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Department of Civil Engineering H21IS2

INFRASTRUCTURE: CONSTRUCTION ISSUES


EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 2009-2010 - Provisional

The examination paper for this module contains four questions of equal weighting, two of which appear
here. The other two questions will not be seen till the examination period. Candidates are asked to
answer any three questions. You can prepare answers to the two questions below as extensively as you
wish but you will not be allowed to take any notes or other material into the examination except as
permitted in the rubric (see below). You can answer either or both of these questions in the
examination.

Past papers and outline solutions for the other two questions are available in the GG Library or on
WebCT and are appropriate for 'revision' and guidance. Draft answers or notes can be shown to me for
feedback ideally in the final timetabled hour each week or by email, up to the start of the exam period.
Your answers should be written in good English using essay-style prose, elaborating on a range of
points. Bullet-point lists can be used as parts of complete sentences with appropriate explanation or
discussion as required by the question (see the rest of this paragraph as an example of using commas or
bullet points acceptably). The key words in the questions are (for example) List, Outline, Define,
Identify, Indicate, Comment, Describe, Explain and Discuss and each requires slightly different types of
answer as shown below:
• List Give a brief set of points
• Outline Give a brief description/explanation
• Define State appropriately
• Identify/Indicate/Give State appropriately
• Comment Give brief points or views in proper sentences
• Describe Give information in proper sentences
• Explain Clarify understanding/interpretation in proper sentences
• Discuss Give balanced views from various perspectives.

For general marking criteria please refer to Appendix A of the Department of Civil Engineering
Undergraduate Handbook. Higher marks can be earned by including extra researched information in
answers (provided it is relevant). An excellent answer will attract marks of >70% and a barely
satisfactory answer will attract marks of ~40%. An average answer should attract a mark of around
60%. If you try to pass on two answers you are likely therefore to get 2x0.6x33=40% which would only
just pass - a very risky strategy.

The rubric is essentially:


Time allowed TWO hours
Candidates must NOT start writing their answers until told to do so
Answer THREE questions
This module has no coursework assessment
All questions and parts of questions carry marks as indicated in brackets

Only silent self-contained calculators with a single-line display or dual-line


display are permitted in this examination

Dictionaries are not allowed with one exception. Those whose first
language is not English may use a translation dictionary to translate
between that language and English provided that neither language is the
subject of this examination.

No electronic devices capable of storing and retrieving text, including


electronic dictionaries, may be used

W Askew
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THE TWO GIVEN QUESTIONS

1 (a) List the specific and general forms of wildlife found in Britain that warrant
special attention and protection when planning and executing construction
projects. (4)

(b) List the principal legislation and regulations relating to wildlife and its
habitat that concern construction projects in England and Wales. (10)

(c) Distinguish between mitigation and compensation and outline, using specific
examples, some measures that can be taken during a construction project to
mitigate against or compensate for possible interference with natural
habitats. (6)

(d) Explain in broad terms the inter-relationship of economic, quality, safety,


legal and environmental issues on construction projects. (13)

2 (a) Explain briefly, with the aid of sketches as appropriate, the following terms
associated with temporary works on construction projects:
Bailey bridge
Earth bund
Falsework and formwork
Steel sheet piling, walings and struts. (11)

(b) Describe, with examples of recommended good practice, the sorts of


measures that can be taken to enhance the safety of earthworks excavation
and of working at heights. (10)

(c) Discuss how developments in construction plant and in temporary works


equipment and procedures could help to enhance the safety and
environmental impact of projects during the construction phase. (12)

H21IS2-E1
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APPENDIX - Standards of assessment (marking criteria)

This appendix outlines the expectations in the assessment process in respect of the award of marks at certain levels or
within certain ranges. In general it refers to degree bands and the nominal percentage ranges which correspond to them
on the university official rounded mark scale (i.e. First >70%, Upper Second 60%-69%, Lower Second 50%-59%, Third
40%-49%, Fail 30%-39%, Bad Fail <30%). However, the descriptions should be taken to apply to equivalent marks
expressed in other ways. For example as well as 60-69% Upper Second standard might also be expressed:
• as 15, 16 or 17/25 for an individual answer on a four question exam paper.

Where reference is made to additional study beyond the lecture material, the expectation will obviously be different
depending on the level of study. For level 1 introductory modules the expectation would normally be little more than
evidence of having read and digested particular sections of a recommended textbook as indicated by the lecturer. For
more advanced modules at levels 3 and, particularly, 4, you should expect to include information showing that you have
read several recent books/reports/papers from a reading list, or have independently sought out relevant sources of
information to expand the lecture treatment of topics.

First Class (70% and above)


• Your work will show thorough treatment of the topic or question, indicating comprehensive understanding.
• Numerical or algebraic treatments will show your ability to devise ways to tackle new types of problem and will be accurate, clear,
incisive and directly relevant.
• Your discursive treatments or essay style answers will be well structured, logically presented, address the point of the question fully
but without extraneous material.
• Bullet-point or note style answers you produce will be well organised, comprehensive and strictly relevant.
• Where appropriate to the task your work will provide evidence of reading both in breadth and in depth beyond the lecture material
and will show appreciation of appropriateness and limitations of methods, consideration of contrary views etc as appropriate to the
task

Upper Second Class (60-69%)


• Your work will show competent treatment of the topic or question, indicating sound understanding.
• Numerical or algebraic treatments will indicate you are able to modify familiar methods to tackle rather different types of problem
and will be reasonably accurate, clear and relevant.
• Your discursive treatments or essay style answers will be structured, logically presented, and address the point of the question.
• Your bullet-point or note style answers will be organised, and comprehensive.
• Where appropriate your work will provide evidence of reading and understanding beyond the lecture material.

Lower Second Class (50-59%)


• Your work will reflect limited understanding of the material but standard problems or topics will be tackled with confidence.
• Your numerical or algebraic work will have progressed little beyond dealing with familiar situations.
• Your work will show little evidence of study beyond the lecture material, but general understanding of the latter will be apparent.
• You will have identified the main points of the work, but they will not have been addressed specifically or exclusively.
• Some of your response is likely to be irrelevant to the particular case and may be poorly structured, possibly repetitive or with some
omissions; however, your work will not be difficult to follow as far as it goes.

Third Class (40-49%)


• Your work will reflect very limited understanding of the material to the extent that only the most standard problem or topic has been
tackled with confidence.
• Numerical or algebraic work will be limited to situations which you are familiar with.
• Your work will give no evidence of study beyond the lecture material, and understanding of the latter will appear limited to standard
cases or problems.
• You may have identified the central point of the question, but your answer will not address it specifically.
• Much of your response is likely to be irrelevant to the particular case.
• Discursive material you produce is likely to be unstructured, repetitive or with substantial omissions and difficult to follow.

Fail (30-39%)
• Your work will reflect inadequate understanding of the material to the extent that only the most rudimentary parts of a problem or
topic have been tackled with confidence.
• There will be no evidence that you have studied beyond the lecture material, and understanding of the latter will appear limited.
• Your answers will fail to identify and/or address the central point of the question.
• Much of your response is likely to be irrelevant to the particular case.

Bad Fail (<30%)


• Your work will reflect so little understanding of the material that even the most rudimentary parts of a problem or topic have not been
properly tackled.
• There will be no evidence that you have studied beyond the lecture material, and understanding of the latter will appear severely
limited.
• Your answers will fail to identify and/or address the central point of the question.
• Such limited response as you provide will be substantially irrelevant.
• You will not have progressed numeric or algebraic problems beyond the most elementary steps with accuracy.

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