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SVR 500 sentences: Too


A carload of drovers, too, in the midst, on a level with their droves now, their
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vocation gone, but still clinging to their useless sticks as their badge of office.
2 A fine thing too! replied the captain, "and really..."
A good thing too, little countess, said "Uncle," "only mind you don't fall off your
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horse," he added, "because--that's it, come on!--you've nothing to hold on to."
4 A meal here isn't too expensive, running just around $10 per person, as of 2009.
5 A perfectly absurd and stupid fellow, and a gambler too, I am told.
A third, in the absence of opponents, between two councils would simply solicit a
6 special gratuity for his faithful services, well knowing that at that moment people
would be too busy to refuse him.
7 Actually, it was way too much house as far as she was concerned, but she wasn't
buyingall,
After it.he knew Katie too, but they only wanted the people he knew before he met
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his wife - excluding his sister.
Afterwards when he had received a name and wealth he dared not think of her
9 because he loved her too well, placing her far above everything in the world, and
especially therefore above himself.
10 Ah, you've come here too, young man! he said, smiling and raising his eyebrows.
Alas! what with foddering the cattle and tending the store, we are kept from school
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too long, and our education is sadly neglected.
Alex had raced to her rescue because he knew she was too naïve to realize what his
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father was doing.
13 Alex pulled her too him, his lips seeking hers hungrily.
14 All take glasses; you too, Balaga.
Alpatych named others, but they too, according to Dron, had no horses available:
15 some horses were carting for the government, others were too weak, and others had
died for want of fodder.
Although nations create governments to establish such protections, history shows
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that all too often, governments fail to do so.
17 Am I not too conceited and self-confident?
18 Am I not too late? he thought.
Anatole and Dolokhov liked Balaga too for his masterly driving and because he liked
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the things they liked.
And lastly you too, peasants, come from the forests where you are hiding in terror,
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return to your huts without fear, in full assurance that you will find protection!
21 And not a moment too soon.
22 And that gesture, too, seemed unnatural to Prince Andrew.
And that meant, for too many of us, ditching what we loved to do and doing the
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work of a machine.

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And the people too are quite mutinous--they no longer obey, even my maid has
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taken to being rude.
25 And there too he killed a great many.
And they did indeed get somewhere, though not to their right places; a few
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eventually even got to their right place, but too late to be of any use and only in time
to bethis
And fired at.
embrace too, owing to a long-standing impression related to his innermost
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feelings, had its usual effect on Kutuzov and he gave a sob.
28 And this man too, thought Pierre, looking into the face of the Chief of Police.
And to all Denisov's persuasions, Petya replied that he too was accustomed to do
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everything accurately and not just anyhow, and that he never considered personal
30 danger.
And we too have had a splendid march.
31 And when he is ready so too are the forces.
Another pretext would be her snuff, which would seem too dry or too damp or not
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rubbed fine enough.
Anything that looks too much like The Matrix movies or The Terminator movies is
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just, well, kind of creepy.
34 Are the bears invis'ble, too? asked the girl.
As I've already said, I believe we will be experiencing so much prosperity in the not-
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too-distant future that no one will have to work.
As Natasha, at her mother's side, passed through the crowd behind a liveried
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footman who cleared the way for them, she heard a young man speaking about her
37 in too
As the loud a whisper.
poorest nations become wealthier, they too will grow less and less inclined
toward
At length war.
every jar and vase was cracked or broken, and the precious stones they
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contained were melting, too, and running in little streams over the trees and bushes
of the
At forest.too he judged correctly that the French might outflank us, as they had
Smolensk
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larger forces.
At the other end sat the younger and less important guests, and there too sat the
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members of the family, and Pierre and Helene, side by side.
41 At times, it may be best to just enjoy the meal and not ask too many questions.
Be sure to sample the desserts, too, such as the chocolate-walnut torte and the fresh
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fruit crisp.
Before his death, Pol Pot conceded that his regime certainly killed people, but ''to say
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that millions died is too much.''
Berg evidently enjoyed narrating all this, and did not seem to suspect that others,
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too, might have their own interests.
Bind him, Lavrushka! shouted Rostov, as if that order, too, could not possibly meet
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with any opposition.
Boris Drubetskoy, brushing his knees with his hand (he had probably soiled them
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when he, too, had knelt before the icon), came up to him smiling.
47 Boris, too, with his friend Zhilinski, came to see the Preobrazhensk banquet.

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Both were talking and listening too eagerly and too naturally, which was why Anna
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Pavlovna disapproved.
49 But am I not too cold with him? thought the princess.
But at the door she stopped as if her conscience reproached her for having in her joy
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left the child too soon, and she glanced round.
But despite himself, on his face too that same indication of something new and stern
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showed round the mouth.
52 But didn't you cut it almost too short?
53 But do you not think that God is happy too because you are happy?
But don't try to make out I'm too innocent to eat a fat piglet if I could do it and not
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be found out.
55 But having caught himself saying too much about the flints, he was now afraid to
56 speak
But heout.
did not express his thoughts, for in such matters, too, he had gained
57 experience.
But he is growing old, and though not exactly cruel he has too energetic a character.
58 But I am running on too long and am at the end of my second sheet.
59 But I was too young to realize what had happened.
60 But if the bridge is crossed it means that the army too is lost?
61 But no, it is impossible, I am too ugly, she thought.
62 But now it is too late.
But something had to be decided, and these conversations around him which were
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assuming too free a character must be stopped.
64 But soon the way became too narrow for his body to pass through.
65 But that, too, is a function of present technology.
66 But the foes were too many to be repulsed for long.
67 But the wolf was too wise to show herself.
68 But they were too often successful.
69 But this one is too light, it's not becoming!
But WE mus'n't eat them, the Wizard warned the children, "or we too may become
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invisible, and lose each other.
71 But, my dear boy, among other things you are too attentive to the other, the blonde.
By the time your sons were fifteen, they, too, knew everything they needed to know
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to be a farmer, and it all continued.
73 Check out the online calendar for upcoming performers, too.
Clifton Park, NY 12065(518) 383-6666mangiarestaurant.com Pancho's Mexican
74 Buffet For those who enjoy Mexican food but are not too keen on the idea of braving
super-hot dishes, Pancho's Mexican Buffet offers an ideal selection for you.
Count Ilya Rostov had resigned the position of Marshal of the Nobility because it
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involved him in too much expense, but still his affairs did not improve.
Countess Mary wanted to tell him that man does not live by bread alone and that he
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attached too much importance to these matters.

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77 Denisov blushed too, but smiled and, taking Natasha's hand, kissed it.
Denisov was angry with the Cossack because the saddle girths were too slack,
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reproved him, and mounted.
Destiny wanted to wear some jewelry too, so she let her wear the white pearl choker
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necklace that her mother had given her.
80 Don’t stay out too late. You have to get up early tomorrow!
81 Don’t work too hard!
Either this look meant nothing but that as long as one has eyes they must look
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somewhere, or it meant too much.
Evidently she could speak of Russia's misfortunes with a certain artificiality, but her
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brother was too near her heart and she neither could nor would speak lightly of him.
84 Ferapontov's whole household came out too, following Alpatych and the coachman.
85 Getting information about him from Katie is too much work.
86 Glancing, however, at Boris, he saw that he too seemed ashamed of the hussar of
87 the line.
Grab a home-baked dessert to go if you feel too full after dinner.
88 He asks too much.
89 He became silent, and I recollected myself only when it was too late.
He believed this so firmly that others, looking at him, were persuaded of it too and
90 did not refuse him either a leading place in society or money, which he borrowed
from anyone and everyone and evidently would not repay.
He felt instinctively that if the hussars struck at the French dragoons now, the latter
91 could not withstand them, but if a charge was to be made it must be done now, at
that very moment, or it would be too late.
92 He had become far too familiar and apparently assumed a relationship that didn't
93 exist.
He had been spending too much time with the television lately.
He had enough alcohol in his veins to believe he could drive, and too much pride to
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leave the party in the passenger seat.
He had the unfortunate capacity many men, especially Russians, have of seeing and
95 believing in the possibility of goodness and truth, but of seeing the evil and falsehood
of life too clearly to be able to take a serious part in it.
He is a great, strong boy now, and he will soon need a man to take care of him; he is
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really too big for a lady to manage.
97 He is here too, with his wife.
98 He is too proud to beg.
He knew that he must do something to put an end to this suffering, but what he
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wanted to do was too terrible.
100 He makes you feel that if you only had a little more time, you, too, might be an
inventor.

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He seemed in his heart to reproach her for being too perfect, and because there was
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nothing to reproach her with.
He shall have all the rooms in the house, and the ladies' parlor, too, I'll go right round
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to the Planters' and fetch him back.
103 He spoke too fast to be understood.
He thought too of the possibility (which he feared most of all) that Napoleon might
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fight him with his own weapon and remain in Moscow awaiting him.
105 He too is helping to crack it.
106 He too, however, occupies an equally narrow house at present.
He took us to drive one afternoon, and wanted to give Helen a doll; but she said: I do
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not like too many children.
108 He was too much absorbed in observing the famous man's personality.
He was unpleasantly struck, too, by the excessive contempt for others that he
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observed in Speranski, and by the diversity of lines of argument he used to support
110 his wished
He opinions.
to teach you that no man should feel himself too fine to carry his own
packages.
He, too, has heard of Homer, and, "if it were not for books," would "not know what
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to do rainy days," though perhaps he has not read one wholly through for many rainy
seasons.
Helen was petted and caressed enough to spoil an angel; but I do not think it is
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possible to spoil her, she is too unconscious of herself, and too loving.
113 Helene answered with a smile that she too had missed it.
Helene was so lovely that not only did she not show any trace of coquetry, but on the
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contrary she even appeared shy of her unquestionable and all too victorious beauty.
Her brother Petya was upstairs too; with the man in attendance on him he was
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preparing fireworks to let off that night.
Her maternal instinct told her that Natasha had too much of something, and that
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because of this she would not be happy.
117 Her offer was too good to refuse.I’m too old to play with dolls!
118 Her step was too long, making contact with his foot.
Her voice has an aspirate quality; there seems always to be too much breath for the
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amount of tone.
Here! exclaimed different voices; and the heavy breathing of the bearers and the
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shuffling of their feet grew more hurried, as if the weight they were carrying were
too much
He's come!for them.
she exclaimed as she ran past, and Denisov felt that he too was delighted
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that Pierre, whom he did not much care for, had returned.
122 He's nice too, but he's gone a lot of the time.
123 His descendants were weak men and they too ruled France badly.
His eyes too seemed strange; at one moment they looked impudently sly and at the
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next glanced round in alarm.
125 His features were too rugged to be described with such a word.
126 His mother was dead and his father was too poor to take care of him.
His servants too--Terenty and Vaska--in their own way noticed the change that had
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taken place in Pierre.

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128 Honolulu, like most cities, offers a plethora of dining choices - almost too many to
129 count.
Hopefully, this was his one and only session with drinking too much.
130 How now, Hermit, is it too soon?
131 How sad that she would be too proud to have fun.
132 I am but too ready to conform to them.
133 I am too grateful for all these blessings to wish for more from princes, or from the
134 Igods.
am too happy to write letters; but I must tell you about our visit to Cincinnati.
135 I can’t go to her party tonight, I have too much work to do!
I discovered many a site for a house not likely to be soon improved, which some
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might have thought too far from the village, but to my eyes the village was too far
137 Ifrom it. his noble, resolute, self-sacrificing spirit too, she said to herself.
divined
138 I do try not to mourn his death too sadly.
139 I don’t want to go to bed yet! It’s too early (to go to bed).
140 I don't want to put her to bed too early, though.
I explained to her that the soul, too, is invisible, or in other words, that it is without
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apparent form.
I feel we have set the bar way too low and in doing so have fundamentally
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cheapened life, everyone's life.
143 I guess I'd wonder too, if I were in your shoes.
I had heard that it happens like this, and you must have heard it too, but it's only
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now that I feel such love.
145 I had too much work to do yesterday.
146 I have too good a memory to make that necessary.
I have tried, and have always found that they too in the depths of their souls
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understand it as I do, and only try not to see it.
148 I hope our kind friend Dr. Ellis will come too, and take Tom in his arms.
149 I hope she will not eat too many of the delicious fruit for they will make her very ill.
I hope too, that Bishop Brooks' whole life will be as rich in happiness as the month of
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May is full of blossoms and singing birds.
I knew, too, it was immense! awful! and for a moment some of the sunshine seemed
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to have gone out of the day.
I know too that the tiny lily-bells are whispering pretty secrets to their companions
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else they would not look so happy.
I liked this, too; but the division of the earth into zones and poles confused and
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teased my mind.
154 I love Hawaii, but it’s too far and too expensive.
155 I love you too, sweetie, Carmen answered.
156 I recognize you only too well, too well.
157 I remember Nikolenka too, I remember him well, she said.
158 I resolved that I, too, would learn to speak.

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159 I see that I have begun to understand too much.
I should make too good a target for the French, besides I am afraid I should hardly be
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able to climb onto a horse.
161 I suppose he has been too busy to write to his little friend.
I suppose you feel so, too, when you gaze up to the stars in the stillness of the night,
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do you not?...
163 I think if he writes, I will write too, she said, blushing.
164 I think you will like them too, so I will try to write them for you.
165 I think, too, that they quicken all the child's faculties, because they stimulate the
166 Iimagination.
thought about him too, just opposite Guryev's house...
167 I too am a man like the rest of you.
I too felt a slumberous influence after watching him half an hour, as he sat thus with
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his eyes half open, like a cat, winged brother of the cat.
I too had woven a kind of basket of a delicate texture, but I had not made it worth
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any one's while to buy them.
170 I too should wish nothing but to relive it all from the beginning.
171 I too would fain be a track-repairer somewhere in the orbit of the earth.
172 I want to become a Moscovite too, now, said Helene.
173 I was too excited to notice anything, too frightened to ask questions.
174 I, too, will try, try again, till I succeed.
175 I’m too old for dolls! = I’m too tired to go out tonight.
176 I'd like to, but if it's too much trouble...
177 If any one whom she is touching laughs at a joke, she laughs, too, just as if she had
178 heard
If he has it. that much time to play video games, then he has way too much time on his
hands!
If he now incurred Natasha's censure it was only for buying too many and too
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expensive things.
If I suggested any improvement in his mode of life, he merely answered, without
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expressing any regret, that it was too late.
If it is too warm in Tuscumbia for little sister to wear her pretty mittens, she can keep
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them because her sister made them for her.
If my mother happened to be near I crept into her arms, too miserable even to
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remember the cause of the tempest.
If they call up the militia, you too will have to mount a horse, remarked the old
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count, addressing Pierre.
184 If we don’t leave now we’ll be too late to see the trailers.
If you are too busy to get a table at Green's restaurant, a small take-out counter near
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the front door offers sandwiches, soups and sweets.
186 If you wake me up early, I'll help you with the chores too, Jonathan told Alex.
If you were counting on the evening soup, you have come too late, said a voice from
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behind the fire with a repressed laugh.

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188 If you’re going to the mall, can I come too?
189 If you're too tired to go out after a day on the town, Fultano's makes deliveries after
190 5 p.m.
If you're too tired, call, place an order and enjoy the meal in the comfort of your
191 Ilroom.
fait a present la pluie et le beau temps. * He's too proud for anything.
192 I'll go there too, I too! thought Pierre, and followed the general.
193 I'm too warm in this one.
Important, too, are Panera's multiple bread types to go with its sandwiches--
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including whole-grain breads.
195 In a flash she answered, "I think Uncle Frank is much (too) old to read very small
letters."
In the area, there are not too many restaurants directly on the lake, but there are a
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few notable ones in the more populated outskirts.
In the future, massive new amounts of information will begin to resolve the debate,
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instead of just adding noise to it as too often occurs today.
In the not too distant future, tiny robots will detect pests on produce and emit a
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signal to shoo them away.
199 In those last moments when it was too late, she had decided to go with them.
Inspired by the Chinese effort, he, too, tried to increase the agricultural production
200 of his country by emptying the cities and sending everyone to work on the farms
under brutal conditions.

201 Is it too far to go to Austin? she asked.


202 Isn't it too early?
203 Isn't she too young?
204 It happens too often that your trumpet call is unheeded.
It has a congenial climate that is not too hot during the summer, delightful during the
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fall and spring and a little bit wintry during the months of December, January and
February.
It is almost impossible to execute a pure controlled study of anything relating to
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nutrition because there are simply too many variables to consider.
207 It is better than rowing, too, said Robert.
208 It is never too late to give up our prejudices.
It is pleasant, too, to note her thoughtfulness for little children, and her readiness to
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yield to their whims.
210 It is this: When you oil your beard, don't oil it too much, lest it soil your clothing.
211 It is too late now, it's done; besides I love her, thought Pierre.
212 It is too painful for her!
213 It is too soon for him to see a field of battle.
214 It seems almost too good to be true, does it not?
215 It was evident, too, that he was in the best of spirits that day.
216 It was far too heavy for her to carry, but she didn’t want to make a fuss.
217 It was far too sweet and had a bitter aftertaste.

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It was on the whole a rare amusement, which, continued too long, might have
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become a dissipation.
219 It was too dark to see his expression, but it was obvious he was watching her.
It was too dreadful to be under the burden of these insoluble problems, so he
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abandoned himself to any distraction in order to forget them.
221 It was too far to consider driving every day, even if she had a car.
It was very beautiful, but the disobedient fairies were too frightened to notice the
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beauty of the trees.
It was very beautiful; but the idle fairies were too much frightened at the mischief
223 their disobedience had caused, to admire the beauty of the forest, and at once tried
to hide themselves among the bushes, lest King Frost should come and punish them.
224 It will be too late.
225 It would be too good! said Natasha, rising and going to the looking glasses.
226 It’s much too late to do anything about global warming.
227 It’s too dangerous to walk around this neighbourhood at night.
228 It’s too good to be true!
229 It's as the old men have decided--there's too many of you giving orders.
230 It's nice to meet you, too, Tammy, Lisa said.
231 It's not too late to change your mind.
It's not too shabby in the awards department either: Philadelphia Magazine voted it
232
Best Barbecue.
233 It's too late now when Vienna is occupied by the French army!
234 I've found old rock fences, and there's an old log cabin falling into ruins not too far
235 fromheard
I've here.that about cars, too, he answered sarcastically.
236 Kozlovski's face looked worn--he too had evidently not slept all night.
237 Lesson is too formal for the continuous daily work.
238 Let Monsieur de Beausset enter, and Fabvier too, he said, nodding to the aide-de-
239 camp.you too, Mom.
Love
Mademoiselle Bourienne and the little princess had to own to themselves that
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Princess Mary in this guise looked very plain, worse than usual, but it was too late.
Mademoiselle Bourienne, too, seemed passionately fond of the boy, and Princess
241 Mary often deprived herself to give her friend the pleasure of dandling the little
angel--as she called her nephew--and playing with him.
242 Malasha too looked at "Granddad."
243 Marya Dmitrievna is with her and she too asks you to come.
Maybe because it had the same theme of wrought iron and ivory as the hacienda -
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and maybe they had been visiting too long.
245 Maybe that was what Felipa was talking about - that she fussed over him too much.
Maybe you think prisoners have it too easy serving time while their victims struggle
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to piece their lives back together.

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'Michael,' he says, 'come here and bow down to his feet; and you, young woman,
247
you bow down too; and you, grandchildren, also bow down before him!
248 Might you go too, Alfonso?
Most boast an authentic Japanese dining experience in a comfortable setting,
249
allowing diners to treat their palate to a culinary adventure without venturing too far
from home.
Mother usually knows what she is about, but she made a mistake this time; for you
250
are sure to escape us unless you come too near, and you probably won't do that.
251 My heart is too full of sadness to dwell upon the happiness the summer has brought
252 me.heart, too, was full of gratitude and solemn joy.
My
253 My rabbits are sleeping, too; and very soon I shall go to bed.
Napoleon, too, carried away his own personal tresor, but on seeing the baggage
254
trains that impeded the army, he was (Thiers says) horror-struck.
Natasha felt so lighthearted and happy in these novel surroundings that she only
255
feared the trap would come for her too soon.
256 Natasha laughed, and the countess too smiled slightly.
257 Natasha too began to look at it.
258 Natasha too, with her quick instinct, had instantly noticed her brother's condition.
259 Natasha, I love you too much!
260 Nearby cities Nearby cities in the Metroplex have a lot to offer too.
Nestico's Too also serves a traditional frittata--broccoli, peppers, sausage, pepperoni,
261
mushrooms, onions and eggs.4105 W.
Nicholas too was greatly pleased by "Uncle's" playing, and "Uncle" played the piece
262
over again.
263 Nicholas went hastily to the front porch, saying he felt too hot.
No one has ever complained yet of being too much loved; and besides, you are free,
264
you could throw it up tomorrow.
265 No one is right and no one is to blame; so she too is not to blame, he thought.
266 No, I can't petition him myself--that would be too bold.
267 No, I mean you're too trusting.
268 No, not too far, but the party is tonight, so we need to stay close.
269 No, you know it's too soon for news.
270 No. I guess I'd be upset, too, if someone barged into my life that way.
Not all the attention that has been paid her since she was a child has made her take
271
herself too seriously.
272 Nothing was too trivial for the Hindoo lawgiver, however offensive it may be to
273 modern
Now I amtaste.
too tired to write more.
274 Of course - it's too soon.
Of course, he soon noticed the brightness of the leaves, and discovered the cause,
275 too, when he caught sight of the broken jars and vases from which the melted
treasure was still dropping.

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276 Oh no, not at all too young! replied the count.
277 Oh, he loves me so! said Helene, who for some reason imagined that Pierre too loved
278 her.it is really too late, said Count Orlov, looking at the camp.
Oh,
279 Oh, they swarm; the sun is too warm there; they are born too far into life for me.
On the contrary, replied the prince, who had plainly become depressed, "I shall be
280
only too glad if you relieve me of that young man....
Once, when he had touched on this topic with his mother, he discovered, to his
281 surprise and somewhat to his satisfaction, that in the depth of her soul she too had
doubts about this marriage.
One word of warning from travelers unfamiliar with the area--it's pretty hard to find,
282 and GPS units don't tend to work too well in this mountainous region, so bring your
map and compass.1 Main St.
Ooh! lamented Aniska, who at the sight of the fire felt that she too must give
283
expression to her feelings.
284 Or, if you just feel like relaxing in your hotel for the evening, Mela delivers too.
285 Our dear countess was too clever with Vera, said the count.
People are always too clever with their eldest children and try to make something
286
exceptional of them, said the visitor.
287 People said they were not Christians, but they too have souls.
288 Perhaps you will go and live with him too? he added, turning to Princess Mary.
Perhaps, I often think, she was too angelically innocent to have the strength to
289
perform all a mother's duties.
Petya pushed her hand away with his knee, seized a biscuit, and as if fearing to be
290
too late, again shouted "Hurrah!" with a voice already hoarse.
Petya too would have run there, but the clerk who had taken the young gentleman
291
under his protection stopped him.
292 Pierre too bent his head and let his hands fall.
Pierre was there too, buttoned up since early morning in a nobleman's uniform that
293
had become too tight for him.
294 Prices too that day indicated the state of affairs.
Prices won't break the bank too much, as two people could easily dine for $50, even
295
after ordering appetizer and dessert.
296 Prince Andrew, too, dared not stir, for fear of betraying his unintentional presence.
297 Princess Mary, too, went round to him.
Ramballe emptied his too, again pressed Pierre's hand, and leaned his elbows on the
298
table in a pensive attitude.
299 Really, madam, it is not at all too long, said Mavra, crawling on her knees after her
young lady.
Rostov too, bending over his saddle, shouted "Hurrah!" with all his might, feeling
300
that he would like to injure himself by that shout, if only to express his rapture fully.

