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CEH 433

Water Resources Engineering


3
Rivers and
Morphometry
Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon
Associate, Civil Engineering Department
FEU Institute of Technology
The River Network
The River Network

The physical
feature of river
network is
variable…
The River Network

The physical
feature of river
network is
variable…
The River Network
Dendritic River Network

This pattern looks like tree branches that develops


in gently sloping basins with fairly uniform rock
type.

The tributaries
flow into the
river at random
forming a
pattern like the
veins of a leaf.
Trellis River Network

It has an appearance of a rectangular grid (almost


perpendicular to each other with confluence of almost 90o).

There is an
alternate band
of hard and soft
rock at right
angles to the
main direction
of the slope.

The main river cuts though the hard rock while the tributaries
cut though the softer rock at more or less right angles.
Radial River Network

Radial drainage patters happens on a dome or volcanic


cone. This pattern resembles the spokes of a wheel.

River radiates
outwards in all
directions from
a high central
point or dome.
Drainage Density
Drainage Density
Drainage Density
River Stream Order
River Stream Order
River Stream Order
River Stream Order
Strahler Number
Strahler Number
Strahler Number
Strahler Number
Strahler Number
Strahler Number
Strahler Number
Use of Strahler Number

Policy Formulation:
1. Environmental
classification and
regulation.
2. Land-use development
3. Housing and park
improvements
4. Fishing regulations
Other River Parameters

Bifurcation Ratio

Length Order Ratio


Sample Problem: 1 km. in length as scaled

Blue: 28 sq.km.

Orange: 24 sq.km.

Red: 23 sq.km.
B C D E

Yellow: 19 sq.km.
X

Fill-out the table on the next slide… Point X is the main drainage outlet
Sample Problem
River Stream Order
AB
Stream Bifurcation Length Order
Order Ratio Ratio BC
1 CD
2 DE
3 CX
4
Point Drainage
5
Density (1/km)
6
A
7
D
X
Vegetation Type

vegetation types as a
function of mean
annual temperature
and precipitation
Vegetation Type

vegetation types as a
function of mean
annual temperature
and precipitation
River Features
River Features
River Features

Areas where the stream flow slows Rapids may form where
and water depth increases are the water flows downhill
called pools. very fast and pushes up
against underwater
Shallower, faster-flowing stream obstacles. This is where
areas are called riffles. These areas you see very turbulent
can usually be identified by looking water flow.
for small waves seen on the surface.

The fast moving water between riffle


areas and pools is called a run.
River Processes

Three river processes:


1. Transportation
2. Deposition
3. Erosion
River Transportation
The load is transported by 4 ways:

Traction: when largest boulders and cobbles


(bedload) roll or slide along the bed.

Saltation: when pebbles, sand and gravel


(bedload) are lifted up by current and bounced
along the bed in a hopping motion.

traction saltation
River Transportation
Solution: water flowing within a river channel
contains acids (e.g. carbonic acid from precipitation)
dissolve the load such as limestone in running water
and removed in solution.

Suspension: very fine particle such as clay and silt


(suspended load) are dislodged and carried by
turbulence in a fast flowing river.

solution suspension
River Deposition
Deposition: when velocity begins to fall, it has less energy
and no longer had competence and capacity to carry all its
load so largest particles, materials begins to be deposited.

When occur?
1. Low discharge during period of low precipitation
2. Less velocity when river enter sea or lake.
3. Shallow water occurs on inside of a meander.
4. The load suddenly increase (debris from landslide)
5. River overflow its bank so velocity outside channel is
reduced. (resulting in floodplain)
River Erosion
Erosion – wearing away of river bed and bank.

There are four main process of erosion:


a. Corrasion: occurs when the river picks up materials and rubs it
along its bed and banks, wearing them away by abrasion, effective
during flood. Major method by which river erodes both vertically
and horizontally.

turbulent eddies in the current


can swirl pebbles around to
form potholes that are hollows
in river bed and pebbles are
likely to become trapped
potholes
River Erosion
b. Attrition: as bedload moved downstream, boulders
collide with other material and the impact may break
the rock into smaller pieces.

c. Hydraulic action: The sheer force of the water as the


turbulent current hits banks (outside of meander)
pushes water into cracks. The air in cracks compressed,
pressure increased and in time bank will collapse.

d. Solution/corrosion: This process in independent of


river discharge and velocity related to chemical
composition of water (e.g. concentration of carbonic
acid)
River Processes: Summary
Hjulstrom Curve
Hjulstrom Curve

The Hjulstrøm curve is a graph used by


hydrologists to determine whether a river
will: erode, transport or deposit sediments.

The graph takes sediment size and channel


velocity into account.
Hjulstrom Curve
Channel Types
Sinuosity
Entrenchment Ratio
Straight Channels
Braided Channel
A braided stream has islands/eyots of deposited material
within the channel.

occurs when the


load contain high
proportion of
coarser sands
and gravel
especially in
semi-arid
environment
Meander Channel
Meander have bends in course of a river channel.

Begin when a river approaches its middle course & gradient channel
is less steep.
Meander Channel
Meandering Parameter

River straightening
River Classification

Physical form or
Morphology

Channel and Bed


Composition
Rosgen River Classification
Rosgen River Classification
Rosgen River & Watershed
Rosgen River & Watershed

River channels have hydraulic models using


HEC-HMS (for Discharges) and
HEC-RAS (for Channels)
Natural Environment…
Quiz

Determine the required


river cross-section area
at Point F, G, H, I, Y and
X if the design mean
velocity in the river is 2.5
m/s for a 50 year return
period peak flood
discharge. The runoff
coefficient is 0.75

Tabulate: travel time, rainfall intensity, drainage


area, peak discharge, cross-section area.
Patterns of Flow
As water flows downhills under gravity, velocity decreases.
This is not only due to friction found along river bed and
banks, but also internal friction of water and air resistance
on the surface.

Two patterns of flow:


1. Laminar flow : horizontal
movement of water

2. Turbulent: a series of erratic


eddies, both vertical and
horizontal, in a downstream
direction.
Patterns of Flow

Helicoidal flow: a corkscrew movement,


in a meander.

It is responsible for
moving material from
the outside of one
meander bend and
depositing on the
inside of the next
bend.