You are on page 1of 6

4 Hrit

The hrit chakra has not been included in the regular six chakras which are
muladhara, swadhi- shthana, manipura, anahata, wishuddha and ajna. The point is
this: Is hrit an independent chakra or a name of the anahata chakra? Let us
investigate the matter. It has been stated that concentration should be done on the
astra-bija (the mantra Hung) in the hridaya, that is, the chakra situated in the
heart region ( - Nilatantra, ch. 5, p. 9). It has been mentioned along with the
swadhi- shthana and navel {manipura), so the chakra in the heart region is anahata.
Hridaya (heart) has also been mentioned as from the navel (manipura) to the heart,
and from the heart to the throat (wishuddha) ( - Todalatantra, ch. 7, p. 14). Here
also it is anahata. Concentra- tion should be done on Goddess Mahamaya in the
twelve-petalled hrit lotus (chakra) ( - Kamadhenutantra, ch. 12, p. 15). Here, the
hrit lotus is clearly anahata. Also, concentration should be done on the bija-
mantra of Ishta- dewata in the luminous hrit lotus having twelve petals ( -
Kamadhenutantra, ch. 13, p. 15). It is anahata which has twelve petals. The anahata
has been clearly indicated in the follow- ing two statements: concentration should
be done on one's own Shakti mantra in the twelve- petalled hrit lotus { - ibid, ch.
15, p. 19); Con- centrating on Kamini (Power) in the pericarp of the twelve-
petalled hrit lotus ( - ibid, ch. 17, p. 23). It is not quite clear in the
statement (Kamadhenutantra, ch. 18, p. 24) 'First con- centrating on Kamini in the
hrit lotus'; but here the hrit lotus may be the anahata because of the previous
statement {ibid., ch. 17, p. 23). In the statement 'Concentrating on the
hutashana ("fire")-bija in the "fire"-region lying inside the hrit lotus' ( -
Kamadhenutantra, ch. 13, p. 16), it is difficult to determine whether the lotus is
hrit or anahata. The 'fire'-region indicates that it is hrit. The hritpatra and
hrit padma indicate the anahata chakra in the following verses: con- centrate on
Shakti in the hritpatra; the hrit lotus is a great region, it is the place of
Brahman and jiwa; the hrit lotus has twelve petals and is luminous; here
concentration should be done on God Shiwa ( - Brihanni'latantra, ch. 8, p. 65). The
nyasa (a mantra process) should be done in the heart with concentration on Kakini (
- Kularnawa, ch. 4, p. 19); here the heart stands for the anahata. In the following
verses anahata is indicated: The twelve-petalled hrit lotus ( - Gandharwatantra,
ch. 8, p. 39); do concentration on Kundalini who is in the form of mantra, along
with luminous Bana-linga, situated in the triangle of hrit ( - ibid, ch. 29, p.
109); the luminous Hring (a bija-mantra of Power) is in the hrit lotus { - ibid.,
ch. 29, p. 112); the nyasa should be done in the hridaya ( - Mantramahodadhi,
4.28); hrit padma ( - Tararahasya, ch. 1, p. 2); the all pure hrit lotus ( -
Bhutashuddhitantra, ch. 2, p. 2); hrit lotus { - ibid., ch. 4, p. 4; ch. 6, p. 6);
'seeing' Brahman in the hrit lotus { - ibid., ch. 5, p. 4); Goddess Mangala arid
others are in the hrit lotus ( - ibid., ch. 5, p. 5); hrit lotus is yoga lotus ( -
ibid., ch. 10, p. 9); concentration on lshtadewata. first in the muladhara, then in
the swadhisthana, then in the manipura, then in the hrit lotus, and thereafter in
the wishuddha chakra ( - ibid., ch. 14, p. 12); the flame-like jiwa is to be
brought from the hridayambhoja
(hrit lotus) into the muladhara where it should be united with kundalini; the
hridayambuja (hrit lotus) with twelve petals in which are the letters from ka to
tha where lies Deity /shwara ( - Sammohanatantra, Part 2, ch. 4, p. 4);
hridayasarasija ( = hrit lotus) ( - Wishwasara- tantra, ch. 1, p. 8); the twelve-
petalled hridaya- sarasija ( - Koulawalitantra, ch. 3, p. 8); the twelve-petalled
hridayambuja ( = hrit lotus) de- corated with the twelve letters from ka to tha
where lies Deity isha { - Sharadatilakatantra, 5.133); Bana-linga is in the hrit
lotus ( - Shaktan-
212
Exposition of the Chakras
andatararigini, 4.34); the twelve-petalled hrit lotus with the 12 letters from ka (
- ibid., 7.14). The terms hridayambhoja (= hrit lotus) ( - Rudrayamala, Part 2, 57.
