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LIMIT ANALYSIS AND REDISTRIBUTION OF MOMENTS

Anupam Chakrabarti

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE
ROORKEE, INDIA
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LIMIT ANALYSIS

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 The assumption generally made in limit analysis is that the moment-
curvature relation is an idealised bilinear elasto-plastic relation

Idealised moment-curvature relation

 This has validity only if the section is adequately under-reinforced and the
reinforcing steel has a well-defined yield plateau.
Formation of Plastic hinge
 With the idealised M – ϕ relation, the ultimate moment of resistance (MuR) is assumed to
have been reached at a ‘critical’ section in a flexural member with the yielding of the tension
steel
 On further straining (increase in curvature: ϕ > ϕy), the moment at the section cannot
increase. However, the section ‘yields’, and the curvature continues to increase under a
constant moment (M = MuR)
 In general (with bending moment varying along the length of the member), the zone of
‘yielding’ spreads over a small region in the immediate neighbourhood of the section under
consideration, permitting continued rotation, as though a ‘hinge’ is present at the section, but
one that continues to resist a fixed moment MuR. A plastic hinge is said to have formed at the
section
 If the structure is statically indeterminate, it is still stable after the formation of a plastic
hinge, and for further loading, it behaves as a modified structure with a hinge at the plastic
hinge location (and one less degree of indeterminacy)
the limit state of collapse is reached on account of one of the following reasons:
 formation of sufficient number of plastic hinges, to convert the structure (or a part of it) into a
‘mechanism’
 limitation in ductile behaviour (i.e., curvature ϕ reaching the ultimate value ϕmax, or, in other
words a plastic hinge reaching its ultimate rotation capacity) at any one plastic hinge location,
resulting in local crushing of concrete at that section
Example: Limit analysis

The linear elastic behaviour of the beam is

reached at a load w = w1 and corresponding
maximum bending moment MuR

 By applying superposition to calculate the reaction at Band then solving as ususal,

𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙2
 ⇒ 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = − = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐 = 𝑴𝑴𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖
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𝟖𝟖𝑴𝑴
 i.e., 𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 = 𝟐𝟐𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖
𝒍𝒍
Moment at any section in span ‘AB’
From known moments at supports
Find reaction force RA: ∑ 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 0

𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 × 𝑙𝑙 − + =0
2 8
𝑹𝑹𝑨𝑨 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 𝒍𝒍
Bending moment at any section in span AB
𝑤𝑤1 𝑥𝑥 2
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑥𝑥 − −−− −(2)
2
Bending moment up to limit of elastic phase

Maximum bending moment in the span AB will be where the shear force is zero, i.e.

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥
= 0 ⇒ 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤1 𝑥𝑥 = 0
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
0.375𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙
𝑥𝑥 = = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑
𝑤𝑤1
Substitute ‘x-value’ in equation (2)
2
𝑤𝑤1 × 0.375𝑙𝑙
𝑀𝑀(𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴)𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 0.375𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 × 0.375𝑙𝑙 − = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝑴𝑴𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖
2
(if 0.125𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 2 = 1𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 then 0.0703𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙2 = 0.5624𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 )
Plastic hinge at continuous support
• Now, increase the load on the beam to 𝑤𝑤2 = 𝑤𝑤 > 𝑤𝑤1 , the beam behaves as a two-span beam with a
hinge at support B and the span moment alone increases while the support moment remains constant
at MuR
• Assuming that the support section is sufficiently under-reinforced such that it will not break down prior
to the formation of the next plastic hinge, this phase of behaviour will continue until the peak moment in
the span reaches MuR

• Find out max. bending moment in the AB span for load w2

𝑤𝑤2 × 𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤2 𝑙𝑙 − 𝑥𝑥 2
𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 = 2𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 = −− −(3)
2 2 A B

2
𝑤𝑤2 𝑙𝑙 − 𝑥𝑥 2 𝑙𝑙 − 𝑥𝑥 2
𝑤𝑤2 𝑥𝑥 = ⇒ 𝑥𝑥 =
2 2
𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒
Substitute x value in equation (3)

Limit analysis
𝒘𝒘𝟐𝟐 𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
𝑴𝑴𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖 =
𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏. 𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔

11.656𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢
𝒘𝒘𝟐𝟐 = = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟏𝟏
𝑙𝑙2

