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- Topic and General Objective

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Factor Analysis

Homework

Scale construction -1

• You are considering developing a scale to

measure trait X. You sample 12 items from

the domain of “X-ness” in scale A and find

that their average variance is .25 and that

their average covariance is .10.

• What is the variance of this 12 item test?

• What is the alpha reliability of this test?

• What is the average interitem correlation?

Scale Construction-2

• Another set of 10 items (B), sampled from a

similar domain has an average variance of .3

and an average covariance of .05.

• What is the variance of this set of items.

• What is the alpha for this set of items.

• What is the average correlation for this set?

Scale Construction-3

• The average covariance of between the items

of set A and set B is .03.

• What is the average correlation between

items in sets A and B?

• What is the covariance of sets A and B?

• What is the correlation between set A and B

Scale Construction-4

• Given the two subscales found previously,

what is the variance of the composite scale

made up of subscale A and subscale B?

• What is the alpha reliability of this

composite?

• What is the general factor saturation of

this composite (how much of the total test

variance is a general factor)?

Scale construction-5

• What is the correlation of an average item in

subtest A with the total score on scale A?

• What is the correlation of an average item in

subtest B with the total score on scale B?

• What is the correlation of an average item in

subtest A with the total score on the composite

of subtests A and B?

Scale construction-6

and item covariances of 0, what is the

correlation of an item with the total scale?

• For a 10 item scale with item variances of 1

and item covariances of 0, what is the

correlation of an item with the total scale?

Factor Analysis -1

correlation matrix from subset A are all

.632.

• What is the communality for each item?

• What is the eigen value of this factor?

Factor Analysis -2

• Consider the following factor loading matrix

F1 F2 F3 h2

V1 .9 .0 .0

V2 .8 .0 .0

V3 .7 .0 .0

V4 .0 .7 .4

V5 .3 .6 .0

V6 .0 .5 .0

V7 .0 .0 .5

V8 .0 .0 .4

V9 .0 0 .3

eigen

value

Factor Analysis -3

• Draw the structure associated with this factor matrix

• Find the correlations between the variables.

F1 F2 F3

V1 .8 .0 .0

V2 .7 .0 .0

V3 .6 .0 .0

V4 .0 .7 .0

V5 .0 .6 .0

V6 .0 .5 .0

V7 .0 .0 .5

V8 .0 .0 .4

V9 .0 0 .3

Factor Analysis -4

• Consider the following factor loading matrix with a

second level factor of with loadings of .9, .8 and .7

• What are the correlations between V1,V2,V3, and V5?

• Draw the structure. F1 F2 F3

V1 .8 .0 .0

V2 .7 .0 .0

V3 .6 .0 .0

V4 .0 .7 .0

V5 .0 .6 .0

V6 .0 .5 .0

V7 .0 .0 .5

V8 .0 .0 .4

V9 .0 0 .3

Psychometric Theory

Homework 3

Scale construction-1

• You are considering developing a scale to measure trait

X. You sample 12 items from the domain of “X-ness”

and find that their average variance is .25 and that their

average covariance is .10.

• Vt = k*Va + k*(k-1)*Ca =

• Alpha = {(Vt-∑Va)/Vt}*{k/(k-1)}

Scale Construction-2

• Another set of 10 items (B), sampled from a

similar domain has an average variance of .3

and an average covariance of .05.

• What is the variance of this set of items.

• Vt = k*Va + k*(k-1)*Ca =

• Alpha = {(Vt-∑Va)/Vt}*{k/(k-1)}

• rxy = cxy/sqrt(Vx*Vy) = .05/sqrt(.30*.30) = .167

Scale Construction-3

• The average covariance of between the items of

set A and set B is .03.

• What is the average correlation between items

in sets A and B?

• rxy = cxy/sqrt(Vx*Vy) = .03/sqrt(.25*.3) = .1095

• C = k * k * c => 12 * 10 * .03 = 3.6

xy x y xy

• rxy = cxy/sqrt(Vx*Vy) => rab = 3.6/sqrt(16.2*7.5) = .327

Scale Construction-4

• Given the two subscales found previously, what is

the variance of the composite scale made up of

subscale A and subscale B?

• V(a+b) = Va + Vb + 2Cab = 16.2 + 7.5 + 2* 3.6 = 30.9

• What is the alpha reliability of this composite?

• Alpha = {(Vt-∑Va)/Vt}*{k/(k-1)}

composite (how much of the total test variance is a

general factor)?

General factor of two scales

A B A B

A kava+ka*(ka-1)ca ka*kb *cab

A B A B

12*12 12*10 = 14.52

Vg= A ka* ka *cab ka*kb *cab = A *.03 *.03 Vg/Vt=

12*10 10*10 14.52/30.9=

B ka*kb *cab kb* kb *cab

B *.03 *.03 .47

Scale construction-5

• What is the correlation of an average item in subtest A

with the total score on scale A?

• rxy = cxy/sqrt(Vx*Vy)

total score on scale B?

Scale Construction -5c

• What is the correlation of an average item

in subtest A with the total score on the

composite of subtests A and B?

• rxy = cxy/sqrt(Vx*Vy)

• raAB = 1.65/sqrt(30.9*.25) = .59

Scale construction-6

• For a 5 item scale with item variances of 1

and item covariances of 0, what is the

correlation of an item with the total scale?

