminants of emerging concern? How can policy-makers reach
agreements that ensure water protection? We evaluated policy designs of Switzerland, France, Germany, and
the Netherlands with a 6-item index, and analysed networked policy processes that promote water
protection agreements.
Which policy instruments do actors support to address emerging pollutants? Which strategies do actors
pursue when they face uncertainties related to substances with unknown hazardous consequences? We
conducted an international survey with 110 public and private actors involved in water policymaking and
analyzed preferences towards command-and-control, market-based, persuasive instruments, proactive and
reactive strategies.

Analysis and results


While Switzerland has integrated new wastewater technologies into legislation, countries like Germany,
France, and the Netherlands have focused on alternative policy strategies including persuasive, command-
and-control, or economic instruments. To explain these policy variations, we analyzed actors’ policy
instrument preferences, their way of dealing with uncertainties in policymaking, and network constellations.
Instrument preferences of Swiss policy actors, for example, show that support for command-and-control or
voluntary instruments exceed market-based approaches for reducing emerging pollutants in water. In the
Swiss case, most of the actors support precautionary action as an appropriate policy strategy to deal with
remaining uncertainties. Actors agree on the fact that addressing the source of the pollution problem, and
thereby avoiding the input of pollutants into waterbodies, is an appropriate way of dealing with
micropollutants. By contrast, Swiss actors are divided when it comes to technological solutions which
address pollution end-of-pipe. Network constellations show that improvements in wastewater treatment,

121
nevertheless, represent a pragmatic policy compromise on which environmentalists and sceptics could agree
in the Swiss case. Similar results will be presented for the German, French, and Dutch cases in a comparative
perspective.

Conclusions and recommendation


While contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic environment remain largely unregulated, this
contribution provides an overview about policies adopted by the Rhine riparian states, as those are
forerunners in this new policy field of water protection. Findings reveal that collaborative governance
supports actors in dealing with uncertainties and promotes regulatory innovations in water protection on
the national and international level. Collaborative arrangements contribute to effective water protection
policies when they incentivize concerned actors to exchange and form dominant water protection coalitions,
promote policy entrepreneurship, and enable strong brokers to mediate during negotiations.

122
To a paradigm shift in water quality and safety assessment
Presenting Dr Armelle Hebert, Veolia, France
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Stephanie Rinck-Pfeiffer, Australia, Global Water Research


Coalition (GWRC)
Dr. Beate Escher, Germany
Frederic Leusch, Australia, Griffith University

Highlights
Endocrine disruption
in vitro bioassays
safety assessment framework

Introduction and objectives


Bioanalytical tools hold great promise as an additional tool of our current water monitoring strategies. In
vitro bioassays, which are increasingly being applied in water quality assessment, provide relevant and robust
predictive biosystems able to specifically and quantitatively measure early adverse effects of contaminants
in water, including providing a measure of mixture effect, even in low doses, where individual components
of the mixture alone would not show an effect. They provide comprehensive and high-throughput
monitoring systems for a wide range of water contaminants, without the use of experimental animals.

Methodology approach
Smart combinations of chemical & biological analytics can lead to reduced uncertainty in safety assessments,
especially with regards to endocrine disruption, oxidative stress as other relevant primary adverse outcome
pathways triggered by environmental mixtures of water micropollutants.
Recent international projects delivered several methodological advances leading to a comprehensive
framework including the most promising panel of assays and expanded effect-based trigger values (EBT) for
both drinking and environmental waters (GWRC Endocrine Toolbox II, FP7 DEMEAU, FP7 Solutions, BRAVE
initiative). These innovations could contribute to strengthen the safety of conventional water treatment
plants and be integrated in future regulations.

Analysis and results


They also could provide robust monitoring frameworks to promote alternative water schemes as promoted
by the Blue Print Initiative in Europe to better safeguard water resources and the WHO Potable Reuse
Guidance document.
While leading players in Australia, Europe and US recommend to incorporate predictive tools in the water
cycle regulatory monitoring (Water Research Australia, US (CA), Canada, RIVM, EAWAG, KWR, UFZ, EU-JRC
and EU DG-Env, WHO and GWRC), these bioanalytical tools need to be more comprehensively validated and
benchmarked across the entire water cycle and against human and ecological health outcomes before they
can be adopted in regulatory frameworks. A critical next step will be to derive further EBT for an expanded
scope of bioassay endpoints. Several strategies for the derivation of EBT have been proposed but there
remains a lack of acceptance and harmonization across the field to allow better acceptance of these
innovative water quality and safety frameworks.
Covering a wide range of issues including water quality and quantity management and the management of
water-related risks, the OECD is endeavouring to capture science as policy recommendations that derive from
its past and recent work on water in a single, consistent and action-oriented policy.

123
Conclusions and recommendation
By hosting a collaborative task-force or expert working group including GWRC experts and gathering
international organizations such as WHO, UNESCO and the OECD we can get to benchmark these new effect-
based trigger values, and contribute to the water challenge by targeting Water effect-based standards.
Complementary tasks could also be taken up by such Science to Policy interface as a supportive action to
better explain and disseminate the associated benefits for stakeholders as citizen towards their health
protection, municipalities and local authorities, water professionals and institutional bodies.

124
Wastewater management regulations: challenges and opportunities for
Africa
Presenting Mr. Clever Mafuta, Norway, GRID-Arendal
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
With as much as 65% of residents in some African urban centres living in slums, management of wastewater
needs creative policies that are attractive to investors while at the same time facilitating a habitable
environment for residents. Africa lacks adequate infrastructure for wastewater management and adequate
sanitation provision.

Introduction and objectives


The presentation will be based on preliminary findings from a project that seeks to identify opportunities for
investment in wastewater management and sanitation delivery in Africa. This is a joint project by the Africa
Development Bank, UN Environment and GRID-Arendal.
The objectives of the paper are to:
1. note Africa's infrastructure needs for wastewater management;
2. highlight pollution levels due to wastewater;
3. analyse policy arrangements for wastewater management and sanitation delivery in Africa, and
point out success stories for up-scaling and replication; and
4. suggest policy options for Africa.

Methodology approach
The Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework will be used in a desk research that addresses the
following questions:
1. What is the state of wastewater pollution in Africa?
2. Where and by who is the bulk of wastewater generated?
3. What are the regulatory solutions to wastewater management, and are these adequate?
4. What are the human and ecosystem impacts of poor wastewater management in Africa?
5. Where are successes in wastewater management in Africa, and how can this be up-scaled or
replicated?
6. Why is new investment needed in wastewater management in Africa, and will it profitable.

Analysis and results


Africa has made little progress in attaining sanitation goals as defined by the just concluded Millennium
Development Goals. This is partly due to increased levels and inadequate infrastructure for wastewater and
sanitation management. The population without an improved sanitation facility in 2015 had increased by 289
million since 1990 (with about 52% living in rural areas); and only 248 million people gained access during the
period. The situation is compounded by rapid urbanization and high rates of population growth (population
is expected to double by 2050 to over 2 billion people). Moreover, in sub-Saharan Africa, as much as 65 per
cent of some urban dwellers live in informal settlements. Together with increased industrialisation, and
exposure to climate change, the situation puts the health of people, water resources and ecosystems at risk;
and threatens economic development. As such, huge efforts are needed to ensure greater access to
improved sanitation, including better management of wastewater.

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Cases from Burkina Faso indicate that investment in both sanitation and wastewater management can be
profitable for both private and public investment. Such investment needs to be supported by a well-
functioning regulatory system.

Conclusions and recommendation


In as much as poor wastewater management and sanitation delivery is a health issue, it is also an opportunity
for investment. As long as there is a conducive regulatory framework such investment can be profitable. It is
therefore recommended that local and central authorities be more creative in providing regulations that
allow for investment while at the same time addressing human and environmental needs.

126
Poster: Integrated management of industrial effluents in Montevideo -
Uruguay
Presenting Ms. Alicia Stella Raffaele Vázquez, Uruguay, Government of
Author: Montevideo.

Co-Authors: Mr. Hernán Méndez, Uruguay, Government of Montevideo


Ms. Mary Yafalián, Uruguay, Government of Montevideo
Ms. Antuanet Calero, Uruguay, Government of Montevideo

Highlights
Montevideo, the smallest of the 19 political/administrative divisions of the Republic of Uruguay, concentrates
most of the country's industries and service activities, and almost half of the country's population.
Main contamination sources are: domestic sewage, industrial effluents and solid waste disposal.

Introduction and objectives


Montevideo’s water courses network is composed by a large amount of surface water courses. The streams,
Pantanoso and Miguelete and the Bay of Montevideo, are very important because they are closely linked to
human activities.
The high degree of contamination found in the city's water courses, originates mainly from the dumping of
sewage and industrial effluent, and the indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes.
The main objectives of the City government programs and policies are directed towards:
 Optimizing technical resources (public and private) and identifying weaknesses and strengths.
 Reducing pollution loads contributed by Montevideo's industries.
 Working in a holistic manner, with the continuous participation of the community.
We largely met the objectives, particularly in reducing pollution loads.

Methodology approach
The Industrial Effluent Monitoring Program is complementary to the Program of Water Bodies and
Environment and Education, initiated in the year 1997. Previously, a municipal regulation, the “Industrial
Pollution Reduction Plan” (Resolution number 761/96), was carried out gradually, thus allowing its adoption
by small businesses that could not afford large investments in a short period of time.
The companies responsible for 90% of the pollution of Industrial origin in Montevideo, according to their
actual or potential contribution to such pollution, are included in the Industrial Effluent Monitoring Program,
and are grouped into prioritization categories.

Analysis and results


By the end of 2015, the greatest contribution to industrial pollution (88%) was attributable to 23 companies,
and their relationship in the total pollution loads were: 88% flow, 77% oils and fats, 88% BOD5, 97% Sulphides,
95% Chromium, 83% Lead.
Since the start of the program, there has been a significant expansion of industries’ activities and to a lesser
extent, of the industrial discharge flow.
However, industrial restructuring, the implementation of quality systems and environmental management,
the monitoring and control together with civic monitoring, have achieved important reductions of
contamination loads.
There is a growing public interest and citizen’s participation has increased thanks to a well targeted campaign
through social networks, a more visible complaint handling system online and the establishment and training
of environmental commissions comprised of experts, members of the public, and non-profit organizations.

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This prompted improvements in the relationship between industries and the community. The industries
became more open in their relationship with the population, thus driving more and better information.
The implementation of the program has also involved job creation (oriented towards supporting technical
areas of environmental affairs): preparation of technical reports, works or reforms required, and others.
Furthering these industrial effluent control efforts to recover watercourses and to improve the
environmental quality of Montevideo and its habitants, management system and public works’ plans were
implemented for: construction of health infrastructure, rehabilitation of networks and interceptors, and
elimination of uncontrolled discharges of waste and other pollutants into water streams.

Conclusions and recommendation


The Industrial Effluent Monitoring Program is an innovative action for the city and its inhabitants, and it has
been very helpful as a tool for solving contamination problems in Montevideo.
It is an element that marks an improvement in terms of industrial waste treatments and water quality, and
could be used as a benchmark and a framework to resolve city problems in other areas and in other citys.
It has had a positive overall impact that has challenged the traditional status quo in the city, and given that
the modality of work is based on the coordination and efficient use of resources (a priority for countries with
economic shortfalls such as ours), it permits the creation of a foundation for new policies and management
strategies, and contributes to sustainability in departmental government management.