Hinged mechanism at ultimate load w = w2

Moment redistribution
• It is generally referred to the transfer of moments from
peak stressed sections to the less stressed sections as
sections of peak moments being reached
• Design viewpoint, the redistributed bending moment
diagram allows to reduce the maximum bending moment
level and a corresponding increase in the lower Two span continuous beam with uniform loading
moments at other location
• It leads to design of a more economical structure and
less congestion of reinforcement at critical sections
• Considering the two-span continuous beam, as a design
problem (rather than an analysis problem), it may be
seen that the designer has several alternative factored
moment diagrams to choose from, depending on the Design moments of resistance
amount of redistribution to be considered
• If the design is to be based on a purely elastic moment
distribution (without considering any redistribution) then
the bending moment diagram to be considered is as
shown in elastic bending moment diagram

Elastic bending moments

(A)
Reduction in peak negative moments

 High support moment 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) demands large section beam or limited cross-section with large amount of
reinforcement

 In such situations, it is desirable to reduce the design moment at the support to the value C1𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) and
correspondingly increase span (positive) moments which are otherwise low
 The % reduction in the support moment given by:
𝛿𝛿𝑀𝑀 = 1 − 𝐶𝐶1 × 100
− −
 Consequent to a reduction in the support moment from 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) to 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) , there is an increase in the design
+ +
(‘positive’) moment in the span region from 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) to 𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) , where the factor 𝐶𝐶2 obviously is greater than
unity. Accordingly, as indicated in Figure

Redistributed moment for design

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢(𝐿𝐿) = 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀_𝐸𝐸 C1< 1 --------------(1)
+ +
𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢(𝐿𝐿) = 𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) C2> 1---------------(2)

where the subscript (L) represents limit analysis. The factor C2 (indicating the increase in the elastic
span moment 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ ) depends on the factor C1. The factor C1is fixed (based on the percentage
reduction desired), and the factor C2 has to be determined for design by considering ‘limit analysis’

x
𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− = 0
2
𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− X
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 −
𝑙𝑙
Moment about section X-X in span AB:
𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 2 l
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑥𝑥 −
2
Max. bending moment
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥
=0
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 = 0 ⟹ 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 − = 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥
𝑙𝑙
Limit analysis (reduced support moment C1M-(E))
𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−
𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑙𝑙 −
𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙
Maximum span moment corresponding to reduced support moment of 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−

This can be calculated from static equilibrium,

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𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−
𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ = − − − −
2 𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 2 2 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙

𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−

𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ = − − − +
2 𝑙𝑙 2 𝑙𝑙 4 2𝑙𝑙

𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−

= − −
2 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 4 2𝑙𝑙

𝟐𝟐
𝒘𝒘𝒖𝒖 𝒍𝒍 𝟏𝟏 𝑪𝑪𝟏𝟏 𝑴𝑴−
𝑬𝑬 𝟏𝟏
∴ 𝑪𝑪𝟐𝟐 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ = + − 𝑪𝑪𝟏𝟏 𝑴𝑴𝑬𝑬−
𝟖𝟖 𝟐𝟐𝒘𝒘𝒖𝒖 𝑳𝑳 𝟐𝟐

Substituting eqn (A) in the above eqn,

2
64 1 𝐶𝐶1
𝐶𝐶2 = −
9 2 8
 This equation is represented graphically in the figure

% reduction in % increase in span

support moment (positive) moment
25 17.3

50 36.1

Relation between reduction in support

moment with increase in span moment
 For the desired moment redistribution to take place, the plastic hinges that
develop must have the required rotation capacities to hold on without inducing
premature failure
Reduction in peak positive moments
• Moment redistribution may also be applied to situation
where positive moments are relatively high and need to
be reduced for economy and less congestion of
reinforcement
arrangement is like shown in figure then the span AB
• The max. span moment from elastic analysis can be moment in AB
redistributed by allowing the first hinge to form in the
span region.
• The reduction in span moment is accompanied by a
corresponding increase in support moment

Elastic factored moment diagram

Redistributed moment
Recommendations of IS Code (IS 456) for Moment Redistribution
Section 37.1.1
 Limit Equilibrium

 The redistributed moments must be in a state of static equilibrium with the factored loads at the limit
state

 Serviceability

 The ultimate moment of resistance (𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢) at any section should not be less than 70 percent of the
factored moment (𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢, max) at that section, as obtained from the elastic moment envelope (considering

 In other words, the flexural strength at any section should not be less than that given by the elastic
factored moment envelope, scaled by a factor of 0.7