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Sarah's tone had an anxious quality, and Giddon's expression was much too stern for
301
the situation.
Say what you like, exclaimed Sonya, in a despairing voice as she looked at Natasha,
302
"say what you like, it's still too long."
See, here's an officer jammed in too-- different voices were saying in the crowd, as
303
the men looked at one another, and all pressed toward the exit from the bridge.
304 Señor Medena wasn't too happy about that.
She could count his ribs easily where they showed through the skin of his body, and
305
his head was long and seemed altogether too big for him, as if it did not fit.
306 She drives too fast.
307 She drove too slowly to arrive on time.
She felt all the time as if she might at any moment penetrate that on which--with a
308
terrible questioning too great for her strength--her spiritual gaze was fixed.
309 She had no further trouble and filled the string quickly, too quickly, in fact.
310 She had to move a few things to make room, but that wasn't too hard.
311 She is far too young to be wearing that kind of outfit!
312 She is too young to drive a car!
313 She is way too skinny!
She knew, too, that I sometimes write "letters to blind girls" on the slate; but I didn't
314
suppose that she had any clear idea what a letter was.
315 She looked too proper to be considered beautiful, and her expression was lofty.
316 She saw, too, that her story properly fell into short chapters and redivided it.
317 She thought her too fashionably dressed, frivolously gay and vain.
318 She too felt nervous about leaving the puppies on their own.
She took no pains with her manners or with delicacy of speech, or with her toilet, or
319 to show herself to her husband in her most becoming attitudes, or to avoid
inconveniencing him by being too exacting.
320 She tried memorizing the textbook the night before the exam, but it was too little,
321 too late.
She tried to push away from him but his embrace was too strong.
She was only a couple of paces away when she saw him, and to her too he was not
322
the Nicholas she had known and always slightly feared.
323 She was still too agitated by the encounter to be able to talk of the affair calmly.
Simon sighed and stooped to straighten the leash a young borzoi had entangled; the
324
count too sighed and, noticing the snuffbox in his hand, opened it and took a pinch.
So in your parts, too, the harvest is nothing to boast of, Count? he went on,
325
continuing the conversation they had begun.
So, as you are now too old to wander abroad and work in a circus, I offer you a home
326
here as long as you live.
327 Society is commonly too cheap.

13
Some of the best restaurants for outdoor enthusiasts are here, as the beach and
328
mountains are side by side with the desert not too far away.
Something was lacking in them, they were not clear, they were too one-sidedly
329
personal and brain-spun.
Sometimes she tries to spell very short words on her small [fingers] but she is too
330
young to remember hard words.
Sonya too was busy all this time, but the aim of her efforts was quite different from
331
Natasha's.
Sonya too, all rosy red, clung to his arm and, radiant with bliss, looked eagerly
332
toward his eyes, waiting for the look for which she longed.
Sonya was there too, tormented by curiosity as to what Prince Andrew and Natasha
333
were talking about.
Soon, however, the remaining beans will be too tough for them, and go forward to
334
meet new foes.
Such too, to a greater or less extent, is the condition of the operatives of every
335
denomination in England, which is the great workhouse of the world.
336 Suppose we escape down the stairs, too, suggested the boy.
Syracuse, NY 13219-1354(315) 488-9322tullysgoodtimes.com Nestico's Too Another
337 family-owned restaurant, Nestico's Too borrows its name from its sister restaurant in
north Syracuse.
338 Take us, too! cried the nine tiny piglets, all in one breath.
Tantalus, too, great as he was above all mortals, went down to the kingdom of the
339
dead, never to return.
Teacher seems to feel benefitted by the change too; for she is already beginning to
340
look like her dear old self.
341 Teacher too has a silk dress.
342 That is still too fresh.
343 That puts the court in too bad a light, replied Bilibin.
That she had not heard from Prince Andrew himself, Princess Mary attributed to his
344 being too weak to write or to his considering the long journey too hard and too
dangerous for her and his son.
345 That would be too base.
346 That would take too long to tell, answered the son.
The atmosphere is fun and very Hawaiian without going overboard and becoming
347
too touristy.
348 The bag was too heavy for me to lift.
349 The beauty of the ice was gone, and it was too late to study the bottom.
The best deal in the house is the filling and outrageously tasty "Brian's Bowl," almost
350
too much to eat for just under $7.
351 The bigwigs here think so too, but they daren't say so.

14
352 The cake was too delicious for words!
The cause of the confusion was that while the Austrian cavalry was moving toward
353 our left flank, the higher command found that our center was too far separated from
our right flank and the cavalry were all ordered to turn back to the right.
354 The cause of the delay was Natasha's skirt, which was too long.
The chicken Marsala here consistently gets good marks (it's just spicy enough, but
355
not too spicy), the interior of the restaurant is spotlessly clean, and the wait staff is
incredibly
The friendly.
chickens, which had also taken shelter here from the rain, stalked about the
356
room like members of the family, too humanized, methought, to roast well.
The commander of the regiment turned to Prince Bagration, entreating him to go
357
back as it was too dangerous to remain where they were.
358 The conductor, too, was kind.
The count moved in his affairs as in a huge net, trying not to believe that he was
359 entangled but becoming more and more so at every step, and feeling too feeble to
break the meshes or to set to work carefully and patiently to disentangle them.
360 The curries are outstanding, too, including chicken, lamb, seafood and veggie
361 versions.
The din of many voices was too great; all he could hear was: "ahahah!" and "rrrr!"
362 The doctor says her mind is too active; but how are we to keep her from thinking?
The doll cried, too, and stretched out its arms from among the green branches, and
363
looked distressed.
364 The dress was too long.
365 The enemy has a widget too, the D2001.
The episode had a deadening effect on Helen Keller and on Miss Sullivan, who feared
366
that she had allowed the habit of imitation, which has in truth made Miss Keller a
367 writer,
The to go
house tootoo
was far.expensive to buy.
368 The lesson you have learned to-day is never to pay too dear for a whistle.
369 The lobster rolls are decent, too, with a hefty serving of meat and light on the mayo.
The menu is a mix of French cuisine and American fare, and since it has such close
370
proximity to the water, it boasts a great selection of seafood too.
The most convenient print for the blind is braille, which has several variations, too
371
many, indeed--English, American, New York Point.
372 The news is too good to be true.
The old count cried because he felt that before long, he, too, must take the same
373
terrible step.
The old man too came up and kissed the waxen little hands that lay quietly crossed
374 one on the other on her breast, and to him, too, her face seemed to say: "Ah, what
have you done to me, and why?"
The only thing is, we mustn't have children too soon, he continued, following an
375
unconscious sequence of ideas.
376 The others who could do so drove away too, leaving those who could not to
surrender or die.

15
377 The peasants were ruined; some of them too had gone to Bogucharovo, only a few
remained.
The philanthropist too often surrounds mankind with the remembrance of his own
378
castoff griefs as an atmosphere, and calls it sympathy.
The princess is too kind to wish to deprive me of the pleasure of spending the
379
evening with you.
380 The princess too had prepared provisions for Pierre's journey.
The restaurant can fit up to 150 people, so large groups should inquire with
381
management about parties and special occasions, too.
382 The restaurant offers dine-in and take-out, and its dining room can handle large
383 parties,
The too. only seats 100 people and has a full service bar too.
restaurant
The San Francisco Chronicle raves that chef Kamio "...miraculously blends all these
384 elements---fine dining, artistic preparations and live music." Check out the online
calendar for upcoming performers, too.
The sandwiches are amazing, too, as all the bread is hand-baked on the premises so
385
it arrives at your table warm and soft.
386 The scallion pancakes and curry puffs are tasty, too.
387 The seduction was going all too well - for her.
The sight of the discomposure of that old man of the world touched Pierre: he
388 looked at Helene and she too seemed disconcerted, and her look seemed to say:
"Well, it is your own fault."
389 The story of Ruth, too--how Oriental it is!
390 The tea was too hot to drink.
391 The thief ran too fast for the police to catch.
392 The Tollgate Hill Inn and Restaurant will soon be serving Sunday brunch too.
The two women let go of one another, and then, as if afraid of being too late, seized
393 each other's hands, kissing them and pulling them away, and again began kissing
each other on the face, and then to Prince Andrew's surprise both began to cry and
kissed
The way again.
he acted tonight was a little too much like he did when he came home from
394
the hospital.
395 The yellow corn and turnips were too late to come to anything.
Their horses, bridled and with high saddles, stood near them and there too the dogs
396
were lying.
Their pleasure banished the anger from King Frost's heart and the frown from his
397
brow, and he, too, began to admire the painted trees.
Their pleasure charmed away King Frost's anger, and he, too, began to admire the
398 painted trees, and at last he said to himself, My treasures are not wasted if they
make little children happy.
399 Then suddenly, dismayed lest he had said too much, Petya stopped and blushed.
Then they told him dinner would be served directly and he replied that they could
400
not serve it too quickly to suit his convenience.

16
Then, too, there is in German literature a fine reserve which I like; but its chief glory
401
is the recognition I find in it of the redeeming potency of woman's self-sacrificing
402 love. are a number of traditional noodle dishes, too, and three prix fixe set menus.
There
There are some heart-friendly items on the menu, too, including the leaner, grilled
403
bison steaks, meatloaf, and burgers.
There are steaks (try the country fried steak with mashed potatoes and cream gravy)
404
and fried seafood platters, too.
405 There too, as everywhere, I sometimes expected the Visitor who never comes.
406 There was nothing suggestive about her attire, and it was too hot to wear jeans.
There were no industrious workmen, and the peasants caught the commissaries who
407
ventured too far out of town with the proclamation and killed them.
408 There were too many people at the picnic to count.
There, too, after a fit of temper, I went to find comfort and to hide my hot face in the
409
cool leaves and grass.
410 There’s no use getting upset. It’s too late to do anything about it now.
There's a 12-oz. grilled ribeye on the menu, too, served with mashed potatoes and
411
sautéed spinach.
412 There's a sushi bar, too, which is always crowded.
413 There's always Mexican too if your company wants something different.
414 There's good sport there if the water be not too high.
415 These pants are way too big on me.
416 These people are poor because they have been too lazy to work, he said.
They are but improved means to an unimproved end, an end which it was already
417
but too easy to arrive at; as railroads lead to Boston or New York.
418 They are men too, said one of them as he wrapped himself up in his coat.
419 They are not very wrong to eat too many grapes because they do not know much.
420 They are too pure to have a market value; they contain no muck.
421 They are too young to fly, and the mother bird is making a great fuss about it.
422 They must be feeling dull, too, said one of the bolder officers, laughing.
423 They shall too, if only...
424 They take too much time, and a man's life will be gone.
They tell us that Helen is "overdoing," that her mind is too active (these very people
425
thought she had no mind at all a few months ago!) and suggest many absurd and
impossible remedies.
They were half clad, hungry, too weak to get away on foot and had no means of
426
obtaining a conveyance.
Think, also, of the ladies of the land weaving toilet cushions against the last day, not
427
to betray too green an interest in their fates!
428 This box is too heavy for me to carry.
429 This box is too heavy to carry.
430 This new baby... it will not be too much?

17
431 This restaurant is enclosed, which makes it nice in the rain or when the weather is
432 too hot.
This soup is too hot to eat.
433 This sweater is too big for me to wear.
434 This too is becoming widely accepted.
435 This was too much for Helen.
436 This was too much for poor Nancy.
Those village worms are quite too large; a shiner may make a meal off one without
437
finding the skewer.
Though the words of the order were not clear to the regimental commander, and the
question arose whether the troops were to be in marching order or not, it was
438
decided at a consultation between the battalion commanders to present the
regiment in parade order, on the principle that it is always better to "bow too low
than
To benot bow
able low enough."
to read for one's self what is being willed, thought and done in the world--
439 the world in whose joys and sorrows, failures and successes one feels the keenest
interest--that would indeed be a happiness too deep for words.
440 Too hot! she replied, blushing with pleasure.
Too late again! flashed through Petya's mind and he galloped on to the place from
441
which the rapid firing could be heard.
442 Too much cannot be said in praise of Dr. Howe's work.
443 Too often, I think, children are required to write before they have anything to say.
444 Too soon or too late... it is terrible!
445 Turn the music down. It’s too loud!
Two were misdirected and the shot went too high, but the last round fell in the midst
446
of a group of hussars and knocked three of them over.
Uncle too was in high spirits and far from being offended by the brother's and sister's
447 laughter (it could never enter his head that they might be laughing at his way of life)
he himself joined in the merriment.
Unconsciously imitating her father, she now tried to express herself as he did, as
448
much as possible by signs, and her tongue too seemed to move with difficulty.
We all know the stories of people who win the lottery—and let's face it, far too often
449
no good comes of it.
450 We are going too! shouted Petya.
451 We can’t go on this roller coaster. Alice is too short for this ride!
452 We don’t see her very often. She lives too far away.
453 We got home too late to see the beginning of the TV show.
We lived under the late count--the kingdom of heaven be his!--and we have lived
454
under you too, without ever being wronged.
455 We shall speak, yes, and sing, too, as God intended we should speak and sing.

18
We too will take part..." the reader went on, and then paused ("Do you see," shouted
456 the youth victoriously, "he's going to clear up the whole affair for you...."), "in
destroying them, and will send these visitors to the devil.
We... actually, I... was thinking about adopting a few wild horses from out west
457
where they have too many.
458 We’re far too young to get married.
Well, and what harm is there in that? and she rose (everybody else got up too) and
459
with a severe expression sailed back to her table in the sitting room.
460 Well, don't get too extravagant.
Well, Papa, I tell you definitely, and Mamma too, it's as you please, but I say
461
definitely that you must let me enter the army, because I can't... that's all....
462 We've been sitting here too long!
463 We've stayed too long! said the count with involuntary vexation.
Weyrother, with the gesture of a man too busy to lose a moment, glanced at Kutuzov
and, having convinced himself that he was asleep, took up a paper and in a loud,
464
monotonous voice began to read out the dispositions for the impending battle,
under a heading which he also read out:
What a horrid, savage beast! exclaimed a piglet; "and after we've been such good
465
friends, too, and played with one another!"
What for a long while specially surprised and delighted him were the women, young
466 and healthy, without a dozen officers making up to each of them; women, too, who
were pleased and flattered that a passing officer should joke with them.
What I have certainly gained is freedom, he began seriously, but did not continue,
467
noticing that this theme was too egotistic.
What is it? he said crossly, and, his hand shaking unintentionally, he poured too
468
many drops into the glass.
When he had finished that business it was already too late to go anywhere but still
469 too early to go to bed, and for a long time he paced up and down the room,
reflecting on his life, a thing he rarely did.
When her fingers were too tired to spell another word, I had for the first time a keen
470
sense of my deprivations.
When I visit many strange countries my brother and Mildred will stay with
471 grandmother because they will be too small to see a great many people and I think
they would cry loud on the great rough ocean.
When she met Dr. Furness, the Shakespearean scholar, he warned her not to let the
472 college professors tell her too many assumed facts about the life of Shakespeare; all
we know, he said, is that Shakespeare was baptized, married, and died.
473 When the darkness came, they too began to be alarmed.

19
When the Emperor had passed nearly all the regiments, the troops began a
474 ceremonial march past him, and Rostov on Bedouin, recently purchased from
Denisov, rode past too, at the rear of his squadron--that is, alone and in full view of
475 the Emperor.
When you're only going to work for the summer, you can't be too picky.
Whether you are looking for a quick lunch during an event-packed day or a true
476 dining experience, Karyn's Fresh Corner offers delicious meals that you may think are
too good to be healthy.
Whether you spend the day hiking around the Chicago Lakeshore Path, or go biking
477
around the Peoria Riverfront, a steak dinner is never too far away.
478 Why too much? she asked.
479 Why, have you too much money?
Wildlife hid behind that wall of green, but it was too late in the day for them to be
480
hopping out on the road.
481 Would not such a meeting be too trying for him, dear Anna Mikhaylovna? said he.
482 Yes, Christopher; and it is hard work, too, answered Robert.
483 Yes, Count, she would say, "he is too noble and pure-souled for our present,
484 depraved
Yes, I am aworld.
woman who may belong to anyone--to you too, said her glance.
485 Yes, I wonder, too, said Christopher.
486 Yes, I'm tired too, said Rostov.
487 Yes, yes, I do remember something too, Sonya answered timidly.
Yes, yes, it really was pink! cried Natasha, who now thought she too remembered
488
the word pink being used, and saw in this the most extraordinary and mysterious
parthe
Yet of too
the was
prediction.
an excellent dancer - or maybe everyone's dancing skills were so
489
much better than hers that it only appeared so to her.
490 You are spared the pain of many sights and sounds, which you are only too happy in
491 escaping.
You are too fond of this one, his wife whispered in French.
492 You ask too many questions.
You at least must tackle him properly, or else if he goes on like this he'll soon have
493
us, too, for his subjects!
You behaved as becomes a man who values his honor, perhaps too hastily, but we
494
won't go into that.
495 You don't seem to be doing too bad – in either department.
496 You flirt with him too, said the countess, laughing.
You must go away too, take away what you can and tell the serfs to go to the Ryazan
497
estate or to the one near Moscow.
498 You talk about our position, the left flank weak and the right flank too extended, he
499 went on.
You'd be only too glad, of course.
Your joke is too bad, it's witty but unjust, said Anna Pavlovna, shaking her little
500
shriveled finger at him.

20
Ten Words of the Day
=============================================================================

rankle - Gnaw into; make resentful or angry.

Synonyms: eat into, grate, fret

Usage: If you were aiming to rankle me with your sexist comments, you succeeded!

fritter - Spend frivolously and unwisely.

Synonyms: fool away, dissipate, shoot

Usage: Our English youth fritters away its time in idleness and pleasure-seeking.

subside - Wear off or die down.

Synonyms: lessen

Usage: The doctor told me that the pain should subside during the night and that I should feel
much better by morning.

hornswoggle - Deprive of by deceit.

Synonyms: bunco, con, defraud, diddle, goldbrick, mulct, nobble, rook, scam, swindle, short-
change, victimize

Usage: I might be a thief, but even I think it is shameful to hornswoggle an old lady out of her
life savings!

ennoble - Give a title to someone; make someone a member of the nobility.

Synonyms: gentle

Usage: It would be interesting to see how brave he was; besides, the King would have good
reason to ennoble him if he overcame them.

21
precisely - in a precise manner; "she always expressed herself precisely"

Antonyms: inexactly

tolerably - in an acceptable (but not outstanding) manner; "she plays tennis tolerably"

Antonyms: unacceptably

graciously - in a gracious or graceful manner; "he did not have a chance to grow up graciously"

Antonyms: woodenly, gracelessly, ungracefully

immorally - without regard for morality; "he acted immorally when his own interests were at
stake"

Antonyms: virtuously

believingly - in a credulous manner

Antonyms: incredulously

=============================================================================

Prepositions with Nouns


Definition

Certain prepositions can be used in conjunction with nouns to connect, emphasize, or provide
clarification for ideas expressed in sentences. In this combination, the preposition always
comes directly after the noun. Here are some of the most common prepositions used with
nouns:

 to
 for
 of
 in
 on
 at
 from

22
 with
 about
 between

Rules

There is no clear-cut rule that determines which prepositions connect to which nouns;
however, we can look at how synonymous nouns and associated verbs pair with prepositions
to observe patterns or make an educated guess.

Synonymous nouns
Synonymous nouns typically employ identical prepositions. For example, when the
noun respect is replaced with its synonyms (such as admiration or esteem), the
preposition for remains the same:

 “I could never lose respect for you.” (original)


 “I could never lose admiration for you.”
 “I could never lose esteem for you.”

In the above case, the preposition does not change, regardless of what synonym is being used.
This is not always the case, however, so do not take this as a concrete rule. The examples
below demonstrate cases in which the preposition changes with synonyms of the original
noun:

 “My addiction to coffee is unhealthy.” (original)


 “My obsession with coffee is unhealthy.”
 “My dependence on coffee is unhealthy.”

Verbs with prepositions


For many words, the prepositions used with nouns are the same prepositions used with those
nouns’ associated verb forms. For example:

 “He discussed his reaction to the results.” (noun)


 “He discussed how he reacted to the results.” (verb)

 “I have knowledge of that particular issue.” (noun)


 “I know of that particular issue.” (verb)

Be careful not to rely on this pattern, though, because in some cases changing a noun into its
verb form alters the preposition:

 “I have deep sympathy for him.”


 “I deeply sympathize with him.”

 “She has an obsession with that comic book.”

23
 “She obsesses over that comic book.”

Examples of common pairings

Although there are some tricks we can use, there is no specific way of determining which
prepositions pair with particular nouns—we just have to know them by heart. The only way to
do this is by seeing them used in everyday writing and speech.

Below we will look at examples of the most common prepositions that pair with nouns.

Noun + to
One of the most common prepositions used with nouns is to. The following table contains
examples of combinations you might see:

Noun + to Example Sentence


access to “I couldn’t enter the building without access to the door’s password.”

addiction to “Alison has an addiction to football.”

answer to “Her answer to the teacher’s question was incorrect.”

approach to “Professor Smith’s approach to the experiment was incredibly innovative.”

damage to “The damage to the car is worse than I thought it’d be.”

dedication to “Ned has intense dedication to his schoolwork.”

devotion to “Everyone admired the doctor’s devotion to her patients.”

reaction to “The child had an adorable reaction to the kitten.”

response to “She gave no response to the question I’d asked her.”

solution to “No one could come up with a solution to the math problem.”

threat to “Climate change is a potential threat to certain species.”

Noun + for
Another common preposition used with nouns is for. Examples can be seen in the table below:

Noun + for Example Sentence

24
admiration
“Penny has so much admiration for her mother.”
for

“Health officials recently announced that a cure for the fatal disease had been
cure for
found.”

desire for “My desire for success is more important than my desire for romance.”

hope for “Youths often have high hopes for humanity.”

need for “The need for social interaction is a basic human trait.”

“Simply having a passion for writing doesn’t necessarily mean you will become
passion for
a best-selling author.”

reason for “There is always a reason for change.”

respect for “Certain cultures promote respect for elders.”

room for “There’s room for one more person at this table.”

sympathy for “You should always have sympathy for strangers.”

talent for “Greg has a talent for stand-up comedy.”

Noun + of
The preposition of can be used with many nouns. Here are some common combinations:

Noun + of Example Sentence


“Most people seem to underestimate the advantage of majoring in
advantage of
philosophy.”

disadvantage “The disadvantage of becoming an entrepreneur is the amount of debt you


of can accumulate.”

fear of “My niece has a fear of the dark.”

habit of “I used to have a habit of biting my fingernails.”

intention of “Do you have any intention of going out today?”