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Poster: Water quality and climate change: Science supply vs. demand
Presenting Ms. Meghan Klasic, United States, University of California,
Author: Davis

Co-Authors: Dr. Julie Ekstrom, United States, Policy Institute of Energy,


Environment and the Economy
Dr. Mark Lubell, United States, University of California, Davis

Highlights
1. Climate change science and management overwhelmingly focuses on water quantity instead of
water quality
2. There are gaps between water quality and climate change science supply and demand
3. Comparing on-the-ground managerial experience with peer-reviewed and published science helps
inform future water quality and climate change policy making

Introduction and objectives


As a first line of defense on public health and safety, water resource practitioners must consider water quality
in long-term climate change planning. While current science shows that water is a major factor in discussions
around extreme events, it disproportionately focuses on the linkage with supply and availability rather than
quality. Water quality threats from extreme events, such as drought and wildfire, are becoming more
commonplace, globally affecting drinking, food production, and ecosystem health. To begin understanding
why water quality and extreme events are not prioritized, this study compares threats identified by California
drinking water system managers with published science.

Methodology approach
The overarching research question is how can science meet the needs of resource managers? More
specifically we are concerned with long-term water quality and climate change planning. Framing this study
in terms of supply and demand, we compare survey results of California drinking water systems with the
subset of published literature that addresses water quality and climate change in California. To determine
whether supply meets demand, we compare the results using an alignment/misalignment typology. This
methodological approach allows us to begin ground-truthing science supply to determine whether it is
addressing the most appropriate challenges as identified by water practitioners.

Analysis and results


The survey and literature comparison considers surface water quality threats and groundwater quality
threats separately. There are a total of 48 surface water quality -- extreme events combinations identified by
California drinking water system managers. The surface water quality results show that 23 of the 48 water
quality -- extreme events combinations have some level of misfit. The highest level of misfit shows that
surface water salinity is linked with drought by 77% of survey respondents, while only 12% of publications
mentioning salinity also mention drought. The surface water quality threat that most frequently shows some
level of misfit is Eutrophication. Overwhelmingly, the majority of available literature on water quality and
extreme events focuses on surface water. Additionally, every groundwater quality threat (6 identified in the
survey) shows some level of misfit between demand and supply for at least one extreme event type. The
linkage between agricultural contaminants and extreme storms is the largest misfit with 24% of respondents
reporting a connection while 80% of articles mention a connection. While science production is often
assumed to be addressing the most important challenges, our study questions this notion by attempting to
ground-truth published science with managerial perspectives.

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Conclusions and recommendation
The results question the assumption that science production inherently addresses the largest climate change
impacts to drinking water quality by showing potential gaps between science supply and demand using on-
the-ground experiences and available literature. While the results cannot be universally applied, this study
does help us in beginning to understand why climate change planning may tend to overlook water quality in
favor of availability and supply. As a next step, we are conducting case study interviews with drinking water
managers throughout California to continue the discussion on water quality threats and climate change
planning.

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Seminar: Governance of water and waste:
a key to sustainable development?

Photo: SIWI

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

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Seminar: Governance of water and waste: a key to sustainable
development?

Contents
Addressing integrity risks in wastewater management: good and bad practices ..........13133
Community-based integrated water resources management in Meghalaya ..................13135
Embedding integrity in water and waste management through social accountability ..13137
Governance of sanitation: incentives for turning political will into action ..................... 13139
Incorporating water governance in the annual monitoring and reporting framework .... 141
Stakeholder engagement to improve community-scale wastewater system
governance in Indonesia ........................................................................................................ 143
Sustainable water governance in industrial symbiosis: the case of Kalundborg ............... 145
Poster: Local leadership development: An example for locally-driven, sustainable
waste management ............................................................................................................... 147
Poster: Non-existent water supply regulators - Implications for sector governance ....... 149
Poster: Performance measurement for effective regulation - Case of Indian urban
water supplies ........................................................................................................................ 151
Poster: Public-civil society incremental involvement in water governance in
Latin America .......................................................................................................................... 153
Poster: Tensions in rural water governance in the digital era ............................................. 155

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Addressing integrity risks in wastewater management: good and bad
practices
Presenting Mr. Frank van der Valk, Germany, Water Integrity Network
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Elske Koelman, Germany

Highlights
 Integrity risks in the wastewater sector received little explicit attention till now.
 Integrity concerns related to urban, industrial and agricultural water pollution, and wastewater
infrastructure are reviewed.
 Good and bad practices show the need and possibilities for more transparency, ac-countability,
participation and anti-corruption action in wastewater management.

Introduction and objectives


Untreated wastewater is often discharged in rivers, lakes, drains or into the groundwater. Such illicit practices
harm public health, crops and the environment, violate national and in-ternational rules and often occur in
conjunction with corruption.
This study provides a review of integrity issues in the wastewater sector, which thus far has received little
systematic attention. A lack of data exists on the amount of treated and reused water, number of Integrity
risks in relation to wastewater and treatment plants, including data on these, and good and bad practices in
their management are documented.

Methodology approach
What are the key integrity concerns that need to be addressed when managing wastewater? How can these
risks be mitigated?
In light of the lack of information available on integrity risks in the wastewater sector, this study addresses
the above stated research questions. Good and bad practices of wastewater management exist, but the
integrity concerns associated with these cases have often not been studied. Desk research and case studies
highlight the importance of tackling integrity concerns in the wastewater sector and demonstrate the need
for more integrity when planning, implementing and monitoring urban, industrial and agricultural
wastewater developments.

Analysis and results


The overview of integrity risks and case studies from the wastewater sector highlights hotspots in relation
to urban, industrial and agricultural water pollution and wastewater infrastructure. When looking at
wastewater governance, treatment and infrastructure development, integrity risks arise with the
mismanagement of large investments. Corruption related to wastewater treatment projects can not only
lead to large scale pollution but also to major delays in construction or abandonment of unfinished projects.
Increasingly, wastewater reuse for agriculture is being institutionalized, yet the lack of trust in wastewater
providers often inhibits such initiatives. The management of industrial waste also poses integrity concerns:
industrial development is considered beneficial for local economies, leading to local government officials
illegally tolerating the discharge of untreated wastewater or discharge of toxic chemicals. Enforcement of
environmental protection laws can be increased when citizens are better informed about water quality levels.
Ongoing initiatives promote transparency and participation in the sector. In Peru, INFObras combines
information from implementing agencies about their physical progress on public works. Similarly, a UN-Water

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initiative proposes indicators to monitor progress regarding wastewater, water quality and water efficiency,
providing a reference point for watchdogs and citizens to flag shortfall with regard to governmental
commitments.

Conclusions and recommendation


Based on a range of good and bad practices, an overview is presented of integrity risks in wastewater
management, and what can be done about these. It demonstrates that the lack of attention for integrity risks
is a major impediment to progress.
Different actors have to act responsibly to ensure wastewater management with integrity. Policy and
practice coherence needs to be enhanced in governments, transparency and accountability is required from
businesses demonstrating that they operating sustainably and are compliant with rules and regulations, and
active citizens need to demand this account-ability and transparency from both government and private
sector.

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Community-based integrated water resources management in Meghalaya
Presenting Dr. Arvind Kumar, India, India Water Foundation
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
Community-based integrated water resources management coupled with the water-energy-food nexus
approach and ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) to climate change have helped Meghalaya tide over its
water crisis by harnessing storm water runoff and incur gainful tradeoffs via inward and outward linkages.

Introduction and objectives


Meghalaya, located in India’s Northeast region, enjoys a unique constitutional status where the ownership,
control and management of water resources are driven by local customs and traditions of local communities.
Water related laws and institutions have to be compatible with local communities. This research examines as
to how participation of local communities have enabled the government institutional mechanism to
implement various water related laws in managing storm water runoff and tackle the problem of water
pollution for reuse, ensuring water and energy security.

Methodology approach
The research has adopted comparative and analytical tools of methodology and used mixed qualitative and
quantitative methods including: a random rural household survey; focus group discussions with members of
tribal communities, and interviews with water governance stakeholders at community, village and official
institutional levels. The focus is on to analyse the outcome of IWRM, Nexus and ecosystem-based adaptation
(EbA) approaches for sustainable development with water being at the core.

Analysis and results


Our findings based on field research and open source material reveal that community members in Meghalaya
have played vital role in helping implementation of water related legislations through various types of
institutional mechanism under the integrated water resource management under the flagship programme
of Integrated Basin Development and Livelihood Programme (IBDLP). Storm water runoff is preserved in
Jalkunds and multi-purpose reservoirs. Application of water-energy-food nexus approach has helped in
ensuring security in water, energy and food sectors. Deployment of EbA has enabled the stakeholders to
become resilient to climate change and water-induced calamities to some extent. Communities’ participation
in managing water resources through IWRM, Nexus and EbA approaches have seemingly yielded fruitful
outcomes in terms of conserving runoff storm water, preservation of soil from erosion, recycling polluted
water for reuse, energy generation though small hydro projects, improvements in livelihoods and
augmentation in irrigated area for cultivation etc. Increasing resilience to climate change and improved
agricultural productivity has enhanced Meghalaya’s potentials in trans-boundary cooperation in the
neighbourhood and Southeast Asia in managing natural resources and speedy realization of SDGs, especially
SDG-1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7,8,13, 16 & 17.

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Conclusions and recommendation
IWRM alone is not enough and it is to be applied in tandem with Nexus and EbA approaches. Keeping in view
the unique constitutional status of Meghalaya, increasing role of communities along with their capacity
building is required. Compatibility between legislation and local tribal customs and traditions is essential in
managing water and other natural resources is the need of the hour. Undoubtedly, UN agencies and other
international organizations are supporting Meghalaya; nevertheless, increased support is required to achieve
the SDGs.

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Embedding integrity in water and waste management through social
accountability
Presenting Ms. Monica Chundama, Zambia, Action for Water
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Nick Hepworth, United Kingdom


Mr. Tyler Farrow, Canada
Mr. Gershom Pule, Zambia, Action for Water

Highlights
Social accountability for water security emphasises citizen engagement to activate IWRM institutions, hold
duty bearers to account and advocate for change. Results demonstrate potential to improve services and
promote integrity in the water and waste sectors. Zambian practitioners share impact, sustainability and
scalability of the approach.

Introduction and objectives


Globally, water resource management institutions have been subject to waves of reform and capacity
building in the wake of IWRM, yet the outcomes of these traditional approaches for equitable and sustainable
resource use have been underwhelming. In response, social accountability interventions have emerged as a
‘demand side’ approach towards improving water governance. This paper reports on the methodology and
outcomes of this approach in Zambia. Results suggest that civil-society oversight and evidence based
advocacy hold significant potential as mechanisms to improve the accountability of water management
institutions and embed integrity in waste and water management.

Methodology approach
Social accountability monitoring for improved water security is being piloted in Zambia by Water Witness
International and Action for Water through the Fair Water Futures initiative. The methodology involves a
participatory approach to identify and work with vulnerable water users, helping them to understand their
rights and the statutory duties of WRM institutions, and to ‘activate’ law and policy to ensure protection of
the water they depend upon. By tracking responses to community activation and analysing how financial and
human resources are used in the sector, the project provides compelling evidence to advocate for improved
sector performance.

Analysis and results


The learning centred methodology ensures that changes driven by social accountability monitoring at the
local and national level are traced from intervention baseline. This approach generates triangulated evidence
on the efficacy of the approach, and how it can be adapted to drive maximum benefits for sustainable and
equitable waste and water management. The team, with support through multi-stakeholder validation have
generated the following results and lessons:
 Fair Water Futures in Zambia has empowered vulnerable people to improve their water security
status, by helping them demand better services from government duty bearers.
 Activation of water law and policy has generated focused government action to address problems
identified, ranging from urban groundwater pollution, water quality problems associated with
mining, severe drought and conflict over water resources.
 Root cause analysis of water security challenges has diagnosed the most severe bottlenecks facing
effective institutional action on waste and water management.

