You are on page 1of 28

Injection Molding

Contents
Contents

Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 3

I. Preparation for Molding .............................................................................................................. 4

1. Water-Absorption Properties of DAIAMID and VESTAMID ............................................... 4

2. Pre-Drying Method .......................................................................................................... 5

II. Molding Conditions .................................................................................................................... 6

1. Setting of Molding Conditions ......................................................................................... 6

2. Mold Shrinkage ............................................................................................................. 10

3. Countermeasures to Defects ........................................................................................ 18

4. Recycle ......................................................................................................................... 20

III. Lubricated Properties of DAIAMID and VESTAMID ............................................................... 22

IV. Appendix Graph ...................................................................................................................... 26

2
Introduction
Introduction

DAIAMID and VESTAMID are Polyamide 12 engineering plastics. These crystalline thermoplastic resins offer
excellent performance and balanced properties.
Polyamide 12 resin, given its chemical makeup, possesses a high degree of mechanical strength. Low water
absorption results in the higher stability of its properties and dimensions, making Polyamide 12 ideal as a
material for industrial applications. Moreover, with a melting point of 178ºC and decomposition point in excess
of 300ºC, Polyamide 12 is moldable over a wide temperature range and is therefore easy to mold.

Features of DAIAMID and VESTAMID


1. Minimal water absorption (approx. 1/6 of Polyamide 6) for remarkable stability in properties and dimensions

2. Noise and vibration damping properties are outstanding

3. Excellent resistance to friction and abrasion

4. Excellent resistance to chemicals and oils

5. Excellent long-term resistance to weather

6. Excellent resistance to low temperatures


(embrittlement temperature: approx. -70ºC)

3
Preparation
I. Preparation for Molding

1. Water-Absorption Properties of DAIAMID and VESTAMID


DAIAMID and VESTAMID, based on Polyamide 12, have the lowest water absorption rate among commer-
cially available polyamides. In fact, the equilibrium water absorption rate of DAIAMID and VESTAMID is approx.
1.5% (approximately 1/6 of the water absorption of Polyamide 6 or Polyamide 66).
In actual molding applications, however, both DAIAMID and VESTAMID must be thoroughly dried to prevent
molding defects such as silver streak and void, as is the case with other polyamide resins.

12
20 ºC 65%RH
In 23ºC water
10

Water absorption rate (%)


8

Figure 1. Water Absorption Properties


of Various Polyamides
L1930 L2121 Basic Polyamide Polyamide Polyamide
grades 11 66 6
DAIAMID
VESTAMID

1.4
100%RH

1.2 80%RH

1.0 65%RH
Water absorption rate (%)

0.8
50%RH

0.6
30%RH

0.4

0.2

Figure 2. Water Absorption Properties


of DAIAMID and VESTAMID 0
1 2 5 10 20 50 100
Length of exposure (days)

Every product we deliver has been dried and packed in a moisture-proof bag to maintain water absorption rate at
0.12% or less. If the product is used immediately after unpacking it isn't necessary to make pre-drying. However,
if the product has been left outside the moisture-proof bag for a day or longer, the water absorption rate will reach
0.2% to 0.3%. Under such conditions direct use of the product may cause molding defects. If the product has
been unpacked and left outside the moisture-proof bag for at least a day, pre-dry it thoroughly before use.

4
2. Pre-Drying Method
General Precautions
1) Generally, DAIAMID/VESTAMID should be dried at 80ºC to 90ºC (or approx. 100ºC in conditions of high
humidity) for a period of three to four hours.
2) Drying time may be influenced by outside humidity, such as the ambient humidity of the location in which
the dryer is installed. We therefore recommend the use of a dehumidifying dryer, which is less susceptible
to outside humidity.
3) Heat history (temperature, time and local heating) has no significant effect on the mechanical properties of
DAIAMID/VESTAMID. However, in some cases areas that have been exposed to heat may turn yellowish
and affect the product's appearance. Therefore, the heat resistance of DAIAMID/VESTAMID must be
verified in advance through the actual dryer to be used.
4) An excessively high temperature setting on local or general overheating may cause pellet blocking. There-
fore, to ensure safety during the drying process, verify the setpoint temperature and set the overheating
protection device to approximately 120ºC to 140ºC.