25
knowledge of “Timothy’s knowledge of beekeeping is impressive.”

lack of “The police cannot arrest him due to a lack of evidence.”

memory of “I have no memory of my first year in school.”

“The process of elimination is a popular technique when taking multiple-


process of
choice tests.”

smell of “I love the smell of freshly baked cookies.”

sound of “Can you hear the sound of birds chirping?”

taste of “The taste of cooked octopus is an acquired one.”

Noun + in
Several nouns take the preposition in, examples of which can be seen in the following table:

Noun + in Example Sentence


belief in “It is not uncommon to have a belief in a higher power.”

change in “Scientists detected little change in the atmosphere.”

decrease in “A decrease in taxes would dramatically affect the economy.”

delay in “There appears to have been a delay in processing your payment.”

experience
“She has little experience in backpacking.”
in

increase in “I’m hoping for an increase in environmentally friendly products.”

interest in “Even as a child, the girl had an interest in archaeology.”

pleasure in “He took pleasure in playing the piano.”

reduction in “Meredith was forced to take a reduction in her pay.”

“After he won the jackpot, his hometown witnessed a sharp rise in sales of
rise in
lottery tickets.”

26
Noun + on
The preposition on is less commonly paired with nouns, but there are instances where it is
used. Here are some examples of on being used with nouns:

Noun + on Example Sentence


advice on “I read magazines for advice on relationships.”

attack on “Some view the new law as an attack on our rights.”

ban on “The early 20th century saw a short-lived ban on alcohol.”

emphasis
“She is studying East Asian cultures with an emphasis on Japanese society.”
on

focus on “His focus on success has hindered his social life.”

“The report on fast food made people more aware of the number of calories they
report on
consume.”

Noun + at
The preposition at is only paired with a few nouns. For example:

 “Though new to skiing, he made an attempt at the highest slope.”


 “I have no chance at winning this game.”

Often, we use the preposition in conjunction with which, as in:

 “This is the age at which you are eligible for military service.”
 “There’s always a point at which trying to reason with him becomes futile.”

Noun + from
From is only occasionally used with nouns. The preposition usually refers to two things at
opposition with each other, or specifies an origin or starting point when used in conjunction
with to:

 “The town sought protection from bandits.”


 “His transition from pauper to prince was something out of a fairy tale.”

Noun + with
Generally, nouns combined with the preposition with point to relationships and connections
between two or more things. For example:

 “What’s the matter with you?”

27
 “I noticed a small problem with the story you submitted.”
 “Her close relationship with her sister is enviable.”
 “If you’re having trouble with the assignments, consult your teacher.”

Noun + about
When paired with a noun, about means concerning or in regards to. For example:

 “His anxiety about public speaking is so bad that he sweats when he’s onstage.”
 “Do you have any information about the changes in the schedule?”
 “She wants to hear the story about her favorite superhero again.”

Noun + between
A noun that takes the preposition between forms a comparison between two things. Here are
some common combinations:

 “For her thesis, Stacy submitted a comparison between classical music and
contemporary rock.”
 “The connection between good and evil is fascinating.”
 “Is there a difference between green onions and scallions?”

Nouns with multiple prepositions

Some nouns are capable of combining with more than one preposition. In some of these
cases, the meaning does not change no matter which preposition is chosen:

 “My opinion of her is the same as yours.”


 “My opinion about her is the same as yours.”

 “Abby is an expert in changing tires.”


 “Abby is an expert at changing tires.”

 “I appreciate his newfound love for animals.”


 “I appreciate his newfound love of animals.”

In other cases, however, the meaning changes entirely when a different preposition is
substituted:

 “No one can deny the positive impact of France.” (France has a positive influence.)
 “No one can deny the positive impact on France.” (Something positively affects France.)

 “Her transition from vegetarian to vegan wasn’t difficult.” (She started as a vegetarian
and ended as a vegan.)
 “Her transition to vegetarian from vegan wasn’t difficult.” (She started as a vegan and
ended as a vegetarian.)

=============================================================================

28
Word of the Month
=============================================================================

too
too

(to͞o)

adv.

1. In addition; also: He's coming along too.

2. More than enough; excessively: She worries too much.

3. To a regrettable degree: My error was all too apparent.

4. Very; extremely; immensely: He's only too willing to be of service.

5. Informal Indeed; so: You will too do it!

[Middle English to, from Old English tō, to, furthermore; see de- in Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: Some people object to the use of not too as an equivalent of not very, as in She
was not too pleasedwith the results. In many contexts this construction is entirely idiomatic an
d should pass without notice: It wasn't toolong ago that deregulation was being hailed as the
savior of the savings and loan industry. It was not too bright ofthem to build in an area where
rock slides occur. In these cases not too adds a note of ironic understatement. ·Negation of too
by can't may sometimes lead to ambiguities, as in You can't check your child's temperature to
o often,which may mean either that the temperature should be checked only occasionally or
that
it should be checked asfrequently as possible.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

too

(tuː)

adv

1. as well; in addition; also: can I come too?.

29
2. in or to an excessive degree; more than a fitting or desirable amount: I have too many thing
s to do.

3. extremely: you're too kind.

4. informal US and Canadian indeed: used to reinforce a command: you will too do it!.

5. too right! Brit and Austral and NZ certainly; indeed

[Old English tō; related to Old Frisian, Old Saxon to, Old High German zou; see to1]

Usage: See at very

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

too

(tu)

adv.

1. in addition; also; furthermore; moreover: young, clever, and rich too.

2. to an excessive or marked degree; beyond what is usual, desirable, fitting, etc.: too sick to

travel; too suprised forwords.

3. more, as specified, than should be: too near the fire.

4. (used as an emphatic affirmative to contradict a negative statement): I am too!

5. extremely; very (usu. with a negative): none too pleased with the results.

also

– too – as well

You use also, too, or as well when you are giving more information about something.
1. 'also'

Also is usually used in front of a verb. If there is no auxiliary verb, you put also immediately in
front of the verb, unlessthe verb is be.
I also began to be interested in cricket.

They also helped out.

If the verb is be, you put also after it.


I was also an American.

30
If there is an auxiliary verb, you put also after the auxiliary verb.
The symptoms of the illness were also described in the book.

If there is more than one auxiliary verb, you put also after the first one.
We'll also be learning about healthy eating.

Also is sometimes put at the beginning of a clause.


She is very intelligent. Also, she is gorgeous.

Be Careful!
Don't put also at the end of a clause.
2. 'too'

You usually put too at the end of a clause.


Now the problem affects middle-class children, too.

I'll miss you, and Steve will, too.

In conversation, too is used after a word or phrase when you are making a brief comment on
something that has justbeen said.
'His father kicked him out of the house.' – 'Quite right, too.'

'They've finished mending the road.' – 'About time, too!'

Too is sometimes put after the first noun phrase in a clause.


I wondered whether I too would become ill.

, Melissa, too, felt miserable.

However, the position of too can make a difference to the meaning of a sentence. 'I am an
American too' can meaneither 'Like the person just mentioned, I am an American' or 'Besides
having the other qualities just mentioned, I am anAmerican'. However, 'I too am an
American' can only mean 'Like the person just mentioned, I am an American'.
Don't put too at the beginning of a sentence.
For more information, see too

3. 'as well'

As well always goes at the end of a clause.


Filter coffee is better for your health than instant coffee. And it tastes nicer as well.

They will have a difficult year next year as well.

4. negatives

31
You don't usually use 'also', 'too', or 'as well' in negative clauses. Don't say, for example, 'I'm
not hungry and she's nothungry too'. You say 'I'm not hungry and she's not hungry either', 'I'
m not hungry and neither is she', or 'I'm nothungry and nor is she'.
Edward wasn't at the ceremony, either.

'I don't normally drink coffee in the evening.' – 'Neither do I.'

See either, neither, nor

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

so

– very – too

So, very, and too can all be used to intensify the meaning of an adjective, an adverb, or a word
like much or many.
1. 'very'

Very is a simple intensifier, without any other meaning.


The room was very small.

We finished very quickly.

See very

2. 'so'

So can suggest an emotion in the speaker, such as pleasure, surprise, or disappointment.


Juan makes me so angry!

Oh, thank you so much!

So can also refer forward to a result clause introduced by that.


The traffic was moving so slowly that he arrived three hours late.

3. 'too'

Too suggests an excessive or undesirable amount.


The soup is too salty.

She wears too much make-up.

Too can be used with a to-


infinitive or with for to say that a particular result does not or cannot happen.
He was too late to save her.

32
The water was too cold for swimming.

too

Too can be an adverb or a grading adverb.


1. used as an adverb

You use too as an adverb to show that what has just been said applies to or includes someone
or something else.
Of course, you're a teacher too, aren't you?

Hey, where are you from? Brooklyn? Me too!

See also - too - as well

2. used as a grading adverb

You use too in front of an adjective or adverb to say that an amount or degree of a quality is
more than is needed orwanted.
By then he was far too tall for his little bed.

I realized my mistake too late.

Don't use 'very' in front of too. Don't say, for example, 'The hat was very too small for her'. Say
'The hat was much toosmall for her' or 'The hat was far too small for her'.
That may seem much too expensive.

You can use rather, slightly, or a bit in front of too.


The dress was rather too small for her.

His hair had grown slightly too long over his ears.

I'm afraid the price may just be a bit too high.

Be Careful!
Don't use 'fairly', 'quite', or 'pretty' in front of too.
You don't normally use too with an adjective in front of a noun. Don't say, for example, 'These
are too big boots'. Yousay 'These boots are too big'.
However, too is sometimes used with an adjective in front of a noun in formal or literary
English. A or an is put afterthe adjective. For example, you can say 'This is too complex a
problem
to be dealt with here'. Don't say 'This is a toocomplex problem to be dealt with here'.

33
That's too easy an answer.

Somehow, Vadim seems too nice a man for the job.

3. used as an intensifier

Some people use too in front of words like kind to say how grateful they are. This is fairly form
al.
You're too kind.

However, you don't usually use 'too' in front of an adjective or adverb simply to emphasize it.
Don't say, for example, 'Iam too pleased with my new car'. The word you use is very.
She was upset and very angry.

Think very carefully.

See very

4. 'too much' and 'too many'

You can use too much with an uncountable noun to say that there is more of something than
is needed or wanted.
They said I was earning too much money.

You can also say that there is too little of something.


There would be too little moisture for the plants to grow.

You can use too many with a countable noun to say that there are more people or things than
are needed or wanted.
I was making too many mistakes.

You can also say that there are too few people or things.
Too few people nowadays are interested in literature.

You can use much too much or far too much with an uncountable noun to say that there is
very much more ofsomething than is necessary or desirable.
This would leave much too much power in the hands of the judges.

These people are getting far too much attention.

You can use far too many with a countable noun to say that there is a much larger number of
people or things than isnecessary or desirable. Don't say that there are 'much too many' of the
m.
Every middle-class child gets far too many toys.

34
Be Careful!
Don't use too much or much too much in front of an adjective which is not followed by a noun
. Don't say, forexample, 'It's too much hot to play football'. Say 'It's too hot to play football' or
'It's much too hot to play football'.
Adv. 1. too - to a degree exceeding normal or proper limits; "too big"

excessively, overly, to a fault

2. too - in addition; "he has a Mercedes, too"

also, as well, besides, likewise

too

adverb

1. also, as well, further, in addition, moreover, besides, likewise, to boot, into the
bargain Depression may beexpressed physically too.

2. excessively, very, extremely, overly, unduly, unreasonably, inordinately, exorbitantly,

immoderately,over- I'm afraid you're too late; she's gone. see very

too

adverb

In addition:

additionally, also, besides, further, furthermore, item, likewise, more, moreover, still, yet.

Idioms: as well, to boot.

too

(tuː) adverb

1. to a greater extent, or more, than is required, desirable or suitable. He's too fat for his
clothes; I'm not feeling too well. ज्यादा ही, बहुत

2. in addition; also; as well. My husband likes cycling, and I do, too. भी

35
too

I'm too hot

 It's a little too hot (US)


It's a bit too hot (UK)
 The seat is too high
 It's too expensive for me
 This is too heavy
 It's too big
 It's too small
 The room is too cold
 The food is too spicy
 There's too much ... in it
 You were driving too fast
 He was driving too fast
 It's too loud
 It's too smoky here
 It's too late

=============================================================================

36
Change the Voice
=============================================================================

1.BBC Radio broadcast the programme.

2.He hit the boy.

3.Do not shut the door.

4.Let me do the sum.

5.You ought to obey your parents.

6.You should have done the work.

7.I have to do a lot of work.

8.Who will beat me?

9.We sell radios here.

10.People will soon forget it.

11.We prohibit smoking.

12.The field is ploughed.

13.Your behaviour vexes me.

14.We expect good news.

15.He seems to have eaten the mangoes.

16.The man appears to have beaten the boy.

17.People say that he is a spy.

18.People believe that he has been living in India for 5 years.

19.Newspapers reported that the meeting had been successful.

20.People know that he was a thief.

21.People consider him a great poet.

22.We know that he is an honest man.

23.We think that he is the best player.

37
24.People suppose that he is a liar.

25.They seem to have done the work.

Answers
=================

1.The programme was broadcast by BBC Radio.

2.The boy was hit by him

3.Let not the door be shut.

4.Let the sum be done by me.

5.Your parents ought to be obeyed.

6.The work should have been done by you.

7.A lot of work has to be done by me.

8.By whom shall I be beaten.

9.Radios are sold here.

10.It will be forgotten soon.

11.Smoking is prohibited.

12.Farmers plough the field.

13.I am vexed at your behaviour.

14.Good news is expected.

15.The mangoes seem to have been eaten by him.

16.The boy appears to have been beaten by the man.

17.He is said to be a spy.

18.He is believed to have been living in India for 5 years.

19.The meeting was reported to have been successful.

20.He is known to have been a thief.

21.He is considered a great poet.

22.He is known to be an honest man.

38
23.He is thought to be the best player.

24.He is supposed to be a liar.

25.The work seems to have been done by them.

============================================================================

It Is Said That / He Is Said To


(be) Supposed To
“Main clause + noun clause” can be made passive in two ways.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Example 1:

Active: People say that he lives abroad now.

Passive 1: It’s said that he lives abroad now.

Passive 2: He is said to live abroad now.

Example 2:

Active: People believe that he is the hero of the town.

Passive 1: It’s believed that he is the hero of the town.

Passive 2: He is believed to be the hero of the town.

Present "Be":

Active: They say (that) the man is a thief.

Passive 1: It’s said that the man is a thief.

Passive 2: The man is said to be a thief.

39
Simple Present Noun Clause:

Active: We understand that he dislikes children.

Passive 1: It’s understood that he dislikes children.

Passive 2: He is understood to dislike children.

Past "Be":

Active: They say that he was very rich in the past.

Passive 1: It’s said that he was rich in the past.

Passive 2: He is said to have been very rich in the past.

Simple Past Noun Clause :

Active: People claim that he left the country two months ago.

Passive 1: It’s claimed that he left the country two months ago.

Passive 2: He is claimed to have left the country two months ago.

Present Perfect Noun Clause :

Active: People think that he has deserted his family.

Passive 1: It’s thought that he has deserted his family.

Passive 2: He is thought to have deserted his family.

Present Continuous Noun Clause :

Active: We think he is waiting there now.

Passive 1: It’s thought that he is waiting there now.

Passive 2: He is thought to be waiting there now.

40
Past Continuous Noun Clause :

Active: People say he was working very hard.

Passive 1: It’s said that he was working very hard.

Passive 2: He is said to have been working very hard.

Future Tense(will or going to) Noun Clause :

Active: People expect that the rate of exchange will go down soon.

Passive 1: It’s expected that the rate of crime will go down soon.

Passive 2: The rate of crime is expected to go down soon.

Present Passive Noun Clause :

Active: They say that a lot of electrical appliances are stolen every day.

Passive 1: It’s said that a lot of electrical appliances are stolen every day.

Passive 2: A lot of electrical appliances are said to be stolen every day.

Past Passive Noun Clause :

Active: They report that two people were killed in the explosion.

Passive 1: It’s reported that two people were killed in the explosion.

Passive 2: Two people are reported to have been killed in the explosion.

Note:

Common verbs similar to “believe, say” are claim, understand, think, suppose, expect, report,
acknowledge, assume, estimate, consider etc.

============================================================================

41
Computer Test
Q.1 A “shell” is a short name for what type of user interface?

(1) Graphical User Interface

(2) Command-Line Interface

(3) Touchscreen Interface

(4) Motion Sensor Interface

(5) None of these

Q.1 किस प्रिाय िे मज


ू य इन्टयपेस िे लरए छोटा नाभ ‘शेर‘ है ?

(1) ग्राकपिर मज
ू य इन्टयपेस

(2) िभान्ड राइन इन्टयपेस

(3) टच स्क्रीन इन्टयपेस

(4) भॉननटय सेंसय इन्टयपेस

(5) इनभें से िोई नह ीं

Q.2 Which of the following is not a network protocol?

(1) HTTP

(2) RIP

(3) PIM

(4) PSI

(5) TCP

Q.2 ननम्न भें से िौन सा एि नेटविक प्रोटोिॉर नह ीं है?

(1) एचट ट ऩी

(2) आयआईऩी

42
(3) ऩीआईएभ

(4) ऩीएसआई

(5) ट सीऩी

Q.3 Which of the following will not help your computer's security?

(1) Firewall

(2) VLAN

(3) Good Password

(4) Updated software

(5) IPSec

Q.3 ननम्न भें से िौन सा आऩिे िींप्मट


ू य िी सयु ऺा भें भदद नह ीं िये गा?

(1) पामयवॉर

(2) वीरैन

(3) अच्छा ऩासवडक

(4) अऩडेट सॉफ्टवेमय

(5) आईऩीसेि

Q.4 Which of the following is not a Linux distributor?

(1) Red Hat

(2) Ubuntu

(3) Palm

(4) Debian

(5) None of these

43
Q.4 ननम्न भें से िौन लरनक्स डडस्क्र ब्मट
ू य नह ीं है?

(1) ये ड है ट

(2) उफन
ु टु

(3) ऩाभ

(4) डेबफमन

(5) इनभें से िोई नह ीं

Q.5 Most digital cameras save photos in what image format?

(1) PNG

(2) BMP

(3) GIF

(4) JPEG

(5) All of the above

Q.5 अधधितय डडजजटर िैभया, पोटो किस इभेज पॉभेट भें सयु क्षऺत ियता है?

(1) PNG

(2) BMP

(3) GIF

(4) JPEG

(5) उऩयोक्त सबी

Q.6 Serif and san-serif are types of what?

(1) Images

(2) Audio files

44
(3) Video files

(4) Fonts

(5) File type

Q.6 सेरयप औय सैन-सेरयप किसिे प्रिाय हैं?

(1) इभेज

(2) ऑडडमो पाइर

(3) वीडडमो पाइर

(4) पॉन्ट

(5) पाइर टाइऩ

Q.7 Which of the following interfaces is not used for connecting external hard drives?

(1) USB

(2) Firewire

(3) HDMI

(4) eSATA

(5) All of the above

Q.7 ननम्न भें से िौन सा इींटयपेस, एक्सटनकर हाडक ड्राइव िो जोड़ने िे लरए प्रमोग नह ीं होता ?

(1) मए
ू सफी

(2) पामयवामय

(3) HDMI

(4) eसाटा

(5) उऩयोक्त सबी

45
Q.8 Which of the following is not a type of database?

(1) Excel

(2) Access

(3) FileMaker

(4) MySQL

(5) None of these

Q.8 ननम्न भें से िौन डाटाफेस िा प्रिाय नह ीं है?

(1) एक्सेर

(2) एक्सेस

(3) पाइरभेिय

(4) MySQL

(5) इनभें से िोई नह ीं

Q.9 Moving the page around to view all the pages in the document on the screen is referred to
as-

(1) Surfing

(2) Navigating

(3) Hyperlink

(4) Scrolling

(5) Browsing

Q.9 स्क्रीन ऩय डॉक्मभ


ु ें ट िे सबी ऩेजों िो दे खने िे लरए ऩेज िो भव
ू ियने िा सींदबक --------
से होता है ।

(1) सकपिंग

(2) नेवीगेटटींग

46
(3) हाइऩयलरींि

(4) स्क्रोलरींग

(5) ब्राउजजींग

Q.10 Which of the following is the short-cut key to close an active tab of a browser?

(1) Alt + F4

(2) Ctrl + C

(3) Ctrl + F4

(4) Shift + C

(5) Ctrl + W

Q.10 ननम्न भें से िौन सी शॉटक िट ‘िी’ ब्राउजय िे एि एजक्टव टै फ िो फन्द ियने िे लरए
होती है?

(1) ऑल्ट + F4

(2) िींरोर + C

(3) िींरोर+ F4

(4) लशफ्ट + C

(5) िींरोर + W

Answers
Q.1 (2)

Q.2 (4)

Q.3 (2)

Q.4 (3)

47
Q.5 (4)

Q.6 (4)

Q.7 (3)

Q.8 (1)

Q.9 (4)

Q.10 (5)

===================================================================

English Language Quiz 1


Q1-10. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given
below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while
answering some questions.

Boys and girls growing up in the city in the ’60s and ’70s were told to learn
typing as an added skill to score a few extra points in the job market. Almost every middle
class colony had a typing school where students sat on a wooden stool, hunched over a
typewriter, trying to get right their first lesson in typing, “A quick brown fox jumps over the
lazy dog.” The sentence apparently prepared them to type all alphabets of the language.
Most sat with a ready whitener to erase any possible mistake. The less the whitener used
the more skillful was the man behind the typewriter. Many took real pride in their speed,
others were more fastidious and made somebody read out from the page clipped to a
writing board. Remington typewriters became almost synonymous with the machine though
in many parts of the country, Godrej and Boyce ruled the world of typewriters.

Evenings were particularly busy for these typing schools and their students. Some
youngsters even added shorthand to their skills with the typewriter, thus preparing for a life
of dictation.

Till around 20 years ago, the typewriters were almost ubiquitous. They could be
found outside all courts, they could be seen behind police stations. The typists sat under a
tree outside municipal office ready to type out affidavits, birth, marriage and death
certificate. Some had proper shops in the heart of the city and thought nothing of asking
future civil servants to wait in a queue. Others actually took copiously written notes from
students in the evening and transformed them into neatly typed A-4 sheets by morning. And
yes, in those days of pre-computers, all newspapers insisted on receiving neatly typed

48
articles from freelancers. Considering typewriters were seen as a public amenity, few
families had one to be proud of. That effectively meant that the typists at these shops often
got to read the next morning’s op-ed before the editor!

All that is but gone now. For many years, the sound of the keys of typewriters has
gone dead, replaced by the more gentle sound of a computer. Now laptops too have made
an entry in the market once monopolized by typewriters.

Some old-timers, contrary to common perception, still hold on to the good old
typing machines. Their business has nosedived but they sit glued to their machine next to
young men with computers outside courts and police stations. Some set shop outside
government offices, ready to type out elaborate documents for a measly sum.