• rxy = cxy/sqrt(Vx*Vy)

• rxt = 1/sqrt(1*5) = .44

and item covariances of 0, what is the

correlation of an item with the total scale?

• rxt = 1/sqrt(1*10) = .312

Factor Analysis -1

• The item loadings on the first factor of the

correlation matrix from subset A are all .632.

• What is the communality for each item?

• communality is amount of variance in an item

accounted for by all the factors = ∑fi2 = .6322 = .4

• Eigen value is the amount of variance in all the items

accounted for by a factor (sum over items)

Factor Analysis -2

• Consider the following factor loading matrix

F1 F2 F3 h2

V1 V2 V3 V5

V1 .9 .0 .0 .81

V2 .8 .0 .0 .64 V1 .81

V3 .7 .0 .0 .49

V4 .0 .7 .4 .65

V2 .72 .64

V5 .3 .6 .0 .45 V3 .63 .56 .49

V6 .0 .5 .0 .25

V7 .0 .0 .5 .25

V5 .27 .24 .21 .45

V8 .0 .0 .4 .16

V9 .0 0 .3 .09

eigen

2.03 1.10 .66

value

Factor Structure -2

F1 F2 F3

.5 .4

.3 .7 .6 .5 .4 .3

.9 .8 .7

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9

Factor Analysis 3

orthogonal factors

F1 F2 F3

.7 .6 .5 .5 .4 .3

.8 .7 .6

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9

Correlation matrix of

uncorrelated factors

[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8] [,9]

[1,] 1.00 0.56 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.00

[2,] 0.56 1.00 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.00

[3,] 0.48 0.42 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.00

[4,] 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.42 0.35 0.00 0.0 0.00

[5,] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.42 1.00 0.30 0.00 0.0 0.00

[6,] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.30 1.00 0.00 0.0 0.00

[7,] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.3 0.24

[8,] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.30 1.0 0.20

[9,] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.24 0.2 1.00

Factor Analysis -4

• Consider the following factor loading matrix with a

second level factor of with loadings of .9, .8 and .7

• What are the correlations between V1,V2,V3, and V5?

F1 F2 F3

V1 V2 V3 V5

V1 .8 .0 .0

V2 .7 .0 .0 V1 .64

V3 .6 .0 .0

V2 .56 .49

V4 .0 .7 .0

V5 .0 .6 .0 V3 .48 .56 .36

V6 .0 .5 .0 V5 .35 .30 .26 .36

V7 .0 .0 .5

V8 .0 .0 .4

V9 .0 0 .3

Correlation matrix of

correlated factors

[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8] [,9]

[1,] 1.00 0.56 0.48 0.40 0.35 0.29 0.30 0.25 0.20

[2,] 0.56 1.00 0.42 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.26 0.22 0.18

[3,] 0.48 0.42 1.00 0.30 0.26 0.22 0.23 0.19 0.15

[4,] 0.40 0.35 0.30 1.00 0.42 0.35 0.24 0.20 0.16

[5,] 0.35 0.30 0.26 0.42 1.00 0.30 0.20 0.17 0.13

[6,] 0.29 0.25 0.22 0.35 0.30 1.00 0.17 0.14 0.11

[7,] 0.30 0.26 0.23 0.24 0.20 0.17 1.00 0.30 0.24

[8,] 0.25 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.17 0.14 0.30 1.00 0.20

[9,] 0.20 0.18 0.15 0.16 0.13 0.11 0.24 0.20 1.00

Orthogonal factors

Loadings:

Factor1 Factor2 Factor3

[1,] 0.70 0.30 0.25

[2,] 0.61 0.26 0.22

[3,] 0.52 0.22 0.19

[4,] 0.24 0.63 0.18

[5,] 0.21 0.54 0.16

[6,] 0.17 0.45 0.13

[7,] 0.17 0.15 0.56

[8,] 0.14 0.12 0.46

[9,] 0.11 0.10 0.37

2 level factor solution

g

.9 .8 .7

F1 F2 F3

.7 .6 .5 .5 .4 .3

.8 .7 .6

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9

Oblique factors

Structure Matrix Factor correlations

Factor1 Factor2 Factor3

[1,] 0.8 0.0 0.0 [,1] [,2] [,3]

[2,] 0.7 0.0 0.0 [1,] 1.00 0.72 0.63

[3,] 0.6 0.0 0.0 [2,] 0.72 1.00 0.56

[4,] 0.0 0.7 0.0 [3,] 0.63 0.56 1.00

[5,] 0.0 0.6 0.0

[6,] 0.0 0.5 0.0

[7,] 0.0 0.0 0.6

[8,] 0.0 0.0 0.5

[9,] 0.0 0.0 0.4

Schmid-Leiman

orthogonalization

g factor Factor1 Factor2 Factor3 h2 u2

[1,] 0.72 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.64 0.36

[2,] 0.63 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.49 0.51

[3,] 0.54 0.26 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.64

[4,] 0.56 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.49 0.51

[5,] 0.48 0.00 0.36 0.00 0.36 0.64

[6,] 0.40 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.25 0.75

[7,] 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.36 0.64

[8,] 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.25 0.75

[9,] 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.29 0.16 0.84

Schmid Leiman

g factor + orthogonal primaries

g

.56 .48

.40

.72 .63 .54 .42 .35

.28

F1' F2' F3'

.35 .26

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9

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