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THE PREVALENCE OF Babesia bovis IN CATTLE SLAUTHERED

AT BODIJA ABATTOIR AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE


HAEMATHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CATTLE SLAUGHTERED
AT BODIJA ABATTOIR

BY

ISHOLA AYOKUNLE AKINYEMI


HNDAH/2007/1192

A PROJECT WORK SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT


FOR THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER
NATIONAL
DIPLOMA IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY

OF

FEDERAL COLLEGE OF ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION


TECHNOLOGY, MOOR PLANTATION,
IBADAN.
JULY, 2010.

CERTIFICATION

I Mr. A. A. O. Ekemezie certify that this project was carried out by

Akande Abiola Rashidat with the Matric No NDAH/07/3276 of the

Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Moor

Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

Mr. Alfred A. O Ekemezie


………………………………….. Supervisor
Signature
Bsc, Msc ( Agronomy) ( Ib)

……………………………………….

Date

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ABSTRACT

The research study was carried out between November 2009 to

January 2010 to investigate the prevalence of Babesia bovis in

slaughtered cattle at Bodija abattoir. During the course of the project,

a total number of one hundred (100) blood samples were collected

from examining different breeds of cattle comprising seventy one (71)

White Fulani, seventeen (17) Sokoto gudali and twelve (12) Ndama.

Blood samples of about 3mls were collected from each of the

animal and they were being slaughtered into EDTA bottle and taking

to the laboratory for analysis using Giemsa stain method of Garcia,

(2003). Haematological parameters determined include Packed Cell

Volume, Haemoglobin concentration and Red Blood Cell Count, White

Blood Cell Count and the Differentials White Blood Cell Count

The result of the study revealed that majority of the cattle

slaughtered at the abattoir were predominantly White Fulani. 76% of

total cattle slaughtered were cow while 24% were bull. More of White

Fulani cattle were slaughtered at the abattoir compared to the other

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breeds of cattle identified. More female cattle (Cow) were slaughtered

at the Bodija abattoir. Though, Babesia infection was discovered in

some identified cattle slaughtered. However, high prevalence was

observed in Sokoto gudali breeds of cattle.

Babesia bovis infection in the cattle resulted in reduced value of

Packed Cell Volume (PCV) Haemoglobin Concentration (HB), Red

Blood Cell (RBC) of the slaughtered animal and an increase of the

Lymphocyte and Neutrophils. Though some blood parameters like

PCV, Hb, and Rbc of some of the examined cattle were within the

normal range. This may be due to the fact that the infections is just

setting in and yet to destroy the Rbcs. It was thus recommended that

daily routine activities should be carried out to control ticks.

Also, further research study during rainy season should be carried out

for the prevalence of Babesia bovis in cattle slaughtered at Bodija

abattoir because the tick vector reproduce very well during rainy

season. Indigenous method of tick control and Babesia infection

should also be researched into.

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DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to GOD ALMIGHTY. The creator of

Heaven and Earth for his mercy that endures over my life throughout

the period of my study. It is dedicated to my parent who taught me

that even the largest task can be accomplished if it is done one step

at a time. It is also dedicated to my siblings (Olaoluwa and

Oluwagbemiga) and the Goshen Militia Brigade Band.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my

supervisor, Mr. Alfred A. O Ekemezie. His sage, advice, insightful

criticism and patient encouragement aided in writing of this project in

innumerable ways. I would like to thank my parent Mr. and Mrs. M. A

Ishola steadfast support of this project was greatly needed and deeply

appreciated.

I would also like to thanks Dr. O. G Fasanmi for his support and

guidance. Appreciation also goes to my project mates (Abiola Akande

and Abiola Olatunbosun) for their consistency support and

cooperation.

In addition, my sincere appreciation also goes to Ishola’s Family

at large, My colleagues, All the 2009/2010 HND 2 Animal Health

Student, especially the school II members. My gratitude also goes to

Olayemi Akinwale, Temitope Yusuf, ololade Okeniyi, Ropophen and all

my well wisher.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of contents v

List of tables viii

Abstract ix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Specific objective 2

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review 3

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2.1 Background 3

2.2 Blood 3

2.2.1 Function of blood 4

2.3 Babesiosis 4

2.3.1 Pathogenesis 7

2.3.2 Aetiology 7

2.3.3 Geographic distribution of bovine Babesiosis 8

2.3.4 Epidermiology 8

2.3.5 Transmission 10

2.3.6 Incubation period 11

2.3.7 Life cycle in the host and vector 12

2.3.8 Vertebrate cycle 12

2.3.9 Biological vector host cycle 12

2.3.10 Clinical signs

13

2.3.11 Postmortem lesions

14

2.3.12 Diagnosis 15

2.4 Identification of the agent/parasite 16

2.4.2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 17

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2.4.3 Serological test 18

2.5 Treatment 18

2.6 Prevention and control 19

2.7 Economic importance 21

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and method 22

3.1 Breed of cattle observed 22

3.2 Blood sample collection 23

3.3 Materials used 23

3.4 Laboratory method 24

3.5 Haematological parameters 24

3.6 Determination of Packed Cell Volume 25

3.7 Total Red Blood Cell Count 25

3.8 Total White Blood cell Count 26

3.9 Differential White Blood Cell Count 26

3.10 Haemoglobin determination (cyanmethaemoglobin method)

27

3.11 Examination of Babesia bovis by Giemsa stain 27

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Results 29

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4.1 Discussion 36

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Conclusion and Recommendation 38

REFERENCES 40

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1: Dominant breed of cattle examined at the abattoir 30

2. Sex distribution of cattle examined at the abattoir 31

3 Prevalence of Babesia bovis in slaughtered cattle at the 32

Bodija abattoir

4 Packed cell volume , Haemoglobin concentration and Red 33

Blood Cell Count of cattle position for Babesia bovis

5 Differential white blood cell count of infected slaughtered 35

Cattle positive for Babesia bovis

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