1,3,33,47; 59.23); hridambhoja ( = hrit lotus) ( - ibid., 57.12,14), hritpankeruha
(= hrit lotus) ( - ibid., 57.14), hritpadma ( = hrit lotus) ( - ibid., 57. 19,42);
hridayabja (= hrit lotus) ( - ibid., 59.24); hridayakamala ( = hrit lotus) ( -
ibid., 59.27); hridayambuja ( = hrit lotus) ( - ibid., 59.28; 60.9); hridabja ( =
hrit lotus) ( - ibid., 60.10); and hridambuja ( = hrit lotus) ( - Shad'amnaya-
tantra, 4.144) - all stand for the anahata. Anahata is also indicated in the
following verses: there is a ten-petalled lotus, then the hrit lotus, and then a
sixteen-petalled lotus ( - Rudrayamala, Part 2, 60.29). Here the hrit lotus is
clearly the anahata. The letters ka-tha are placed in the hridambuja ( = hrit
lotus) ( - Mahanirwanatantra, 5.114). Here also, the hrit lotus stands for the
anahata. Hritsaroruha (= hrit lotus) is decorated with the letters ka- tha and here
is situated Deity Ishwara ( - Purash- charyarnawa, ch. 5, p. 387). Here, the hrit
lotus stands for the anahata. The numerous evidences from the Tantras show that the
hrit lotus in its various names stands for the anahata. It is supported by the
Waidika accounts. It has been stated that hridaya (the lotus situated in the heart
region) has twelve petals ( - Yogachudamanyupani- shad, Mantra 5). Here the lotus
in the heart stands for the anahata. In the heart, prana wayu should be held ( -
Darshanopanishad, 7.12). The heart means the lotus situated in the heart region,
and this lotus here is anahata. It has been stated that the fourth chakra, lying
with its face downwards, is situated in the heart ( - Yogarajopanishad, Mantra 10).
This chakra is the anahata. In the Pouranika accounts, we also find that the hrit
lotus stands for the anahata. The order of the chakras as given here is: adhara
(mula- dhara), manipura, hridaya (hrit lotus), wishuddhi and ajna ( - Shiwapurana,
3.3.28). Here the swadhishthana has not been mentioned. But it is stated that
hridaya, that is hrit lotus, stands between the manipura and wishuddhi. This hrit
lotus is clearly anahata. Further, jiwatman
which is situated in the hridaya (the padma in the heart region) is to be brought
through the brahma nadi to the sahasrara which is above the twelve-petalled lotus
(guru chakra) ( - Shiwa- purana, 3.5.52,53). This hrit padma is the anahata.
Concentration should be done on the sun-coloured (red) lotus, with 12 petals which
are decorated with the 12 letters from ka to tha, and is inside the heart (that is
the hrit lotus) ( - ibid., 5b.29. 136,137). This lotus is clearly anahata. In the
following verses, the hrit lotus stands for the anahata: concentration is to be
done on the letter 'a' lying in the heart (hrit lotus) ( - Brahmapurana, 61.4);
Shiwa is situated in the sahasrara, the eyebrow region (ajna), the palatine region
(talu" chakra), the throat region (wishuddha chakra) and the heart region (hrit
chakra) ( - lingapurana, 2.21.28); The nyasa of the mantra Hang should be done in
the muladhara, of Rang in the hridaya (heart lotus), of Ing in the eyebrow region
(ajna chakra), and Hring in the head region (sahasrara chakra) ( - Dewibhagawata,
7.40.7). In this order - anal region, genital region, navel region, heart region
( - Dewibhagawata, 11.1.43), the hrit lotus in the heart region is anahata. We have
to investigate farther to know whether the hrit is an independent chakra. It has
