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Basic Principles of Microfluidics -2

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1

Newton’s Second Law for Fluidics

Newton’s 2nd Law (F= ma) :

• Time rate of change of momentum of a system equal to net force

acting on system

dP

!F =

• dt =

Sum of forces acting on control volume

Rate of momentum efflux from control volume

+

Rate of accumulation of momentum in control volume

2

Navier - Stokes Equation

• Navier-Stokes equation applies when:

(1) There are more than one million molecules

in smallest volume that a macroscopic change

takes place.

(2) The flow is not too far from thermodynamic

equilibrium.

3

Navier - Stokes Equation

dU $

! = "#P + ! g + $# U + #(#iU )

2

dt 3

dU

! = "#P + ! g + $# 2U

dt

dU "P $ 2

=! +g+ " U

dt # #

4

Navier - Stokes in Microfluidics

• Terms become dominant based on physics of scale

• In microfluidics inertial forces dominate due to

small dimensions, even though velocity can be

high

dU "P $ 2

=! +g+ " U

dt # #

dU 1

= ! #P

dt "

5

VISCOSITY

6

Viscosity

of the fluid to the flow

7

Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of resistance (friction)

of the fluid to the flow.

8

Basic Properties - Viscosity

Fluids and gases are very different

• Fluids become less viscous as temperature

increases

• Gases become more viscous at temperature

increases

9

Viscosity in Gases and Fluids

• Gases 3

(T0 - constant) " T % 2

! = !0

(T0 - constant) $# T0 '&

• Fluids

η ∼ η0 e − (Τ − Τ0)

10

Interfaces and Surface Tension

11

Interfaces

• Interface: Geometric Surface that delimits 2

fluids

• Separation depends on molecular

interactions and Brownian diffusion

12

Interfaces

• Interface: Geometric Surface that delimits 2

fluids

• Simplified view:

At interface:

different energies

Interaction between

molecules

13

Interfaces

• If U is the total cohesive energy per

molecule and d is a characteristic molecular

dimension, d2 is its surface, then the energy

loss (surface tension) is given by:

U

! = 2

2d

14

Laplace’s Law

• Minimization of surface energy, create

curvature of fluids on other surfaces (fluids)

• Curvature 1/R

• Laplace’s Law, the change in pressure is

related to the curvature of the surface.

For a sphere: ∆P = 2 (γ/R)

For a cylinder: ∆P = γ/R

15

Droplet on a Surface of Two Properties

Simulations

16

Coarsening

• Two Droplets linked by a precursor film

17

Coarsening

• Two Droplets linked by a precursor film

18

Contact Angle

• Surface tension (force per length)

• Angle is determined by the balance of

forces at the point of interface

Hydrophilic Hydrophobic

19

Contact Angle

• Surface tension (force per length)

• Angle is determined by the balance of

forces at the point of interface

Oil on Water

20

Hydrophilic - Hydrophobic

21

Surface Tension

• Droplet on a surface

– Forces on cross section of drop

– Surface tension along periphery

– Pressure on section area

– Pressure difference outside/inside drop

r

! = "P

2

22

Forces - Capillary Effects

• A wetting fluid will rise in a capillary tube

• Equilibrium: pressure drop across meniscus

• Surface tension

• Viscosity

2! Cos(" )

h=

# gr

23

Capillary Force

24

Capillary Forces

25

Capillary Forces

• Small Channel (capillary) - Surface tension draws fluid of density ρ into

the channel of radius ( r)

F = 2! r" Cos(# )

• θ = contact angle

γ = surface tension (N/m)

2! Cos(" )

h=

# gr

26

Forces - Capillary Effects

27

28

Capillary Forces

29

Droplet on Surfaces

30

Droplet on Irregular Surfaces

r: roughness

f: ratio of contact angle to the total horizon surface

Young’s critical angle cos(θ) = (f-1) / (r-f)

31

Wettability and Roughness

32

Reynolds Number

33

Fluids - Types of Flow

• Laminar Flow (Steady)

• Energy losses are dominated by viscosity effects

• Fluid particles move along smooth paths in laminas or layers

• Turbulent

• Most flow in nature are turbulent!

• Fluid particles move in irregular paths,

somewhat similar to the molecular

momentum transfer but on a much

larger scale

• Reynolds Number

• Re is a measure of turbulence

34

Reynolds Number

Reynolds number (Re) = inertial forces / viscous forces

Implies inertia relatively important

1

mVD2

( ! AL)VD L

Re = 2 Re = Re = !VD

1

!VD A "A "

2

VD = Drag velocity, L = characteristic length, η= viscosity, ρ = density

Re < 2100 : laminar (Stokes) flow regime – slow fluid flow, no inertial effects

– laminar flow in microfluidics

– slow time constants, heavy damping

Re > 4000 : unstable laminar flow - turbulent flow regime

35

High and Low Reynolds number fluidics

interaction between the wall and the fluid is

strong, and there is no turbulences or vortices

36

37

Is this Flow Turbulent?

Channel Geometry - Use a characteristic length : Dh

!

Re = VDh

"

Dh is a geometric constant

38

Is this Flow Turbulent?

39

Mixing

Re = 12 and Re = 70

Cycle 1

Cycle 2

Cycle 3

40

Microchannels Cross Sections

41

Re and Size

42

Re - Some examples

Re

Friction factor ~ 1/ Re

43

Human Circulatory System

44

Flow associated with Skin

45

Knudsen Number

• Knudsen number assumes that we can treat the material as a

“continuum”

• Continuum hypothesis holds better for liquids than gases

also,

!mfp !" M

Kn = Kn = ( )

Dh 2 Re

λmfp= mean free path of molecules, Dh = hydraulic diameter

• Kn measures deviation of the state of the material continuum

Kn< 0.01 continuum

0.01 < Kn < 0.1 slip flow

0.1 < Kn < 10 transition region

10 < Kn molecular flow

46

The Smallest Length Scale of a Continuum

High Re Low Re

M !"

Kn =

Re 2 47

Stokes - Einstein Diffusion

Diffusion of a particle

(gas, fluid) η

K BT

Translational Diffusivity Dt =

6!"a

K BT

Dr =

Rotational Diffusivity 8!"a 3

48

Diffusion in Fluids

• Very short diffusion times

x = 2D! !=

1 x2

2 D

D = diffusion constant

X = diffusion length

τ = diffusion rate

• Highly predictable diffusion has enabled a new class of

microfluidic diffusion mixers

49

Fluid Squeeze

50

Squeezed film damping

• Squeeze a film by pushing on the plates (one is not moving) Viscous drag is opposing the motion of the

fluid

• Beam displacement

"U 2

"U F4

! 2 + EI 4 = P +

• Flow of fluid (Reynolds equation) "t "u L

Knudsen number, K,

is the ratio of the mean free path to gap

d(Ph)

12! = "{(1 + 6k)h 3 P"P}

dt

dU 96!W 3

P=b b= 4 3 L

• Squeeze number: relative importance of viscous to spring forces dt " h

51

Concluding Remarks

52

Summary

• Re = turbulent / viscous stresses

• Re < 2100 : laminar (Stokes) flow regime,

slow fluid flow, no inertial effects

• laminar flow in microfluidics

• slow time constants, heavy damping

• Re > 4000 : turbulent flow regime

53

Fluid Behavioral

What happens when the fluid is on the micro -

nano scale?

We discussed scaling - this is a review

Quantities proportional L3

• Inertia, buoyancy, etc.

Quantities proportional L2

• Drag, surface charge, etc.

Quantities proportional L1

• Surface tension

54

Who “Rules”

55

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