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 The dearth of funding and human resources facing institutions such as the Water Resource
Management Authority and the Zambia Environmental Management Agency stand as key barriers
to effective waste and water management in Zambia.
 The work generated an evidence base upon which to advocate for system change to improve waste
and water management.

Conclusions and recommendation


In conclusion, social accountability monitoring coupled with budget analysis and evidence-based advocacy
offers a powerful approach for improving accountability, integrity and delivery in the water and waste sub-
sectors. The approach holds considerable potential as means for civil society and communities to support
government in the implementation of SDG 6. Further analysis of the transferability of such ‘demand-side’
approaches is recommended to explore the scalability to other contexts for improved governance and
implementation of integrated water resources management.

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Governance of sanitation: incentives for turning political will into action
Presenting Dr. Andrés Hueso, Spain, WaterAid
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Nathaniel Mason, United Kingdom, ODI

Highlights
 To turn political will into action and accelerated sanitation progress, governments need to cascade
political prioritisation and invest in timely course correction to address bottlenecks.
 Linking sanitation with values of modernity and cultural heritage and political and professional
return are critical incentives shaping these processes

Introduction and objectives


In a change from historical trends, more and more governments are voicing their commitment to
achievement of universal access to sanitation. However, to achieve these ambitions and achieve the
sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals, governments need to move beyond rhetorical
political will. To do so, one essential step is to translate this high-level political commitment into prioritisation
of sanitation across government levels and departments, and into course correction processes that enable
identification of and adaptation to implementation challenges. In this presentation, we analyse the incentives
that shape these processes and suggest ways to turn political will into action.

Methodology approach
The research presented tried to explore how countries tried to translate high-level political commitment into
prioritisation and course correction happens. We visited three countries and focused on the role of incentives
in shaping this process as a way to understand the political economy behind it. We looked at three subsectors
where there is evidence of a certain degree of high-level political commitment: urban sanitation in Indonesia,
and rural sanitation in Ethiopia and India. We spent a week in each country, doing key informant interviews
and field visits.

Analysis and results


Two main types of incentives shape the translation of high-level political commitment into prioritisation.
First, there are incentives that work by aligning sanitation with the world views of elected leaders, officials
and implementers through an appealing narrative. They are encouraged to ask themselves “Do I believe in
this cause?” and to play their part.
Second, there are incentives that created political buy-in through the prospect of personal and professional
advantage – “What is in it for me?” – tapping into desires for political gains, career advancement, and
personal renown.
Other incentives were hindering prioritisation, such as imbalances in the decentralisation process, and
differences of power and status between different departments involved in sanitation.
Turning to course correction, although incentives linked to world views have a positive influence,
professional and political advantage represent a double-edged sword. They can increase the likelihood of
stakeholders at lower levels sharing information from the ground for policy review.
Sector reviews and other formal and informal learning mechanisms then play an important role in ensuring
the information shared actually results in corrective action. However, interviewees reported that the
excessive numbers of workshops and meetings disperse “attention and focus, with most stakeholders
limiting their level of participation”.

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Conclusions and recommendation
Two key recommendations emerge:
To cascade political prioritisation. How?
Foster buy-in by aligning with the world views of key stakeholders, linking sanitation with notions of nation-
building.
Tap into personal aspirations, ensuring sanitation efforts result in recognition and career progression.
Enlist influential figures to drive prioritisation.
Work with the financial, legal and political realities of decentralisation.
To invest in timely course correction to address bottlenecks. How?
Invest in reliable verification systems.
Nurture a culture of learning.
Use informal sharing and reporting mechanisms that cut across hierarchies and enable a rapid information
flow.
Set up review mechanisms, ensuring quality over quantity.

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Incorporating water governance in the annual monitoring and reporting
framework
Presenting Ms. Rosemary Nakaggwa , Uganda, GIZ
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Gilbert Kimanzi, Uganda, Ministry of Water and


Environment, Uganda
Ms. Lotte Feuerstein, Germany, Water Integrity Network

Highlights
Developing dedicated indicators to measure, analyse and report on the quality of processes used in the sector
to deliver services was our challenge. We did this through identification of critical areas of concern, raising
awareness on governance processes that promote service delivery and aligning these with the Sustainable
Development Goals.

Introduction and objectives


The Ministry of Water and Environment assigned the Good Governance Working Group to develop dedicated
governance indicators. GIZ and WIN supported the process. The recognition that the sector needs to engage
in monitoring the quality of governance propelled the Joint Sector Review of October 2015 and
recommended the incorporation of governance in the sector’s performance monitoring framework. It
specifically asked for an indicator to; (i) guide the analysis of the efficiency and effectiveness of existing
processes, (ii) guide the prioritization and targeting of resources by sector players, (iii) identify and make
informed decisions that promote good governance.

Methodology approach
Our study focused on governance processes and aspects that have significant impact on water service
delivery. The indicators were developed in a step-wise approach starting with the consultation and
development of the project approach with the Good Governance Working Group. Establishment of a
tentative set of indicators and identification of data sources and gaps was done. The final set of indicators
was prioritised from a larger range of potential indicators in a participatory process. Criteria were established
of relevancy, ease to identify, collect and monitor, regular availability of information/data, ease to compile,
analyse and monitor through existing reporting structures.

Analysis and results


Our study resulted in indicators for measuring, monitoring and reporting of governance processes. The trend
of governance performance can now be monitored and reviewed annually at the Sector Performance
Review. Reference for capacity development and awareness raising is equally possible. The discussion of
governance indicators has led to wide dissemination of information on audits, procurements and other
indicators, as the sector gets more concerned with its spending priorities. Sector and Sub-Sector indicators
informing on governance aspects are the following:
1. Percentage implementation of the previous year ́s audit recommendations of financial statements
2. Average weighed procurement performance
3. Percentage of Districts ́ budgets that reflect Civil Society Organizations ́ contributions
4. Percentage of annual budget allocations, budget releases and actual expenditures in relation to
sector funding needs’ priorities
5. Percentage of Water User Committees/Water Boards/ Environmental management/ Water
catchment management committees with women holding key positions

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6. Percentage of pro-poor facilities that provide water at a price less than or equal to the household
tariff of the service area.
7. National Water and Sewerage Corporation ́s customer satisfaction index
8. Percentage of gazetted water schemes and districts whose performance is published annually by
the Regulation body
9. Percentage of water for production facilities with actively functioning Water User Committees
10. Percentage of permit holders complying with permit conditions

Conclusions and recommendation


Introducing good governance as one of the topics for discussion in the water sector has greatly promoted
awareness and concern. Ministry Departments and sector partners are more concerned about their reports
from the respective entities (Office of the Auditor General, Public Procurement and Disposal Authority) since
the findings of these reports are further discussed by the sector under the governance indicators.
Recommendations: Incorporation of governance indicators in the existing monitoring and reporting
framework gives an added advantage other than creating parallel reporting structures. Similarly, the
involvement of final custodians and data providers in the development of the indicator enabled streamlining
for quality, relevant and easy to monitor indicators.

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Stakeholder engagement to improve community-scale wastewater system
governance in Indonesia
Presenting Prof. Cynthia Mitchell, Australia, Institute for Sustainable
Author: Futures, UTS

Co-Authors: Ms. Katie Ross, Australia


Ms. Prasetyastuti Puspowardoyo, Indonesia, AKSANSI
Ms. Maren Heuvels, Germany

Highlights
Highly collaborative research on community-scale wastewater governance in Indonesia built strong
stakeholder participation at both national and local levels. This cooperation enabled practical insights that
shaped the research outcomes. Communities, local and national governments, and NGOs are already using
these insights to extend the success of decentralised wastewater systems.

Introduction and objectives


Urban wastewater management in densely populated, low income areas is challenging. Community scale
wastewater systems serving 50-100 households offer an affordable way to manage public health and
environmental hazards of untreated urban wastewater, and are a significant element in the Indonesian
government’s agenda, with about 80,000 systems planned, and more than 15,000 installed over the last
decade. Historically, the systems have been ‘handed over’ to communities to manage. It is increasingly clear
that communities struggle to do this and services do not always last. This research sought to assess how best
to govern these systems in the future.

Methodology approach
This study had three phases. Firstly, we asked what constitutes effective governance of community scale
wastewater systems? Secondly, we undertook a mixed method, systemic inquiry into practice, examining
performance, costs, legal arrangements, and management approaches. Thirdly, we developed, tested, and
widely disseminated innovative capacity building materials targeting local governments and community-
based organisations (CBOs) charged with managing these systems. The study took a transdisciplinary action
research approach, building in deep stakeholder engagement across the sector. Site visits were conducted
with 30 communities. Our national Project Advisory Group, involving six Ministries, five donors/programs,
and national NGO supporting CBOs, validated our findings.

Analysis and results


Our global scan revealed four interlocking elements necessary for effective wastewater governance that
proved useful in field work and practice:
 Functioning technology,
 Sufficient revenue to cover short and long-term costs,
 Accountable and equitable administration/decision making systems,
 Sustained user demand.
There are diverse funding mechanisms: program design was shown to significantly impact community
preparedness, performance monitoring and asset ownership, sometimes inadvertently preventing good
health outcomes.
Our performance analysis revealed very little is known about the systems: 2% of systems have had one
effluent quality test. Our cost analysis revealed significant challenges in fee collection and the need for
volunteer labour/funds to keep systems operating, as well as very limited capacity to meet larger one-of costs
(e.g., desludging, fixing/replacing hardware).

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Our national legal review and political economy analysis revealed important practical gaps and
misconceptions: local government is legally responsible for providing sanitation, but is not yet held
accountable. CBOs are typically not legal entities, meaning they can neither own assets like wastewater
systems, nor easily receive financial support from local government. For local government, there are few
avenues for allowable actions to support assets they do not own, and existing national guidelines on the
handover process are ambiguous.

Conclusions and recommendation


Ultimately, the scale of wastewater technology should not determine the scale of management. There are
both practical and human rights reasons for ensuring communities are supported by government to deliver
ongoing wastewater services. Indonesia has invested more than any other country in community-scale
wastewater systems, and so represents an important case study globally. National governments should set
basic principles, such as clear expenditure policies and minimum requirements for local government. Beyond
that, our research showed there are diverse models for distributing roles and responsibilities, spanning
community-led, collaborative, and local government-led, all of which include opportunities for private sector
activities.

144
Sustainable water governance in industrial symbiosis: the case of
Kalundborg
Presenting Mr. Hans-Martin Friis Møller, Denmark, Kalundborg Utility
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Pernille Ingildsen, Denmark, Kalundborg Utility


Ms. Louise Brunsgård Michelsen, Denmark, Kalundborg Utility

Highlights
Kalundborg Utility uses innovation as a tool to obtain a sustainable relationship between society and the
natural water environment, including participation in the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis which has
conducted circular economy for decades. Recently, a heat-pump has been developed to exploit the heat from
warm industrial wastewater to district heating.

Introduction and objectives


Wastewater management is often an overlooked subject within the field of sustainability. But in Kalundborg,
the City facilitates an industrial symbiosis of private and public partners, which uses and re-uses resources,
including energy and water. For Kalundborg Utility it is crucial to act proactively within the process of water
usage and wastewater treatment as freshwater resources become increasingly scarce and vulnerable due to
climate changes and pollution. Innovation and sustainability are key drivers for the company, and
involvement of stakeholders is a natural part of the business operations.