DAIAMID and VESTAMID can also be dried using a normal hot-air dryer (tray dryer) or hopper dryer.
The drying condition and points to note for each type of dryer are explained below:

Hot-air dryer (tray dryer)


In the case of a hot-air dryer of the tray type, it is preferable that one with a mesh bottom be used. If such a
tray is not available, reduce the layer height as much as possible (preferably to 3 cm or less). This will ensure
sufficient air circulation among the pellets.
The conditions of drying will vary, depending on the dryer's capacity and volume of air circulation. When
dehumidified air is circulated, dry the product at 80ºC to 90ºC for around three to four hours. When dehumidi-
fied air is not used and the material is dried in humid ambient conditions such as found during the summer
months, set the drying temperature higher to a range between 90ºC and 100ºC. A slight degree of yellowing
may occur during drying, but this will have no significant effect on the product's mechanical properties, etc.

Hopper dryer
A hopper dryer allows more efficient air circulation among the pellets relative to a tray-type, hot-air dryer.
Therefore, drying is more rapid with this type of unit. However, the drying conditions are roughly equal to those
of a tray dryer.
Extra attention should be given to the possibility of overheating when a hopper dryer is used. If the pellets are
heated to 150ºC or above and left in a hopper for an extended period of time, they may cause blocking and
become unretrievable from the hopper. Please be sure the overheat protection device is set to a temperature
not exceeding 150ºC. It is preferable that a setting of no more than 130ºC be used.
Figure 3 shows the drying-speed data of DAIAMID/VESTAMID in the pellet state.

1.0

Summer : 85ºC
Tray with mesh bottom
Pellet layer height : 3cm
70 ºC
Water content (%)

0.1

80 ºC

90 ºC

Figure 3. Drying Speeds of


DAIAMID/VESTAMID 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Drying time (hrs.)

5
Condition
II. Molding Conditions

1. Setting of Molding Conditions


DAIAMID and VESTAMID can be molded in all types of molding machines commonly used today. To prevent
resin leak and thread formation from the nozzle, however, it is recommended that a molding machine with a
shut-off nozzle be used. DAIAMID and VESTAMID are Polyamide 12-based crystalline resins with melting
points in a range of approximately 160ºC to 180ºC, although the specific melting point varies according to the
grade. When setting the molding temperature, check the melting point of the applicable grade of DAIAMID/
VESTAMID and set the temperatures of the C2 and C3 and nozzle parts of the cylinder to at least 10ºC above
the melting point.
Table 1 shows standard molding conditions for the representative grades. As a reference, Figures 5 through 9
show melt viscosities corresponding to the representative grades.

Table 1. Setting Examples of Molding Conditions for Representative Grades

Melting Moldable C1 C2 C3 A N M
Grade point temperature
( ºC ) ( ºC ) ( ºC ) ( ºC ) ( ºC ) ( ºC )
( ºC ) range

L1640
180 190~240 170~180 190~220 200~220 200~220 190~210 ~50
L1743

L1940
180 200~300 190~220 210~240 220~240 220~250 210~240 ~50
X1988

L2140 180 220~300 200~220 220~250 230~250 230~250 220~240 ~50

L1724K
170 180~240 150~180 180~220 180~220 180~220 170~210 ~50
L1724KH

E47 160 180~280 170~190 180~220 200~220 200~220 190~210 ~50

E55 165 190~290 170~190 190~230 200~230 200~230 190~220 ~50

E62 170 210~300 180~200 200~230 210~230 210~230 200~220 ~50

EX9200 180 200~300 190~220 210~240 220~240 220~250 210~240 ~50

L1930
L1965J 180 220~300 180~210 220~260 230~260 230~260 220~250 60~ 80
L1960T

Figure 4. Cylinder Construction

C1 C2 C3 A N

6
The melt viscosities shown in Figures 5 through 9 were measured with a capillary rheometer.
In general injection molding, the conditions are set so that the melt viscosity of the resin falls between 100 and
1000 Pa-s.