1. What is meant by ‘the sound of the keys of typewriters has gone dead’- as mentioned in
the passage?

01. The typewriters are inefficient machines.

02. The people using typewriters are dead.

03. No one knows how to operate a typewriter.

04. The typewriters are not being used as before.

05. Not clarified in the passage

2. Which of the following revealed that the typewriter has good typing skills?

01. Personality and qualification

02. Speed and background

03. Speed and accuracy

04. Qualification and speed

05. Qualification and speed

3. In what context has the author mentioned Godrej and Boyce?

01. To mention the new age computer brands

49
02. To mention the popular brands of typewriters

03. To mention the ink used in typewriters

04. The people who invented typewriters

05. Not mentioned in the passage

4. Why did the newspapers insist on receiving neatly typed articles from freelancers?

01. That left a good impression on the readers.

02. The handwriting made the article all the more interesting.

03. The freelancers were hard to find, in that time.

04. To ensure that there is no ambiguity.

05. Not mentioned in the passage

5. According to the passage, on which of the following places, can one still find typewriters?

A. Courts

B. Outside government offices

C. Libraries

D. Police stations

01. Only A

02. Only B and C

03. Only C and D

04. All except C

05. All of the above

6. Which of the following is/are TRUE in the context of the passage?

A. Remington typewriters were quite famous.

50
B. The typewriters could be easily spotted 20 years ago.

C. Birth, marriage and death certificates were typed on typewriters.

01. Only A

02. Only B

03. Only C

04. Only A and C

05. All of the above

7. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold
as used in the passage.

Nosedived

01. Reduced

02. Started

03. Covered

04. Flourished

05. Left

8. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold
as used in the passage.

Fastidious

01. Cantankerous

02. Meticulous

03. Ugly

04. Feeble

05. Lazy

51
9. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in
bold as used in the passage.

Ubiquitous

01. Household

02. General

03. Demanded

04. Rare

05. Expensive

10. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in
bold as used in the passage.

Contrary

01. Hostile

02. Legal

03. Monotonous

04. Absurdity

05. Similar

Answers

Q1. (4)

Q2. (3)

Q3. (2)

Q4. (4)

Q5. (4)

Q6. (5)

Q7. (1)

52
Q8. (2)

Q9. (4)

Q10. (5)

===================================================================

English Language Test 1


1. The police asked us (A)/ about our movement (B)/ on a night of the crime (C)/No Error (D)

2. Neither (A) of the two candidates (B)/ are sure to pass (C)/No Error (D)

3. He said (A)/ that he can’t do (B)/ anything for her and her family (C)/No Error (D)

4. Besides my brother (A)/ many other (B)/ were present (C)/No Error (D)

5. I dreamed of a society (A)/ where everyone (B)/ were equal (C)/No Error (D)

6. We discussed about the problem (A)/ thoroughly and found (B)/ it very easy to work it out
(C)/No Error (D)

7. If I was he (A)/ I would not accept (B)/ this offer (C)/No Error (D)

8. Puneet and Shashank are still (A)/ working but their brother (B)/ don't like to work. (C)/ No
error (D)

9. Being a holiday (A)/ they went out (B)/ for a picnic (C)/No Error (D)

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10. Hemant is anxious not only (A)/ to acquire knowledge (B)/ but also eager to display it
(C)/No Error (D)

Answers
Q1. (3)

Q2. (3)

Q3. (2)

Q4. (2)

Q5. (3)

Q6. (1)

Q7. (1)

Q8. (3)

Q9. (1)

Q10. (1)

===================================================================

Test Your Vocabulary 1


1. FIND THE ANTONYM OF FLABBERGAST

(A) Surprise

(B) Amaze

(C) Calm

(D) Astonished

2. FIND THE ANTONYM OF STAGGER

(A) Walk

(B) Stay

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(C) Careen

(D) Falter

3. FIND THE ANTONYM OF INSOLENT

(A) Modest

(B) Bold

(C) Abusive

(D) Arrogant

4. FIND THE ANTONYM OF POMPOUS

(A) Arrogant

(B) Boastful

(C) Grandiose

(D) Kind

5. FIND THE ANTONYM OF DECEITFUL

(A) Dishonest

(B) Actual

(C) Artful

(D) Deceptive

6. FIND THE ANTONYM OF DIFFIDENCE

(A) Hesitancy

(B) Boldness

(C) Backwardness

(D) Doubt

55
7. FIND THE ANTONYM OF DOCILITY

(A) Agreement

(B) Refusal

(C) Conformity

(D) Consent

8. FIND THE ANTONYM OF AMATEUR

(A) Participant

(B) Expert

(C) Aspirants

(D) Beginner

9. FIND THE ANTONYM OF PROPAGATE

(A) Breed

(B) Deplete

(C) Inseminate

(D) Multiply

10. FIND THE ANTONYM OF DWINDLE

(A) Waste

(B) Develop

(C) Abate

(D) Decay

Answers
1. (C) Calm

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2. (B) Stay

3. (A) Modest

4. (D) Kind

5. (B) Actual

6. (B) Boldness

7. (B) Refusal

8. (B) Expert

9. (B) Deplete

10. (B) Develop

===================================================================

English Language Quiz 2


In each question below a sentence with four words printed in bold type is given.
These are numbered (1),(2),(3) and (4) . One of these four words printed in bold may be
either wrongly spelt or inappropriate in context of the sentence. Find out the word which is
wrongly spelt or inappropriate if any. The number of that word is your answer. If all the
words printed in bold are correctly spelt & also appropriate in the context of the sentence,
mark (5) "All correct" as your answer.

1. People who try to stay away from smoking often take to e-cigarettes as the battery-power
devices contain nicotine instead of tobacco and are therefore meant to simulate the feeling of
smoking a regular cigarette. All correct

01. stay away

02. battery-power

03. meant

04. simulate

05. All correct

57
2. The police and district administration should choke out measures to curb mishaps and
ensure that the road safety council is active in monitoring work related to road safety. All
correct

01. choke out

02. mishaps

03. ensure

04. monitoring

05. All correct

3. Indians consider knee pain as a normal part of the ageing process and it is this mindset that
aggravates the problem to the extent of making them physically inactive and vulnerability to
other lifestyle diseases. All correct

01. knee pain

02. ageing

03. aggravates

04. vulnerability

05. All correct

4. Due to the absence of drinking water taps and provision for clean water distribution, people
end up buying water sachets and bottles, many of which may be either contaminated,
spurious or not properly packaged. All correct

01. absence

02. provision

03. water sachets

04. spurious

05. All correct

58
5. With the launch of living classes, the teacher crisis problem in polytechnic and engineering
colleges has also been lessened as students can directly interact with the teacher at the studio
even if they are not present in their respective classrooms.All correct

01. living

02. lessened

03. interact

04. respective

05. All correct

Read each part of the sentence to find out if there is any error in it. The error, if any, will be
in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is no error, mark
your answer as (5).

6. In the old days, (1)/ conglomerates would be justified on grounds (2)/ that differentiate
businesses go through different cycles (3)/ and so the combination reduces volatility in
performance. (4)/ No error (5)

7. A bank in India (1)/ wants to give an award (2)/ to the residents on a street (3)/ where there
is no garbage dumped on the sidewalk. (4)/ No error (5)

8. The mutual fund industry is experiencing a boom, (1)/ with investors pouring into resources
(2)/ to expand the assets (3)/ it manages. (4)/ No error (5)

9. The government’s low-cost housing schemes, (1)/ if carried out on a large scale, (2)/ can
give a fillip (3)/ to a number of related industries. (4)/ No error (5)

10. The government’s so-called voluntary compliance scheme (1)/ offered to those with
undisclosed assets overseas (2)/ to come clean has produced a whimper rather than (3)/ the
bang political rhetoric had made it out to be. (4)/ No error (5)

59
Answers
Q1. (2)

Q2. (1)

Q3. (4)

Q4. (5)

Q5. (1)

Q6. (3)

Q7. (3)

Q8. (2)

Q9. (5)

Q10. (5)

===================================================================

Computer Knowledge
Q.1 The smallest unit in a digital system is_______________.
(1) byte

(2) kilobyte

(3) word

(4) bit

(5) nibble

Q.1 एि डडजजटर प्रणार भें सफसे छोट इिाई ------होती है ।

(1) फाइट

(2) किरोफाइट

(3) शब्द

(4) बफट

60
(5) ननफर

Q.2 Which type of memory improves processing by acting as a temporary high-


speed holding area between the memory and the CPU?
(1) RAM

(2) ROM

(3) Cache memory

(4) Flash memory

(5) PROM

Q.2 किस प्रिाय िी स्क्भनृ त, भेभोय औय CPU िे फीच एि अस्क्थामी उच्च गनत होजल्डींग ऺेत्र िे
रूऩ भें िामक ियिे प्रोसेलसींग िो सध
ु ायती है ?

(1) यै भ

(2) योभ

(3) िैश भैभोय

(4) फ्रैश भेभोय

(5) ऩी योभ

Q.3 PHP programming language most often used to create -----------.


(1) Web scripts

(2) Mobile apps

(3) Desktop application

(4) Window batch files

(5) Servlet program

61
Q.3 PHP प्रोग्रालभींग बाषा प्राम् ........... फनाने िे लरए प्रमोग ियते हैं।

(1) वेफ जस्क्रप्ट

(2) भोफाइर एप्स

(3) डेस्क्िटॉऩ एजप्रिेशन

(4) ववींडो फैच पाइर

(5) सवकरेट प्रोग्राभ

Q.4 Which of the following example of Cache Memory?


(1) Virtual Memory

(2) SRAM

(3) Non Volatile Memory

(4) Secondary Memory

(5) None of these

Q.4 िैशे भेभोय , ननम्न भें से किसिा उदाहयण है?

(1) वचअ
ुक र भेभोय

(2) SRAM

(3) नॉन वोरेटाइर भेभोय

(4) सेिेन्डय भेभोय

(5) इनभें से िोई नह ीं

Q.5 Android Operating system is an example of which kind of Source Model?


(1) Open Source

(2) Vertical Market Software

62
(3) Horizontal Market Software

(4) Shareware

(5) None of these

Q.5 एन्ड्रॉमड आऩये टटींग लसस्क्टभ, किस प्रिाय िे सोसक भॉडर िा प्रिाय है?

(1) ओऩन सोसक

(2) वटटक िर भािेट सॉफ्टवेमय

(3) हारयजेन्टर भािेट सॉफ्टवेमय

(4) शेमयवेमय

(5) इनभें से िोई नह ीं

Q.6 The megabyte is actually equal to ________________kilo bytes.


(1) 100

(2) 1000

(3) 1024

(4) 1024*1024

(5) 100000

Q.6 एि भेगाफाइट वास्क्तव भें -------किरो फाइट िे फयाफय होता है ।

(1) 100

(2) 1000

(3) 1024

(4) 1024*1024

(5) 100000

Q.7 Which of the below media types hold the most information?

63
(1) Blu-ray

(2) CD

(3) DVD

(4) Floppy diskette

(5) Pen drive

Q.7 ननम्न भें से िौन सा भीडडमा प्रिाय सफसे अधधि जानिाय धारयत िय सिता है?

(1) ब्र-ू ये

(2) सीडी

(3) डीवीडी

(4) फ्रॉऩी डडस्क्िेट

(5) ऩेन ड्राइव

Q.8 What is XML short for?


(1) eXtensive Markup Language

(2) eXtensive Markup List

(3) eXtension Markup List

(4) eXtensible Markup Language

(5) Xtension Markup Language

Q.8 XML किसिा सींक्षऺप्त रूऩ है?

(1) eXtensive Markup Language

(2) eXtensive Markup List

(3) eXtension Markup List

(4) eXtensible Markup Language

64
(5) Xtension Markup Language

Q.9 Operating system, editors, and debuggers comes under?


(1) System Software

(2) Application Software

(3) Utilities

(4) Firmware

(5) All of the above

Q.9 ऑऩये टटींग लसस्क्टभ, एडडटय, औय डडफगय ----- िे तहत आता है ।

(1) लसस्क्टभ सॉफ्टवेमय

(2) एप्र िेशन सॉफ्टवेमय

(3) मटू टलरट ज

(4) पभकवेमय

(5) उऩयोक्त सबी

Q.10 Which of the following is a disadvantage of machine language?


(1) Machine Dependent

(2) Slower Execution

(3) Machine Independent

(4) It requires Translation

(5) None of these

Q.10 ननम्न भें से िौन भशीनी बाषा िी हानन है?

(1) भशीन डडऩेनडेन्ट

65
(2) धीभी एजक्जक्मश
ू न

(3) भशीन इनडडऩेनडेन्ट

(4) इसे राींसरेशन िी जरूयत होती है

(5) इनभें से िोई नह ीं

Answers
Q.1 (4)

Q.2 (3)

Q.3 (1)

Q.4 (2)

Q.5 (1)

Q.6 (3)

Q.7 (1)

Q.8 (4)

Q.9 (3)

Q.10 (1)

===================================================================

English Language Quiz 3


Q1-5. In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These
numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words have been suggested,
one of which fits the blanks appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

(1) a few more schools or allowing hundreds of colleges and private universities to
mushroom is not going to solve the crisis of education in India. And a crisis it is – we are in a
country where people are spending their parent’s life savings and (2) money on education –
and even then not getting standard education, and struggling to (3) employment of their

66
choice. In this country, millions of students are (4) of an unrealistic, pointless, mindless rat
race. The mind numbing competition and rote learning do not only (5) the creativity and
originality of millions of Indian students every year, it also drives brilliant students to
commit suicide.

Q1. Choose the correct option for (1)

1. analysing

2. managing

3. creating

4. propagating

5. generate

Q2. Choose the correct option for (2)

1. borrowed

2. black

3. amount

4. deposited

5. subsidized

Q3. Choose the correct option for (3)

1. hire

2. find

3. give

4. taking

5. pursue

Q4. Choose the correct option for (4)

1. reason

67
2. culprit

3. consequences

4. victim

5. leaders

Q5. Choose the correct option for (5)

1. crush

2. dearth

3. expose

4. proclaim

5. secrete

Q6-10. Rearrange the following sentences (A),(B),(C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence
to form a meaningful paragraph, then answer the questions given below them.

A. Over the last two decades, SEBI has identified and found solutions to curb various
malpractices in the Indian equity market.

B. There is no doubt that SEBI-FMC merger will bring about a radical change in the manner in
which the commodity derivative market is run.

C. Broad-basing participation in commodity derivatives by including foreign and domestic


institutional investors and introducing options are other changes likely to be ushered in soon.

D. From a lax regulatory regime that allowed some exchanges and intermediaries to flout
prudential norms, thus compromising investor interests, stakeholders will now come under
stringent surveillance.

68
E. This experience will be handy in gauging the special needs and loopholes in commodity
trading.

F. There is likely to be more action in this area in the days to come as the equity exchanges,
the BSE and the NSE, are gearing up to start commodity trading platforms.

Q6. Which of the following would be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?

1. C

2. E

3. A

4. B

5. F

Q7. Which of the following would be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?

1. B

2. F

3. C

4. E

5. A

Q8. Which of the following would be the FIFTH sentence after rearrangement?

1. E

2. A

3. F

4. B

5. D

69
Q9. Which of the following would be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?

1. D

2. A

3. E

4. C

5. B

Q10. Which of the following would be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?

1. D

2. C

3. A

4. E

5. B

Answers
Q1. (3)

Q2. (1)

Q3. (2)

Q4. (4)

Q5. (1)

Q6. (4)

Q7. (5)

Q8. (3)

Q9. (1)

Q10. (4)

===================================================================

70
English Language Test 2
Q1-10. Read the sentence to find out whether there is any error in it. The error, if
any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If
there is no error, the answer is (d). Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.

Q1. The promoters of Fortis Healthcare (a)/ has resigned from the (b)/ board on Thursday. (c)/
No error (d)

Q2. The move follow the Delhi High Court (a)/ order upholding the (b)/ Rs 3,500 crore arbitral
award. (c)/ No error (d)

Q3. Further investigation (a)/ in the case (b)/ are underway. (c)/ No error (d)

Q4. The Board has decided to (a)/ discuss the matter in the detail (b)/ at its meeting
scheduled. (c)/ No error (d)

Q5. The resignation (a)/ letter was (b)/ circulating to the Board. (c)/ No error (d)

Q6. Carrying a phone (a)/ is prohibited (b)/ inside to the premises. (c)/ No error (d)

Q7. He was produced before the Delhi court, (a)/ which remanded him in (b)/ police custody
for five days. (c)/ No error (d)

Q8. He befriends them (a)/ on Facebook around (b)/ three months ago. (c)/ No error (d)

Q9. They exchanged their (a)/ phone numbers and (b)/ started chat on WhatsApp. (c)/ No
error (d)

71
Q10. His cell phone was recovered, and send to (a)/ the Central Forensic (b)/ Science
Laboratory. (c)/ No error (d)

Answers
Q.1- (b) Use ‘resigned’ instead of ‘has resigned’

Q.2 - (a) Use ‘follows’ instead of ‘follow’

Q.3 - (c) Use ‘is’ instead of ‘are’

Q.4 - (b) Use ‘in detail’ instead of ‘in the detail’

Q.5 - (c) Use ‘circulated’ instead of ‘circulating’

Q.6 - (c) Remove ‘to’

Q.7- (d) No error

Q.8 - (a) Use ‘befriended’ instead of ‘befriends’

Q.9 - (c) Use ‘chatting’ instead of ‘chat’

Q.10 -(a) Use ‘sent’ instead of ‘send’

===================================================================

Test Your Vocabulary 2


Q1. FIND THE ANTONYM OF BESMIRCH

(A) Taint

(B) Blacken

(C) Praise

(D) Defile

Q2. FIND THE ANTONYM OF SMEAR

(A) Collect

(B) Rub

(C) Blur

72
(D) Coat

Q3. FIND THE ANTONYM OF SPONGY

(A) Inflexible

(B) Cushioned

(C) Mushy

(D) Porous

Q4. FIND THE ANTONYM OF CRIBRIFORM

(A) Hard

(B) Absorbent

(C) Rubbery

(D) Soft

Q5. FIND THE ANTONYM OF APPAL

(A) Horrify

(B) Encourage

(C) Alarm

(D) Amaze

Q6. FIND THE ANTONYM OF ASTOUND

(A) Amaze

(B) Clarify

(C) Astonish

(D) Bewilder

73
Q7. FIND THE ANTONYM OF EXALTED

(A) Praised

(B) Elevated

(C) Illustrious

(D) Subordinate

Q8. FIND THE ANTONYM OF ABANDON

(A) Careless

(B) Spontaneity

(C) Disregard

(D) Restraint

Q9. FIND THE ANTONYM OF BOREDOM

(A) Disinterest

(B) Energy

(C) Apathy

(D) Disgust

Q10. FIND THE ANTONYM OF STUPEFY

(A) Stun

(B) Benumb

(C) Daze

(D) Inspire

Answers
Q1. (C) Praise

Q2. (A) Collect

74
Q3. (A) Inflexible

Q4. (A) Hard

Q5. (B) Encourage

Q6. (B) Clarify

Q7. (D) Subordinate

Q8. (D) Restraint

Q9. (B) Energy

Q10. (D) Inspire

===================================================================

GURU PURNIMA
Guru Purnima is a festival celebrated by the Hindus, Jains and Buddhists every year in
the month of June-July as per the Gregorian calendar. Guru Purnima is celebrated with
reverence to the spiritual and academic gurus or teachers who dedicate their lives for the
benefit of others. The festival is observed in Nepal and also in some Buddhist dominant
countries.

GURU PURNIMA 2019

The festival of Guru Purnima this year will be celebrated on 16th July 2019, Tuesday.

WHEN IS GURU PURNIMA CELEBRATED?

Guru Purnima is celebrated in the Hindu calendar month of Ashadha, on the full moon day
(Purnima). The festival coincides with the Gregorian calendar months of June-July.

Nomenclature

The word “Guru” is a combination of two words “Gu” and “Ru”. “Gu” is a Sanskrit word which
means darkness and “ru” refers to someone who removes darkness. The word “Guru”
therefore refers to someone who removes darkness or ignorance from life i.e. an academic or
spiritual teacher. Therefore, the festival of reverence of Gurus which is celebrated on a full
moon day (poornima) is known as “Guru Purnima”.

WHY IS GURU PURNIMA CELEBRATED?

Gurus enjoy a special status in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain cultures. These religions/cultures have
many spiritual and academic gurus who are revered as equivalent to God. Some of the

75
important Hindu Gurus were – Swami Abhedananda (1866-1939), Adi Shankara (c.788-820),
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 – 5134) etc. These are only a few names among thousand Gurus
who served the people as spiritual and academic gurus; providing enlightenment and
knowledge. The festival of “Guru Purnima” is celebrated to express gratitude towards the
gurus.

It is believed that parents could give birth to a child and feed him, but only a guru can
recognize his/her talents and tune it. Buddhists celebrate Guru Purnima to commemorate the
day when Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath.

HISTORY/LEGEND OF GURU PURNIMA

There are many legends associated with the celebration of Guru Purnima. Buddhists believe
that Lord Buddha gave his first sermon on a full moon day at Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh,
Varanasi. Hindus believe that on this day Shiva taught yoga to the saptrishis. The saptrishis
are mentioned in many ancient Hindu texts like – Upnishads and Vedas; suggesting the
ancientness of “Guru Purnima” festival.

Hindu Legend

Hindus believe that Shiva became the first teacher or adi guru by teaching yoga to the
saptrishis. The story dates back to nearly 15000 years ago when a mysterious yogi appeared in

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the upper ranges of Himalayas. His mystical appearance attracted the curiosity of people, who
started gathering around him. But the yogi showed no sign of life except occasional tears
rolling down from his cheeks. Gradually people started moving away from him, but a seven of
them remained as they were too curious to know the truth.

In the due course of time the yogi opened his eyes, and the seven men pleaded to him that
they too want to have the same experience as him. Initially the yogi relented but later gave
them a few preparatory steps and went back in meditation.

The seven men started preparing as per the instruction of the Yogi. Meanwhile years passed
by, but the attention of the yogi didn’t return on the men. After a span of 84 long years the
yogi opened his eyes on the summer solstice that marks the beginning of Dakshinayana and
realized that the seven men were shining bright with wisdom. Impressed, the yogi could not
ignore them and turned south on the next full moon for teaching the seven men. Thus, Lord
Shiva became the first Adi Guru on a full moon day in Ashadha month.

Another legend associates “Guru Purnima” with the birth of Veda Vyasa, the author of
Mahabharata and also the one who classified Vedas. Hindus believe that Veda Vyasa was born
on the day of Guru Purnima and also as the day when he divided Vedas. For this reason the
festival is also called “Vyasa Purnima”.

Buddhist Legend

Before Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment, he was referred to as “Gautama”. Gautama


became Gautam Buddha under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya; where he gained enlightenment.
He started his journey to Sarnath, where his five companions had gone before he gained
enlightenment. Through his spiritual powers he knew that his five companions could be easily
enlightened on the path of dharma. Buddha is believed to have given his first sermon to his
five companions at Sarnath on a full moon day in the month of Ashadha. The same day is
celebrated as “Guru Purnima”.

Jainism Legend

According to the Jain religion, Lord Mahavira who was 24th Tirthankara made Indrabhuti
Gautam his first disciple, thereby himself becoming Trinok Guha or the first Guru. In Jain
traditions it is also called as “Trinok Guha Purnima”.