Methodology approach
First, we consider the water flows in the Kalundborg Symbiosis and how they can be considered sustainable.
The flows are divided into two categories: 1) supply streams that are necessary for the industrial production
and 2) wastewater streams that can be considered resource streams. Second, we analyze the foundation of
the collaboration of the symbiosis in order to map out the outcomes of the symbiosis.

Analysis and results


The utility supplies surface water in two qualities to Novo Nordisk and Novozymes. By using surface water,
the scarce groundwater resource is preserved. The utility receives wastewater, which is cleaned at one of
Europe’s most advanced wastewater treatment plants in Kalundborg. Until now, the only by-product from
the wastewater treatment has been sand and sludge, but as of 2017, the utility will construct a large-scale
heat-pump, which will transfer heat from the warm industrial wastewater to the local district heating
network in Kalundborg. Thereby, Kalundborg Utility will supply district heating with a minimum of
environmental externalities.
The utility has been engaged in developing microalgae production, as a vehicle to create a new development
in industrial symbiosis and increased resource reuse, based on the groundbreaking EU FP7 founded E4Water
project. Presently, the utility operates a state-of-the art algae house as test- and research laboratory open for
international customers working in the blue bio-economy. This is a platform to further development of a
water-based bio-economy and a possible new branch of the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis. The Kalundborg
Industrial Symbiosis has proven to be durable. The outcomes of the symbiosis include strong collaborative
ties among the involved partners leading to continuous optimization of processes and sizable reductions in
water and energy use.

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Conclusions and recommendation
The symbiosis has proven to be of benefit, both in the economic terms and to the environment. It has
contributed to the branding of Kalundborg City as a place where ‘green’ industry thrives. Through a culture
focused on sustainability and innovation in the utility as well as in the surrounding political and societal
environment, it has been possible to create sustainable water governance, which harnesses the possibilities
that lie within the water to waste cycle, resulting in competitive advantages and substantial environmental
improvements. Facilitated by the City, this stakeholder collaboration creates value and responsible
environmental solutions.

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Poster: Local leadership development: An example for locally-driven,
sustainable waste management
Presenting Ms. Janita Bartell, Cambodia, WaterSHED
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. Geoff Revell, Cambodia, WaterSHED

Highlights
WaterSHED designed, piloted and scaled up a model to engage local government in the management of
human waste through local leadership development. The project demonstrated that leadership development
can be a powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable way to support sub-national government to fulfill their
mandate to lead effective management of human waste and to reach SDG6.

Introduction and objectives


Integrity, engagement and strong leadership by local authorities, especially by subnational government, is
often seen as exogenous to program activities despite their importance for efficiency, effectiveness and
sustainability. This presentation describes how WaterSHED designed, piloted and scaled up a model to
engage local government in the management of human waste in their communities. The project is embedded
in a larger system of activities aimed to build a dynamic, sustainable market for improved sanitation products
and services in rural Cambodia by facilitating the supply chain and demand generating activities.

Methodology approach
The Civic Champions leadership development project for elected commune councilors uses an iterative model
of “discovering” new, not WASH-specific leadership skills, “developing” these skills through practice and
coaching, and “delivering” tangible results on their skills. This cycle repeats every three months over a 9-
month period. Participants apply and pay a participation fee.
The project evaluation undertaken in 2016 employs a mixed methods approach, including project data,
qualitative interviews with stakeholders, observational data and latrine coverage data to document the
project implementation and lessons learnt for replication as well as to evaluate the project’s performance
along four dimensions: development impact, scalability, sustainability and cost-effectiveness.

Analysis and results


205 (19% of all eligible) councilors from 105 communes across 16 districts in rural Cambodia participated in the
Civic Champions leadership development project. During the nine months of implementation the participants
facilitated 15,320 households to install improved toilets equivalent to a 6.9 percentage point increase in
sanitation coverage in participating areas at a cost to the project of USD 14.60 per toilet. Six months after the
end of the project, latrine uptake in the target areas remains 104% higher than in non-target areas.
The project succeeded in establishing a reward and peer-learning mechanism that fostered innovation and
motivated participants to excel as leaders. The cascade training model employed to reach greater scale
meaningfully engaged all levels of subnational government contributed significantly to the project’s impact
and scalability. Participants apply the generic leadership skills acquired during the project to other areas of
community development, such as water supply management and planning for fecal sludge management.
The project provides commune councilors with the necessary tools and skills to lead community engagement
and find new, locally adapted strategies to promoting improved sanitation and waste management.

147
Conclusions and recommendation
Leadership development at local levels is a powerful, cost-effective and sustainable way to support sub-
national governments to fulfill their mandate to lead effective management of human waste and to reach
SDG 6 by 2030. Participants found innovative, locally adapted solution to addressing the sanitation problem
in rural Cambodia. Key elements of the project design contributing to its success are the involvement and
active contribution of all levels of government; the project’s reward and peer-learning mechanism; the focus
on generic, transferable leadership skills instead of project or WASH-specific skills; and the project’s 9-months
cyclical approach which facilitates learning, feedback, and development.

148
Poster: Non-existent water supply regulators - Implications for sector
governance
Presenting Ms. Shaivi Kulshrestha, India, Shiv Nadar University
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Gopal Das Singhal, India, Shiv Nadar University


Dr. Tripta Thakur, India, MANIT-Bhopal

Highlights
1. This Paper presents a study that details governance issues arising out of non-existing Regulators in
water-supply operations in most developing-countries.
2. Study analyses data from 199 Indian municipalities to explore linkages between non-existent
regulation and issues like political-interference in tariff-determination, inconsistent data-collection,
lack of sector-planning, poor-services, consumer-dissatisfaction, and derailment of sound-
governance.

Introduction and objectives


Unlike developed nations where water-supplies are governed by an independent sector Regulator, most
developing countries have unregulated water-supplies. This paper focuses on unwarranted consequences of
missing regulation by posing the following questions:
1. Does absence of a Regulator imply political interference in governance by way of tinkering with
tariffs leading to loss-making services reflected in large subsidies?
2. Does absence of Regulator imply lack-of-competition and under-performance due to non-
measurement of relative-performances?
3. Does linkage between missing Regulation and failure to collect municipal operational-data prevent
scientific-analysis of sector-issues?
4. Does absence of a Regulator imply water-sector planning/services are run in adhoc manner leading
to mis-goveranance?

Methodology approach
1. Water-supply data from 147 municipalities in India with populations more than 0.1 million was
collected and analyzed
2. Major water-supply parameters comprised performance indicators such as Water looses (Non-
revenue water), Operating Expenditures, Length of Distribution network, Water Produced, Av. hrs
of supply per day, and Population covered by water supply.
3. These water-supply indicators were integrated to evolve comprehensive relative performance
measures using data envelopment analysis
4. Inferences from the analysis were used to evolve reasons for poor municipal performances in view
of the fact that sector Regulator is non-existent.

Analysis and results


1. Absence of Regulator implies political interference in governance. Majority of municipalities depend
on subsidies due to mounting financial losses attributed to political interference wherein elected-
representatives decide to keep tariffs unreasonably low to garner political advantage/votes. A
dedicated, independent regulator would have otherwise ensured tariffs based on cost-
pricing/scientific-data/municipal-performances/people’s capacity-to-pay.

149
1. Mathematical-model indicated poor municipal-performances with a third of municipalities showing
efficiencies below 50%. Non-existent regulatory-mechanisms ensure that inefficiencies remain
unmeasured/unknown, while sector remains intrinsically poorly-performing/mismanaged.
2. Absence of Regulator implies absence of relative-competition amongst municipalities who remain
unconnected and unconcerned of sector best-practices
3. Impact of non-existent sector-regulator spells inconsistencies in data-collection, endemic across
developing countries. This study revealed that if data was collected on increasing numbers of
indicators for greater accuracy, data availability decreases drastically. For the 6 indicators employed
in this study, data was available for only 71 out of 199 municipalities.
4. Absence of regulator implies water-sector planning and services run in adhoc manner as there
remains little basis for sector-planning in absence of consistent/regular data-collection. Lack of data
hinders scientific-analysis of problems that remain unresolved fuelling public discontent.
5. Results confirmed that absence of water-supply Regulator leads to sector mis-governance, and that
there needs to be an independent mechanism to regulate water-supplies.

Conclusions and recommendation


The study indicates that water-supply operations in developing-economies like India need to incorporate
provisioning of an independent sector-Regulator for sound governance.
This will ensure that water-supply operations become efficient, consumers get benefitted, and municipalities
become self-reliant to shun subsidies. This will also ensure that water-supply operations become transparent,
and collect operational data regularly in terms of predefined indicators forming a basis for sound planning
and policy. This will lead to good governance and wide consumer satisfaction resulting in municipalities that
make profits which can be passed on for connecting the poor to water-supplies for common social good of
the society.

150
Poster: Performance measurement for effective regulation - Case of Indian
urban water supplies
Presenting Dr. Mukul Kulshrestha, India, MANIT-BHOPAL
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Sai Amulya Nyathikala, India, MANIT-Bhopal

Highlights
 Paper details potential use of performance measures in price-cap regulation of water-supply
services.
 The case study evaluates scope for setting tariffs under incentive-regulation for 20 urban centers
where hitherto operations remain unregulated and monopolized by government
 DEA is used to assess performances and productivity growth of municipalities

Introduction and objectives


Water-supply services have emerged as profitable industries across developed nations wherein water-tariffs
are regulated and set scientifically by a Regulator. Unfortunately, across several developing economies
Regulators remain non-existent, with monopoly operations of government whose policies are focused on
drinking water provisioning for growing populations, with neglect towards making operations efficient and
profitable.
The scope of work comprises:
 Reviewing existing water-supply scenario and sectoral reforms for providing valuable lessons to
other countries of developing world.
 Investigating importance of performance-assessment in regulatory framework
 Developing a quantitative framework for tariff determination to evaluate possible cost-recoveries in
municipal water-supply operations

Methodology approach
The Methodology focuses on answering the following :
 Using DEA analyse the extent of inefficiencies in water supply operations existing in the urban areas
of Andhra Pradesh State
 Using Productivity Analysis to explore if water-supply operations are improving over time, and if not,
then what could be the possible causes?
 Using X-factor calculations, evolve a scientific basis of determining water-tariffs in order to
overcome financial losses in the sector and bypass local politics
 Drawing conclusions and policy outcomes in the context of a possible sector regulation and above
findings

Analysis and results


The sample mean efficiency was found to be 80%, with individual municipalities performing as low as 32.4%.
This indicated prevalence of large-scale inefficiencies in the water-supply operations.
The TFP growth model indicated that over the time period 2005 to 2010 inefficiencies were found to be
actually increasing over time implying further deterioration in services over time, thereby reflecting an urgent
need for regulation which may enable the municipalities to gain efficiencies.

151
Further, X-factors calculated based on weighted mean annual productivity growth of 1.93% obtained from
TFP model, revealed a maximum X-factor of 3.28% for the most inefficient municipality indicating that
municipalities may end up increasing tariffs to a maximum of 3.28% per year over 5 year period. This tolerable
tarrif increase can lead to tremendous increase in efficiencies of water-supply operations.
DEA analysis also indicated a possibility of saving 22.6% of operating expenditure if the municipalities were to
adopt appropriate policies and management tools of best practices.This is indicative of the fact that large
savings are possible in water-supply operations that may result in strengthening of the services and benefits
for the consumers including the poor

Conclusions and recommendation


The illustrated framework comprises a basic step for ushering regulatory-reforms. It further has implications
for future privatization as private companies would not be forthcoming to sink investments in utilities that
are highly inefficient.
X-factors for scientifically increasing tariffs demonstrate how tariffs can be kept out of purview of politics in
a fair/upright regulatory regime.
The X-factor calculations may help inefficient municipalities to bridge gap with best-practices, thereby
effecting savings for financial sustainability and reduction of subsidies.
Internal cost-savings may be used to expand and improve services in rapidly expanding urban areas and to
make water-supplies accessible to the poor.

