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네이버 No.1 아이엘츠 카페 아독사


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Most people know about Spanish bullfighting. Less commonly known is the pastime called "bull-baiting",
which is done before the fights, mainly for fun but also to test the character of the bulls. In the incident
described below, the Marques, the owner of the bulls, brings some friends and relatives to try out this
pastime.
Dona Sol put spurs to her horse, which had been plunging about in terror of the bulls. The Marques
wanted to go with her, but she would not let him. No, she would rather have Gallardo, who, after all, was
a matador, a professional bullfighter. Gallardo took his place beside her. They galloped together straight
towards the herd. Gallardo waved his garrocha, roaring loudly at the bulls. It was easy enough to cut off
one animal from the herd. It was a white bull with sharp pointed horns. It galloped to the far end of the
enclosure. Dona Sol galloped after it, followed by Gallardo.
"Take care, Senora," Gallardo shouted. "It's an old bull, and may be tricky ! Be careful it doesn't turn on
you ?"
This was exactly what happened. As Dona Sol was preparing to make the same stroke as her uncle's,
turning her horse at an angle so as to plant the garrochain the bull's rump, the bull suddenly doubled
back and faced its attacker. It started to charge forward !
Dona Sol's horse was rushing on at such a pace that she could not control it, with the bull charging at
her --no longer pursued, but pursuing. Dona Sol had no thought of flight. Thousands of people were
watching her ! She had no intention of looking foolish. Anyway, Dona Sol had never in her life believed
that she would be the loser in any situation. She reined back her horse and confronted the bull. She
drove her garrochainto the neck of the animal s it rushed forward bellowing, with lowered head. A stream
of blood reddened the bull's shoulders, but still it rushed forward, till it got its horn under the horse's
belly, and lifted it off the ground.
The rider was thrown from her saddle and a cry of horror was heard from the hundreds of onlookers.
The horse forced itself from the horns, and galloped away, with its stomach stained with blood. The bull
turned to follow it; but at that very moment something nearby attracted its attention. It was Dona Sol,
who had got to her feet, picked up her garrochaand was bravely preparing to challenge the bull once
more. It was an action of insane courage, but her thoughts were on her audience. Better death, rather
than the ridicule of the crowd ! the crowd stood paralyzed in terrified silence.
The bull was already lowering its head to attack the small figure who dared to threaten it. One blow of
those horns and all would be over. But, at this moment, a fierce roar distracted the bull's attention and
something red passed before its eyes.
It was Gallardo, who had thrown himself of his horse and dropped his garrochaso as to snatch the coat
from his saddlebow.
"Eeeh! Come on !"
The bull came on. It found the crimson coat-lining a worthier adversary than the small figure in purple
and black, still standing there.
"Don't be afraid, Dona Sol. I've got him now," said the matador. With no other weapon but his coat, he
played the bull, gradually drawing it away from the lady, and avoiding its furious attacks by twisting and

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네이버 No.1 아이엘츠 카페 아독사
http://cafe.naver.com/ieltsdoksa

turning his body.


The crowd forgot its recent alarm and began to applaud loudly. The matador forgot Dona Sol and
everything else, concentrating entirely on defending himself. The infuriated beast, finding that the man had
again slipped away unharmed from between its horns, turned and charged again, only to come up against
the shield of red cloth. At last, tired out, it stood still on trembling legs, with its head hanging and muzzle
covered in foam. Gallardo took advantage of its bewilderment to take off his hat and lay it between the
horns.

Questions
From paragraph 1 :
1. Why did Dona Sol refuse to allow the Marques to go with her ?
From paragraph 4 :
2. (a) Although the bull was pursuing her, Dona Sol did not run away. Give two
reasons why she made this decision.
(b) Give evidence that shows that Dona Sol was successful in stabbing the bull.
(c) What effect did this stabbing have on the bull ?
From paragraph 5 :
3. Find a word in this paragraph which means "unable to move due to being
terrified".
From paragraph 6-9 :
4. How was Gallardo able to attract the bull's attention away from Dona Sol ? Give two ways.
From paragraph 10-11 :
5. (a) Quote evidence that shows the bull was tired out from Gallardo's actions.
(b) Explain how Gallardo made the bull tired.

Answers
1.She preferred Gallardo as he was a matador.
2. (a) Firstly, thousands of people were watching her and she had no
intention of looking foolish. Secondly, Dona Sol had never ever
believed that she would be the loser in any situation.
(b) "A stream of blood reddened the bull's shoulders"
(c) It had no effect; it still rushed forward.
3. Paralyzed
4. He roared fiercely at it and he waved his red cape at it.
5. (a) " ... it stood still on trembling legs, with its head hanging and muzzle
covered in foam"
(b) He made it charge at him again and again

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네이버 No.1 아이엘츠 카페 아독사
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Someone sent a chimpanzee to Gerald Durrell, asking him to escort it to England.