HOW IS GURU PURNIMA CELEBRATED?

The festival of Guru Purnima is majorly a spiritual festival rather than displaying pomp and
show. Major events of the day include reverence of spiritual masters and academic gurus;
thanking them for sharing their wisdom with others and enlightening them. People thank their

77
academic teachers and also remember past teachers and spiritual gurus. Hindu spiritual gurus
and yogis observe the day by worshipping their gurus and sharing wisdom with others.

Many Hindu temples organize Vyasa Puja on Guru Purnima in reverence to rishi Ved Vyasa
followed by distribution of Prasad to the disciples.

In Jain temples “Treenok Guhas” are revered and their teachings remembered. It is believed
that it was on the day of Guru Purnima that lord Mahavira made his first disciple. In Jainism
the term Trinok Guha is a reference to a guru or teacher. Jains also mark the festival as the
advent of four months of rain and retreat of Jains monks.

Many educational institutions organize events for the commemoration of spiritual gurus as
well as the academic teachers. The past teachers are remembered and the present ones
felicitated. Students give gifts to their favorite teachers as a token of their respect and love.

In Nepal the day of Guru Purnima is observed as Teacher’s Day. Fares are organized in schools
and students commemorate their teachers. It is also an opportunity for the students and
teachers to interact with each other.

SIGNIFICANCE OF GURU PURNIMA

In Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religions, gurus are revered equivalent to the Gods. They are
believed to be the ones who remove darkness by sharing their wisdom and knowledge. It is a
festival to felicitate your teachers and also to remember the past spiritual and academic gurus.

Guru Purnima reflects the status which gurus enjoy in Indian religions and cultures. Some
cultures even place Gurus above Gods and believe that one should thank his/her Guru first
before worshiping God.

Various legends associated with Guru Purnima implies the fact that even the revered Gods
have evolved from being the Gurus first – Shiva, Ved Vyas, Gautam Buddha and Mahavira, all
were gurus before they achieved the status of God.

MODERN/ANCIENT CELEBRATIONS

In ancient days Guru Purnima was mainly observed as a spiritual festival. Spiritual gurus like
Lord Mahavira and Ved Vyas were revered by reciting hymns and sermons. Temples were
decorated and idols of gurus placed appropriately, surrounded by worshipping disciples.
Though the custom is still followed at many places, the fervor has taken a beating due to
modernization and busy schedules. Today less people go to the temples on Guru Purnima and
it has shrunk to be a festival of mainly Sadhus and Sanyasis.

78
These days, mainly Jain and Buddhist temples celebrate Guru Purnima in reverence to Lord
Mahavira and Gautam Buddha respectively. However, some Hindu temples do organize
worship or hymn recital functions.

Initially schools and colleges were celebrating Guru Purnima with much pomp and show, but
today the celebration has reduced to a small event marking secluded worships and reverence
of the gurus. Students in modern days also felicitate their teacher by giving gifts and other
articles.

===================================================================

WHEN ART ATTACKS


POST: 350
Great art can move us to tears, inspire us, and its beauty can take our breath away.

For some people though, a trip to the art gallery is like experiencing a physical attack. This
condition even has a name: Stendhal Syndrome.

Sufferers cannot view art they perceive as beautiful without falling ill. Exposure to art they
enjoy triggers a rapid heartbeat and overwhelming dizziness. This often leads to panic attacks
and fainting.

Confusion, temporary amnesia, and paranoia are also common in Stendhal Syndrome
sufferers. In rare cases, the sufferer experiences hallucinations and temporary madness.

It does not seem to be limited to art. A setting sun, waves crashing in on the shore, or a high
and lonely mountain range can all induce the condition.

Thankfully the effects are short-lived and sufferers do not need medical help.

The condition was named after 19th-century French author Henri-Marie Beyl. His pen name
was ‘Stendhal’.

At the age of 34, in 1817, Stendhal visited Florence’s Santa Croce Cathedral. It was the first
time he had seen Giotto’s famous ceiling frescoes.

He recalled, “Everything spoke so vividly to my soul. I had palpitations of the heart. Life was
drained from me. I walked with the fear of falling.”

After Stendhal went public with his experiences other cases were reported. People used to call
the condition ‘Art Disease’ or ‘Tourist’s Disease.’

79
In 1979 Dr. Graziella Magherini coined the term ‘Stendhal Syndrome’. She used it to describe
the symptoms of many visitors to Florence. These tourists would suffer panic attacks and
bouts of madness after viewing famous paintings or sculptures.

Neurosurgeons have argued that novelists Fyodor Dostoevsky and Marcel Proust also suffered
from Stendhal Syndrome.

During a visit to Basel Museum, Dostoevsky suffered textbook Stendhal Syndrome symptoms.
His second wife, Anna, explained her husband seemed out of sorts when looking at the
painting by Hans Holbein called Dead Christ. The image portrayed Christ after he had been
taken down from the cross. Like a deer caught in the headlights, Dostoevsky was
overwhelmed by it.

He stood in front of the great work of art, ‘nailed to the spot’, for over 20 minutes. His wife
described a look of great agitation and fear upon his face. Eventually, she took the
disorientated Dostoevsky by the arm and led him away. He slowly calmed down, but insisted
upon seeing the painting one last time before he left.

Great works of art affect us profoundly. Some, it would seem, more than others.

Einstein once said, “Art is standing with one hand extended into the universe and one hand
extended into the world and letting ourselves be a conduit for passing energy.”

============================================================================

VOCABULARY
take one’s breath away

cause someone to react with amazement due to beauty, surprise, or excitement

fall ill

become sick

pen name

a name a writer uses in place of his or her real name

go public

80
to tell everyone something that was previously private

coin

to create a new word or phrase

textbook

typical or usual for a given situation

out of sorts

not acting the one normally acts; unwell

like a deer caught in the headlights

so surprised or scared that one cannot move or think

nailed to the spot

unable to move

===================================================================

audio file
https://t.me/englishworld2020/23896

81
NO NEWS IS GOOD NEWS?
post: 351
Donald Trump was elected president of the United States on Nov. 8th, 2016. This was earth-
shattering news to half the country. For former Nike executive Erik Hagerman, it was the straw
that broke the camel’s back. Not liking the direction the country was going, he turned his back
on the news and hasn’t looked back since.

He started out thinking he was just taking a temporary break from the news as a way to
preserve his sanity, but it quickly became a lifestyle choice.

Hagerman questioned the value of being a news junkie following politics and events that were
outside of his control. He said, “I had been paying attention to the news for decades, and I
never did anything with it.”

Choosing a life of willful ignorance isn’t easy. Despite living alone in rural Ohio, he must be
very careful. He watches basketball with the sound turned off just in case a sports
commentator might mention some non-sports related news. He uses headphones to listen to
white noise in coffee shops to prevent him from overhearing people talking about current
events. All of his friends, family and even the staff at the coffee shop he visits daily know
about his strict no news rules. They are all prohibited from telling him anything about what is
happening in the world. He calls his unique lifestyle choice, The Blockade.

News of Hagerman sticking his head in the sand has ruffled some feathers. Some believe that
we have a responsibility to be informed about what is happening in the world. A writer for
website Mashable even called him the most selfish man in America. He writes, “If everyone
did what Hagerman did, there would be no United States. There would be no democracy.
There would be no forward progress or people helping others in times of need. There would
be nothing but complacency in the suffering and exploitation of others.”

Even Hagerman had some misgivings about his blockade in the beginning. He said, “It makes
me a crappy citizen.” Yet, Hagerman does believe in contributing to society. In addition to

82
being an artist, he has purchased 45 acres of land, which was formerly a coal mine. He plans to
restore and protect the land and donate it to the public.

According to a New York Times article dated March 10th 2018, Hagerman has spent more
than a year completely shutting himself off from all news. At that time, he said he was
emotionally healthier than he had ever been. While there has been no new news on
Hagerman’s blockade, he may very well still be living in a news-free universe.

==========================================================================

VOCABULARY
earth-shattering

shocking; extreme

the straw that broke the camel’s back

the final event in a series of events that causes a person to take a major action or make a big
decision

turn one’s back on

to ignore or reject

news junkie

a person who is addicted to news and information

white noise

a kind of sound used to hide background noises

stick one’s head in the sand

to ignore events or situations even though they have an influence on the one ignoring them

83
ruffle some feathers

upset or annoy people

===================================================================

audio file
https://t.me/englishworld2020/23895

84
NO. ACTIVE VOICE
1 The crab changes its shell on the sea-shore.
2 The crab changed its shell on the sea-shore.
3 The crab will change its shell on the sea-shore.
4 The crab is changing its shell on the sea-shore.
5 The crab was changing its shell on the sea-shore.
6 The crab will be changing its shell on the sea-shore.
7 The crab has changed its shell on the sea-shore.
8 The crab had changed its shell on the sea-shore.
9 The crab will have changed its shell on the sea-shore.
10 The crab has been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
11 The crab had been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
12 The crab will have been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
13 The crab does not change its shell on the sea-shore.
14 The crab did not change its shell on the sea-shore.
15 The crab will not change its shell on the sea-shore.
16 The crab is not changing its shell on the sea-shore.
17 The crab was not changing its shell on the sea-shore.
18 The crab will not be changing its shell on the sea-shore.
19 The crab has not changed its shell on the sea-shore.
20 The crab had not changed its shell on the sea-shore.
21 The crab will not have changed its shell on the sea-shore.
22 The crab has not been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
23 The crab had not been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
24 The crab will not have been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
25 The crab doesn't change its shell on the sea-shore.
26 The crab didn't change its shell on the sea-shore.
27 The crab won't change its shell on the sea-shore.
28 The crab isn't changing its shell on the sea-shore.
29 The crab wasn't changing its shell on the sea-shore.
30 The crab won't be changing its shell on the sea-shore.
31 The crab hasn't changed its shell on the sea-shore.
32 The crab hadn't changed its shell on the sea-shore.
33 The crab won't have changed its shell on the sea-shore.
34 The crab hasn't been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
35 The crab hadn't been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
36 The crab won't have been changing its shell on the sea-shore.
37 Does the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
38 Did the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
39 Will the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
40 Is the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
41 Was the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
42 Will the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
43 Has the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
44 Had the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
45 Will the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
46 Has the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
47 Had the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?

85
48 Will the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
49 Does the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
50 Did the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
51 Will the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
52 Is the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
53 Was the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
54 Will the crab not be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
55 Has the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
56 Had the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
57 Will the crab not have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
58 Has the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
59 Had the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
60 Will the crab not have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
61 Doesn't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
62 Didn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
63 Won't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
64 Isn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
65 Wasn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
66 Won't the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
67 Hasn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
68 Hadn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
69 Won't the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
70 Hasn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
71 Hadn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
72 Won't the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
73 Who changes its shell on the sea-shore ?
74 Who changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
75 Who will change its shell on the sea-shore ?
76 Who is changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
77 Who was changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
78 Who will be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
79 Who has changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
80 Who had changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
81 Who will have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
82 Who has been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
83 Who had been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
84 Who will have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
85 Who does not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
86 Who did not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
87 Who will not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
88 Who is not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
89 Who was not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
90 Who will not be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
91 Who has not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
92 Who had not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
93 Who will not have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
94 Who has not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
95 Who had not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
96 Who will not have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?

86
97 Who doesn't change its shell on the sea-shore ?
98 Who didn't change its shell on the sea-shore ?
99 Who won't change its shell on the sea-shore ?
100 Who isn't changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
101 Who wasn't changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
102 Who won't be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
103 Who hasn't changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
104 Who hadn't changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
105 Who won't have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
106 Who hasn't been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
107 Who hadn't been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
108 Who won't have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
109 What does the crab change on the sea-shore ?
110 What did the crab changed on the sea-shore ?
111 What will the crab change on the sea-shore ?
112 What is the crab changing on the sea-shore ?
113 What was the crab changing on the sea-shore ?
114 What will the crab be changing on the sea-shore ?
115 What has the crab changed on the sea-shore ?
116 What had the crab changed on the sea-shore ?
117 What will the crab have changed on the sea-shore ?
118 What has the crab been changing on the sea-shore ?
119 What had the crab been changing on the sea-shore ?
120 What will the crab have been changing on the sea-shore ?
121 What does the crab not change on the sea-shore ?
122 What did the crab not changed on the sea-shore ?
123 What will the crab not change on the sea-shore ?
124 What is the crab not changing on the sea-shore ?
125 What was the crab not changing on the sea-shore ?
126 What will the crab not be changing on the sea-shore ?
127 What has the crab not changed on the sea-shore ?
128 What had the crab not changed on the sea-shore ?
129 What will the crab not have changed on the sea-shore ?
130 What has the crab not been changing on the sea-shore ?
131 What had the crab not been changing on the sea-shore ?
132 What will the crab not have been changing on the sea-shore ?
133 What doesn't the crab change on the sea-shore ?
134 What didn't the crab changed on the sea-shore ?
135 What won't the crab change on the sea-shore ?
136 What isn't the crab changing on the sea-shore ?
137 What wasn't the crab changing on the sea-shore ?
138 What won't the crab be changing on the sea-shore ?
139 What hasn't the crab changed on the sea-shore ?
140 What hadn't the crab changed on the sea-shore ?
141 What won't the crab have changed on the sea-shore ?
142 What hasn't the crab been changing on the sea-shore ?
143 What hadn't the crab been changing on the sea-shore ?
144 What won't the crab have been changing on the sea-shore ?
145 Where does the crab change its shell ?

87
146 Where did the crab changed its shell ?
147 Where will the crab change its shell ?
148 Where is the crab changing its shell ?
149 Where was the crab changing its shell ?
150 Where will the crab be changing its shell ?
151 Where has the crab changed its shell ?
152 Where had the crab changed its shell ?
153 Where will the crab have changed its shell ?
154 Where has the crab been changing its shell ?
155 Where had the crab been changing its shell ?
156 Where will the crab have been changing its shell ?
157 Where does the crab not change its shell ?
158 Where did the crab not changed its shell ?
159 Where will the crab not change its shell ?
160 Where is the crab not changing its shell ?
161 Where was the crab not changing its shell ?
162 Where will the crab not be changing its shell ?
163 Where has the crab not changed its shell ?
164 Where had the crab not changed its shell ?
165 Where will the crab not have changed its shell ?
166 Where has the crab not been changing its shell ?
167 Where had the crab not been changing its shell ?
168 Where will the crab not have been changing its shell ?
169 Where doesn't the crab change its shell ?
170 Where didn't the crab changed its shell ?
171 Where won't the crab change its shell ?
172 Where isn't the crab changing its shell ?
173 Where wasn't the crab changing its shell ?
174 Where won't the crab be changing its shell ?
175 Where hasn't the crab changed its shell ?
176 Where hadn't the crab changed its shell ?
177 Where won't the crab have changed its shell ?
178 Where hasn't the crab been changing its shell ?
179 Where hadn't the crab been changing its shell ?
180 Where won't the crab have been changing its shell ?
181 When does the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
182 When did the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
183 When will the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
184 When is the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
185 When was the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
186 When will the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
187 When has the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
188 When had the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
189 When will the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
190 When has the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
191 When had the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
192 When will the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
193 When does the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
194 When did the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?

88
195 When will the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
196 When is the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
197 When was the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
198 When will the crab not be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
199 When has the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
200 When had the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
201 When will the crab not have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
202 When has the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
203 When had the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
204 When will the crab not have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
205 When doesn't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
206 When didn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
207 When won't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
208 When isn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
209 When wasn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
210 When won't the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
211 When hasn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
212 When hadn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
213 When won't the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
214 When hasn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
215 When hadn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
216 When won't the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
217 Why does the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
218 Why did the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
219 Why will the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
220 Why is the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
221 Why was the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
222 Why will the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
223 Why has the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
224 Why had the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
225 Why will the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
226 Why has the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
227 Why had the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
228 Why will the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
229 Why does the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
230 Why did the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
231 Why will the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
232 Why is the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
233 Why was the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
234 Why will the crab not be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
235 Why has the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
236 Why had the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
237 Why will the crab not have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
238 Why has the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
239 Why had the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
240 Why will the crab not have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
241 Why doesn't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
242 Why didn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
243 Why won't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?

89
244 Why isn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
245 Why wasn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
246 Why won't the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
247 Why hasn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
248 Why hadn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
249 Why won't the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
250 Why hasn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
251 Why hadn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
252 Why won't the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
253 How does the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
254 How did the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
255 How will the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
256 How is the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
257 How was the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
258 How will the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
259 How has the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
260 How had the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
261 How will the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
262 How has the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
263 How had the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
264 How will the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
265 How does the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
266 How did the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
267 How will the crab not change its shell on the sea-shore ?
268 How is the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
269 How was the crab not changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
270 How will the crab not be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
271 How has the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
272 How had the crab not changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
273 How will the crab not have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
274 How has the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
275 How had the crab not been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
276 How will the crab not have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
277 How doesn't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
278 How didn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
279 How won't the crab change its shell on the sea-shore ?
280 How isn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
281 How wasn't the crab changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
282 How won't the crab be changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
283 How hasn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
284 How hadn't the crab changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
285 How won't the crab have changed its shell on the sea-shore ?
286 How hasn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
287 How hadn't the crab been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
288 How won't the crab have been changing its shell on the sea-shore ?
289 I go to school with my friends in the morning.
290 I went to school with my friends in the morning.
291 I shall go to school with my friends in the morning.
292 I am going to school with my friends in the morning.

90
293 I was going to school with my friends in the morning.
294 I shall be going to school with my friends in the morning.
295 I have gone to school with my friends in the morning.
296 I had gone to school with my friends in the morning.
297 I shall have gone to school with my friends in the morning.
298 I have been going to school with my friends in the morning.
299 I had been going to school with my friends in the morning.
300 I shall have been going to school with my friends in the morning.
301 I do not go to school with my friends in the morning.
302 I did not go to school with my friends in the morning.
303 I shall not go to school with my friends in the morning.
304 I am not going to school with my friends in the morning.
305 I was not going to school with my friends in the morning.
306 I shall not be going to school with my friends in the morning.
307 I have not gone to school with my friends in the morning.
308 I had not gone to school with my friends in the morning.
309 I shall not have gone to school with my friends in the morning.
310 I have not been going to school with my friends in the morning.
311 I had not been going to school with my friends in the morning.
312 I shall not have been going to school with my friends in the morning.
313 I don't go to school with my friends in the morning.
314 I didn't go to school with my friends in the morning.
315 I shan't go to school with my friends in the morning.
316 I am not going to school with my sister in the morning.
317 I wasn't going to school with my friends in the morning.
318 I shan't be going to school with my friends in the morning.
319 I haven't gone to school with my friends in the morning.
320 I hadn't gone to school with my friends in the morning.
321 I shan't have gone to school with my friends in the morning.
322 I haven't been going to school with my friends in the morning.
323 I hadn't been going to school with my friends in the morning.
324 I shan't have been going to school with my friends in the morning.
325 Do I go to school with my friends in the morning ?
326 Did I go to school with my friends in the morning ?
327 Shall I go to school with my friends in the morning ?
328 Am I going to school with my friends in the morning ?
329 Was I going to school with my friends in the morning ?
330 Shall I be going to school with my friends in the morning ?
331 Have I gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
332 Had I gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
333 Shall I have gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
334 Have I been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
335 Had I been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
336 Shall I have been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
337 Do I not go to school with my friends in the morning ?
338 Did I not go to school with my friends in the morning ?
339 Shall I not go to school with my friends in the morning ?
340 Am I not going to school with my friends in the morning ?
341 Was I not going to school with my friends in the morning ?

91
342 Shall I not be going to school with my friends in the morning ?
343 Have I not gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
344 Had I not gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
345 Shall I not have gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
346 Have I not been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
347 Had I not been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
348 Shall I not have been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
349 Don't I go to school with my friends in the morning ?
350 Didn't I go to school with my friends in the morning ?
351 Shan't I go to school with my friends in the morning ?
352 Am I not going to school with my sister in the morning ?
353 Wasn't I going to school with my friends in the morning ?
354 Shan't I be going to school with my friends in the morning ?
355 Haven't I gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
356 Hadn't I gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
357 Shan't I have gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
358 Haven't I been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
359 Hadn't I been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
360 Shan't I have been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
361 Who goes to school with my friends in the morning ?
362 Who went to school with my friends in the morning ?
363 Who will go to school with my friends in the morning ?
364 Who is going to school with my friends in the morning ?
365 Who was going to school with my friends in the morning ?
366 Who will be going to school with my friends in the morning ?
367 Who has gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
368 Who had gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
369 Who will have gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
370 Who has been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
371 Who had been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
372 Who will have been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
373 Who does not go to school with my friends in the morning ?
374 Who did not go to school with my friends in the morning ?
375 Who will not go to school with my friends in the morning ?
376 Who is not going to school with my friends in the morning ?
377 Who was not going to school with my friends in the morning ?
378 Who will not be going to school with my friends in the morning ?
379 Who has not gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
380 Who had not gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
381 Who will not have gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
382 Who has not been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
383 Who had not been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
384 Who will not have been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
385 Who doesn't go to school with my friends in the morning ?
386 Who didn't go to school with my friends in the morning ?
387 Who won't go to school with my friends in the morning ?
388 Who is not going to school with my sister in the morning ?
389 Who wasn't going to school with my friends in the morning ?
390 Who won't be going to school with my friends in the morning ?

92
391 Who hasn't gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
392 Who hadn't gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
393 Who won't have gone to school with my friends in the morning ?
394 Who hasn't been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
395 Who hadn't been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
396 Who won't have been going to school with my friends in the morning ?
397 Where do I go with my friends in the morning ?
398 Where did I go with my friends in the morning ?
399 Where shall I go with my friends in the morning ?
400 Where am I going with my friends in the morning ?
401 Where was I going with my friends in the morning ?
402 Where shall I be going with my friends in the morning ?
403 Where have I gone with my friends in the morning ?
404 Where had I gone with my friends in the morning ?
405 Where shall I have gone with my friends in the morning ?
406 Where have I been going with my friends in the morning ?
407 Where had I been going with my friends in the morning ?
408 Where shall I have been going with my friends in the morning ?
409 Where do I not go with my friends in the morning ?
410 Where did I not go with my friends in the morning ?
411 Where shall I not go with my friends in the morning ?
412 Where am I not going with my friends in the morning ?
413 Where was I not going with my friends in the morning ?
414 Where shall I not be going with my friends in the morning ?
415 Where have I not gone with my friends in the morning ?
416 Where had I not gone with my friends in the morning ?
417 Where shall I not have gone with my friends in the morning ?
418 Where have I not been going with my friends in the morning ?
419 Where had I not been going with my friends in the morning ?
420 Where shall I not have been going with my friends in the morning ?
421 Where don't I go with my friends in the morning ?
422 Where didn't I go with my friends in the morning ?
423 Where shan't I go with my friends in the morning ?
424 Where am I not going with my sister in the morning ?
425 Where wasn't I going with my friends in the morning ?
426 Where shan't I be going with my friends in the morning ?
427 Where haven't I gone with my friends in the morning ?
428 Where hadn't I gone with my friends in the morning ?
429 Where shan't I have gone with my friends in the morning ?
430 Where haven't I been going with my friends in the morning ?
431 Where hadn't I been going with my friends in the morning ?
432 Where shan't I have been going with my friends in the morning ?
433 When do I go to school with my friends ?
434 When did I go to school with my friends ?
435 When shall I go to school with my friends ?
436 When am I going to school with my friends ?
437 When was I going to school with my friends ?
438 When shall I be going to school with my friends ?
439 When have I gone to school with my friends ?