152
Poster: Public-civil society incremental involvement in water governance in
Latin America
Presenting Mr. Vladimir Arana, Canada, The International Secretariat for
Author: Water

Co-Authors:

Highlights
 A validated methodology to put governments and civil society organizations work together
 An example to governments and civil society organizations in developing countries to create
synergic water policies decision-making and implementation
 A process to make public budgets planning and goals compliance monitoring accessible to civil
society organizations

Introduction and objectives


This paper describes the validated water policy advocacy strategy implemented from 2014 to 2016 in Peru. So
far, Latin American and developing countries in general have a disintegrated decision-making about water.
Three main constrains were identified: i) disperse and uncoordinated decision-making on water, ii)
generalized population abandonment of headwater territories, and iii) wide disregard of civil-society
organizations and local cultures. So, a new specific advocacy strategy and methodology were needed. The
goal of this validation experience was to identify an advocacy methodology that could be scaled up in Latin
America. No similar experience on synergic-advocacy was found in the Region.

Methodology approach
The main question that gave origin to this validation was: what is the best way to facilitate water policy
advocacy in Latin America? To validate the working hypothesis, a wide literature review and key interviews
were made. To validate the way to involve several sectors of the government it was used the “Blue Book”
methodology developed by the International Secretariat for Water with the “synergy benefits analysis”. To
validate priority water policies and policy reforms, several joint public and civil-society workshops and a basin
public consultation were developed. To validate the intervention on headwaters territories a management
plan was elaborated.

Analysis and results


It was first important to put civil society together, before inviting the government in, so the two main national
water NGO’s networks and other international organizations were invited to participate. The main message
for the government was that the goal of the process was to create synergy more than to put pressure on
national policy reforms, and this was seen as a good sign from authorities. A “Synergy opportunities
evaluation” was made and they were measured in the “synergy benefits analysis” that identified the
substantial benefit that several sectors of the government could obtain. A process to carry on shared analysis,
proposals and indicators was implemented by government and civil society representatives, and that had an
important milestone with the presentation of a shared document called the «Blue Book second generation».
At the same time, a headwater management plan and the first water consultation at the basin level were
developed with an Andean community located at 5.000 of altitude to incorporate this learning and policy
gaps in the Blue Book process. Too, a validation and monitoring committee formed by governmental
authorities and civil society organizations (universities, associations, donors, NGO’s, etc) called the Blue Book
National Committee was created.

153
Conclusions and recommendation
The best way to facilitate water policy advocacy was made through a win-win strategy. Boosting the
cooperation between public and civil-society actors that normally work separately begun with a «synergy
benefits analysis» to develop a joint-synergic water agenda to strengthen the complementarity among the
actors, instead of just overseeing the role of the State. It also incorporated the new launched SDG’s and the
citizen’s monitoring issues. The validation process was limited since the consultation processes were just
carried on in the capital city, in an Andean city and in one indigenous rural community located in a headwater
territory.

154
Poster: Tensions in rural water governance in the digital era
Presenting Prof. Yola Georgiadou, Netherlands, University Twente
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Juma Lungo, Tanzania, University Dar es Salaam

Highlights
Persistent rural water problems can be addressed with donor-funded development interventions.
Information systems and mobile phone-based platforms can help if they are adaptive and "work with the
grain" of local water governance.

Introduction and objectives


This paper describes persistent governance problems in the rural water sector in Tanzania and their relation
to projects funded by development partners. It focuses on how tensions revealed during the implementation
of development projects are related to the inevitable silencing of the social and cultural heterogeneity
between development partners and their government counterparts during project design. The empirical
focus is on the Water Point Mapping System (WPMS), a development project of great ambition and potential
for improving chronic rural water problems in Tanzania. Policy recommendations suggest how some of the
manifested tensions may be adaptively resolved.

Methodology approach
Tanzania’s rural water woes are chronic and persist despite substantial policy reforms and significant donor
funding, ever since the first rural water policy in 1971. The paper asks how development projects reveal
tensions when implemented in the field and suggests how they may be adaptively resolved with information
technology.In-depth interviews conducted in the course of a five-year action research program in rural water
supply in Tanzania are the data source. Empirically, the focus is on Water Point Mapping System (WPMS), a
development project funded by the World Bank and implemented by Tanzania’s Ministry of Water from 2010
to 2013.

Analysis and results


The Water Point Mapping System (WPMS)development project could be agreed upon because the cultural
and social hererogeneity between the development partner and the recipient ministry had to be bracketed
out during project design, else the project could not start at all. But, tensions silenced and bracketed-out
during project design reappeared forcefully in various forms in the field during field data collection. The first
type of tensions can be seen as rational tactics of villagers to evade a state that has chronically by-passed
them in the shaping of rural water schemes ; the second type of tensions originates from data collected in
the field that were discretionary, ambiguous and subject to multiple contradictory interpretations.

Conclusions and recommendation


The study shows that it is rational for development partners and their government counterparts to bracket
out their cultural heterogeneity and maximize top-down control, when designing a development project. This
inevitable practice generates tensions between implementers and beneficiaries in the field. Some of these
tensions may be eased with aid addressing governance constraints. Others may be resolved incrementally
with carefully designed digital platforms, or by some combination. The key is an adaptive approach that
leaves room for ways of working with or around the interest conflicts and other unpredictable eventualities
that development projects typically entail.

155
Seminar: Understanding the gender
dimension of water and waste

Photo: GWP

ABSTRACT VOLUME
World Water Week in Stockholm
27 August – 1 September, 2017

Water and waste: reduce and reuse

156
Seminar: Understanding the gender dimension of water and waste

Contents
Are new water interventions gender neutral? A study of Pani-Panchayat in Odisha, India
.................................................................................................................................................158
BRAC’s gender-inclusive approaches for successful implementation of WASH
interventions ......................................................................................................................... 160
Enhancing women capabilities in wastewater management: beginning from schools .... 162
From practical to strategic change: enabling gender transformation in Vietnam ............ 164
Indigenous Kichwa women lead community water and sanitation management
in Ecuador .............................................................................................................................. 166
Mainstreaming gender into IWRM; a catchment learning approach ................................ 168
Participatory approach for ecologically sustainable sanitation .......................................... 170
Safe drinking water: does community participation in decision-making affect impact? . 1722
Women as agents of change in faecal sludge management ............................................... 174
Women as agents of change in transboundary water and wastewater governance ........ 176
Poster: Better wash services lead to educational progressions for girls............................ 178
Poster: Gender awareness in water and waste in Central Asia .......................................... 180
Poster: Mainstreaming gender in WASH programmes for social transformation
and empowerment ................................................................................................................ 182

157
Are new water interventions gender neutral? A study of Pani-Panchayat in
Odisha, India
Presenting Dr. Basanta Sahu, India, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade,
Author: (Deemed University), New Delhi

Co-Authors:

Highlights
Households tend to use women for ‘labour smoothing’ and ‘consumption smoothing in agriculture and rural
areas. Inadequate availability and access to water and poor water management affect gender relations and
halt gender neutrality. New water interventions should make wider access to and use of water by women
with other critical inputs like land, credit, markets etc. which Pani-Panchayat in India seems fails.

Introduction and objectives


Water has been increasingly linked with gender and progressive feminisation of agriculture and food
production. Though access to and use of water remain key development policy issues but much is not known
about impact of new water interventions like Pani-Panchayat initiated in India to counter drought and
improve community level access, use and management of water. Our objective is to discuss role of Pani-
Panchayat on gender and water use with focus on
 impact of pani-panchayat on water governance and management with focus on gender,
 changes in household resource uses, risk coping and gender relations
 how to improve efficiency and gender neutrality in water

Methodology approach
A three-stage approach was followed to assess household and community participation in Pani-Pnachayat in
Odisha. To understand the new water intervention better our focus is on its impact on gender at household
level to argue whether it improves access to and use of water across regions and social groups. We also try
to analyse the changes in gender relations in the context of local adaptations and practices in water
arrangement and use. Selection of study areas for survey was made on the basis of area based resources
approach and on the scale of regional development.

Analysis and results


Intervention of Pani-Panchayat in India seems ignores changing farming, resource uses, gender relations,
socioeconomic set up and it fails to improve access to and use of water by women who are disproportionately
affected by water distribution. Dominance by few upper castes, rich large land owners and male farmers
followed by lack of group dynamics, exclusion of local institutions, ill-defined property rights, constraints in
input supply such as credit and extension services, not only discourage participation of women in water
management and use but push them harder into distress during water scarcity period.
Our results show gender inequity in water access and use further lead to unequal intra-household risk sharing,
poor water management and loss of production and earning opportunity. It also lead to reduction in food
production and returns of other land based activities where involvement of women found rising in recent
years. It has serious implication on intra-household gender relations and overall gender equity which remains
after new intervention like Pani-Panchayat. Water induced distress like loss of crop production and farm
income, labour migration, multiple informal borrowing evident in study areas found associated with the
access, use and management of water by women that pose tough challenges for rural livelihood and gender
equity.

158
Conclusions and recommendation
Households tend to uses women members for ‘labour smoothing’ and ‘consumption smoothing’, inadequate
availability and access to water and other resources affect intra-household gender relations and halt gender
neutrality. Pani-Panchayats try to make wider access and better use of water fail to arrest gender bias in the
absence of access to land, credit, other farm inputs and markets by women. The paper suggests that
strengthening existing local institutions and reforming the role and functioning of women in new water
institutions will be crucial for better water access and use along with existing public water and irrigation
system to play the role of facilitator.

159
BRAC’s gender-inclusive approaches for successful implementation of
WASH interventions
Presenting Dr. Md Akramul Islam, Bangladesh, BRAC
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Nameerah Khan, Bangladesh


Dr. Mohammad Moktadir Kabir , Bangladesh
Mr. Milan Kanti Barua, Bangladesh

Highlights
Village WASH Committees were integral to enhancing gender parity.
BRAC conducted monitoring and research over an 8-year period to assess gender equitable outcomes.
Results show equitable access to WASH for women and men; hygiene behaviour change including menstrual
hygiene management; and social transformation, e.g. men and women taking decisions together.

Introduction and objectives


A gender-inclusive approach to WASH implementation is based on the understanding that for WASH
interventions to succeed, everyone in a community must play a positive role. Prevalence of traditional gender
roles leads to women being disproportionately affected by lack of access to water supply and sanitation
services. Women play a critical role in household decisions on water, sanitation and hygiene but often lose
out on wider decision-making, especially relating to finances, which are most often controlled by men. This
approach is necessary to achieve gender-transformative changes, and thus improve the power balance in
WASH-related decision-making between men and women.

Methodology approach
BRAC seeks to transform gender roles and empower women by involving them in the decision-making
processes. The WASH programme has done this to a great extent through the introduction of Village WASH
Committees (six women and five men from various socioeconomic groups in the community), which involve
women to meaningfully contribute to decision-making. The programme’s behaviour change communication
has been tailored according to the needs of men, women, adolescent boys, adolescent girls and children,
with messages to influence gender-transformative changes in the community. Schools are supported to build
gender-segregated WASH facilities, including menstrual hygiene management facilities for girls.

