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This document is the user’s guide for a Windows compatible Fortran computer program named
hyper_ftn.exe which can be used to determine the characteristics of impulsive maneuvers from a circular Earth park orbit to a departure hyperbola. The algorithm in this program is based on the equations derived in Chapter 4 of Richard Battin’s classic text, Astronautical Guidance, and Chapter 11 of An Introduction to the Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics, also written by Professor Battin and published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).
The Earth departure trajectory for interplanetary missions is usually defined by a “targeting specification” which consists of twice the specific (per unit mass) orbital energy, and the right ascension and declination of the outgoing asymptote. These numbers may be supplied by a
spacecraft customer or determined with a patched-conic or more sophisticated trajectory analysis computer program that solves Lambert’s problem for an interplanetary mission.

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This document is the user’s guide for a Windows compatible Fortran computer program named

hyper_ftn.exe which can be used to determine the characteristics of impulsive maneuvers from a

circular Earth park orbit to a departure hyperbola. The algorithm in this program is based on the

equations derived in Chapter 4 of Richard Battin’s classic text, Astronautical Guidance, and Chapter 11

of An Introduction to the Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics, also written by Professor Battin

and published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

The Earth departure trajectory for interplanetary missions is usually defined by a “targeting

specification” which consists of twice the specific (per unit mass) orbital energy C3 , and the right

ascension and declination of the outgoing asymptote. These numbers may be supplied by a

spacecraft customer or determined with a patched-conic or more sophisticated trajectory analysis

computer program that solves Lambert’s problem for an interplanetary mission.

The hyper_ftn software determines the orbital elements and state vectors of the park orbit and

departure hyperbola at injection, and the inertial injection delta-v vector and magnitude. This

information can be used as initial guesses for other trajectory simulations.

This computer program assumes that the hyperbolic targets and orbital characteristics are in the same

Earth-centered-inertial (ECI) coordinate system. For example, targeting specs are often provided or

computed in an Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000 coordinate system (EME2000). For this

situation, the state vectors and orbital elements computed by this code will also be with respect to the

EME2000 coordinate system.

Program execution

The hyper_ftn program will interactively prompt the user for the park orbit altitude and orbital

inclination, and the departure hyperbola characteristics. These prompts appear as follows;

185.2

(0 <= inclination <= 180)

28.5

(C3 > 0)

9.28

(0 degrees <= right ascension <= 360 degrees)

352.59

(-90 degrees <= declination <= +90 degrees)

2.27

Please note the proper units and valid data range for each input.

page 1

Program Output

The following is the hyper_ftn program output for this coplanar example.

===================================================

Interplanetary Injection from a Circular Park Orbit

===================================================

-----------------------------------

c3 9.28000000000000 km**2/sec**2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

0.6563460000D+04 0.0000000000D+00 0.2850000000D+02 0.0000000000D+00

0.1767767337D+03 0.2507502395D+02 0.2507502395D+02 0.8819805229D+02

-.6072921967D+04 -.2106409916D+04 0.1327276618D+04 0.6563460000D+04

0.2948684716D+01 -.6379019477D+01 0.3368026112D+01 0.7792960344D+01

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

-.4295263378D+05 0.1152806928D+01 0.2850000000D+02 0.2507502395D+02

0.1767767337D+03 0.3600000000D+03 0.2507502395D+02

-.6072921967D+04 -.2106409916D+04 0.1327276618D+04 0.6563460000D+04

0.4326441938D+01 -.9359582340D+01 0.4941718368D+01 0.1143417954D+02

-------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

page 2

sma (km) eccentricity inclination (deg) argper (deg)

0.6563460000D+04 0.0000000000D+00 0.2850000000D+02 0.0000000000D+00

0.3484032663D+03 0.2145981460D+03 0.2145981460D+03 0.8819805229D+02

-.5950846005D+04 -.2122286481D+04 -.1778296683D+04 0.6563460000D+04

0.3201396630D+01 -.6411885876D+01 -.3060883870D+01 0.7792960344D+01

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

-.4295263378D+05 0.1152806928D+01 0.2850000000D+02 0.2145981460D+03

0.3484032663D+03 0.3600000000D+03 0.2145981460D+03

-.5950846005D+04 -.2122286481D+04 -.1778296683D+04 0.6563460000D+04

0.4697232148D+01 -.9407805389D+01 -.4491065550D+01 0.1143417954D+02

-------------------------------------------------------

The following is the program output for the same identical conditions except the declination of the

departure trajectory is 38.5 degrees. This is a non-coplanar orbital transfer.