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 ≥ 0.7 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒

(Section 37.1.1.b)

 This restriction is aimed at ensuring that plastic hinge formation does not take place under normal
service loads, and even if it does take place, the yielding of the steel will not be so significant as to
result in excessive crack-widths and deflections

 It is mentioned in the Explanatory Handbook to the Code that the

 value of 70% is arrived at as the ratio of service loads to ultimate loads with respect to load
combinations involving a uniform load factor of 1.5, as 1/1.5 = 0.67 ≅ 0.7
 Low Demand for High Plastic Hinge Rotation Capacities

 The reduction in the elastic factored moment (‘negative’ or ‘positive’) at any section due to a particular
combination of factored loads should not exceed 30 percent of the absolute maximum factored
moment (𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢, max), as obtained from the envelope of factored elastic moments (considering all loading
combinations).

 Although the basis for this clause in the Code (Cl. 37.1.1.c) is different from the previous clause, which
is based on the idea of preventing the formation of plastic hinges at service loads, for the case of

 However, in the design of lateral load resisting frames (with number of storeys exceeding four), the
Code (Cl. 37.1.1.e) imposes an additional overriding restriction. The reduction in the elastic factored
moment is restricted to 10 percent of 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢, max. Thus

0.3 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒

𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔
𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 − 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 ≤ �
0.1 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙

 This restriction is intended to ensure that the ductility requirements at the plastic hinge locations are
not excessive
 Adequate Plastic Hinge Rotation Capacity

 The design of the critical section (plastic hinge location) should be such that it is sufficiently under-
reinforced, with a low neutral axis depth factor (xu/d), satisfying

(Section 37.1.1.d)

• where δM denotes the percentage reduction in the maximum factored elastic moment (Mu,max)
elastic at the section

In practice, it is sometimes more convenient to express above equation alternatively as

For singly reinforced rectangular beam sections, the expression for xu/d is given below, which is
repeated here for convenience, with MuR = Mu

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢
, 𝑅𝑅 =
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 2
 Moment Redistribution in Beams

 Low values of xu/d (and, thus large values of δΜ) are generally not possible in beams without resorting
to very large sections, which may be uneconomical. However, even with the extreme case of a
balanced section (with xu = xu,max), it can be shown, by applying

and

• Thus, it is seen that a limited moment distribution (for example, up to 12.1 percent in the case of Fe 415
steel) is possible, even with the limiting neutral axis depth permitted for design.
Example 1
Analyse a three-span continuous beam (with equal spans l ), subjected to a uniformly
distributed load w per unit length, to determine the critical ‘positive’ moments M1 or MAB and
MCD (in the end span) and M2 or MBC (in the interior span), as well as the ‘negative’ moment
M3 or MB and MC at the continuous support. Assume that the dead load (wD) and live load
(wL) components of the total load (w) are equal (wD= wL= 0.5w and wD+wL= w). Also assume
all spans to have the same cross-section. Compare the moment coefficients obtained by
a) Elastic analysis considering total load w on all spans
c) Code recommendations for moment coefficients
Solution

Uniform load w on all spans

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of Three Moment:
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 (𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)
For span AB and BC:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −
4 4
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −−−− −(1)
2
Similarly for span BC and CD:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −−− −(2)
2
Solve equations (1) and (2),
𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
Bending moment about any section in span AB: Max. bending moment in span BC:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 + 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0
2 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.4𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.4𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(3) 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2
2 2
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
From equation (3) 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍
𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 𝑴𝑴𝟐𝟐 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
Substitute x value in equation (3)

w on end spans and wD on mid span

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of three moment:
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 (𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)
For span AB and BC:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −
8 4
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(4)
4 8
Similarly for span BC and CD:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(5)
8 4
Solve equations (4) and (5),
𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
Bending moment about any section in span AB: Max. bending moment in span BC:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0
2 4
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.425𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.25𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.425𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(6) 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.25𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2
2 4
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 =0
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
From equation (6) 0.25𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍
𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
Substitute x value in equation (6)

Max./min. moments in span AB/BC

w on mid spans and wD on end span

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of three moment:
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 (𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)
For span AB and BC:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −
8 4
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(7)
8 4
Similarly for span BC and CD:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(8)
4 8
Solve equations (7) and (8),
𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
Max. bending moment in span BC:
Bending moment about any section in span AB:

2
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0
4 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.175𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2
𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.175𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(9) 2
4 𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 =0
Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0
From equation (9)
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍

𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Substitute x value in equation (9)
𝑴𝑴𝟏𝟏 = 𝑴𝑴𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Min./max. moments in span AB/BC

w on span AB, and BC and Dead load wD on CD span

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of three moment:
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0
For span AB and BC:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −
4 4
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −−−− −(10)
2
Similarly for span BC and CD:
𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3
𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−− −(11)
4 8
Solve equations (1) and (2),
𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟖𝟖𝟖𝟖𝒘𝒘𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
Bending moment about any section in span AB: Max. bending moment in span BC:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.1082𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.0667𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 − 0.1082𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0
2 2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.3918𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 = 0.5412𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.3918𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(12) 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5412𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.1082𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2
2 2
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 =0
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
From equation (12) 0.5412𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍
𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐
Substitute x value in equation (12)
𝑴𝑴𝟏𝟏 = 𝑴𝑴𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

max. ‘negative’ moment at continuous support

c) Code recommendations for moment coefficients

Factored moment in continuous beams using code coefficient (Cl. 22.5):

𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑊𝑊
𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 + , + 𝑢𝑢,𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑙𝑙2
12 10
Positive Moments: � 𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿
𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 + , + , 𝑙𝑙2
16 12

𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 2

1𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 − , + , 𝑙𝑙
10 9
Negative Moments: � 𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑊𝑊
𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 − 12 , + 9𝑢𝑢,𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑙𝑙2

The results are easily obtained from above formula

1 1
𝑀𝑀1 = + 0.5𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 + = +0.0917𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2
12 10
Span moments� 1 1
𝑀𝑀2 = + 0.5𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 + = +0.0729𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2
16 12

1 1
Support moments 𝑀𝑀3 = − 0.5𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 + = −0.1056𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2
10 9
Comparison of results
Span moments Support moment
Method M3
M1 M2
(a) Total load on all spans +0.0800 +0.0250 -0.1000
+0.0500
(c) Code coefficients +0.0917 +0.0729 -0.1056

• The simplified consideration of total loading on all spans [case (a)] results in a 50 percent
under-estimation in the ‘positive’ mid-span moment (M2) in the interior span; M1 and M3
are also under-estimated, but marginally

• The Code coefficient method over-estimates the mid-span ‘positive’ moment M2 in the
interior span by as much as 45.8 percent and the moment M1 in the end span by 1.5%

• in general, the relatively crude method of considering total loads on all spans
results in an non-conservative design, whereas the use of Code moment coefficients
results in a relatively conservative design.
Example 2
(a) Based on the elastic factored moment envelope obtainable from Example 1, design
the flexural reinforcement in the three-span continuous beam of Example 1, given the
following data:
w = 30 kN/m (wD = 15 kN/m, wL = 15 kN/m); l = 8.0 m
Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.

(b) Redesign the three-span continuous beam by applying moment redistribution (to the
extent permitted by the Code)
Solution:
a)
Factored load w = 1.5 × 30 = 45 kN/m, wu l2 = 45 × (8.0)2 = 2880 kNm
The elastic factored moment envelope, based on the results of Example 1, is shown fig

Max. ‘-ve’ moment at

continuous support exp 1

Min./max. moments in
span AB/BC exp 1

Max./min. moments in
span AB/BC exp 1

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢 = 0.0903𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2 = +260.1 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘(𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)

Span moments �
𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢 = 0.050𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2 = +144 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 (𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)

Support moments, 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀3 = −0.1082𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2 = −311.7 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘

Proportioning of beam section:
Assume a beam width b = 300 mm. Considering the maximum design moment of 311.7 kN/m,
for an under-reinforced section
𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢
effective depth 𝑑𝑑 =
𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅

where Rlim = 0.1389 fck= 0.1389 × 20 = 2.778 Mpa

311.7 × 106
𝑑𝑑𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = = 611.6
2.778 × 300
Assume overall depth D = 700 mm and d ≈ 655 mm (for an economical design)
Design of flexural reinforcement:

𝑝𝑝𝑡𝑡 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 4.598𝑅𝑅 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢

≡ = 1− 1− ∴ 𝑅𝑅 ≡
100 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 2𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦 𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑏𝑏𝑑𝑑2