93
440 When had I gone to school with my friends ?
441 When shall I have gone to school with my friends ?
442 When have I been going to school with my friends ?
443 When had I been going to school with my friends ?
444 When shall I have been going to school with my friends ?
445 When do I not go to school with my friends ?
446 When did I not go to school with my friends ?
447 When shall I not go to school with my friends ?
448 When am I not going to school with my friends ?
449 When was I not going to school with my friends ?
450 When shall I not be going to school with my friends ?
451 When have I not gone to school with my friends ?
452 When had I not gone to school with my friends ?
453 When shall I not have gone to school with my friends ?
454 When have I not been going to school with my friends ?
455 When had I not been going to school with my friends ?
456 When shall I not have been going to school with my friends ?
457 When don't I go to school with my friends ?
458 When didn't I go to school with my friends ?
459 When shan't I go to school with my friends ?
460 When am I not going to school with my sister ?
461 When wasn't I going to school with my friends ?
462 When shan't I be going to school with my friends ?
463 When haven't I gone to school with my friends ?
464 When hadn't I gone to school with my friends ?
465 When shan't I have gone to school with my friends ?
466 When haven't I been going to school with my friends ?
467 When hadn't I been going to school with my friends ?
468 When shan't I have been going to school with my friends ?
469 With whom do I go to school in the morning ?
470 With whom did I go to school in the morning ?
471 With whom shall I go to school in the morning ?
472 With whom am I going to school in the morning ?
473 With whom was I going to school in the morning ?
474 With whom shall I be going to school in the morning ?
475 With whom have I gone to school in the morning ?
476 With whom had I gone to school in the morning ?
477 With whom shall I have gone to school in the morning ?
478 With whom have I been going to school in the morning ?
479 With whom had I been going to school in the morning ?
480 With whom shall I have been going to school in the morning ?
481 With whom do I not go to school in the morning ?
482 With whom did I not go to school in the morning ?
483 With whom shall I not go to school in the morning ?
484 With whom am I not going to school in the morning ?
485 With whom was I not going to school in the morning ?
486 With whom shall I not be going to school in the morning ?
487 With whom have I not gone to school in the morning ?
488 With whom had I not gone to school in the morning ?

94
489 With whom shall I not have gone to school in the morning ?
490 With whom have I not been going to school in the morning ?
491 With whom had I not been going to school in the morning ?
492 With whom shall I not have been going to school in the morning ?
493 With whom don't I go to school in the morning ?
494 With whom didn't I go to school in the morning ?
495 With whom shan't I go to school in the morning ?
496 With whom am I not going to school in the morning ?
497 With whom wasn't I going to school in the morning ?
498 With whom shan't I be going to school in the morning ?
499 With whom haven't I gone to school in the morning ?
500 With whom hadn't I gone to school in the morning ?

NO. PASSIVE VOICE


501 Its shell is changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
502 Its shell was changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
503 Its shell will be changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
504 Its shell is being changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
505 Its shell was being changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
506 Its shell has been changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
507 Its shell had been changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
508 Its shell will have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
509 Its shell is not changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
510 Its shell was not changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
511 Its shell will not be changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
512 Its shell is not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
513 Its shell was not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
514 Its shell has not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
515 Its shell had not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
516 Its shell will not have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab .
517 Is its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
518 Was its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
519 Will its shell be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
520 Is its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
521 Was its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
522 Has its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
523 Had its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
524 Will its shell have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
525 Is its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
526 Was its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
527 Will its shell not be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
528 Is its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
529 Was its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
530 Has its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
531 Had its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?

95
532 Will its shell not have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
533 Isn't its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
534 Wasn't its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
535 Won't its shell be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
536 Isn't its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
537 Wasn't its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
538 Hasn't its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
539 Hadn't its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
540 Won't its shell have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
541 What is changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
542 What was changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
543 What will be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
544 What is being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
545 What was being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
546 What has been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
547 What had been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
548 What will have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
549 What is not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
550 What was not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
551 What will not be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
552 What is not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
553 What was not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
554 What has not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
555 What had not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
556 What will not have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
557 Where is its shell changed by the crab ?
558 Where was its shell changed by the crab ?
559 Where will its shell be changed by the crab ?
560 Where is its shell being changed by the crab ?
561 Where was its shell being changed by the crab ?
562 Where has its shell been changed by the crab ?
563 Where had its shell been changed by the crab ?
564 Where will its shell have been changed by the crab ?
565 Where is its shell not changed by the crab ?
566 Where was its shell not changed by the crab ?
567 Where will its shell not be changed by the crab ?
568 Where is its shell not being changed by the crab ?
569 Where was its shell not being changed by the crab ?
570 Where has its shell not been changed by the crab ?
571 Where had its shell not been changed by the crab ?
572 Where will its shell not have been changed by the crab ?
573 By whom is its shell changed on the sea-shore ?
574 By whom was its shell changed on the sea-shore ?
575 By whom will its shell be changed on the sea-shore ?
576 By whom is its shell being changed on the sea-shore ?
577 By whom was its shell being changed on the sea-shore ?
578 By whom has its shell been changed on the sea-shore ?
579 By whom had its shell been changed on the sea-shore ?
580 By whom will its shell have been changed on the sea-shore ?

96
581 By whom is its shell not changed on the sea-shore ?
582 By whom was its shell not changed on the sea-shore ?
583 By whom will its shell not be changed on the sea-shore ?
584 By whom is its shell not being changed on the sea-shore ?
585 By whom was its shell not being changed on the sea-shore ?
586 By whom has its shell not been changed on the sea-shore ?
587 By whom had its shell not been changed on the sea-shore ?
588 By whom will its shell not have been changed on the sea-shore ?
589 When is its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
590 When was its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
591 When will its shell be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
592 When is its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
593 When was its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
594 When has its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
595 When had its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
596 When will its shell have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
597 When is its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
598 When was its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
599 When will its shell not be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
600 When is its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
601 When was its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
602 When has its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
603 When had its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
604 When will its shell not have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
605 Why is its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
606 Why was its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
607 Why will its shell be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
608 Why is its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
609 Why was its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
610 Why has its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
611 Why had its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
612 Why will its shell have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
613 Why is its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
614 Why was its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
615 Why will its shell not be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
616 Why is its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
617 Why was its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
618 Why has its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
619 Why had its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
620 Why will its shell not have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
621 How is its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
622 How was its shell changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
623 How will its shell be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
624 How is its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
625 How was its shell being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
626 How has its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
627 How had its shell been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
628 How will its shell have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
629 How is its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?

97
630 How was its shell not changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
631 How will its shell not be changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
632 How is its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
633 How was its shell not being changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
634 How has its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
635 How had its shell not been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
636 How will its shell not have been changed on the sea-shore by the crab ?
637 A message is sent to Tina by Trupti.
638 A message was sent to Tina by Trupti.
639 A message will be sent to Tina by Trupti.
640 A message is being sent to Tina by Trupti.
641 A message was being sent to Tina by Trupti.
642 A message has been sent to Tina by Trupti.
643 A message had been sent to Tina by Trupti.
644 A message will have been sent to Tina by Trupti.
645 A message isn't sent to Tina by Trupti.
646 A message wasn't sent to Tina by Trupti.
647 A message won't be sent to Tina by Trupti.
648 A message isn't being sent to Tina by Trupti.
649 A message wasn't being sent to Tina by Trupti.
650 A message hasn't been sent to Tina by Trupti.
651 A message hadn't been sent to Tina by Trupti.
652 A message won't have been sent to Tina by Trupti.
653 Is a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
654 Was a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
655 Will a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
656 Is a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
657 Was a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
658 Has a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
659 Had a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
660 Will a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
661 Is a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
662 Was a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
663 Will a message not be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
664 Is a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
665 Was a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
666 Has a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
667 Had a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
668 Will a message not have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
669 Isn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
670 Wasn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
671 Won't a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
672 Isn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
673 Wasn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
674 Hasn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
675 Hadn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
676 Won't a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
677 Tina is sent a message by Trupti.
678 Tina was sent a message by Trupti.

98
679 Tina will be sent a message by Trupti.
680 Tina is being sent a message by Trupti.
681 Tina was being sent a message by Trupti.
682 Tina has been sent a message by Trupti.
683 Tina had been sent a message by Trupti.
684 Tina will have been sent a message by Trupti.
685 Tina isn't sent a message by Trupti.
686 Tina wasn't sent a message by Trupti.
687 Tina won't be sent a message by Trupti.
688 Tina isn't being sent a message by Trupti.
689 Tina wasn't being sent a message by Trupti.
690 Tina hasn't been sent a message by Trupti.
691 Tina hadn't been sent a message by Trupti.
692 Tina won't have been sent a message by Trupti.
693 Is Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
694 Was Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
695 Will Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
696 Is Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
697 Was Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
698 Has Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
699 Had Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
700 Will Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
701 Is Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
702 Was Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
703 Will Tina not be sent a message by Trupti ?
704 Is Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
705 Was Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
706 Has Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
707 Had Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
708 Will Tina not have been sent a message by Trupti ?
709 Isn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
710 Wasn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
711 Won't Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
712 Isn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
713 Wasn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
714 Hasn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
715 Hadn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
716 Won't Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
717 What is sent to Tina by Trupti ?
718 What was sent to Tina by Trupti ?
719 What will be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
720 What is being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
721 What was being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
722 What has been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
723 What had been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
724 What will have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
725 What isn't sent to Tina by Trupti ?
726 What wasn't sent to Tina by Trupti ?
727 What won't be sent to Tina by Trupti ?

99
728 What isn't being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
729 What wasn't being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
730 What hasn't been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
731 What hadn't been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
732 What won't have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
733 What is Tina sent by Trupti ?
734 What was Tina sent by Trupti ?
735 What will Tina be sent by Trupti ?
736 What is Tina being sent by Trupti ?
737 What was Tina being sent by Trupti ?
738 What has Tina been sent by Trupti ?
739 What had Tina been sent by Trupti ?
740 What will Tina have been sent by Trupti ?
741 What is Tina not sent by Trupti ?
742 What was Tina not sent by Trupti ?
743 What will Tina not be sent by Trupti ?
744 What is Tina not being sent by Trupti ?
745 What was Tina not being sent by Trupti ?
746 What has Tina not been sent by Trupti ?
747 What had Tina not been sent by Trupti ?
748 What will Tina not have been sent by Trupti ?
749 What isn't Tina sent by Trupti ?
750 What wasn't Tina sent by Trupti ?
751 What won't Tina be sent by Trupti ?
752 What isn't Tina being sent by Trupti ?
753 What wasn't Tina being sent by Trupti ?
754 What hasn't Tina been sent by Trupti ?
755 What hadn't Tina been sent by Trupti ?
756 What won't Tina have been sent by Trupti ?
757 By whom is a message sent to Tina ?
758 By whom was a message sent to Tina ?
759 By whom will a message be sent to Tina ?
760 By whom is a message being sent to Tina ?
761 By whom was a message being sent to Tina ?
762 By whom has a message been sent to Tina ?
763 By whom had a message been sent to Tina ?
764 By whom will a message have been sent to Tina ?
765 By whom is a message not sent to Tina ?
766 By whom was a message not sent to Tina ?
767 By whom will a message not be sent to Tina ?
768 By whom is a message not being sent to Tina ?
769 By whom was a message not being sent to Tina ?
770 By whom has a message not been sent to Tina ?
771 By whom had a message not been sent to Tina ?
772 By whom will a message not have been sent to Tina ?
773 By whom isn't a message sent to Tina ?
774 By whom wasn't a message sent to Tina ?
775 By whom won't a message be sent to Tina ?
776 By whom isn't a message being sent to Tina ?

100
777 By whom wasn't a message being sent to Tina ?
778 By whom hasn't a message been sent to Tina ?
779 By whom hadn't a message been sent to Tina ?
780 By whom won't a message have been sent to Tina ?
781 Who is sent a message by Trupti ?
782 Who was sent a message by Trupti ?
783 Who will be sent a message by Trupti ?
784 Who is being sent a message by Trupti ?
785 Who was being sent a message by Trupti ?
786 Who has been sent a message by Trupti ?
787 Who had been sent a message by Trupti ?
788 Who will have been sent a message by Trupti ?
789 Who isn't sent a message by Trupti ?
790 Who wasn't sent a message by Trupti ?
791 Who won't be sent a message by Trupti ?
792 Who isn't being sent a message by Trupti ?
793 Who wasn't being sent a message by Trupti ?
794 Who hasn't been sent a message by Trupti ?
795 Who hadn't been sent a message by Trupti ?
796 Who won't have been sent a message by Trupti ?
797 When is a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
798 When was a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
799 When will a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
800 When is a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
801 When was a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
802 When has a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
803 When had a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
804 When will a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
805 When is a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
806 When was a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
807 When will a message not be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
808 When is a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
809 When was a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
810 When has a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
811 When had a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
812 When will a message not have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
813 When isn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
814 When wasn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
815 When won't a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
816 When isn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
817 When wasn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
818 When hasn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
819 When hadn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
820 When won't a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
821 When is Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
822 When was Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
823 When will Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
824 When is Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
825 When was Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?

101
826 When has Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
827 When had Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
828 When will Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
829 When is Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
830 When was Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
831 When will Tina not be sent a message by Trupti ?
832 When is Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
833 When was Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
834 When has Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
835 When had Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
836 When will Tina not have been sent a message by Trupti ?
837 When isn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
838 When wasn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
839 When won't Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
840 When isn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
841 When wasn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
842 When hasn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
843 When hadn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
844 When won't Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
845 Where is a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
846 Where was a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
847 Where will a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
848 Where is a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
849 Where was a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
850 Where has a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
851 Where had a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
852 Where will a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
853 Where is a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
854 Where was a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
855 Where will a message not be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
856 Where is a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
857 Where was a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
858 Where has a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
859 Where had a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
860 Where will a message not have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
861 Where isn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
862 Where wasn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
863 Where won't a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
864 Where isn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
865 Where wasn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
866 Where hasn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
867 Where hadn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
868 Where won't a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
869 Where is Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
870 Where was Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
871 Where will Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
872 Where is Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
873 Where was Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
874 Where has Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?

102
875 Where had Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
876 Where will Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
877 Where is Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
878 Where was Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
879 Where will Tina not be sent a message by Trupti ?
880 Where is Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
881 Where was Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
882 Where has Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
883 Where had Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
884 Where will Tina not have been sent a message by Trupti ?
885 Where isn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
886 Where was not Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
887 Where won't Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
888 Where isn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
889 Where wasn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
890 Where hasn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
891 Where hadn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
892 Where won't Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
893 Why is a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
894 Why was a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
895 Why will a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
896 Why is a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
897 Why was a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
898 Why has a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
899 Why had a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
900 Why will a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
901 Why is a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
902 Why was a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
903 Why will a message not be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
904 Why is a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
905 Why was a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
906 Why has a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
907 Why had a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
908 Why will a message not have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
909 Why isn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
910 Why wasn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
911 Why won't a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
912 Why isn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
913 Why wasn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
914 Why hasn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
915 Why hadn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
916 Why won't a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
917 Why is Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
918 Why was Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
919 Why will Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
920 Why is Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
921 Why was Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
922 Why has Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
923 Why had Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?

103
924 Why will Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
925 Why is Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
926 Why was Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
927 Why will Tina not be sent a message by Trupti ?
928 Why is Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
929 Why was Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
930 Why has Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
931 Why had Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
932 Why will Tina not have been sent a message by Trupti ?
933 Why isn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
934 Why wasn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
935 Why won't Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
936 Why isn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
937 Why wasn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
938 Why hasn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
939 Why hadn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
940 Why won't Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
941 How is a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
942 How was a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
943 How will a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
944 How is a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
945 How was a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
946 How has a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
947 How had a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
948 How will a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
949 How is a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
950 How was a message not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
951 How will a message not be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
952 How is a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
953 How was a message not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
954 How has a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
955 How had a message not been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
956 How will a message not have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
957 How isn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
958 How wasn't a message sent to Tina by Trupti ?
959 How won't a message be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
960 How isn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
961 How wasn't a message being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
962 How hasn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
963 How hadn't a message been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
964 How won't a message have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
965 How is Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
966 How was Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
967 How will Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
968 How is Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
969 How was Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
970 How has Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
971 How had Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
972 How will Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?

104
973 How is Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
974 How was Tina not sent a message by Trupti ?
975 How will Tina not be sent a message by Trupti ?
976 How is Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
977 How was Tina not being sent a message by Trupti ?
978 How has Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
979 How had Tina not been sent a message by Trupti ?
980 How will Tina not have been sent a message by Trupti ?
981 How isn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
982 How wasn't Tina sent a message by Trupti ?
983 How won't Tina be sent a message by Trupti ?
984 How isn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
985 How wasn't Tina being sent a message by Trupti ?
986 How hasn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
987 How hadn't Tina been sent a message by Trupti ?
988 How won't Tina have been sent a message by Trupti ?
989 How messages are sent to Tina by Trupti ?
990 How messages were sent to Tina by Trupti ?
991 How messages will be sent to Tina by Trupti ?
992 How messages are being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
993 How messages were being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
994 How messages have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
995 How messages had been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
996 How messages will have been sent to Tina by Trupti ?
997 How messages are not being sent to Tina by Trupti ?
998 How messages are not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
999 How messages were not sent to Tina by Trupti ?
1000 How messages will not be sent to Tina by Trupti ?

The Tragedy of Antony and Cleopatra


by William Shakespeare
============================================================================

INTRODUCTION

Antony and Cleopatra were pretty much the Brangelina of ancient times, only a whole lot
more dramatic.

In this tragedy—written by none other than Shakespeare himself around 1608—Mark Antony
(no, not that Marc Anthony) and Cleopatra fall in love. Simple enough, right?

Wrong.

105
These two aren't your average star-crossed lovers. Oh no. They both rule over two of the most
important empires in history: Rome and Ancient Egypt.

The play opens in Cleopatra’s palace in Alexandria, Egypt. But as the story continues, Antony’s
political and social duties take the action to Rome, Syria, Actium, Parthia (modern-day Iraq),
Athens, and various military camps throughout Egypt. The thing is, Antony and Cleopatra
aren't very good at the whole despot-jetsetter lifestyle and are constantly put in locations and
situations where they question each other's loyalty and love.

We won't give away too much, but the fact that this is a tragedy should tell you a lot about
how the play ends. The ending serves as yet another example of how passion mingled with
power, treachery, and misunderstanding can lead to a tragic end. We see this time and again
in Shakespeare’s great works.

Antony and Cleopatra constitutes Shakespeare’s return to Roman history after an eight-year
break. We would need a break too—this stuff gets pretty heavy. It also gives him a chance to
explore the theme of Empire, which was a hot topic in England then because it was a good
time to run around sticking a flag in any land you could find.

In other words, English colonial holdings were expanding. A big part of that colonial endeavor
was making sure other cultures accepted yours as superior. Shakespeare calls this practice
into question by pointing out that different cultures had been living successfully before the
British arrived. Interestingly, Rome was successful as a conquering nation because it was more
likely to let people keep their way of life and just pay a tax to Rome, instead of making them
give up their own culture entirely. How the empire tax would be enforced in other nations was
still in question, and it almost seems like Shakespeare was giving the people of his time a
history lesson, asking them to consider a different way of handling the whole empire issue.

Finally, there’s a reference to the future of Christianity in the play. The end of the Roman
Empire marks the beginning of the spread of Christianity throughout the world. When Caesar
talks about the coming of universal peace, he means his reign, but it’s a nod to Shakespeare’s
Christian audience that Christ brought real universal peace, and saved us modern-day folks
from the ills of those ancient cultures. If it hadn’t been for Christ, he seems to be saying, we

106
might still be in the constant wars that characterized folks like the Romans or Egyptians. That's
right, this play is basically one big "Thank you, Jesus!"

Whether or not you agree with Shakespeare's religious leanings, this play is full of love,
adventure, dramatic empresses, and poisonous snakes—what more could you ask for? So sit
back, relax, and get ready to walk like an Egyptian—things are about to get a little crazy.

Picture this: it's 300 and you're one of the Spartans going up against a million Persians. You
know you're going to die, so why not go out in a blaze of glory? Or it's The Lord of the Rings
and you're stuck at Helm's Deep, preparing for war. There are ten thousand orcs marching
toward you, and you think you're going to lose. All that's left to you is to decide how you're
going to go.

In the words of that great sage Gandalf, "All we have to decide is what to do with the time
that is given to us." Being up against insurmountable odds is a recipe for tragic grandeur. How
else can you count on being remembered?

107
Shakespeare, too, understands that lost causes are a time for characters to shine. Antony and
Cleopatra isn't like Hamlet, where you don't know exactly how everything's going to go to hell
until it finally does. We've all heard about Cleopatra's fatal run-in with that asp, so we know
that the characters are dead meat before any of the suicides happen. The tragedy has already
happened: Antony has revolted against Caesar, he keeps messing up his battles, and the two
lovers are clearly doomed.

So what's left of Antony and Cleopatra is the drama of watching the hot mess of two people
trying to come out of impossible circumstances. And from that perspective, they do a great
job: after all, one of the best writers of the English language thought it was worthwhile to
write a play about them. Cleopatra sticks a poisonous snake in her bosom and Antony almost
disembowels himself rather than surrender to Octavius and Roman power. In Antony and
Cleopatra we get an example of courage almost two thousand years after everyone in the
real-life story has died.

========================================================================

SUMMARY

The complicated plot of Antony and Cleopatra has numerous twists and turns, and takes us
across an ocean and back several times. We begin in Egypt with Mark Antony, one of the three
leaders (or triumvirs) of the Roman Republic, reveling with his powerful lover Cleopatra, the
Queen of Egypt. This drunken merry-making is getting in the way of his being an effective ruler
in Rome, and the people at home are beginning to resent it. He gets news that his wife, Fulvia,
alongside his brother, has been making war against the other triumvirs, and also that Sextus
Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great (a former ruler of Rome), is threatening Rome as well.
Also, there are pirates. Argh!

Antony finds out that his wife is dead, which solves the war problem—but he really does need
to be getting back to Rome to address the Pompey situation. He leaves Egypt with Cleopatra’s
half-hearted blessing and begins to fix stuff back home in Rome. He and Octavius Caesar
(another triumvir) have a fight about the personal things between them, and decide to fix the
situation by marrying off Caesar’s sister, Octavia, to Antony. Even though Antony hasn’t
proven to be Mr. Marrying-Kind, the idea is that Octavia will form a bond between the two
men—because she loves them both, they’ll love each other. It’s not two minutes before

108
Antony meets with a soothsayer who tells him to get away from Caesar, because Caesar
mutes his power. Antony agrees that he should head back to Egypt, where his pleasure lies.

