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Addis Ababa University

Institute of Technology
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department of Water supply & Environmental
Engineering (PG)
Waste Water Assignment
on
Sedimentation of Column settling test
By: Ashenafi Zinabie
ID no. GSR/1340/08

Submitted to: Dr. Gashaw Y.


8/26/2013
Flocculent Settling (Type 2)
Introduction

In practice, the actual settling performance cannot be adequately predicted because


of unrealistic assumptions on ideal discrete particle settling. Under quiescent
conditions, suspended particles in water or wastewater exhibit a natural tendency
to agglomerate. Also, suspended solids in wastewater are not discrete particles and
vary more than light and small particles, as they contact and agglomerate and grow
in size. As coalescence of flocculation occurs, including chemical coagulation and
biological flocs, the mass of the particles increases and they settle faster. This
phenomenon is called flocculent or type 2 sedimentation.
The flocculation process increases removal efficiency but it cannot be adequately
expressed by equations. Settling-column analysis is usually used to determine the
settling characteristics of flocculated particles. A column can be of any diameter
and equal in length to the proposed clarifier. Satisfactory results can be achieved
with 15 cm (6 in) diameter plastic tube 3 m (10 ft) in height (Metcalf and Eddy,
Inc. 1991). Sampling ports are uniformly spaced (45 to 60 cm or 1.5 to 2 ft) along
the length of the column. The test suspension is placed in the settle-column and
allowed to settle in a quiescent manner. The initial suspended solids concentration
is measured. Samples are withdrawn from the sampling ports at various selected
time intervals from different depths. Analyses of SS are performed for each
sample, and the data used to calculate the percentage of removal is plotted as a
number against time and depth. Between the plotted points, curves of equal percent
removal are drawn.

Batch Settling Column Test for Type one Settling


Depth of column is not a factor in the analysis (about 2 m)
Diameter of column is about 200 mm

Figure batch settling column test for type 1 settling.

Procedure:

1. Height of the port is measured


2. Suspension to be tested is placed in the column
Mixed completely to ensure uniform distribution of particles

3. At time=0, a portion of the sample is removed from the port


TSS analysis is carried out in order to determine the initial TSS concentration
4. The suspension is allowed to settle
5. Intermittent samples are removed at appropriate time intervals
For each sample withdrawn,
TSS analysis must be performed in order to determine the fraction remaining in
suspension at each time interval
6. Settling velocity at each time interval (V=H/t; V’=H/t’; V’’=H /t’’….) fraction
with settling velocity less than stated vs terminal settling velocity

Type 2 – Flocculent Settling (settling of flocculent particles in dilute suspension)


Chemical precipitates formed in coagulation and other destabilization processes
tend to agglomerate while settling as a result of inter particle collisions
As a result;
→their sizes change continually (increases)
→their shapes change continually
→their specific gravity change (as a result of entrapment of water in interstitial
spaces)
As their size increases, they settle at a faster velocity STOKE’s law not applicable
impossible to develop a general formula for determining settling velocities of
flocculent particles. To determine the settling characteristics suspension of
flocculent particles batch settling column test must be performed.
In this case, Minimum Diameter of column about 150 - 200 mm (to minimize
sidewall effects)
Height of column is the depth of the proposed tank where as Sampling ports are
provided at equal intervals in height.

Figure of column test for flocculent settling

Procedure:
1. Suspension to be tested is placed in the column
Mixed completely to ensure uniform distribution of particles
3. At time=0, a portion of the sample is in order to determine the initial TSS
concentration
4. The suspension is allowed to settle
5. At periodic time intervals, samples are removed through the ports located in
different heights.
For each sample withdrawn at each depth and for each time,
TSS analysis must be performed in order to determine the fraction remaining in
suspension at each time interval
6. Percent removals Xij= mass fraction removed (at ith depth at jth time interval) =
(1- Cij/C0) x 100

7. Percent removal lines (isoremoval lines) are drawn by interpolation.


Figure isoremoval line from settling analysis
To find the total removal at any chosen time;
% removal of completely removed fraction and
% removal of partially removed fraction is determined as below step.
Initially;
a vertical line from the chosen time is projected upward.
% removal of completely removed fraction
% read at chosen time % of particles that are completely removed. And
% read at chosen time is % of particles having Average settling velocity greater
than Design settling velocity.
Also Median lines are drawn between the percent removal lines
Average depth reached read from the intersection point of vertical line and drawn
median line

% partially removed= average depth reached by fraction x Fraction


Total depth

References:
1. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations, by Assist. Prof. Bilge Alpaslan Kocamemi
Marmara University Department of Environmental Engineering Istanbul, Turkey

2. Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems March 22, 2010 Edition,
Environmental and public health through leadership, partnership and science.
3. Water Supply and Environmental Engineering Department Wastewater Treatment
1. Systems Module.
4. Water supply and sanitary Engineering, by Gurcharan Singh
5. Water work engineering Planning, Design and Operation. Syed R. Qasim. Edward M.
Motley Guang Zhu.