10,000

Moldable temperature
range of L1940

1,000

Melt viscosity (Pa-s)


L1940

L1743
100

L1600

Moldable temperature
range of L1600

Figure 5. Melt Viscosities of


Basic Grades (PA12) 10
150 200 250 300
Melting temperature (ºC)

10,000

1,000
Melt viscosity (Pa-s)

E62

E55
E47
100

E40

Figure 6. Melt Viscosities of PAEs 10


150 200 250 300
Melting temperature (ºC)

7
Condition
10,000

1,000

Melt viscosity (Pa-s)


L1940

L1743

100
A3951

Figure 7. Melt Viscosities of


Plasticized Grades 10 L1724KH
150 200 250 300
Melting temperature (ºC)

* In Figure 7, L1940 and L1743 do not contain plasticizer and are only shown for comparison.

10,000

1,000
Melt viscosity (Pa-s)

E62

X1988

100
A3951

L1724KH

Figure 8. Melt Viscosities of


Gear-Grades 10
150 200 250 300
Melting temperature (ºC)

8
10,000

L1930
L1965J

L1940
1,000

Melt viscosity (Pa-s)


L1960T

100

Figure 9. Melt Viscosities of


Reinforced Grades 10
150 200 250 300
Melting temperature (ºC)

* In Figure 9, L1940 contains no filler and is therefore shown only for comparison.

9
Condition
2. Mold Shrinkage
Side gate
Figures 10 through 13 show the mold shrinkage rates of DAIAMID L1940 as measured on a molded plate with
side gates, as illustrated below.

120mm

120mm Side gate : 8 mm width x t (plate thickness)

The following lines indicate the flow direction and the transverse direction, respectively:

Flow direction
Transverse direction

Resin temperature : 240ºC


Pressure : 840kgf/cm 2

Thickness
8mm

1.5

6mm
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

4mm
2mm
1.0 4mm

2mm

0.5

Figure 10. Dependency on Mold


Temperature of L1940
Mold Shrinkage Rate 0
30 50 70
Mold temperature (ºC)

10
Mold temperature : 30 ºC
Pressure : 840kgf/cm 2

1.5
Thickness
8mm

Mold shrinkage (%)


6mm
1.0
4mm
2mm

4mm

0.5

2mm

Figure 11. Dependency on Resin


Temperature of L1940 Mold
Shrinkage Rate 0
220 240 260 280
Resin temperature (ºC)

Mold temperature : 30 ºC
Resin temperature : 240 ºC

1.5
Mold shrinkage (%)

Thickness
8mm

1.0

6mm

4mm
2mm

0.5
4mm

Figure 12. Dependency on Injection


Pressure of L1940 Mold 2mm
Shrinkage Rate 0
600 720 840 960
Injection pressure ( kgf/cm2 )

11
Condition
Mold temperature : 30 ºC
Resin temperature : 240 ºC

Pressure
600kgf/cm2

1.5
720kgf/cm2

800kgf/cm2

Mold shrinkage rate (%)


960kgf/cm2

1.0

0.5

Figure 13. Dependency on Thickness


of L1940 Mold Shrinkage
Rate 0
2 4 6 8
Thickness (mm )

12
Pin gate
The graphs below show the respective mold shrinkage rates of DAIAMID/VESTAMID measured on a disc with
a pin gate, as illustrated below.

20mm
Pin gate: ø 0.5

3mm

Molding conditions
Cylinder temperature 190~280ºC
Mold temperature 30ºC
Injection speed 3 m/sec. (cylinder)
Holding pressure 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120MPa
Cycle Pressure holding 7sec
Cooling 10sec
Middle 3sec

The average diameter of the molded disc was calculated after keeping the disc for 24 hours in an air-condi-
tioned room set at 25ºC and 65%RH.