Analysis and results


According to the programme’s outcome monitoring data, 99% Village WASH Committees (VWCs) in areas
which received 8 years of intervention and 100% VWCs in areas which received 3 years of intervention were
existing and functional. All female members attended and participated in the meetings in 100% of these VWCs
in the 8-year intervention areas, and in 94% VWCs in 3-year intervention areas.
In the in the 8-year intervention areas, 78% of the households have access to hygienic latrines; and in 3-year
intervention areas, 57% have access to hygienic latrines. In 97% of these households in the 8-year intervention
areas, men, women, adolescent boys, adolescent girls and children (above 6 years) use the latrine regularly.
For 3-year intervention areas this figure stands at 98%.
Among the BRAC WASH-supported schools, 91% of schools in the 8-year intervention areas, and 100% in the
3-year intervention areas, had separate latrines for girls that are used only by girls. Menstrual hygiene
management facilities were available at 71% and 96% of these schools, respectively. In the first five years of
the programme’s interventions, the school absenteeism rate of girls during menstruation dropped from 44%
to 33%.

160
Conclusions and recommendation
Through this approach, BRAC has contributed to increasing access to WASH in a gender-equitable manner.
The VWCs, which were formed in every village throughout the programme areas, have been a great example
of improving gender relations and empowering women. When the programme began in 2006, it was highly
uncommon for men and women in a rural setting to be meeting and taking decisions together, or to be openly
discussing issues like menstrual hygiene. Considering this fact, it is clear that great progress has been made
over the years; not just for the WASH sector, but in society as a whole.

161
Enhancing women capabilities in wastewater management: beginning from
schools
Presenting Ms. Neetika Sharma, India, Government Department of
Author: Education, Jammu & Kashmir

Co-Authors:

Highlights
Study conducted for 5 years in 4 schools regarding wastewater management revealed that incidence of
diseases reduced by 22.2% in boys and 65.0% in girls, indicating a high imbibing nature of the latter. The girl
students who had undergone training became good decision makers, household keepers and managers.

Introduction and objectives


Biologically, men and women have different health needs, but lifestyles and socially ascribed roles arising
from prevailing social and cultural patterns also play a part. Social factors, such as the degree to which
women are excluded from schooling, or from participation in public life, affect their knowledge about health
problems and how to prevent. Environmental conditions arising from inadequate or non-existing wastewater
management pose significant threats to human health and economic activity. A study was conducted to
enhance the capability of girl students to wastewater management and water, sanitation and hygiene
(WASH) to make them responsible in their settled life.

Methodology approach
A study was conducted for five years in four schools, imparting education up to matriculation. The population
size was 100 students (50 each boys and girls) from each school, out of which 25 each were placed in two
categories. Category A, imparting training regarding wastewater management and water sanitation and
hygiene (WASH) and category B, without any training. Lectures were arranged and practical conducted to
make these students aware of wastewater management to overcome scarcity situation and WASH issues.
The parameters studied were; per cent students passing matriculation, annual incidence of diarrhea, cholera,
malaria, typhoid, headache and attitude.

Analysis and results


Study conducted revealed that in category A, among boys; there was a decrease of 25%, 0%, 33%, 0% and 20%
in the incidence of diarrhea, typhoid, malaria, cholera and headache, respectively, after five years of
undergoing training. The corresponding decrease was 66%, 0%, 50%, 66% and 60%, respectively, in case of girls.
The incidence of typhoid remain unchanged, both in boys and girls. The overall incidence of diseases reduced
by22.2% in boys and 65.0% in girls, indicating a high imbibing nature of the latter. The attitude of the boys
which was moderately positive in the beginning became positive after 5 years, while in girls it changed from
positive to highly positive. There was no significant change in the category B students, both in boys and girls,
however, the disease incidence decreased slightly and attitude improved in this category. This could be
attributed to contacts between category A and B students after school hours as well as change with the time.
The study showed that interventions made enhanced the women capabilities in wastewater management
and reuse as well as encouraged them to have better career in management positions. The girl students who
had undergone training became good decision makers.

162
Conclusions and recommendation
The subordination of women by men results in a distinction between roles of men and women and their
separate assignment to domestic and public spheres. In developing countries, most studies show preferential
food allocation to males over females. Due to menstruation, girls cannot clean themselves due to scarcity of
water. Girls become prone to diseases. Under such conditions, the training on WASH becomes absolutely
necessary. In India, a majority of the school drop-out children are girls from marginalized families. There is
strong need to invest in girls’ sanitation and hygiene infrastructure for learning, wastewater management
and toilets in schools.

163
From practical to strategic change: enabling gender transformation in
Vietnam
Presenting Prof. Juliet Willetts, Australia, University of Technology Sydney
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Caitlin Leahy, Australia


Mr. John Kelleher, Australia
Ms. Nghiem Tuyen, Vietnam, Vietnam National University

Highlights
 Empirical research case study from Central Vietnam demonstrating how water, sanitation and
hygiene (WASH) programs can influence gender and power relations between men and women.
 Provides examples of addressing and supporting women’s strategic interests and capabilities (in
addition to practical needs) through inclusive WASH programming and participatory monitoring.

Introduction and objectives


Contributing to improved gender equality is an important aspiration for WASH programing and monitoring.
A twelve-month empirical study in 2016 was undertaken by ISF-UTS, Plan International Australia, Plan Vietnam
and Vietnam National University through innovation funding from the Australian Government. The research
was designed to determine the extent to which Plan International’s innovative Gender and WASH Monitoring
Tool (GWMT) contributed to achievement of strategic gender outcomes. The research revealed the strategic
(as opposed to practical) gender equality outcomes experienced by women and men in Central Vietnam and
explored contribution of the GWMT and Plan’s WASH programming to those outcomes.

Methodology approach
The research utilised a quasi-experimental design and mixed method approach to compare experiences of
different groups of people with varying degrees of exposure to the GWMT. The GWMT comprises a
participatory, dialogic tool to assist participants assess changes in gender dynamics. A peer-reviewed
framework on gender outcomes resulting from WASH initiatives underpinned the research and analysis.
Semi-structured interviews with 48 people and participatory pocket voting with 139 people in 7 villages in
Central Vietnam were used to uncover strategic gender changes as experienced by women and men across
stratifying variables of age, ethnicity, and including people living with disabilities.

Analysis and results


Significant strategic gender changes were revealed. The majority (81%) of participants had experienced
strategic gender outcomes with minor differences between men and of women and between age and ethnic
groups. Experiences of change at household level were more common than those at community level.
Changes could be traced to both WASH programming as well as wider societal change dynamics. Of all
reported changes 31% could be attributed to WASH programs, although not necessarily specifically to the
GWMT. Key reasons for change included:
 women accessing information and knowledge, either through formal education or community
meetings (confidence of women was enhanced with greater opportunities to participate in meetings
and community activities)
 authority figures providing an initial trigger to encourage women to participate more often and more
actively;
 peer learning and example setting (raising gender awareness of key individuals through meetings
and activities had a positive flow-on effect)

164
 use of public information to contribute to awareness-raising about gender equality.
The results also demonstrated that norms set in a local setting or in broader media and society influenced
people’s values and attitudes, even in the face of traditional gender norms which could provide considerable
barriers to change.

Conclusions and recommendation


This research in the Vietnamese context revealed that WASH programs can positively influence power
relations between women and men, and can be intentionally designed to do so. Wider societal dynamics need
to be carefully taken account of by WASH practitioners and have potential to reinforce or to undermine
improvements in gender equality. Enabling women’s active participation, facilitating conducive roles for
authority figures and conducting activities that can influence gender norms were found to be important.
Participatory monitoring tools designed to monitor strategic gender changes, such as Plan International’s
GWMT, are valuable in identifying and reinforcing gender equality changes.

165
Indigenous Kichwa women lead community water and sanitation
management in Ecuador
Presenting Ms. Deborah Payne, United States, MedWater
Author:

Co-Authors:

Highlights
 Gender mainstreaming was incorporated into collaboration between MedWater and rural,
indigenous Kichwa communities in Ecuador to promote community led water, sanitation, and
hygiene management.
 Institutionalized gender mainstreaming has ensured both women and men are incorporated into
community water councils, both women and men serve as health promoters, and has informed
programming.

Introduction and objectives


MedWater, a non-profit WASH organization, collaborates with communities and other institutions to create
sustainable water and sanitation programming with rural Kichwa communities in the Napo provence of
Ecuador.
MedWater established institutional policies to promote gender mainstreaming within five pilot communities
between 2014 and 2016. This practice ensured a balance of men and women on community water councils as
well as the selection of female community health promoters. Objectives for this case study included:
Observation of continued engagement of women leaders in WASH management
Observation of relationships between WASH outcomes and the engagement of women in leadership
positions.

Methodology approach
MedWater created an institutional policy that at least one third of a community’s water management council
be comprised of women, and both women and men should be considered equally when selecting community
health promoters.
Five pilot communities were observed for successes and challenges in community led WASH management.
MedWater observed the level of engagement of women in WASH management as well as the level of
implementation of project goals including successful use of a water chlorination system as well as
construction of latrines within the community.
MedWater documented anecdotal evidence of impacts of gender mainstreaming on WASH activities.

Analysis and results


Within the five pilot communities, all communities maintained a minimum of one third female leadership and
all selected community health promoters continue to operate in their selected positions.
By incorporating gender mainstreaming in water management techniques, MedWater observed both the
continued leadership of women in water and sanitation programming as well as positive outcomes in water
and sanitation programming.
Examples of the benefits of women as community health promoters include the following:
One health promoter, a matriarch in a household of 17, was strongly aware of the need for toilets due to the
care she had provided for her granddaughter’s chronic infection of worms. This woman helped champion the
addition of 10 additional “dry” latrines in her community, cutting the level of open defecation.

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Another female health promoter championed for stronger provisions for girls in schools to be able to manage
female hygiene concerns.
A third female health promoter, aware of the standard lack of hand washing facilities in the home, installed
tippy tap hand washing stations at each household where she trained. This practice led to the installation of
over 75 additional hand washing stations in four communities.

Conclusions and recommendation


Establishing institutional policies regarding gender mainstreaming in the creation of water and sanitation
committees and the selection of community health promoters can ensure women are engaged in WASH
management in indigenous Kichwa communities. Rural indigenous women are frequently overlooked for
leadership roles due to limited education. Alternately, life experiences of these women in care taking roles
provides a highly contextualized skill set that is invaluable to the informed development of appropriate
WASH programming. Engaging both women and men in the development of water and sanitation
management activities ensures that goals are achievable and appropriate to the values of the community.

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Mainstreaming gender into IWRM; a catchment learning approach
Presenting Mr. Christian J. Chonya, Tanzania, World Wide Fund For Nature
Author: - UK

Co-Authors:

Highlights
IWRM is the official instrument for improving water resources in the Great Ruaha River Catchment. The
NAWAPO and WRM Act of 2009 recognize the importance of mainstreaming gender in water resources
management but it doesn’t explain how should be implemented at the ground. Sustainable Water Access,
Use and Management (SWAUM) pilot identified the need to adopt the catchment learning approach (MSP)
for mainstreaming gender into water management. The pilot project made a recommendation on how best
to improve gender mainstreaming in water resource management.