Considering fck = 20 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, b = 300 mm, d = 655 mm, the following results are
obtained
1. For Mu1 = + 260.1 kNm, R = 2.021 MPa ⇒ pt = 0.647 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 1271 mm2 Provide 2–25φ
+ 1–20φ at bottom in the end span [Ast = 1296 mm2 > 1271]

2. For Mu2 = + 144.0 kNm, R = 1.119 MPa ⇒ pt = 0.333 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 655 mm2 Provide 2–16φ +
1–20φ at bottom in the central span [Ast = 716 mm2 > 654] Mu2 = – 0.0125 wul2 = 36 kNm
is accommodated by the nominal top steel (2–16φ bars) provided

Design for elastic factored moments

3. For Mu3 = – 311.7 kNm, R = 2.422 MPa ⇒ pt = 0.805 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 1583 mm2 Provide
2–28 φ + 2–16 φ at top [Ast = 1634 mm2 > 1583] up to, say 0.3l on the end span side,
and 0.4l on the central span side of the continuous support; beyond this, the 2–16 φ bars
may be extended over the span regions as nominal top steel
(b) Moment Redistribution
 The maximum reduction in moment permitted by the Code is 30 percent, corresponding to which, the
design moment at the continuous support is given by
� u3 = 0.7 Mu3 = 0.7 × – 0.1082 wul2
𝑀𝑀
= – 0.07574 wul2= – 218.2 kNm
Assuming b = 300 mm and d = 655 mm (as before)

𝑥𝑥𝑢𝑢 4.598 × 218.2 × 106

= 1.202 1 − 1 − = 0.263
𝑑𝑑 20 × 300 × 6552

which satisfies the Code requirement xu/d ≤ 0.6 – 30/100 = 0.30 (for 30% reduction in Mu3). Hence, the
desired plastic rotation capacity is ensured.
Now, the increase of AB span moment corresponding to decreased support moment:
𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 × 𝑙𝑙2
𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 × 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.07574𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2 = 0 ⟹ 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.424𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙
2
Moment at any section of AB:
𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 2
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.424𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙𝑥𝑥 −
2
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
Maximum bending moment occurs where =0
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑥𝑥 = 0.424𝑙𝑙
Max. AB span bending moment (Substitute x value in 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 ) 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 0.09𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2
Determine max. BC span moment:

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2
𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.07574𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2 + 0.0748𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2 = 0 ⟹ 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙
2
Moment at any section of BC:
𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 2
𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 − − 0.07574𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2
2
𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥
Maximum bending moment occurs where =0
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑙𝑙
Max. BC span bending moment (Substitute x value in 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 ) 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵 = 0.049𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2
Bending moment envelope after redistribution:

Analysis with moment redistribution (plastic hinge at B)

• For the loading pattern shown in example1(b), the possibility of redistribution has been recognised by
reducing the design flexural strength at the continuous support from the elastic solution value of –0.1082
� u3= –0.07574 wul2.
wul2to 𝑀𝑀

• By performing an analysis of the continuous beam with a plastic hinge at the continuous support the
maximum +ve moments in end span and centre span are

𝑀𝑀

• � u2= + 0.0497 wul2< (Mu2)elastic = + 0.0500 wul2

Central span: 𝑀𝑀
 end span moment: � u1 = +0.0903 wul2 = 260.1 kNm
𝑀𝑀
 central span moment: � u2= + 0.0500 wul2= 144 kNm
𝑀𝑀

Design of flexural reinforcement

Considering fck = 20 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, b = 300 mm, d = 655 mm (as before), for
� u1= + 260.1 kNm, (which is identical to Part(a) of this Example).
𝑀𝑀
Provide 2–25 φ + 1–20 φ at bottom in the end span (Ast = 1296 mm2>1256).

Note: There is no increase in the reinforcement provided on account of redistribution.

� u2 = +144.0 kNm, (which is identical to Part(a) of this Example) Provide 2 16 φ +
1) for 𝑀𝑀
1–20 φ at bottom in the central span (exactly as before).
𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢
� 𝑢𝑢3 = +218.2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, 𝑅𝑅 ≡
2) for 𝑀𝑀 = 1.695 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 ⇒ pt= 0.527 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 1036 mm2.
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏2
Provide 2–22 φ + 2–16 φ at top (Ast = 1162 mm2 >1036), with the 2–22 φ bars curtailed
exactly as before.
Note: This results in some savings, compared to the earlier design which required 2–28 φ
+ 2–16 φ.

THANKS

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