Then, the triumvirs meet with Pompey to see if they can negotiate instead of going to war.
Pompey is fighting to avenge his father’s death, but he gives in to the others and makes a
truce. They agree that he gets a little piece of southern Italy, as long as he gives wheat to the
Romans. They all celebrate drunkenly onboard Pompey’s ship that night. One of Pompey’s
servants, Menas, suggests that they kill the drunk triumvirs while they have them, but Pompey
is too honest to do this (though he wouldn’t have minded if someone else had done it without
involving him). Murder aside, they go back to drinking. So much partying goes down that
Lepidus (the third triumvir) gets carted out of drunken scene.

Later, the plan is for Antony is to head back to Athens with his new bride while Caesar stays in
Rome. Caesar charges Antony to take good care of his sister, and Antony promises to do so.
Also, Antony’s men have been fighting a war in Parthia (modern-day Iraq) with good success,
even without his leadership. Back in Egypt, Cleopatra has found out about Antony’s marriage,
whipped the messenger, threatened to stab him, and then sent him to see if Octavia’s assets
rival her own. Cleopatra is pleased to find out that Octavia looks plain, since it means she has a
good chance of winning Antony back.

109
Back in Athens, Antony reports to Octavia that Caesar has already violated the pact with
Pompey, is trash-talking Antony in public, and has dismissed Lepidus from office. Antony can’t
abide by this and needs to fight for his honor. Octavia is torn between her brother and her
husband, and asks to go back to Rome to see if she can make peace with her brother. Antony
sends her off, and then promptly heads back to Egypt to begin preparing war for and also to
hang out with his lover.

In Egypt, Cleopatra lends her ships to Antony while he gets ready to meet Caesar at sea.
Although it’s not his arena of choice, Antony’s going for the sea showdown because Caesar
has challenged him to a face-off on the ocean and he doesn’t want to be a chicken. Cleopatra
stubbornly refuses to sit at home while all the action is outside, but once in the battle, even as
things are looking up for Antony’s side, she runs away. Antony, essentially whipped, follows
her and totally forfeits the battle. He admits she’s conquered his heart, and laments that he’s
no longer a soldier. But then she gives him a kiss. He sends a schoolmaster, his children’s
tutor, to give conditions of surrender to Caesar. He asks to either be left alone in Egypt, or to
be allowed to be a private citizen in Athens.

Caesar won’t grant any of Antony’s wishes, but says Cleopatra can have anything she wants if
she’ll either exile Antony or have him murdered in Egypt. Hearing this, Antony is not a happy
camper, and resolves to murder Caesar in hand-to-hand combat (no more of this sea
business). While he goes off to write an "I’m going to murder you in hand-to-hand combat"
letter, another messenger from Caesar (named Thidias) slips in. This guy is supposed to use his
cunning linguistic skills to whet Cleopatra’s appetite for treachery against Antony. She’s just
about to give her allegiance to Caesar when Antony walks in, has Thidias whipped, and gives
Cleopatra a piece of his mind. She says she’s sorry, and he forgives her. Then they party hard,
preparing for a new battle the next day.

We learn that Enobarbus, Antony’s loyal friend, has defected to Caesar’s camp because he
thinks even Cleopatra has abandoned Antony (seeing her flirt with Thidias). He thinks Antony
has no chance of winning. Later that same night, soldiers on watch hear strange music playing,
and they conclude that this is the sound of Hercules (an ancestor of Antony’s) abandoning
Antony.

110
The next morning, everyone is in high spirits about battle. Antony hears that Enobarbus has
fled and instead of being angry he feels sorry for the guy, sending treasure chests after him.
He laments that his own bad fortune has driven Enobarbus to switch teams. In that day’s
battle, Antony soundly trounces Caesar’s troops, and there’s much celebrating. Antony is all
courage again, and they have a big march in Alexandria, which they’ve won back. Meanwhile,
Enobarbus stands under the moon and laments his broken heart. He regrets that he’s
betrayed Antony, and wishes the world to remember him as the worst traitor ever. Some
soldiers are watching him, unnoticed, and see him die of a broken heart.

It’s morning again, and perhaps with renewed courage from yesterday’s victory, Antony meets
Caesar at sea. This time, he watches his fleet greet Caesar’s men as friends. Oops. The battle is
lost and he’s furious. He blames Cleopatra, not the men, because he’s convinced that her
treachery is at the root of his loss—she must have betrayed him to Caesar. He goes to the
palace in a rage, resolving to kill her.

Seeing her lover’s rage, Cleopatra flees to her monument and locks herself up. She has her
servant send word to Antony that she’s killed herself, to see how he’ll respond. He responds
by deciding to kill himself too—thinking it was noble of Cleopatra to be the one who decided
when her life was over. He’d like to be his own conqueror. He asks his friend Eros to kill him,
and Eros chooses to kill himself instead rather than go through with it. Antony then takes it
upon himself to fall on his sword, and he’s done a bad job of it apparently, so he doesn’t die
immediately. Just then Diomedes enters, bringing the news that Cleopatra isn’t really dead.
Antony, hearing this, asks to be taken to her, so he can die near her. He’s not even that mad.

111
Antony, bleeding all over the place, tells Cleopatra she should yield herself to Caesar for her
safety and honor. He says she can’t trust anyone around Caesar except this one guy,
Proculeius. Cleopatra says she won’t trust anyone but her own resolution and her own hand,
which seems to mean she’s going to kill herself. As Antony’s dying, he asks to be remembered
as a noble Roman who was conquered by himself and no other, especially not Caesar. He dies,
and Cleopatra beings the preparations to kill herself, too.

Just then, Caesar’s guy Proculeius comes into the monument to negotiate with Cleopatra and
give her basically whatever she wants. She asks for her kingdom, Egypt, to be given to her son.
As Proculeius leaves, Cleopatra is overtaken by some of Caesar’s guards. She tries to kill
herself, but they’re fast and stop her. Dolabella, one of Caesar’s more kindhearted guys, takes
over, pitying Cleopatra as she tells him of Antony’s greatness. Dolabella confirms her fear that
Caesar means to make her a central attraction in his victory parade. Caesar shows up, and
there’s an episode where Cleopatra claims to have given him all her treasure. Unfortunately,
her treasurer says she lied, so fighting follows. Anyway, Caesar says she can keep her stuff,
and she shouldn’t worry, as she will direct how the Romans will treat her.

Once Caesar leaves, Dolabella tells Cleopatra that Caesar will send for her and her children in
three days to be put in the victory march. Cleopatra wails that she doesn’t want to be
breathed on and scowled at by filthy Romans. So, instead, she has a plan. She has her women
dress her in her finest robes and then receives a rather harmless looking visitor. It turns out
this harmless visitor brought her some figs in which he’s hidden some poisonous snakes (asp)
at her request. Cleopatra, all dolled up, says she’s going to meet her husband (that would be
Antony). She kisses Iras, her servant, who dies immediately. Then, she puts an asp to her
breast, and says some insulting things about Caesar. As Charmian cries out that there is a
snake on her breast, Cleopatra applies another asp to her arm and dies. Charmian is very sad
about this, so naturally she fixes her lady’s crown. Just then, Caesar’s guard enters, so
Charmian applies an asp to herself. She says Cleopatra’s work was befitting for a royal princess
descended of many kings, and then she dies.

Dolabella and then Caesar march in to find all the dead women, and wonder how they died.
Dolabella discovers the wounds on Cleopatra’s chest and arms, and another guard finds the
slimy trail of the poisonous snake in the figs. Caesar admits it was in Cleopatra’s royal nature
to do what she pleased, and decrees that she’ll be buried next to Antony. The funeral will be

112
attended by the solemn Romans, and then they’ll go back home to the former Roman
Republic, which is now the new Roman Empire.

==================================

ANTONY

What Happens in Egypt…

Antony is one of the three leaders of the Roman Empire and a proven soldier. We know him
from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar as a former party guy who made his soldierly fortunes at
Philippi, when he bested Brutus and Cassius, Julius Caesar’s murderers. He’s regarded as a
noble and formidable soldier in Rome. His presence in Egypt, however, tells us that he's
neglecting his own state and shows his less noble side—the one that revels in debauchery and
good times. The comparison of Antony-in-Rome with Antony-in-Egypt isn’t a set up of good
versus evil; it’s just two different examples of a way a man can live his life. Hey, you know
what they say: What happens in Egypt stays in Egypt.

Antony is noted for his bravery, which makes his love for Cleopatra all the more interesting.
The same way that he gave himself over to his soldierly duties, he submits himself to
Cleopatra, and revels in the sensuous pleasures of the Egyptian world. Antony is pretty
straight up about it all and admits that he is held captive by Cleopatra’s powerful spell.
Interestingly, he thinks of his situation personally, and not politically.

He's So Fancy

Antony escapes being a complete hedonist, though, because his nobility shines through in his
Egyptian life. He acts graciously and nobly in his political affairs, too (when he bothers to pay
them any attention): Antony greets Pompey with honesty and love; when Enobarbus turns to
the other side, Antony doesn’t blame him for treachery, but instead faults himself for turning
Enobarbus to that path; and when Antony thinks he’s doomed to fail in battle, he bids his men
to leave him, and thanks them gratefully for their service. If that's not a benevolent leader, we
don't know what is (though we certainly know what isn't).

Someone's a Little Moody

Still, there exists another, more volatile side to Antony, which his compatriots think explains
his attachment to Cleopatra. His extreme emotional swings can be seen when he resolves to

113
kill Cleopatra, and then loves her again. Yet, he is developed as a character because he’s in
touch with these feelings.

Shakespeare illustrates this best in Antony's final act. What hurts Antony deeply is the notion
that he isn’t living up to his own nobility, either in politics (as he’s lost to Caesar) or in love (as
he thinks Cleopatra has killed herself). As Antony dies, he wishes the world to remember him
as a man who was his own conqueror. By taking his own life, Antony makes a final resolute
act: his death is the final assurance that, no matter the circumstance, he was the master of his
own life. He represents the tension between East and West, between Egyptian delights and
Roman austerity, and between the personal desires of love and valiance. In this way, he’s a
complex character.

======================

CLEOPATRA

Cleopatra is the Queen of Egypt, lover to Antony, and former lover of both Julius Caesar and
Pompey the Elder—it's safe to say homegirl has a "type." She’s one of Shakespeare’s richest
female characters (in terms of both wealth and character development), and can be used as a
case study of both a woman in power and a woman in love.

Cleopatra In Love

In love, Cleopatra is fierce, amorous (to say the least), and quick to get angry or be loving.
Fickle in her affections, Cleopatra is passionate about all of her lovers, especially Antony. With
her last act we can see her devotion to Antony, choosing to join him in death rather than live
without him. We guess he really wasn't irreplaceable. We wonder what Beyoncé would have
to say about that.

Cleopatra the Pharaoh

Cleopatra is equally interesting as a woman in power. She rules Egypt, and except for the
times she betrays Antony (i.e., when she flirts with Thidias), she’s willing to say he conquered
her rather than wooed her. It seems a gamble to maintain her power by pretending her power
(not her heart) was momentarily weakened. She seems willing to blame her femininity for her
downfalls. So much for girl power.

114
Still, it can also be interpreted that she’s a woman of power when she decides on suicide. She
does it out of pride—she’d rather die on the Nile than become a token of Caesar’s power.
Even as she dies she wishes her death to be interpreted as a victory against Caesar in a contest
of power. Quite the way to stick it to the man, don't you think?

The Feminine Mystique

She is also particularly notable for her strong sexuality and sexual relationships with the
world’s most powerful men. She is one of Shakespeare’s few female characters for whom sex
is not a submission, but a testament to her own glory. As such, Cleopatra is symbolic of her
country. As an earthy and sensual woman, Cleopatra represents Egyptian culture (or, at least
how Shakespeare saw Egypt). Her death signals not only the death of her body, but also the
end of a lifestyle in Egypt—one in which life is lived passionately and is connected to the
natural world.

===============================

POMPEY

Pompey the Younger is (no surprise) the son of Pompey the Elder. He is most notable in the
play as a character who is prone to war, but guided by his reason and honor instead of his
passion. Pompey the Younger is drawn into battle against the Romans because his father was
one of Julius Caesar’s partners in the first triumvirate that ruled Rome. Julius Caesar’s whole
"crossing the Rubicon" bit was an act of war and usurpation against Pompey, and the decisive
act that meant Julius Caesar intended to rule Rome alone. As a result of Julius Caesar’s action,
Pompey the Elder fled to Egypt, where he was murdered. This is where his son, Pompey the
Younger, steps in. He seeks to avenge his father’s death against the new triumvirate: Octavius
Caesar, Antony, and Lepidus. Pompey ends up being a sort of sacrifice in the play. He's an
honorable man who plays by the rules and is ultimately vulnerable to the treacherous and
passionate men that surround him.

Pompey is well-loved by the people, and he sees Antony’s absence as a good sign that he has a
chance against the other young triumvirs. Still, even once Antony returns to the fight, Pompey
faces his fate nobly. One of Pompey’s single most telling acts is his willingness to negotiate
with the Roman triumvirs before he goes to war with them. In the negotiation, he would

115
rather compromise than have blood shed, not because he is a coward, but because he is a
reasonable man.

Once Pompey settles the terms of compromise with the triumvirs, he graciously invites the
other men back to his barge to celebrate their new truce. Unlike Caesar and Antony, when
Pompey makes a truce, he means it. He has a real warrior’s honor, in contrast to the triumvirs,
who would probably shoot him in the back in a dark alley. On Pompey’s barge, his man Menas
offers to kill the drunken triumvirs, but Pompey’s honor again gets the better of him. He says
he wishes Menas had simply not told him of the plan and just carried it out instead. Now that
he’s heard about it, his conscience has gotten in the way. Unfortunately, Pompey ends up
dead as a result of Caesar's treachery.

=============================================================================

https://www.shmoop.com/antony-cleopatra/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T669KYdsGxM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YT02lEhiSiw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N99NWWr9HRI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6k7-zd_byo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BibR-maWH5s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mLoAqbcp1M

https://study.com/academy/lesson/shakespeares-antony-and-cleopatra-summary-analysis-
quiz.html

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Antony-and-Cleopatra-by-Shakespeare

https://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/antony/

http://www.literature-study-online.com/essays/antony-cleopatra.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antony_and_Cleopatra

https://www.williamshakespeare.net/antony-and-cleopatra.jsp

http://shakespeare.mit.edu/cleopatra/full.html

============================================================================

116
Adverb clauses of result and concession

Adverb clauses of result or consequence are introduced by the subordinating conjunctions


that, so…that, so that and such…that.

The famine was so severe that thousands perished.

They fought so bravely that the enemy fled.

He is such a good man that all respect him.

He spoke in such a low voice that few people could hear him.

That is often omitted.

She was so weak that she could hardly stand. OR She was so weak she could hardly stand.

It was so hot we didn’t go out. OR It was so hot that we didn’t go out.

Adverb clauses of concession

Adverb clauses of concession are introduced by the subordinating conjunctions though,


although, even though, while, whereas and even if.

Though I am poor I am honest.

I will be able to get in although I have no ticket.

Even if it rains I will come.

The men managed to survive even though they were three days without water.

John is very popular among his friends, whereas his brother is a reclusive.

As is sometimes used in the sense of though.

Young as he is he occupies an important position in the firm. (= Though he is young, he


occupies an important position in the firm.)

============================================================================

117
English Vocabulary Exercise

1. In the ……………………….. the author states his intentions in writing the book.

foreword

foreward

forward

2. The museum curator discovered that the Persian vase was a ………………………..

forge

forage

forgery

3. It looks like he has …………………………. our appointment.

forgot

forgotten

Either could be used here

4. She is so …………………………. that she has to make a note of everything.

forgetful

forgettable

Either could be used here

5. Because of other expenses, I had to ………………………… that dress.

forgo

forage

forge

6. When I saw that ……………………….. watchdog, I went no further.

forbidden

forbidding

Either could be used here

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7. Have you ever seen anyone so fond of ……………………………..?

deserts

desserts

8. The child …………………………… about in the water until the lifeguard got to him.

foundered

floundered

9. We know she is rich, so she doesn’t have to …………………………. it.

float

flaunt

flout

10. That was a …………………………….. abuse of his authority.

flagrant

fragrant

flagrent

11. The visiting head of state was given a ……………………………. welcome.

fitting

fitful

12. The children get ………………………. when we take them to church.

fidgety

fidelity

fidget

=================

Answers

1. In the foreword the author states his intentions in writing the book.

2. The museum curator discovered that the Persian vase was a forgery.

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3. It looks like he has forgotten / forgot our appointment.

4. She is so forgetful that she has to make a note of everything.

5. Because of other expenses, I had to forgo that dress.

6. When I saw that forbidding watchdog, I went no further.

7. Have you ever seen anyone so fond of desserts?

8. The child floundered about in the water until the lifeguard got to him.

9. We know she is rich, so she doesn’t have to flaunt it.

10. That was a flagrant abuse of his authority.

11. The visiting head of state was given a fitting welcome.

12. The children get fidgety when we take them to church.

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Conjunctions Or Prepositions Exercise

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate conjunction or preposition.

1. ……………………………. missing the train, I reached on time.

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In spite of

Though

However

2. …………………………… I missed the train, I reached on time.

Despite

Though

However

3. I worked hard; ………………………., I failed the test.

however

though

in spite of

4. ………………………….. she is an atheist, she is a kind hearted woman.

Though

Although

Either could be used here

5. ……………………………… working two jobs she does not earn enough.

Despite

Despite of

In spite of

6. I didn’t know anyone at the party; ……………………………, that didn’t stop me from having a
nice time.

however

though

in spite of

7. Tired …………………………. I was, I went swimming.

as

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though

Either could be used here

8. His dad was angry, ……………………………. he had failed his exam.

because

because of

Either could be used here

9. I missed the last bus, ………………………… I had to walk home.

so

because

then

10. …………………………. he hadn’t applied on time, he could not get the job.

Since

Hence

So

11. …………………………… she is ill, she cannot go to work.

Because

So

Therefore

12. …………………………… he could not offer any satisfactory explanation he lost his job.

As

So

Though

=================================

Answers

1. In spite of missing the train, I reached on time.

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2. Although I missed the train, I reached on time.

3. I worked hard; however, I failed the test.

4. Though / Although she is an atheist, she is a kind hearted woman.

5. Despite working two jobs she does not earn enough.

6. I didn’t know anyone at the party; however, that didn’t stop me from having a nice time.

7. Tired as / though I was, I went swimming.

8. His dad was angry, because he had failed his exam.

9. I missed the last bus, so I had to walk home.

10. Since he hadn’t applied on time, he could not get the job.

11. Because she is ill, she cannot go to work.

12. As he could not offer any satisfactory explanation he lost his job.

==========================================================================

Conjunctions Exercise

Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions.

1. The consequence of his carelessness was ………………………… he failed.

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such that

that

so that

2. …………………………….. I am successful does not necessarily make me happy.

That

The fact that

What

3. …………………………. I shall stay is doubtful.

How long

How long for

What long

4. The news ………………………….. the captain was killed spread like wild fire.

that

of

what

5. He sold the horse …………………………… belonged to his brother.

which

that

Either could be used here

6. I have no pen …………………………… I can lend.

that

which

Either could be used here

7. A man …………………………. is dead needs no comforts.

who

whom

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which

8. The camel …………………………… was bought from Arabia is very big.

which

that

Either could be used here

9. I found the key …………………………. I had lost.

which

what

who

10. You can eat as much …………………………… you want.

as

what

than

11. The master was annoyed …………………………. his servant had not carried out his orders.

so

that

because

12. ……………………………. there is life, there is hope.

As long as

As soon as

==============

Answers

1.The consequence of his carelessness was that he failed.

2.The fact that I am successful does not necessarily make me happy.

3.How long I shall stay is doubtful.

4.The news that the captain was killed spread like wild fire.

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5.He sold the horse that / which belonged to his brother.

6.I have no pen that I can lend.

7.A man who is dead needs no comforts.

8.The camel which was bought from Arabia is very big.

9.I found the key which I had lost.

10.You can eat as much as you want.

11.The master was annoyed that / because his servant had not carried out his orders.

12.As long as there is life, there is hope.

============================================================================

Modal Auxiliary Verbs Exercise

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate modal auxiliary verb.

1. She ………………… speak Italian really well.

can

may

might

2. I asked if you ………………………….. arrive in the afternoon.

can

could

might

3. She ………………………… walk when she was just nine months old.

can

could

might

4. If you take rest for an hour, you ……………………… feel better.

may

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can

could

might

5. After giving birth, a woman ……………………. suffer from depression for many months.

may

can

shall

6. She said that she ………………………….. go to the movies.

may

can

might

7. You …………………………… have lots of money, but that doesn’t mean you are better than me.

might

would

should

8. When I was a child, I …………………………. watch TV whenever I wanted.

may

might

could

9. …………………………… he arrive on time?

Will

Would

Shall

10. I ………………………. be happy even if I do not win the prize.

will

could

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may

11. She …………………………… be here soon.

shall

should

would

12. I …………………………….. kill him if he reads my letters again.

will

shall

would

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. She can speak Italian really well.

2. I asked if you could arrive in the afternoon.

3. She could walk when she was just nine months old.

4. If you take rest for an hour, you may / might /could feel better.

5. After giving birth, a woman may suffer from depression for many months.

6. She said that she might go to the movies.

7. You might have lots of money, but that doesn’t mean you are better than me.

8. When I was a child, I could watch TV whenever I wanted.

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9. Will he arrive on time?

10. I will be happy even if I do not win the prize.

11. She should be here soon. 12. I will kill him if he reads my letters again.

=============================================================================

General Grammar Exercise

Fill in the blanks

1. I ………………………….. he is not at home.

suppose

suppose that

Either could be used here

2. We hoped …………………………….

that you would succeed

you to succeed

3. He ………………………………. that he has met your dad.

tells

says

Either could be used here

4. The teacher ………………………….. he was very busy.

said

told

Either could be used here

5. She suggested …………………………………to the park.

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us to go to park

that we should go

us we should go

6. He ………………………………. me that he was coming on Sunday.

said

told

Either could be used here

7. I advised him …………………………….

to be careful

that be careful

that he be careful

8. He promised us ………………………….. there at five.

to be

that he will be

that he would be

9. Nobody knows when ………………………………. arrive.

will he

he will

he would

10. Tom could not figure out what …………………………… do next.

he should

should he

Either could be used here

11. He asked me ...............................................

to go

that I go

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12. They made him .............................................. for hours.

wait

waiting

to wait

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. I suppose (that) he is not at home.

2. We hoped that you would succeed.

3. He says that he has met your dad.

4. The teacher said he was very busy.

5. She suggested that we should go to the park.

6. He told me that he was coming on Sunday.

7. I advised him to be careful.

8. He promised us that he would be there at five.

9. Nobody knows when he will arrive.

10. Tom could not figure out what he should do next.

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11. He asked me to go.

12. They made him wait for hours.

============================================================================

Sentence Completion Exercise

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word or phrase.