been stated that mental worship should be done on Power situated in the
hritpundari'ka (hrit lotus) ( - Gandharwatantra, ch. 11, p. 48). Here the
hritpundarika is hrit padma (hrit chakra). Con- centration on Goddess Durga, who is
in the hrit padma (hrit lotus), is to be done ( - Maya- tantra, ch. 8, p. 7). Most
probably, here hrit chakra has been indicated. Hrit padma men- tioned in the
Wishwasaratantra, ch. 3, p. 39, may also be hrit chakra. Concentration should be
done on Shiwa and Power in the hrit padma ( - Mundamalatantra, ch. 6, p. 10), and
on the Goddess Kalika in hridayambhoja (hrit padma) ( - ibid., ch. 6, p. 12). Here
the hrit padma and hridayambhoja may be hrit chakra. It has been stated that hrit
padma should be given as a seat to the Goddess Kalika (in mental worship) ( -
Mahanirwanatantra, 5.143). Jagan- mohana interprets the eight-petalled lotus in the
heart as the seat. In this case it is the hrit
213
The Chakra System
lotus. But it can be interpreted as the anahata chakra. The term hridayambhuja ( -
ibid., 5.130) has been interpreted as hrit padma by the commentator Hariharananda,
and hridaya padma by Jaganmohana. In both cases it means hrit chakra. It has been
stated more clearly in the Shri- krama (quoted in the Yogakalpalatika MS) that the
hrit padma (lotus) has eight petals. More details have been given in the Gitasara
in which it has been stated that the hrit padma has eight petals on which are
situated eight deities, Indra and others; inside it (that is, inside the pericarp)
is the sun, inside the sun is the moon, and inside the moon is the fire; inside the
fire is radiance where a seat is located which is ornamented with jewels, and which
is very bright; on this seat God Narayana is sitting ( - Gitasara, 290-293, quoted
in the Yogakalpalatika MS). It has been stated that in the heart region is the
fourth lotus anahata with twelve petals, and the bright eight-petalled lotus with
its face upwards lies in the interior of the anahata ( - Yogaswarodaya, quoted in
the Amarasanggraha MS). That the eight- petalled lotus (that is, hrit lotus) with
its face downwards is within the shining fourth lotus with twelve petals (i.e.,
anahata) is also stated in the Tattwayogabindu MS. The eight-petalled lotus (i.e.,
the hrit chakra) which is within the anahata is of golden colour, and there is the
celestial wishing-tree (kalpataru) shining red in the pericarp, and at the base of
the tree is a gemmed seat ( - Mridanitantra, quoted in the Amarasanggraha MS).
The existence of the hrit chakra has been mentioned in the Waidika accounts. It has
been stated that Atman is within the golden lotus (hemapunda'arika) ( -
Atmaprabodhopanishad, 1.3). This golden lotus is eight-petalled, subtle, stainless
and untouched by physical impurities ( - Taittiriya Aranyaka, 10.12). The lotus-
like hridaya (that is, hrit-lotus) with its face down- wards is situated both under
(anahata) and above the navel (manipura), and at its boundary is a subtle hole
(sushumna), within which all lies (the whole chakra system) ( - Narayanopanishad,
Mantras 50, 51). This means that the hrit chakra is situated above the manipura and
below the
anahata, and within the sushumna. where all the other chakras lie. In fact, this
hrit chakra belongs to the anahata and forms its lower part. The lotus-like hridaya
in the sushumna also lies with its face downwards ( - Brahmopanishad, Mantra 34).