13
Condition
2

Mold shrinkage rate (%)


1.5

X1988H

X1988
Figure 14. High-CycleGrades
(220ºC) 1 L1743
0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

2
X1988H
X1988
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

L1743

1.5

Figure 15. High-Cycle Grades


(240ºC) 1
0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

2
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

1.5 X1988H
L1743
X1988

Figure 16. High-Cycle Grades


(60MPa) 1
150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)

1.5
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

1.4

1.3 X1988

X1988H
1.2
L1743

1.1
Figure 17. High-Cycle Grades
(100MPa) 1
150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)

14
2

Mold shrinkage rate (%)


1.5

L1724KH
Figure 18. Plasticized High-Cycle
Grades (220ºC) L1724K A3951
1
0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

A3951
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

L1724KH

L1724K
1.5

Figure 19. Plasticized High-Cycle


Grades (240ºC) 1
0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

2
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

A3951
L1724KH
1.5 L1724K

Figure 20. Plasticized High-Cycle


Grades (60MPa) 1
150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)

1.5
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

1.4

A3951
1.3
L1724KH

1.2 L1724K

1.1
Figure 21. Plasticized High-Cycle
Grades (100MPa) 1
150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)

15
Condition
2

E55

Mold shrinkage rate (%)


E62

1.5

EX9200
Figure 22. PAE (220ºC) 1 E47
0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

2
E62
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

E55

EX9200

1.5 E47

Figure 23. PAE (240ºC) 1


0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

2
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

1.5
E62
EX9200
E55
E47

Figure 24. PAE (60MPa) 1


150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)

1.5

EX9200
1.4
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

1.3

1.2
E62
E55
1.1 E47

Figure 25. PAE (100MPa) 1


150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)

16
1.5

Mold shrinkage rate (%)


L1640

L1930
1
L1960T

Figure 26. Reinforced Grades


(240ºC) 0.5
0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

1
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

L1930

L1960T

Figure 27. Reinforced Grades


(260ºC) 0.5
0 50 100 150
Holding pressure (MPa)

1.5
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

L1640

L1930

L1960T
Figure 28. Reinforced Grades
(60MPa) 0.5
150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)

1.5
Mold shrinkage rate (%)

L1640
1

L1960T
L1930

Figure 29. Reinforced Grades


(100MPa) 0.5
150 200 250 300
Cylinder temperature (ºC)
*L1640, as shown in the graphs, is not a reinforced grade but is included for comparison.
17
Condition
3. Countermeasures to Defects

Shink mark Void Short short Burr Warpage

Cylinder
High High Low High Low
temperature
Injection Low Low Low High High
pressure
Injection Fast Fast Slow Fast Fast
speed

Mold High Low Low High Low


temperature

Gate size Small Small Small

Sprue, Thin Thin Thin


Runner
Cause

Molding Short Short Short


cycle

l Non-uniform l Insufficient drying l High-viscosity l Low-viscosity l High-viscosity


shrinkage l Air holding at material material material
l Insufficient holding metering process l Insufficient l Inappropriate
pressure clamping pressure reinforcing agent
l Deformation of l Non-uniform
parting line wall thickness
Other distribution over
molded product
l Large L/D of
molded product
l Poor gate position

l Increase the gate size and apply sufficient holding pressure. l Select a grade l Select a grade
of higher melt of lower melt
l Select a material of lower melt viscosity to l Select a grade viscosity. viscosity to reduce
reduce the resin temperature and raise of lower melt l Select a high-cycle the residual strain
the injection pressure, thus increasing the viscosity. grade and reduce resulting from
amount of resin filled into the mold. l Increase the resin the solidification molecular
l Select a high-cycle grade material to temperature and time. orientation.
ensure uniform shrinkage during injection pressure. l Lower the mold l Select a high-cycle
solidification. l Enlarge sprue temperature and grade to ensure
runner. apply sufficient uniform shrinkage.
l Homogenize mold l Decrease the clamping pressure. l Make the wall
cooling. cylinder l Modify the mold- thickness of the
Countermeasures temperature on parting line. molded product
(Points) the hopper side to uniform.
prevent air holding l Add ribs to the
at metering molded product to
process make its shape
l Dry the material more resistant to
sufficiently. strain.
l Prolong the
molding cycle.