Introduction and objectives


The Great Ruaha River Catchment (GRRC) in Tanzania is critical to the lives of 2 million people dependent
upon its freshwater ecosystem services; including livelihood such as agricultural activities and hydropower
which provides almost half the country’s electricity, and the Ruaha National Park as an important tourist
attraction. Upstream over-abstraction has led to annual drying of GRR. Earlier initiatives failed to restore the
year round flow, among other failures is none inclusion of all stakeholders especially women and girls to the
only thought technical solution. Women often have a wealth of knowledge on the subject, but are often
overlooked in the formulation of solution/projects and policies due to their lack of inclusion in water
governance processes.

Methodology approach
SWAUM’s approach has been to pilot a multi-stakeholder catchment learning process (2011-16). Our premise
was that spaces/opportunities can be created which both bring all stakeholders together and enable them
(i) to address existing conflicts and reduce disagreements (ii) to identify knowledge gaps and prepare for
uncertainty, and (iii) to mitigate capacity constraints through better collective working. The approach is
appropriate to integrating genders issues with water resources issues; it addresses; lack of practices efforts
on the ground and meaningful integration of gender into the effort of water resources management -
restoration of river flows. Furthermore, the methodology is in alignment with the principles of national water
legislation.

Analysis and results


The SWAUM pilot methodology mainly consisted several workshops and collaborative initiatives (CIs);
involved all stakeholder groups; men and women of different age group and classes through a facilitated
dialogue and debates. The process of mainstreaming gender starts from proposal writing, planning for the
workshop and pre-interviews to the communities before inviting them to the workshop. For effective
mainstreaming gender issues, most cases the first day of the workshop focused on hearing and learning from
local stakeholders – women and men including tail enders and individuals, while the second days onwards,
the local participants were joined by other stakeholders. Furthermore, specific interviews; situation and
stakeholder analysis; institutional relationship interview – trying to understand norms, values and behavior;
monitoring and evaluation; online communication (the use of project basecamp); and training of staff in
different aspects both provided better understanding of gender dimension on water resources management.
The CIs identified and championed by some members of the communities enhanced gender mainstreaming.

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According to Land use planning CI, realized that women are negatively affected, as they cannot access
decision-making structures for land issues as easily as their male counterparts. Land issues are heavily
influenced by customary and traditional practices, which give low priority to women.

Conclusions and recommendation


The process of demonstrating gendered approach to effective water resources management is difficult. The
multi-stakeholder process (catchment learning approach) is demand – driven approach; allowing free
dialogue and debate for all stakeholders, has showed its potential to improves mainstreaming gender issues
to effective water resources management. The approach if adopted by the basins/catchments; improves
dimension of integration: - the working relation within and cross sectors, integrate freshwater ecosystem
conservation with WASH, engage and involve all the stakeholders – upstream and downstream users, and
integrate practices, research and policy-making for improved decision making. Therefore, gender
mainstreaming efforts is possible through working to those dimensions of integration, with well facilitated
MSP by gender and water experts.

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Participatory approach for ecologically sustainable sanitation
Presenting Ms. Khaoula Lamzouri, Morocco, National Office of Electricity
Author: and Water (ONEE)

Co-Authors: Mr. M. MAHI, Morocco, National Office of Electricity and


Water(ONEE)
Prof. M. S. Ouattar and M. H. E. Bartali, Agronomic and
Veterinary Institute Hassan II
Prof. L. Maindi, Morocco, Cadi Ayyad University
Prof. T. MASUNAGA, Japan, Faculty of Life and Environmental
Science, Shimane University

Highlights
Alternative sanitation solution adapted with the variety of situations with a focus on small communities.
A gender perspective, which seeks to ask for the best way to adapt the wastewater treatment systems for
small communities.
Managerial, socio-economic and technical innovations aspects for adapt the wastewater treatment systems
for small communities.

Introduction and objectives


Lack of sewerage system, control and environmental awareness are the main factors that cause the spread
of disease, environmental degradation and gradually bacterial contamination of groundwater surface.
Therefore, the sewage treatment is the ideal solution to this problem. The wastewater treatment system by
an on-site could be beneficial to the rural Morocco.
The objectives of the project are to proposes a scheme covering the different technical aspects, management
and institutional innovation, to meet the various constraints that characterize the rural areas. The project
asks for the best way to adapt the wastewater treatment systems for small communities in MENA region.

Methodology approach
Village Talat Marghen, Subject of our study, located a few km from Marrakech.
 Managerial and institutional aspect
In order to plan the major guidelines of our project to the time scale on the one hand, and identify solutions
that respond most effectively to different problems and needs identified and the actions and resources
needed to achieve these results, on the other hand. A methodology was followed taking into account the
involvement of the population and gender approach (participants who benefited of all events with 50% are
women), to analyze and identify the main actors and their roles in the field of planning and management of
sanitation the site subject to our project.
The current approach involves a series of steps, including:
Step 1. Diagnosis and description of the inventory knowledge of the environment.
Step 2. Identification of problems and solutions.
Step 3. Education / awareness of the people of the environmental challenges and opportunities to act
on the environment.
Step 4. Organization management and programming of actions, by strengthening the capacity of non-
governmental organizations (NGO) working in the field of the environment in general and in
particular sanitation.
During the companion of awareness for programming of the main lines of our project, training on the design
and operation of our wastewater treatment system (multi-soil-layering), the woman was present during the
holding of the project activities. Through this approach, women have been able to participate in decision-
making and in the success and sustainability of this project.

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 Technical aspect
In order to complete a part of our objectives two pilot scale MSL systems have been installed in order to
adapt the MSL in the Moroccan rural context.

Analysis and results


The companion of awareness was crowned by the acceptance of the entire project by the people. The result
of planning the technical, institutional, and managerial aspect phase for this project is built upon two
fundamental principles: direct involvement of stakeholders in the approach used to decide between various
alternatives and the sustainability of the sanitation service as it stems from the previous principle of direct
involvement.
The results of the statistical analysis showed the benefits of setting up an association for the management
and operation of the sewer system.
Moreover, and in relation to the technical aspect, the results show, that multi-soil-layering technology
successfully used in the pilot-scale and full-scale. In effect, excellent efficiency was obtained in the pilot and
full-scale fed with real wastewater. Multi-soil-layering system could be feasible to apply in full-scale systems
at rural area in Morocco, if sufficient conditions were supplied.
We have tried throughout this project based on a participatory approach of the population and especially of
the woman for the realization of the different phases of the project. After the completion of the project, we
anticipate that women will benefit from the implementation of this project through the development of
handicraft associations using treated wastewater by the MSL system and reeds.

Conclusions and recommendation


The results emerging from this pilot case can be extrapolated for national use. According to our results, the
implementation of rural sanitation projects should be based on a participatory approach, organized in an
integrated manner so as to involve decision makers and users. The basic principles of this approach are:
Participation, integration, the organization of populations, the organization of populations and the
partnership and contractual relationships.
The results show also, that multi-soil-layering technology successfully used in the pilot-scale and full-scale. In
effect, excellent efficiency was obtained in the pilot and full-scale fed with real wastewater.

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Safe drinking water: does community participation in decision-making
affect impact?
Presenting Dr. Anna Tompsett, Sweden, Stockholm University
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Malgosia Madajewicz, United States


Mr. Ahasan Habib, Bangladesh, NGO Forum for Public Health

Highlights
Evidence from a randomized experiment in Bangladesh shows that delegating decision-making authority to
communities increases the impact of a program to improve access to safe drinking water, relative to a top-
down approach, but only when the intervention mandates the involvement of women and the poor; and
controls the influence of elites.

Introduction and objectives


Many believe that participation in decision-making by intended beneficiaries of programs to improve access
to safe drinking water, particularly women, leads to better outcomes: improving project targeting; increasing
'buy–in’; and generating a 'sense of ownership' over project assets. However, participation is expensive and
time-consuming, and programs in which communities participate in decision-making may be more
susceptible to 'capture' by powerful community members. Much of the early evidence in support of this
hypothesis is probably biased, since the choice of a decision-making structure is likely to be correlated with
other project characteristics that also influence project impact. Our study uses a randomized experiment to
provide causal evidence on this question.

Methodology approach
We randomly assigned different decision-making processes to communities receiving an otherwise identical
intervention, a package of subsidies and technical advice to improve access to safe drinking water. The
decision-making processes assigned included one top-down process and two participatory processes. Under
the top-down process, project staff took all decisions, using information from the community. Under one
participatory process, the 'community participation approach', the community took all decisions using their
own internal decision-making processes. Under the other, the 'regulated community participation approach'
the community took all decisions by consensus at a meeting at which women and the poor had to be
represented.

Analysis and results


Access to safe drinking water increased by 14 percentage points in villages that used the top down approach,
15 percentage points under the community participation approach, and 26 percentage points, (67% more than
under the other two treatments), in villages which were assigned to the regulated community participation
approach. The top down process uses local information less effectively, and installs fewer sources than under
the two participatory processes. Under the community process, elite control constrains access to safe water
sources. The regulated community process expands and diversifies the group of people who participate in
decision-making relative to the other two approaches, including with respect to gender, and it results in
bargaining that limits the influence of elites.

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Conclusions and recommendation
Our results confirm that involving communities in decision-making can lead to greater project impacts, in
terms of access to safe drinking water. However, the results also suggest that these greater impacts may not
be realized, when communities are involved in decision-making without measures to avoid co-option of the
decision-making process by influential groups or individuals, and without ensuring the representation of the
poor and women.

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Women as agents of change in faecal sludge management
Presenting Ms. Maren Heuvels, Germany, BORDA
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Susmita Sinha, India, The Consortium for DEWATS


Dissemination (CDD) Society

Highlights
Faecal Sludge Management as a men’s domain? While women are highly underrepresented in the sector, the
case of Devanahalli show that women can be at the core of an innovative and technology-focused project on
city scale. The case study presents key factors and recommendations for women’s involvement in
wastewater management.

Introduction and objectives


Sustainable faecal sludge management is imperative for sustainable urban development. But developing
economies are lacking significant numbers of water professionals. As countries face the overwhelming
demand for professionals, the numbers of female water professionals remains low. There is a need to
acknowledge women as agents of change in the sector. The objective of the case study is to not only give an
overview of the data on gender representation in the sector, but also explore how women in a specific case
became key drivers for change. The objective is to identify the enabling factors for women to become
wastewater champions.

Methodology approach
The case study draws its learnings from a pilot project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and
carried out by BORDA and CDD in India 2014-2015. The aim of the project is to ensure efficient treatment of
faecal sludge in the town of Devanahalli, to ensure safe reuse of treatment by-products, and demonstrate
possible business opportunities with by-products. The case study focuses on the role of women in project
development, implementation and now in the operation phase. Main stakeholders have been and still are
local women, the case study identifies key factors and obstacles for women’s involvement.

Analysis and results


Many recognize the role of women in the water sector mostly as recipients of services or at an unpaid rural
community management level. In an IWA study covering 15 developing countries, only an average of 16.7% of
the workforce were female professionals. This is not only a matter of inclusion but also about increasing
quality and sustainability. Various studies show companies with a higher percentage of women on all levels
performed significantly better than their all-male counterparts. With the diverse customer base of the water
sector, a gender-diverse staff structure is a business advantage. The importance of women for professional
management of water and sanitation is slowly getting recognized on a global level. Despite these
acknowledgements, the numbers of female water professionals worldwide remains low. Main obstacles lie
not only within local socio-cultural norms but within gender-based discrimination, unequal opportunities, and
lack of representation in professional environments. However, the Devanahalli women’s professional
understanding of the technical, political, and managerial project aspects, the ability to take risks, the ability
to identify with the problem, empathy and human connectedness, and the ability to see the larger
environmental and public health benefits are key factors for the project success.