It is the hrit chakra. It has been stated that the lotus-like hridaya with its face
downwards should be raised upwards by sitkara (pranayama); within the hridaya is
superlight and within it lies the most subtle fire-flame and within that again is
Purusha, who is the Supreme Being ( - Mahopanishad, 1. 12-14). The hridayais the
hrit chakra, which remains usually with its face downwards. Its face should be
turned upwards by special pranayama. In the pericarp of the raised hrit chakra is
'seen' the fire-flame- like Kundalini from which is radiated superlight. In deeper
concentration Purusha - Supreme Consciousness - is revealed within Kundalini. In
the following mantras, the hrit chakra has been indicated: fully opened eight-
petalled hrit ( - Gopalatapinyupanishad, Part 2, Mantra 60); concentration on
Supreme Being within the hritpundarika (hrit lotus) ( - Maitreyyupani- shad, 1.12);
concentration on the universal form of God situated in the hridaya-amburuha (hrit
lotus) ( - Trishikhibrahmanopanishad, Mantra Section, 153); The imperishable
Brahman light is within the hritpundarika (hrit lotus) ( - ibid., Mantra Section
15ndarikathe divine existence in the hridayakamala (hrit lotus) as the internal
sign ( - Mandalabrahmanopanishad, 2.4.4); the lotus which is situated in the heart
region (i.e., the hrit lotus) lies with its face downward ( - Yogatattwopanishad,
Mantra 137). In the Pouranika accounts, hrit padma has also been accepted as a
separate chakra. Krishna says: 'Controlling the mind in the hridaya (heart)' ( -
Bhagawadgita, 8.12), and 'Ishwara (God) is situated in the hrit desha (heart
region)' ( - ibid., 18.61). Here, both 'hridaya' and 'hrit desha' possibly indicate
hrit chakra. In the state- ments - the manifestation of lightning-like splen-
dorous form of Supreme Being in the hritpadma- kosha ( - Bhagawata, 4.9.2) and the
practice of concentration by Dhruwa by fixing the mind in the hridaya ( - ibid.,
4.8.77), the hrit chakra has been indicated. In 'the eight-petalled hritpundarika'
( - Shiwa-
214
Exposition of the Chakras
purana, 3.3.59), the hrit chakra has also been indicated. Moreover, it shows that
the hrit chakra has eight petals. More description of the hrit chakra has been
given here: The excellent hritpankaja (hrit lotus), situated in the hridaya (the
heart region) should be opened by prarca- yama with mantra; in the pericarp of the
lotus, concentration should be done on the sun, moon and fire; a gemmed seat should
be thought of in the pericarp; the lotus should be thought of as a delicate,
beautiful, red like morning sun, in the form of the mantra-letters and with eight
forms of superpower in its petals; concentra- tion on God Wishnu should be done in
this lotus ( - Skandapurana, 2.5.4.21-4). Here, the hrit chakra has been described
as having 8 petals of red colour, in which are situated the eight forms of
superpower; in its pericarp are the sun, moon and fire, and a gemmed seat; it is an
excellent lotus for concentration.
It has been stated in its further exposition that the eight-petalled lotus lying
with its face downwards is within the lotus which forms its outer aspect; 'in its
pericarp is the (circular) sun region within which lies Shiwa in his most subtle
aspect' ( - Skandapurana, 6.29. 153-4). The hrit lotus may have one thousand petals
according to the mode of concentration. It has been stated that concentration on
Ishta- dewata is made in the hrit padma (hrit chakra) which is bright, white and
with one thousand petals ( - Brahmawaiwartapurana, 1.26.8). The thousand-petalled
hritsaroruha ( = hrit padma, i.e. hrit chakra) has also been mentioned in the
Brahmawaiwartapurana, 4.37.10. The hrit chakra has also been described as having
sixteen petals. It has been stated that 'the three nadis (sushumna na, ida and
pingala) have been united in the heart where lies a sixteen-petalled chakra which
is the seat for concentration and mantra-japa; as this chakra arises in the hridaya
(that is, lying in the heart region) it is called the original sixteen-petalled
chakra' ( - Kalikapurana, 55. 32-4).
In another description, it has been stated that 'the pundaraka in the hridaya (the
heart region) is above the navel (mamipura) which is in the nature of spiritual
knowledge, and its
pericarp is untouched by passion; this lotus has eight petals having superpowers,
and is white, and the prana wayus are also there' ( - linga- purana, 1.86.62-4).
The order of the different chakras as given in the verse ( - Skandapurana,
1.2.55.44) is as follows: in the navel (i.e., mani- p;/ra), in the heart (i.e.,
hrit lotus), in the lungs lies the lotus with twelve petals (i.e., anahata). In
this order the hrit lotus stands between the manipura and the anahata; it has been
accepted as an individual chakra. In the following passages, the hrit chakra has
been indicated: the God Shiwa is situated in the hritpundarika (hrit padma) ( -
Shiwa- purana, 1.71.70); concentration on Shiwa and Shakti (Power) situated in the
hritpankaja (hrit padma) ( - ibid., 3.3.54); the worship of Shiwa and Shakti on the
seat within hrit padma by dhyana-yajna (concentration) ( - ibid., 5b. 29.131);
after concentrating on the shining bija-mantra following lying within the hrit-
pankaja (hrit padma) burn all impurities by the directed flames of the bija
radiating in all directions ( - Agnipurana, 23.3); worship splendorous Atman
situated in the hridabja (hrit padma) ( - Garudapurana, 1.18.13); con- centration
on Deity Brahma situated in the pericarp of the hrit padma ( - Padmapurana,
1.15.188); concentration on all-pervading attri- buteless Supreme Being situated in
the hollow of the hrit padma ( - Brahmapurana, 235.20); Brahma saw Krishna
exteriorly in the same form in which he had 'seen' him in the hridayambhoja (hrit
padma) ( - Brahmawaiwartapurana, 4.20. 18); concentration on Supreme Power in the
hridaya (hrit padma) ( - Kalikapurana, 55.26); Shiwa is situated in the
hritpundarika (hrit padma) ( - Sourapurana, 41.81; lingapurana, 1.98.96);
concentration on Supreme Power in the hridambhoja (hrit padma) opened by prana-
yama ( - Dewibhagawata, 7.40.9).