18
Table 2. Countermeasures to Molding Defects

Weld line Bad mold release Gate release Burn Silver streak Gas

Low High High High High

Low High

Slow Fast Fast Fast Fast

Low High High

Small Large Large

Thin

Short Short Long

l High-viscosity l Excessive filling l Poor gate shape l Insufficient l Insufficient drying l Insufficient
material l Little taper angle l Abnormal heat cleaning of l Contamination of degassing from
l Poor gate position of the mold generation from molding machine different resin the mold
l Excessive use l Insufficient material l Excessive cylinder
of mold-release polishing of mold capacity, resulting
agent in long residence
time

l Select a grade l Select a high-cycle l Select a grade l Perform idle run for a sufficient duration before molding to
of lower melt grade and increase of lower melt thoroughly remove the residual resin or different resin.
viscosity and set a mold shrinkage. viscosity and l When the same machine is used for molding with different resins,
sufficient injection l Lower the mold reduce the gate purge the machine sufficiently to remove the residual resin before
pressure. temperature. size. a molding session. (High viscosity PP or PE is recommended.)
l Review the gate l Polish the mold l Select a high-cycle
position. sufficiently. grade. l Select a grade l Perform sufficient l Select a grade
l Reduce quantity l Increase the draft l Reduce the of lower melt drying. of lower melt
of mold-release angle. injection speed to viscosity to reduce l Keep the water viscosity to reduce
agent. l Use lubricant. prevent abnormal the resin content to 0.1% or the resin
l Prolong the heat generation temperature. less, since silver temperature.
molding cycle. from the resin at l Lower the cylinder streaks often l Perform sufficient
the gate. temperature on the occur when the degassing.
l Lower the mold hopper side to water content
temperature. prevent the resin increases to 0.3%
from oxidizing. or above. (See
l Shorten the "Preparation for
molding cycle. Molding" on p. 4.)

19
Condition
4. Recycle
There is a growing demand for the recycling of resins as a means to reduce environmental loading and
production costs. DAIAMID and VESTAMID, thanks to their outstanding heat stability, are very easy to re-
cycle. As shown in the graphs below, the tensile strengths of DAIAMID and VESTAMID do not change much
after repeating a 100% recycling process five times.

50 2.2

40 2.1

Tensile yield strength (MPa)

Relative viscosity
30 2

20 1.9

10 1.8

Figure 30. Recycle Test of L1940


0 1.7
0 2 4 6 8 10
Number of recycling processes (times)

30 1.7
Tensile yield strength (MPa)

20 1.6

Relative viscosity
10 1.5

Figure 31. Recycle Test of L1724KH 0 1.4


0 2 4 6 8
Number of recycling processes (times)

DAIAMID and VESTAMID, as shown above, generally offer excellent recyclability. However, the incorrect recy-
cling of these materials may result in unexpected problems. Please be aware of the following precautions so
that recycling problems can be avoided.

1) Sufficiently dry the material before recycling


A high water in the resin can cause appearance defects such as voids and a rough surface on the molded
product. If the molding temperature is high, water content may even sever the molecular chain of polya-
mide, resulting in invisible problems such as reduced molecular weight or even lower mechanical strength.
Therefore, when recycling DAIAMID/VESTAMID that has been left standing for a long time, the material
must be dried at 80ºC to 100ºC for around four hours. Preferably, confirm before use that the water
content of the recycled product is 0.1% or less.

20
2) Be certain the material is free from contaminations of different resins or foreign matter
DAIAMID, because of its excellent ductility, sometimes picks up fine powders of polyacetal, ABS and
other brittle resins that have been left in the crusher. Even though they're in the same polyamide group,
Polyamide 6 and Polyamide 66 can reduce the properties of DAIAMID if they're allowed to intermix with it.
Prevent other resins comprising the sprue or runner from mixing into the DAIAMID, and thoroughly clean
the crusher before crushing a recycling product. If possible, use a dedicated crusher.

3) We recommend the blending of recycled material with virgin material


As shown in the graph, property changes in DAIAMID are limited even after it has been recycled 100 %.
However, repeated exposure to heat may produce discolorations and other immeasurable changes.
To minimize such effects, it is recommended that recycled DAIAMID be diluted with virgin material to
minimize the content of recycled DAIAMID. The ratio of recycled DAIAMID should ideally be kept to
around 20 to 30 %. If the ratio must be raised beyond that level, verify through a practical test, etc., that
it won't cause a problem.