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Conclusions and recommendation
The case study highlights how women can be the key to successful wastewater management on town scale.
The women’s professional understanding of the subject and their knowhow to provide inputs from design to
implementation, management and governance, their relatedness and empathy with all stakeholders involved
in the matter, their ability to sustain behaviour change, and the acknowledgement of the importance of
relationships are an example of how the sector could look like if women are given the opportunity to be
water professionals. The main obstacles need to be addressed by all involved stakeholders, from government
to utilities and implementing partners.

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Women as agents of change in transboundary water and wastewater
governance
Presenting Dr. Mark Smith, Director of the IUCN Global Water Programme
Author:

Co-Authors: Dr. Isabelle Fauconnier, Switzerland, Global Water Programme


Safa Fanaian, Research Fellow, SaciWATERs
Vishwaranjan Sinha, Project Officer, IUCN Asia Regional Office
Bounthavivanh Mixap, Mekong Regional Water Governance
Program, Oxfam

Highlights
 Analyses how women generate behavioural and institutional change in transboundary water and
wastewater governance
 Contributes case studies on women as agents of change in water governance around the world
 Provides recommendations for monitoring and support of actions of women in transboundary water
and wastewater governance

Introduction and objectives


This paper analyses how women play key roles in generating behavioural and institutional change in
transboundary water and wastewater governance, at multiple levels and scales. Using evidence from practice
and data around the world, this work will illustrate and analyse the role of women as agents of change in
transboundary water and wastewater governance. The study will conclude with recommendations to help
increase women’s active involvement in transboundary water resources and wastewater planning and policy
making through targeted interventions and improved monitoring tools.

Methodology approach
The study will use (1) literature review; (2) secondary data collection and analysis; (3) case study preparation
including field visits and key informant interviews; and (4) expert practitioner and policy-maker interviews.
Cases and data will be sourced from organisations active on the ground and at regional and global levels in
supporting or researching transboundary cooperation and women’s inclusion in water governance. The cases
include examples from India/Bangladesh, Honduras/El Salvador, and Cambodia/Vietnam.

Analysis and results


The dimension of gender is not commonly associated with transboundary water governance because
transboundary issues are often tackled with reasoning at state-to-state levels and in terms of “national
interests.” In fact, women act as major users of the resource through their productive and domestic activities,
as knowledge holders about the resource and how it is managed locally and across borders, as champions
for the resource and the ecosystem services it provides now and for future generations, and as decision-
makers around the resource in local to national and regional roles. Yet prevailing cultural and political
practices in many countries mean that their roles are often overlooked, misunderstood, or constrained.
Drawing from theory and practice on systemic change processes and gender inclusion, and using evidence
from the case studies, interviews and data described above, the analysis will delve into each of these
dimensions: women’s use, knowledge, leadership and decision-making around water and wastewater. It will
shed light on the levers that women can access to effect change in water and wastewater management at
the level of their communities, nations and regions and across sectoral boundaries, and on the enabling
conditions for accelerating women’s drive for change.

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Conclusions and recommendation
The paper will conclude with a set of recommendations on how the roles and leadership of women in
transboundary water governance can be monitored and supported, making reference to the kinds of
indicators, project design and institutional design measures that will be most gender-responsive. Improved
recognition of the role of women as agents of change in TB water governance will help to accelerate the
desired changes that translate to a more sustainable resource for all humans and for nature.

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Poster: Better wash services lead to educational progressions for girls
Presenting Dr. Dorice Agol, Kenya, Independent Consultant
Author:

Co-Authors: Peter Harvey


Javier Maíllo

Highlights
The presence of water and sanitation facilities in schools can increase female-to-male enrolment ratios and
reduce repetition and drop-out-rates for girls. This is because more girls are likely to enrol and are less likely
to repeat grades and drop-out in schools with water and sanitation facilities.

Introduction and objectives


Poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is a common barrier to educational progression in developing
countries. This paper highlights the need for WASH facilities in schools, as an important aspect of promoting
quality education for girls. The paper aims to explore the relationship between water and sanitation facilities
and educational progression, mainly for girls. It shows that improved water and sanitation in schools can
increase learning and educational proficiency for girls. The analyses were conducted on linkages between
female-to-male enrolment ratios, repetition and dropout rates with sanitation and water supply situation in
schools and were disaggregated by gender and grade.

Methodology approach
Datasets were obtained from the national Education Management Information System (EMIS) for
approximately 10,000 schools. The most relevant variables were selected for the analysis, including numbers
of students enrolled, numbers who repeated and numbers who dropped out, number of toilets and whether
considered adequate or not, and number and type of available water sources.
Prior to the analysis, the datasets were sorted and cleaned to remove irregularities. The analysis was
disaggregated by gender and grade (1-12)

Analysis and results


Lack of WASH facilities negatively influenced girls’ enrolment in schools. Female-to-male ratios were lower in
schools with no toilets compared to schools with 20 or less students per toilet. At grade 8 more girls had
enrolled in schools with good toilet provision, most likely due to the critical need for adequate toilet facilities
during their menstrual cycle. Further results confirmed significant gender differences in drop-out rates,
particularly between schools with inadequate WASH and those with adequate WASH. Certainly, without
adequate WASH facilities, girls during their menstrual cycle are more likely to drop out if they repeatedly
experience difficulties in managing their hygiene every month. Significant disparities were quite obvious in
grades 6, 7, 8 and 9. Practically, it would be difficult for girls who experience their menstrual cycle to remain
in class or school and queue up for crowded toilets with no water and most would choose to remain at home
to manage their personal hygiene.

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Conclusions and recommendation
The benefits of improved WASH in schools have been proven and include better-quality education and
improved health. To build a good evidence base for WASH interventions in schools, a monitoring system
should include detailed WASH information on quality of the facilities and services provided. Additional
information such as proximity of the facilities to schools, whether they are seasonal/permanent (e.g. water
sources) are very useful. An analysis of WASH facilities gives understanding of its critical role especially for
girls who need to manage their menstrual hygiene. Certainly, WASH programmes requires serious
considerations of gender at all levels of learning.

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Poster: Gender awareness in water and waste in Central Asia
Presenting Ms. Elena Tsay, Uzbekistan, UNESCO Tashkent Office
Author:

Co-Authors: Ms. Oksana Tsay, Uzbekistan, Kh.M. Abdullayev Institute of


Geology and Geophysics
Mr. Denis Tsay, Uzbekistan, School №61, "iHoops" company

Highlights
The goal of the study is to visualize the comprehensive assessment of the survey results on gender awareness
of organizations and projects in water sector of Central Asia (CA) using a geographic information system
(GIS).

Introduction and objectives


 An analysis of the current state of gender sensitive issues in the management of water and land
resources has been undertaken by the Scientific Information Center of the Interstate Coordination
Water Commission of Central Asia;
 The interpretation of the results of the survey aimed at identifying gender awareness of
representatives of organizations and projects in the water sector of CA has been made, as well as a
comparative analysis of the countries.
This particular case study has shown how gender is incorporated in water in CA.

Methodology approach
To what extent water professionals of CA are competent in gender-sensitive aspects of water management?
Women are recognized as important actors in water management and gender mainstreaming is an integral
part of IWRM.
Since gender is a socially constructed definition of women and men, social survey on gender awareness of
water specialists in the region was chosen. The survey results are presented visually using GIS which allowed
to carry out a comparative analysis of the data. GIS is the most effective and innovative means of analysis,
evaluation and visualization of sociological studies based on demographic and other data.

Analysis and results


Thus, research has shown that water management organizations of CA countries are aware of the gender
dimension in the management of land and water resources, and most of them supported the need to
integrate gender issues into the work of the water management organizations, as well as agree on the lack
of information on gender issues in water resources management. At the same time, gender according to the
respondents, are being underplayed, with the exception of Kyrgyz Republic. In general, there is the active
position of the representatives of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz Republic in the promotion of gender issues in the
water sector and the relatively passive of the representatives of Turkmenistan.

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Conclusions and recommendation
Analysis of the current state of gender mainstreaming in the management of water and land resources
showed that, along with the existing problems of gender equality in the water CA sector, expressed by
women's limitations in decision-making, access to resources, there is a trend change in the situation for the
better, in particular by carrying out joint projects aimed at increasing awareness of gender issues in water
resources management at the macro and micro levels.
This issue needs further research with a focus on gender mainsteaming in water management that will be
implemented by the UNESCO Tashkent Office within the EU Programme “Sustainable management of water
resources in Uzbekistan”.

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Poster: Mainstreaming gender in WASH programmes for social
transformation and empowerment
Presenting Mr. Riad Imam Mahmud, Bangladesh, Max Foundation
Author:

Co-Authors: Mr. M.M. Ahidul Islam Kazal, Program Manager, Max


Foundation
Ms. Rabeya Sultana, Gender and Water Training Specialist,
GWAPB

Highlights
 Women can be key agents for change when involved in sanitation management. Their involvement
is crucial for human health and national socio-economic development.
 Empowering women means increasing their economic, social, political and physical strength.
 The process of social transformation needs more research at the individual and structural level.

Introduction and objectives


Poor sanitation management impacts women’s health, dignity, safety and socio-economic status. Max
Foundation addresses these challenges in the coastal areas of Bangladesh together with technical advice
from the Gender and Water Programme Bangladesh in order to streamline gender issues in its WASH
programmes. In Bangladesh, there is limited research on the social exclusion of women in WASH initiatives
and most of the research fails to incorporate gender-disaggregated data. This results in a lack of recognition
for the challenges women face. This case study demonstrates that the integration of multiple dimensions of
women’s empowerment into WASH management leads to sustainable and advanced development, poverty
reduction and human rights for all.

Methodology approach
This case study addresses the following research question: How we can catalyse transformative change that
enables women and girls to empower themselves effectively and sustainably in partnership with men and
the wider community? Women in Bangladesh are the primary users, providers, and managers of water and
hygiene in their households. Their empowerment in sanitation can serve as a mechanism for grounding deep
and broad-based social transformation. In order to ensure in-depth understanding of the specific challenges
faced by women, a participatory method of rapid rural appraisal was applied to collect data through key
informant interviews and focus-group discussions.

Analysis and results


Max Foundation’s project interventions show how women leaders strive to overcome physical, economic,
political and socio-cultural discrimination through their participation in Community Support Groups (CSGs).
Women are placed at the core of WASH planning, implementation and operations via this village-based
platform chaired by women in cooperation with male members. The CSG advises union-based government
committees that oversee progress towards universal latrine and water coverage in the union, thereby
engaging women at the beginning of the water project cycle and truly improving their political
empowerment. Improved health (physical empowerment) extends from the women’s individual level to the
entire village. Latrine construction results in decreased diarrhoea and open defecation and the spread of
messages on menstrual hygiene management increase the physical empowerment of adolescent girls. The
women in CSGs have created an environment where women’s leadership is now more socially accepted
(socio-cultural empowerment). Although economic empowerment is also considered an important factor, it

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has not yet been fully incorporated into this project; nevertheless, the time spent by women on water
collection has been significantly reduced, thus allowing women more time to develop economic activities. At
present, Max Foundation is developing a women-led social entrepreneur programme to market health
commodities.

Conclusions and recommendation


One of this study’s main conclusions is that in WASH interventions, it is essential to include gender analysis
and women’s (economical, physical, political and socio-cultural) empowerment in the needs-assessment in
order to provide appropriate solutions that are effective, sustainable and safe and that restore and promote
dignity for women. The cooperation with men and local government institutions also needs to be
emphasised. Although the scope of our project is limited to three Bangladeshi unions, its implications are
widely applicable given that women’s empowerment is vital to sustainable development and the
achievement of safe water for all.

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