All the above statements indicate the existence of hrit padma as a separate chakra.
Now our findings about the hrit chakra may be summariz- ed as follows. The hrit
chakra, though not included in the six-chakra group, is the fourth chakra, above
the manipura, and lies in the chitrini nadi.
215
The Chakra System
Terminology
The following are the Tantrika terms for the hrit chakra:
1 Hrit padma, mentioned in the Mayatantra, ch. 8, p. 7; Wishwasaratantra, ch. 3, p.
39; Mundamalatantra, ch. 6, p. 10; Maha- nirwanatantra, 5.143; Shrikramasanghita,
quoted in the Yogakalpalatika MS; Gitasara, quoted in the Yogakalpalatika MS. 2
Hritpundari'ka, mentioned in the Gandharwa- tantra, ch. 11, p. 48. 3 Hridayambhoja,
mentioned in the Munda- malatantra, ch. 6, p. 12. 4 Eight-petalled padma, mentioned
in the Yogaswarodaya, quoted in the Amarasang- graha MS; Mridanitantra, quoted in
the Amarasanggraha MS. 5 Eight-petalled Kamala, mentioned in the Tattwayogabindu
MS. 6 Sixteen-petalled padma, mentioned in the Tararahasya, ch. 4, p. 22.
Waidika terms:
1 Hridaya chakra, mentioned in the Soubhagyalakshmyupanishad, 3.4. 2 Hrit padma,
mentioned in the Gopala- tapinyupanishad, Part 2, Mantra 60. 3 Hridaya padma,
mentioned in the Yoga- tattwopanishad, Mantras 137-8. 4 Hridaya kamala, mentioned
in the Mandala- brahmanopanishad, 2.4.4. 5 Hridaya-amburuha, mentioned in the
Trishikhibrahmanopanishad, Mantra Section, Mantra 153. 6 Hridaya padmakosha,
mentioned in the Narayanopanishad, Mantra 50; Brahmopani- shad, Mantra 34;
Mahopanishad, 1.12. 7 Hritpundarika, mentioned in the Maitrey- yupanishad, 1.12;
Trishikhibrahmanopa- nishad, Mantra Section, Mantra 156. 8 Hemapundarika, mentioned
in the Atmaprabodhopanishad, 1.3.
Pouranika terms:
1 Hrit padma, mentioned in the Shiwapurana, 5b.29.131; Padmapurana, 1.15. 188;
3.31.41; Brahmapurana, 235.20; Brahma- waiwartapurana, 1.26.8; Kalikapurana, 18.76;
Garudapurana, 1.23.35. 2 Hritpadmakosha, mentioned in the Bhagawata, 4.9.2. 3
Hritpurdari'ka, mentioned in the Shiwa- purana, 1.71.70; 3.3.59; Sourapurana,
34.59; 41.81; Lingapurana, 1.98.96. 4 Hritpankaja, mentioned in the Shiwapurana,
3.3.54; Agnipurana, 23.3; Skandapurana, 2.5.4.21. 5 Hritsaroruha, mentioned in the
Brahma- waiwartapurana, 4.37.10. 6 Hridabja, mentioned in the Garudapurana,
1.18.13. 7 Hridambuja, mentioned in the Brahma- waiwartapurana, 4.20.30. 8
Hridambhoja, mentioned in the Dewi- bhagawata, 7.40.9. 9 Hridayambhoja, mentioned
in the Brahmawaiwartapurana, 4.20.18; 4.20.32. 10 Hridaya Kamala, mentioned in the
lingapurana, 2.18.36. 11 Hridaya pundarika, mentioned in the lingapurana, 1.86.63.