Although DAIAMID offers excellent recyclability, as explained above, problems can happen depending on the
control level during the recycling process. If you have any questions regarding the recycling of DAIAMID/
VESTAMID, please contact your Daicel-Degussa sales representative. We will study your specific application
and give you the proper advice.

21
Properties
III. Lubricated Properties of DAIAMID and VESTAMID

DAIAMID and VESTAMID, thanks to their excellent dimensional stability and noise reduction properties, have
been used for many years in the production of silent gears for AV equipment, OA equipment, and so on.
However, resins used as gear materials face a constant need for improvement in order to offer better sliding
characteristics and abrasion resistance as a means to ensure higher durability, allow the elimination of grease,
etc. The following explains the test results on a Suzuki friction & wear tester (thrust type wear tester) of the
standard gear grade and lubricated grades (note that A3951 is considered a special lubricated grades, as
indicated by the suffix "H" in the part number), as developed by applying a special process to improve lubri-
cated properties.

1) Friction coefficients and abrasion ratio in major gear-grades


2) Relationship of load pressure and limit sliding speed
3) Relationship of sliding speed and friction coefficient

1) Friction coefficients and abrasion ratio in main gear-grade materials


Test method:
Measurement was performed in conformance with JIS K7218.
Against material: Polyoxymethylene (POM)
Sliding area: 2 cm2
Test conditions:

Measuring condition Sliding speed(mm/sec) Load pressure(kgf/cm2 ) PV value(kgf/cm/sec)

1 250 0.460 11.5

2 500 0.322 16.1

3 1000 0.138 13.8

Results:
The relationship of measuring condition and friction coefficient and that of PV value and abrasion ratio are
shown in the accompanying graphs.

22
Relationship of measuring condition and friction coefficient
The friction coefficients of L1724K, X1988 and E62 are all at approximately 0.4, so there isn't much difference
between these grades. The friction coefficients of these materials are roughly the same as the friction coeffi-
cient of POM. On the other hand, the friction coefficients of lubricated grades such as L1724KH, X1988H and
E62H are approximately 0.2. It is therefore shown that the lubricated grades offer significantly lower friction
coefficients.

0.8
POM X1988 X1988H

0.6

Friction coefficient
0.4

0.2

Figure 32. Friction Coefficients


of X1988(H) 0
0.46kg/cm2, 25cm/s 0.32kg/cm2, 50cm/s 0.14kg/cm2, 100cm/s
Measuring condition

0.8
POM L1724K L1724KH

0.6
Friction coefficient

0.4

0.2

Figure 33. Friction Coefficients


of L1724K (H) 0
0.46kg/cm2, 25cm/s 0.32kg/cm2, 50cm/s 0.14kg/cm2, 100cm/s
Measuring condition

0.8
POM E62 E62H

0.6
Friction coefficient

0.4

0.2

Figure 34. Friction Coefficients


of E62 (H) 0
0.46kg/cm2, 25cm/s 0.32kg/cm2, 50cm/s 0.14kg/cm2, 100cm/s
Measuring condition

23
Properties
Relationship of PV value and abrasion
The comparison data of abrasion ("abrasion" indicating how much the resin has abraded with respect to a
specific sliding distance) shows slight differences in terms of the resin's flexibility, shear strength and other
mechanical characteristics. Specifically, a hard grade like X1988 has a small amount of abrasion, while soft
grade like L1724K and E62 exhibit large amounts of abrasion. In comparison E62 with the lubricated grade
of E62, there is not much improvement on the abrasion ratio between them. However, the abrasion is shown
to improve significantly with the lubricated grades of L1724K and X1988.