1. There is still a glimmer of hope that the strike …………………………….. this week.

ends

will end

would end

2. Parents tend to gloss …………………………….. their children’s mistakes.

out

over

up

3. Be a good winner and don’t gloat ……………………………. your victory.

up

over

out

4. In fairy tales gnomes always …………………………….. hidden treasures.

guard

are guarding

would guard

5. When something goes wrong, he always makes me the …………………………..

goat

sheep

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cow

6. The king’s enemies ………………………….. a rebellion.

fomented

fermented

fragmented

7. Walking a tightrope ……………………………. the falls was a foolhardy venture.

across

through

above

8. You should try to forbear ……………………………. saying such nasty things.

to

from

of

9. I forbid you …………………………………. out after midnight.

to stay

from staying

Either could be used here

10. The bridge had been built with ……………………………… labor.

forced

forceful

11. His speech was brief but …………………………..

forced

forcible

forceful

12. The ………………………………… seizure of US sailors by British naval officers was one of the
causes of the war of 1812.

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forcible

forceful

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.There is still a glimmer of hope that the strike will end this week.

2.Parents tend to gloss over their children’s mistakes.

3.Be a good winner and don’t gloat over your victory.

4.In fairy tales gnomes always guard hidden treasures.

5.When something goes wrong, he always makes me the goat.

6.The king’s enemies fomented a rebellion.

7.Walking a tightrope across the falls was a foolhardy venture.

8.You should try to forbear from saying such nasty things.

9.I forbid you to stay / from staying out after midnight.

10.The bridge had been built with forced labor.

11.His speech was brief but forceful.

12.The forcible seizure of US sailors by British naval officers was one of the causes of the war
of 1812.

==========================================================================

Conjunctions Exercise

Fill in the blanks.

1. It was such a comic state of affairs ……………………….. we had to laugh.

so

that

for

2. The negotiations collapsed …………………………. no agreement could be reached.

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as

when

since

All of the above

3. I like you better …………………………… I like him.

than

then

as

4. I will need the car …………………………….. you will have to hire a taxi.

so

then

Either could be used here

5. ‘I will be busy in the morning’. ‘………………………. I will come in the afternoon.’

So

Then

Either could be used here

6. Many things have happened ………………………….. we last met.

from

since

when

7. Janet can sing beautifully and …………………………… can her sister.

as

so

Either could be used here

8. I scored good marks, …………………………….. I had not prepared for the exam.

even though

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even if

even

9. She says that she will come …………………………….. there is a bus strike next week.

even if

even though

even

10. Grievances cannot be addressed …………………………………. they are spoken about.

if

unless

without

12. She would rather dance ………………………… sing.

than

to

then

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. It was such a comic state of affairs that we had to laugh.

2. The negotiations collapsed when/as / since no agreement could be reached.

3. I like you better than I like him.

4. I will need the car so you will have to hire a taxi.

5. ‘I will be busy in the morning’. ‘Then I will come in the afternoon.’

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6. Many things have happened since we last met.

7. Janet can sing beautifully and so can her sister.

8. I scored good marks, even though I had not prepared for the exam.

9. She says that she will come even if there is a bus strike next week.

10. Grievances cannot be addressed unless they are spoken about.

12. She would rather dance than sing.

=============================================================================

Idiomatic Expressions Exercise

This exercise tests your understanding of common idiomatic expressions in English. Fill in the
blanks.

1. His jokes fell ………………………….

apart

flat

off

2. When his friend was in trouble, he took up the …………………………… on his behalf.

weapons

cudgels

armor

3. By endorsing that forged document, he cut his own ……………………….

head

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neck

throat

4. Once she entered the show business she seemed to carry all ………………………. her.

over

before

in front of

5. It is always bad manners to …………………………… over your opponent.

thump

crow

hoot

6. Her beauty took my ……………………………. away.

heart

mind

breath

7. Parental property is the ………………………………. of contention between the brothers.

bone

skeleton

ghost

8. When I met him at the party, he cut me ……………………………

up

out

dead

9. There is no harm in using social media, but you must draw the …………………………..
somewhere.

mark

line

138
circle

10. My wife and I do not always …………………………….

hold hand to hand

hear ear to ear

see eye to eye

11. He lost the game but put a brave ……………………………… on it.

heart

face

smile

12. He is a far …………………………… from his idealistic brother.

distant

cry

away

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.His jokes fell flat.

2.When his friend was in trouble, he took up the cudgels on his behalf.

3.By endorsing that forged document, he cut his own throat.

4.Once she entered the show business she seemed to carry all before her.

5.It is always bad manners to crow over your opponent.

6.Her beauty took my breath away.

7.Parental property is the bone of contention between the brothers.

8.When I met him at the party, he cut me dead.

9.There is no harm in using social media, but you must draw the line somewhere.

10.My wife and I do not always see eye to eye.

11.He lost the game but put a brave face on it.

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12.He is a far cry from his idealistic brother.

==========================================================================

Identify The Adverb

Identify the adverb in the following sentences.

1. He is so pigheaded you can’t reason with him.

so

pigheaded

with

2. Sailing alone around the world was quite a pilgrimage.

sailing

quite

privilege

3. The admiral was always nonchalant in the face of danger.

always

nonchalant

of

4. A person’s outward appearance was formerly thought to reveal his character.

outward

formerly

reveal

5. Wearing nothing but blue clothing is only one of her peculiarities.

nothing

blue

only

6. He was seen driving northward.

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seen

driving

northward

7. I have told you this twice.

have

this

twice

8. That day he arrived late.

that

arrived

late

9. I have already spoken to him about this.

have

already

to

10. Luckily we escaped unhurt.

luckily

escaped

unhurt

11. My dog understands everything. He is almost human.

everything

almost

human

12. I am fully prepared for the examination.

am

fully

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prepared

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.He is so pigheaded you can’t reason with him. (Adverb – so)

2.Sailing alone around the world was quite a pilgrimage. (Adverb – quite)

3.The admiral was always nonchalant in the face of danger. (Adverb – always)

4.A person’s outward appearance was formerly thought to reveal his character. (Adverb –
formerly)

5.Wearing nothing but blue clothing is only one of her peculiarities. (Adverb – only)

6.He was seen driving northward. (Adverb – northward)

7.I have told you this twice. (Adverb – twice)

8.That day he arrived late. (Adverb – late)

9.I have already spoken to him about this. (Adverb – already)

10.Luckily we escaped unhurt. (Adverb – luckily)

11.My dog understands everything. He is almost human. (Adverb – almost)

12.I am fully prepared for the examination. (Adverb – fully)

=============================================================================

Degrees Of Comparison

Fill in the blanks.

1. She is senior ................................... me by five years.

than

of

to

2. My job is superior ..................................... yours.

than

142
of

to

3. James is ........................................ his brother.

tallest of

taller than

taller then

4. She sings ......................................... as her sister.

as best

as well

better

5. I earn as ..................................... money as you do.

much

more

much more

6. Samuel is ........................................ of the four boys.

taller than

tallest than

the tallest

7. I am quite …………………………….. with what I have achieved.

happy

happier

happiest

8. This is …………………………… difficult problem I have ever encountered.

the more

the most

most

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9. You are …………………………… woman I have ever met.

the kindest

the most kind

the most kindest

10. This is as interesting …………………………. that.

than

as

so

11. I am …………………………….. in movies than concerts.

most interested

more interested

as interested

12. You are no ............................................. him.

better of

better than

best of

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. She is senior to me by five years.

2. My job is superior to yours.

3. James is taller than his brother.

4. She sings as well as her sister.

5. I earn as much money as you do.

6. Samuel is the tallest of the four boys.

7. I am quite happy with what I have achieved.

8. This is the most difficult problem I have ever encountered.

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9. You are the kindest woman I have ever met.

10. This is as interesting as that.

11. I am more interested in movies than concerts.

12. You are no better than him.

==========================================================================

The With Most

Sometimes we use the definite article ‘the’ with most and sometimes we omit it. This
grammar exercise tests your understanding of these rules.

Fill in the blanks.

1. She is …………………………….. beautiful woman I have ever met.

most

the most

Either could be used here

2. ……………………………. cheese is made from cow’s milk.

Most

The most

Either could be used here

3. ……………………………….. North Indians understand Hindi.

Most

The most

4. Who is ………………………………… intelligent girl in the class?

most

the most

Either could be used here

5. ………………………………… of the people here know each other.

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Most

The most

Either could be used here

6. ………………………………… of us supported him.

Most

The most

7. Which country produces ……………………………. milk?

most

the most

Either could be used here

8. ……………………………. children love chocolates.

Most

The most

Either could be used here

9. …………………………….. of us want a new system.

Most

The most

Either could be used here

10. …………………………… criminals are non-violent.

Most

The most

Either could be used here

11. She wasn’t as rich as the others, but she was …………………………….. generous.

most

the most

Either could be used here

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12. Thank you for ……………………………….. wonderful evening.

the most

a most

most

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. She is the most beautiful woman I have ever met.

2. Most cheese is made from cow’s milk.

3. Most North Indians understand Hindi.

4. Who is the most intelligent girl in the class?

5. Most of the people here know each other.

6. Most of us supported him.

7. Which country produces the most milk?

8. Most children love chocolates.

9. Most of us want a new system.

10. Most criminals are non-violent.

11. She wasn’t as rich as the others, but she was the most generous.

12. Thank you for a most wonderful evening.

===========================================================================

Determiners Exercise

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate determiner.

1. I found …………………………….. blackberries than you.

more

most

much

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2. We haven’t got ………………………………. money.

much

more

most

3. There aren’t ………………………………. apples on the tree.

many

much

4. She has got only ………………………………… friends.

a few

a less

a fewer

5. There weren’t …………………………… children in the class.

many

much

more

6. I have planted …………………………………. roses in the garden.

some

any

Either could be used here

7. Is there ………………………………. water in the pond?

any

some

Either could be used here

8. Susie is the ……………………………… popular girl in the class.

most

more

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much

9. ………………………………… students hate mathematics.

Most

Much

The most

10. ……………………………… people understand philosophy.

Few

Less

Either could be used here

11. She didn’t stay for as ……………………………. days as she intended.

many

many of

Either could be used here

12. You can have as ……………………………….. the juice as you like.

many

much

much of

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. I found more blackberries than you.

2. We haven’t got much money.

3. There aren’t many apples on the tree.

4. She has got only a few friends.

5. There weren’t many children in the class.

6. I have planted some roses in the garden.

7. Is there any water in the pond?

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8. Susie is the most popular girl in the class.

9. Most students hate mathematics.

10. Few people understand philosophy.

11. She didn’t stay for as many days as she intended.

12. You can have as much of the juice as you like.

===========================================================================

Prepositions Exercise

Fill in the blanks.

1. I look forward to ……………………………….. from you.

hear

hearing

Either could be used here

2. It is Janet ……………………………… the phone. She wants to talk to you.

on

at

in

3. Is there anything interesting …………………………….. the radio tonight?

in

over

on

4. He met his future bride ……………………………. a party.

in

on

at

5. …………………………………. the end, I got a visa for the UK.

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On

In

At

6. The movie is not very interesting ……………………………. the end.

in

on

at

7. You look prettier ………………………………. this photo.

on

at

in

8. Can you find a bird …………………………….. that picture?

in

on

of

9. There is no room ………………………………. the bus.

in

on

over

10. The boys looked dapper …………………………….. their uniforms.

in

on

with

11. The meeting started ………………………………. time.

in

at

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on

12. Why are you talking ………………………………. such a loud voice?

in

with

on

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. I look forward to hearing from you.

2. It is Janet on the phone. She wants to talk to you.

3. Is there anything interesting on the radio tonight?

4. He met his future bride at a party.

5. In the end, I got a visa for the UK.

6. The movie is not very interesting at the end.

7. You look prettier in this photo.

8. Can you find a bird in that picture?

9. There is no room on the bus.

10. The boys looked dapper in their uniforms.

11. The meeting started on time.

12. Why are you talking in such a loud voice?

=============================================================================

Conditionals Exercise

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate verb form.

1. If I were you I ............................................ pay 200 dollars for that coat.

won't

wouldn't

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2. If you ............................................ red and green, you get yellow.

mix

will mix

would mix

3. If I had known about the consequences, I .............................................. it.

will never do

would never do

would never have done

4. Unless you get enough rest, you .............................................. ill.

will fall

would fall

would have fallen

5. ............................................ I known, I would have helped.

Had

Were

Should

6. Unless you .............................................. gambling, you will face many problems.

quit

will quit

would quit

7. If I knew her name, I .............................................. you.

will tell

would tell

would have told

8. If she knew you, why .............................................. she say Hi?

don't

153
didn't

hadn't

9. ................................................. your help, I would have been in real trouble.

But for

If only

10. I ............................................. retire if I won the lottery.

will

would

Either could be used here

11. How .............................................. you react if you were in my position?

will

would

Either could be used here

12. You will catch cold if you .......................................... out without a coat.

go

will go

went

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1. If I were you I wouldn’t pay 200 dollars for that coat.

2. If you mix red and green, you get yellow.

3. If I had known about the consequences, I would never have done it.

4. Unless you get enough rest, you will fall ill.

5. Had I known, I would have helped.

6. Unless you quit gambling, you will face many problems.

7. If I knew her name, I would tell you.

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8. If she knew you, why didn’t she say Hi?

9. But for your help, I would have been in real trouble.

10. I would retire if I won the lottery.

11. How would you react if you were in my position?

12. You will catch cold if you go out without a coat.

============================================================================

Reported Speech Exercise

Fill in the blanks.

1. Grandmother said that she .................................. the party.

doesn't like

hasn't liked

didn't like

2. I asked him if he .............................................. to come with me.

wants

wanted

want

3. I ...................................... her that she looked beautiful.

told

said

Either could be used here

4. He pretended that he .......................................... sing.

can't

couldn't

doesn't

5. She said that she ............................................ on a new project.

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is working

was working

has been working

6. She ............................................ she wouldn't come.

said

said that

Either could be used here

7. I ........................................... you are right.

think

think that

Either could be used here

8. I ........................................... I hadn't applied for that job.

replied

replied that

Either could be used here

9. He wanted to know what ......................................... doing there.

was I

I was

10. I asked where ........................................... staying.

were they

they were

11. Nobody told me why .......................................... to leave.

had I

I had

12. He suggested ................................................. find another job.

that I find

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me to find

Either could be used here

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.Grandmother said that she didn’t like the party.

2.I asked him if he wanted to come with me.

3.I told her that she looked beautiful.

4.He pretended that he couldn’t sing.

5.She said that she was working on a new project.

6.She said / said that she wouldn’t come.

7.I think / think that you are right.

8.I replied that I hadn’t applied for that job.

9.He wanted to know what I was doing there.

10.I asked where they were staying.

11.Nobody told me why I had to leave.

12.He suggested that I find another job.

=============================================================================

Editing Exercise

Identity the word that should be removed from the following sentences to make them
grammatically correct.

1. Few of people can say that they always tell the truth.

of

that

always

2. I always take an umbrella if in case it rains.

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if

in case

always

3. The first time I have met him was last year.

have

met

last

4. As you know that next Friday's meeting has been called.

that

has

been

5. We went out despite of the rain.

out

of

despite

6. There is a garage opposite of my house.

opposite

of

7. Although she had prepared well for the test, but she could not pass.

although

but

Either but or although

8. As he was not there so I left a message with his mother.

as

so

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Either as or so

9. This is Jane who she works with me.

who

she

with

10. They have got married a couple of months ago.

have

of

11. This is the guy whom we have met yesterday.

whom

have

the

12. Because I have great respect for him so I listened to him.

because

have

to

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.Few people can say that they always tell the truth.

2.I always take an umbrella in case it rains.

3.The first time I met him was last year.

4.As you know next Friday’s meeting has been called.

5.We went out despite the rain.

6.There is a garage opposite my house.

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7.Although she had prepared well for the test, she could not pass.

8.As he was not there I left a message with his mother. / He was not there so I left a message
with his mother.

9.This is Jane who works with me.

10.They got married a couple of months ago.

11.This is the guy whom we met yesterday.

12.I have great respect for him so I listened to him.

=============================================================================

Passive Voice Exercise

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate passive verb form.

1. The injured ............................... to hospital.

had taken

were taken

have taken

2. The conference .......................................... by 200 delegates.

was attending

was attended

has attended

3. The car .............................................. at the moment.

is serviced

is being serviced

has been serviced

4. The boy ............................................... for cheating on the exam.

was punished

had punished

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was punishing

5. The startup .......................................... by a German company.

acquired

was acquiring

was acquired

6. I ....................................... some manuscripts.

have shown

was shown

was showing

7. The results ................................................ yesterday.

published

were published

have been published

8. The matter ............................................ during the meeting.

was discussed

is discussed

has discussed

9. She ............................................ to leave.

has been told

was told

Either could be used here

10. I ................................................ to the party.

was not invited

have not invited

was not being invited

11. The smugglers ......................................

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have caught

have been caught

were caught

12. The child ………………………………… of his rheumatism.

has cured

has been cured

has been curing

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.The injured were taken to hospital.

2.The conference was attended by 200 delegates.

3.The car is being serviced at the moment.

4.The boy was punished for cheating on the exam.

5.The startup was acquired by a German company.

6.I was shown some manuscripts.

7.The results were published yesterday.

8.The matter was discussed during the meeting.

9.She was told / has been told to leave.

10.I was not invited to the party.

11.The smugglers were caught / have been caught.

12.The child has been cured of his rheumatism.

===========================================================================

162
Conditionals Exercise

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate verb form.

1. If it .................................. the match will be cancelled.

rains

rained

had rained

2. If she passes the exam, she .......................................... the job.

will get

would get

would have got

3. If you exceed the speed limits, you ........................................... fined.

will be

would be

would have been

4. If she arrived now, I ............................................ meet her.

can

could

could have

5. If she ......................................... good grades, she would go to university.

gets

got

had got

6. If I had the money, I ............................................. you.

will help

would help

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would have helped

7. If I see him, I .............................................. him the message.

will give

would give

would have given

8. If she married me, she ............................................ happy.

will be

would be

would have been

9. If I ............................................. to loud music, I get a headache.

listen

listened

had listened

10. If she ............................................... prompt medical attention, she would have survived.

received

receives

had received

11. If I spoke English, I ......................................... a better job.

can get

could get

could have gotten

12. If I ........................................ you, I wouldn't marry him.

am

were

had been

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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Answers

1.If it rains the match will be cancelled.

2.If she passes the exam, she will get the job.

3.If you exceed the speed limits, you will be fined.

4.If she arrived now, I could meet her.

5.If she got good grades, she would go to university.

6.If I had the money, I would help you.

7.If I see him, I will give him the message.

8.If she married me, she would be happy.

9.If I listen to loud music, I get a headache.

10.If she had received prompt medical attention, she would have survived.

11.If I spoke English, I could get a better job.

12.If I were you, I wouldn’t marry him.

============================================================================

Phrasal Verbs With Talk

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate phrasal verb.

1. He always talks ......................................... his achievements.

off

down

away

2. He always talks ........................................... his competitors.

off

down

out

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3. The boy seemed quite nervous but his mother talked him ............................................ by
telling jokes.

up

out

down

4. We were given two hours to talk the offer ...................................... with our partners.

away

up

over

5. She was against my idea but eventually I managed to talk her ....................................... to my
view.

about

over

round

6. The husband and wife were told to talk ........................................... their differences.

up

over

out

7. The woman threatened to commit suicide by jumping off the building but the police
managed to talk her .......................................... it.

into

out of

out

8. He wasn't keen on buying that overpriced jacket but the salesman talked him
.............................................. buying it.

to

with

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into

9. The charming guy could easily talk his way .......................................... of trouble.

from

out

over

10. I talked ............................................. my concerns with my attorney.

out

over

up

11. I don't know what they are talking .........................................

over

about

up

12. The teacher was angry because the student talked ........................................... to her.

up

back

out

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.He always talks down his achievements.

2.He always talks down his competitors.

3.The boy seemed quite nervous but his mother talked him down by telling jokes.

4.We were given two hours to talk the offer over with our partners.

5.She was against my idea but eventually I managed to talk her round to my view.

6.The husband and wife were told to talk out their differences.

167
7.The woman threatened to commit suicide by jumping off the building but the police
managed to talk her out of it.

8.He wasn’t keen on buying that overpriced jacket but the salesman talked him into buying it.

9.The charming guy could easily talk his way out of trouble.

10.I talked over my concerns with my attorney.

11.I don’t know what they are talking about.

The teacher was angry because the student talked back to her.

==========================================================================

Magic, Magical, Classic, Classical

Fill in the blanks with the correct adjective.

1. Sneezing and a sore throat are .......................................... symptoms of a cold.

classic

classical

Either could be used here

2. The 1929 Packard is a ........................................... car.

classic

classical

Either could be used here

3. ............................................ shoppers wait for special offers and discounts.

Economic

Economical

Either could be used here

4. Good infrastructure is required for the ............................................. development of a


country.

economic

168
economical

Either could be used here

5. I got an ............................................. shock while I was vacuuming the carpet.

electric

electrical

Either could be used here

6. Children must not be allowed to play with ........................................... appliances.

electric

electrical

Either could be used here

7. She is learning ................................................. literature.

classic

classical

Either could be used here

8. ........................................ parties are only interested in protecting their interests.

Politic

Political

Either could be used here

9. He graduated in .......................................... science.

politic

political

Either could be used here

10. It is not ............................................ to talk back to your elders.

politic

political

Either could be used here

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11. It was a .......................................... experience.

magic

magical

12. The magician waved a ........................................... wand.

magic

magical

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.Sneezing and a sore throat are classic / classical symptoms of a cold.

2.The 1929 Packard is a classic / classical car.

3.Economical shoppers wait for special offers and discounts.

4.Good infrastructure is required for the economic development of a country.

5.I got an electric shock while I was vacuuming the carpet.

6.Children must not be allowed to play with electrical appliances.

7.She is learning classical literature.

8.Political parties are only interested in protecting their interests.

9.He graduated in political science.

10.It is not politic to talk back to your elders.

11.It was a magical experience.

12.The magician waved a magic wand.

============================================================================

Gerund Or Infinitive

Fill in the blanks with an ing form or an infinitive.

1. She advised him …………………………. medicine.

170
study

to study

studying

2. They warned us …………………………….. late.

to not be

not to be

Either could be used here

3. Who taught you ……………………………..?

swim

to swim

swimming

4. You must not miss ……………………………… him.

to see

see

seeing

5. I cannot permit you ……………………………..

go

going

to go

6. I suggest …………………………….. a doctor.

consulting

to consult

consult

7. I saw him ……………………………. over the wall.

jump

jumping

171
Either could be used here

8. I can smell something …………………………

to burn

burning

Either could be used here

9. She caught him ……………………………… her letters.

to read

reading

Either could be used here

10. She kept the fire ……………………………………

burning

to burn

Either could be used here

11. They made him …………………………………..

to apologize

apologize

apologizing

12. We found the house ………………………….

to desert

deserting

deserted

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Answers

1.She advised him to study medicine.

2.They warned us not to be late.

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3.Who taught you to swim?

4.You must not miss seeing him.

5.I cannot permit you to go.

6.I suggest consulting a doctor.

7.I saw him jump / jumping over the wall.

8.I can smell something burning.

9.She caught him reading her letters.

10.She kept the fire burning.

11.They made him apologize.

12.We found the house deserted.

=============================================================================

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www.facebook.com/svramanuj
www.facebook.com/englishworld2013

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www.vk.com/englishworld2015

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www.t.me/svramanuj
www.t.me/englishworld2013
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