===================================================

Interplanetary Injection from a Circular Park Orbit

===================================================

-----------------------------------

c3 9.28000000000000 km**2/sec**2

------------------------------------------------------------

0.6563460000D+04 0.0000000000D+00 0.2850000000D+02 0.0000000000D+00

page 3

raan (deg) true anomaly (deg) arglat (deg) period (min)

0.2625900003D+03 0.3125449088D+03 0.3125449088D+03 0.8819805229D+02

-.4786492762D+04 -.3852869847D+04 -.2307355229D+04 0.6563460000D+04

0.3851654742D+01 -.6290723357D+01 0.2514316273D+01 0.7792960344D+01

-----------------------------------------------------------

-.4295263378D+05 0.1150428249D+01 0.3973894825D+02 0.3127842842D+03

0.2456839863D+03 0.1385560466D+02 0.3266398889D+03

-.4786492762D+04 -.3852869847D+04 -.2307355229D+04 0.6563460000D+04

0.2992807608D+01 -.9546793948D+01 0.5535547831D+01 0.1143417954D+02

-------------------------------------------------

delta-vx -3256.07059068258 meters/seconds

delta-vx 3021.23155826680 meters/seconds

Technical Discussion

The algorithm implemented in this scientific simulation assumes that the spacecraft is initially in a

circular Earth park orbit. Furthermore, the orbital transfer maneuver is assumed to be impulsive which

implies an instantaneous change in velocity but not change in position. In the following discussion, i is

the orbital inclination of the initial circular Earth park orbit and is the declination of the outgoing or

departure hyperbola.

Whenever i , there will be two coplanar opportunities to establish a departure hyperbola that will

satisfy the energy and orientation of the outgoing asymptote. Typically, one injection opportunity will

occur while the spacecraft is ascending and the other while the spacecraft is descending along the park

orbit. For coplanar orbital transfer, the impulse is applied at the perigee of the departure hyperbola.

For the case where i , there will be a single non-coplanar injection opportunity.

This section summarizes the equations used to determine the right ascension of the ascending node

(RAAN) of the park orbit and the injection true anomaly on the park orbit.

page 4

A unit vector is the direction of the departure asymptote is given by

cos cos

sˆ cos sin

sin

where

right ascension of departure asymptote

declination of departure asymptote

The angle between the outgoing asymptote and the spin axis of the Earth is given by

cos1 sˆ zˆ

T

The park orbit right ascension of the ascending node for each opportunity can be determined from

cot

1 180 sin 1

tan i

cot

2 360 sin 1

tan i

The true anomaly on the park orbit for each injection opportunity can be determined from

cos

1 cos1

sin i

cos

2 cos1

sin i

where

1

sin 1

1 rp V

2

In the last equation, rp is the geocentric radius of the park orbit and is the gravitational constant of

the Earth. The velocity vector at infinity V is determined from V C3 .

For a tangential impulsive injection maneuver that occurs at perigee of the hyperbola, the true anomaly

on the hyperbola is zero. Furthermore, since the orbit transfer modeled by this software is coplanar, the

right ascension of the ascending node computed above should be the same for both the park orbit and the

page 5

departure hyperbola. This can be verified by examining the hyperbola’s right ascension of the ascending

node (RAAN) which is computed using the state vector at injection.

The velocity vector at any geocentric position vector r required to achieve a departure hyperbola

defined by V , and is given by

1 1

v h d V sˆ d V rˆ

2 2

where

V2

d

1 cos rp 4

and is the angle between the spacecraft’s position vector and the departure asymptote unit vector

which can be computed using

cos sˆ rˆ

v v h v p

where v p is the inertial velocity vector in the park orbit prior to injection and rˆ r r .

Finally, the scalar injection delta-v is v v . The injection delta-v is also given by

v 2 V2

rp rp

cos cos

ˆi cos sin

sin

where

right ascension of departure asymptote

declination of departure asymptote

The velocity vector of the spacecraft on the initial circular orbit is given by

page 6

ˆ

v0 i

r

The velocity vector at any geocentric position vector r required to achieve a departure hyperbola

defined by v , and is given by

1

v1 v D 1 ˆi D 1 ˆi r

2

where

4

D 1

r v2 1 ˆi ˆi r

and

cos cos sin sin cos i

ˆi sin cos cos sin cos i

r

sin sin i

ˆi sin sin cos cos cos i

cos sin i

In these equations, is the right ascension of the ascending node, i is the orbital inclination, is the

true anomaly at injection, r is the geocentric radius of the park orbit and v C3 .

v v1 v0

The orientation of the park orbit and departure hyperbola at injection is computed using a two-

dimensional grid search involving the park orbit right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN) and the

true anomaly of the impulsive maneuver on the park orbit. During the grid search, hyper_ftn uses a

nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm to find the current minimum delta-v and saves the RAAN and

true anomaly values corresponding to the “best” delta-v.

page 7

Algorithm Resources

“Design of Lunar and Interplanetary Ascent Trajectories”, Victor C. Clarke, Jr., JPL Technical Report

No. 32-30, March 15, 1962.

An Introduction to the Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics, Richard H. Battin, AIAA Education

Series, 1987.

Analytical Mechanics of Space Systems, Hanspeter Schaub and John L. Junkins, AIAA Education

Series, 2003.

“A Computer Simulation of the Orbital Launch Window Problem”, Archie C. Young and Pat R. Odom,

AIAA 67-615, 1967.

“Launch Parameters for Interplanetary Flights”, W. C. Riddell, American Rocket Society Journal,

December 1960.

page 8

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