12 Hridaya (lotus in the heart region), mentioned in the Bhagawadgita, 8.12;
Bhagawata, 4.8.77; Skandapurana, 1.2.55. 44; Brahmawaiwartapurana, 4.20.38;
Kalikapurana, 55.26. 13 Hrit desha (lotus in the heart region), mentioned in the
Bhagawadgita, 18.61. 14 Ashta-patra (lotus with 8 petals), mentioned in the
Skandapurana, 6.29.153. 15 Adi shodasha chakra (Primary sixteen- petalled chakra),
mentioned in the Kalikapurana, 55.33.
Position
The hrit chakra is situated in the heart region above the manipura and just below
the anahata, which is also in the heart region. The hrit chakra is, in fact, a part
of the anahata, forming its inferior aspect. But the hrit chakra should be
considered as an individual chakra. The hrit chakra lies in the chitrini which is
within the sushumna, and the sushumna. within the vertebral column. It is that part
of the
216
Exposition of the Chakras
vertebral column which corresponds to the heart region.
Description
The hrit chakra (Plate 10) has eight petals ( - Shrikrama and Gi'tasara, quoted in
the Yogakalpalatika MS; Yogaswarodaya and Mrida- ni'tantra, quoted in the
Amarasanggraha MS; Tattwayogabindu MS; Soubhagyalakshmyupa- nishad; 3.4;
Gopalatapinyupanishad; Shiwa- purana, 3.3.59; Skandapurana, 2.5. 4.23; lingapurana,
1.86.64). It has also been described as having sixteen petals ( - Tara- rahasya,
ch. 4, p. 22; Kalikapurana, 55.33), and 1000 petals ( - Brahmawaiwartapurana, 1.26.
8; 4.37.10). Usually there are eight petals. In special concentration, the sixteen
and 1000 petals are thought of. Ordinarily, the hrit chakra lies with its face
downward ( - Tattwayogabindu, MS; Narayan- opanishad, Mantra 50; Brahmopanishad,
Mantra 34; Soubhagyalakshmyupanishad, 3.4; Yoga- tattwopanishad, Mantra 137). When
the hrit chakra lies in a downward position it is closely connected with the
anahata, as if by a stalk ( - Yogatattwopanishad, Mantra 138). Its face should be
raised upwards for concentration ( - Dewibhagawata, 7.40.9). This is done by
special pranayama, such as sitkara ( - Mahopa- nishad, 1.12). When it is done the
hrit lotus stands with its face upwards ( - Yogaswarodaya, quoted in the
Amarasanggraha MS; Gopalata- pinyupanishad, Part 2, Mantra 60). The colour of the
eight petals of the hrit chakra is golden ( - Mridanitantra, quoted in
Amarasanggraha MS); also white ( - Linga- purana, 1.86.64), and red ( - verses
quoted by Kalicharana) according to the form of concentration. When the hrit chakra
is thought of as having sixteen or 1000 petals, the colour of the petals is white (
- Tararahasya, ch. 4, p. 22; Brahmawaiwartapurana, 1.26.8). On the eight petals are
situated eight forms of super- power and the mantra-letters of shining red ( -
Skandapurana, 2.5.4.23). According to Swami Sachchidananda the colour of the petals
is shining reddish yellow ( - Pujapradipa).
Inside the pericarp of the hrit chakra, is the circular region of the sun ( -
Skandapurana, 6.29.153; Gitasara, quoted in the Yogakalpa- latika MS), and within
it the (circular) region of the moon and inside that is the (circular) region of
the fire ( - Gitasara, quoted in the Yogakalpalatika MS). The colour of the sun-
region is vermilion, of the moon-region white, and of the fire-region deep red.
Inside it (the fire-region) is the celestial wishing-tree of shin- ing red colour
and at the base of it is a gemmed seat ( - Mridanitantra, quoted in the Amara-
sanggraha MS).
Explanation
The hrit chakra is specially suitable for the practice of concentration, mental
worship and mantra-japa. The chakra should be raised up and opened by pranayama and
thought-con- centration when japa, worship and concentra- tion are to be made here.
It is a special seat for concentration on Ishtadewata. and also other deities.