0.6
X1988 X1988H

Abrasion ratio (mg/kgf/km)


0.4

0.2

Figure 35. Abrasion Ratio


of X1988(H) 0
10 12 14 16 18
PV value (kgf/cm/sec)

0.6
L1724K L1724KH
Abrasion ratio (mg/kgf/km)

0.4

0.2

Figure 36. Abrasion Ratio


of L1724K(H) 0
10 12 14 16 18
PV value (kgf/cm/sec)

0.6
E62 E62H
Abrasion ratio (mg/kgf/km)

0.4

0.2

Figure 37. Abrasion Ratio


of E62(H) 0
10 12 14 16 18
PV value (kgf/cm/sec)

24
2) Relationship of load pressure and limit sliding speed
In a friction test, raising the sliding speed continuously will reach a point where the resin surface starts to
melt due to friction heat generated on the interface between two materials and the gear begins to lose its
functionality. This speed is referred to as the "limit sliding speed." The load pressure has a significant
influence on limit sliding speed. The graph below shows the relationship of load pressure and limit sliding
speed with E62 and E62H against POM.

E62H E62
600
Limit sliding speed (mm/sec)

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
2
Load pressure (kgf/cm )

Figure 38. Limit Sliding Speed of E62 (against POM)

The limit sliding speed decreases as the load pressure increases. One way to increase the limit sliding
speed is to reduce the friction resistance and thereby suppress the generation of friction heat. Generally,
from this perspective, a lubricant, etc., is applied to the gear surface. From the above data, our lubricated
grade is as effective as when lubrication is applied to the gear made of a standard resin.

3) Relationship of sliding speed and friction coefficient


The graph below shows the relationship of sliding speed and friction coefficient with E62 and E62H
against S45C, general grade of carbon steel (load pressure: 1 kgf/cm2).

E62H E62
1.2

1
Friction coefficient

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Sliding speed (mm/sec)

Figure 39. Relationship of Sliding Speed and Friction Coefficient (against S45C;
Load pressure: 1 kgf/cm2)

By using the lubricated grade E62H instead of the standard E62, the friction coefficient decreases over a wide
range of sliding speeds.

25
Diagram
IV. Appendix Graph

Heating process
Cooling process

X1988

Heat 178
absorption

178
DSC

L1901

X1988

Heat
generation

L1901 144
Figure 40. Melting Points and
Crystallization Temperatures of
153
DAIAMID X1988 and L1940
200 180 160 140 120
Temperature (ºC)

Heating process
Cooling process

Heat
absorption
L1724K
172

L2121
DSC

172

L1724K

Heat
generation

Figure 41. Melting Points and Crystallization L2121

Temperatures of 148
138
DAIAMID L1724K and L2121
200 180 160 140 120
Temperature (ºC)

26
(min-1 )

1.2

1.0

Crystallization speed (1/t half )

0.8

X1988
0.6

0.4
L1800
L2121
L2140
0.2
Figure 42. Isothermal Crystallization
Speeds of
DAIAMID/VESTAMID 0
150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164
Temperature (ºC)

0.5 Thickness
2mm
Dimensional change (%)

0.4
4mm

0.3
6mm

0.2

Figure 43. Relationship of Water


Absorption and Dimensional 0.1
Change with
DAIAMID/VESTAMID
(Basic Grade) 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.3
Water absorption rate (%)

* The figures stated in this catalog represent average values measured on DAIAMID and VESTAMID in conformance with ISO and
other applicable standards. These values may not be directly applicable under conditions other than those described. Neither do
these figures guarantee the safety or conformance of a given application. Please verify the safety and conformance of DAIAMID/
VESTAMID in your specific application.

27
Head Office
Shinjuku Monolith 12F,
2-3-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku,
Tokyo 163-0912, Japan
Phone : +81-3-5324-6331 (Representative)
Fax : +81-3-5324-6335
Phone : +81-3-5324-6332 (Marketing)
Fax : +81-3-5324-6336

Osaka Office
Mainichi INTECIO 20F
3-4-5 Umeda, Kita-ku,
Osaka 530-0001, Japan
Phone : +81-6-6342-6712
Fax : +81-6-6342-6718

Technical Center
1239 Shinzaike, Aboshi-ku, Himeji,
Hyogo 671-1281, Japan
Phone : +81-79-273-7034
Sep. 01, 2007

Fax : +81-79-274-2446

www.daicel-degussa.com