A small van drew up outside the camp one morning, and in the back of it was an enormous wooden crate.
It was big enough, I thought, o house an elephant. I wondered what on earth could be inside, and when
the driver told me that it contained the chimpanzee, Cholmondely, that I would be escorting to England, I
remembered thinking how silly his owner was to send such a small chimpanzee in such a huge crate. I
opened the door and looked inside and there sat Cholmondely. Just one glance at him and I realised my
mistake: I would not be taking charge of a baby chimpanzee but a fully-grown one, about eight or nine
years old.
Sitting hunched up in the dark crate, he looked as though he were about twice as big as I, and from the
expression on his face, I gathered that the trip had not been to his liking. Before I could shut the door of
the box, however, Cholmondely had extended a long hairy arm, clasped my hand in his and shaken it
warmly. Then he turned round and gathered up a great length of chain (one end of which was fastened to
a collar round his neck), draped it carefully over his arm, and stepped down, out of the box. he stood
there for a moment and, after surveying me carefully, examined the camp with great interest, whereupon
he held out his hand, looking at me enquiringly. I took it in mine and we walked into the marquee
together.
Cholmondely immediately went and seated himself on one of the chairs by the camp table, dropped his
chain on the floor and sat back and crossed his legs. He gazed round the tent for a few minutes then
looked at me enquiringly again. Obviously, he wanted me to offer him something after his tiring journey. I
had been told, before h arrived, that he liked to drink tea, and so I called out to the cook and told him to
make a pot of tea.
Then I went out and had a look in Cholmondely's crate, and in the bottom, I found an enormous and very
battered tin mug. When I returned to the tent with this. Cholmondely was quite overjoyed and praised me
for my cleverness in finding it, by uttering a few cheerful 'hoohoo' noises.
While we were waiting for the tea to arrive, I sat down opposite Cholmondely and lit a cigarette. To my
surprise, he became very excited and held out his hand across the table to me. Wondering what he would
do, I handed him the cigarette packet. he opened it, took out a cigarette and put it between his lips. He
hen reached out his hand again and I gave him the matches; to my astonishment, he took one out of the
box, struck it, lit his cigarette and threw the box down on the table. Lying back in his chair, he blew out
clouds of smoke in the most professional manner. No one had told me that Cholmondely smoked. I
wondered rather anxiously what other undesirable habits he might have which his master had not warned
me about.
Just at that moment, the tea was brought in and Cholmondely greeted its appearance with loud hoots of
joy. He watched me carefully while I half-filled his mug with milk and then added the tea. I had been told
that he had a very sweet tooth so I put in six large spoons of sugar, an action which he greeted with
grunts of satisfaction. He placed his cigarette on the table and seized the mug with both hands; then he
stuck out his lower lip very carefully and dipped it into the tea to make sure it was not too hot.
As it was a little warm, he sat there blowing on it vigorously until it was cool enough, and then he drank

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네이버 No.1 아이엘츠 카페 아독사
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it all down without stopping once. When he had drained the last drops, he peered into the mug and
scooped out all the sugar he could with his forefinger. After that, he tipped the mug up on his nose and
sat with it like that for about five minutes until the very last of he sugar had trickled down into his
mouth. For a few minutes, he was in a world of his own, far away from the threat of civilized man.

Questions
From paragraph 1 :
1. What mistaken idea did Durrell have about the age of the chimpanzee that he was asked to escort to
England ?
From paragraph 2 :
2. (a) What told Durrell that the chimpanzee had been upset by the trip in the crate ?
(b) Why did Durrell end up holding hands with the chimpanzee ?
From paragraph 3 :
3. (a) Give two reasons why Durrell decided to offer some tea to the chimpanzee.
(b) Why did the chimpanzee suddenly become so overjoyed that it made cheerful hooting noises ?
From paragraph 4 :
4. (a) What effect did Durrell's lighting of a cigarette have on the chimpanzee ?
(b) Which phrase in paragraph 4 suggests that Durrell actually considered it bad for the chimpanzee to
smoke?
From paragraph 5 :
5. (a) Explain the phrase "had a sweet tooth."
(b) Find a word that means "with great energy".

Answers
1. He thought it was a baby chimpanzee but it was actually an adult one.
2. (a) The expression on his face.
(b) Cholmondely had extended his long, hairy arm, clasped Durrell's hand in his and shaken it warmly.
Then later, he had held out his hand again.
3. (a) Firstly, Cholmondely turned and looked at him inquiringly, behaving like a guest who wanted Durrell
to offer him something. Secondly, Durrell had been warned that Cholmondely liked tea.
(b) Durrell found his battered tin mug.
4. (a)The chimpanzee became excited and held out its hand.
(b) "Undesirable habits"
5. (a) Loved sweet food
(b) Vigorously

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네이버 No.1 아이엘츠 카페 아독사
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The earth is losing its forests. Presently, trees cover about 30 percent of the earth's surface, but they
are being destroyed at an alarming rate, especially in the tropics. Timber harvesting is a major reason for
the destruction of the forests. Trees are used for building houses, making furniture, and providing pulp
for paper products, such as newspapers and magazines. At least 40 hectares of rainforest are being felled
every minute, mostly in order to extract the valuable timber.
Another way that man is destroying the world's forests is by burning them down. In the Amazon, for
example, rainforests are being burnt down at a rate of 20 hectares a minutes. The main reason for this is
to clear the land for farming. Farmers in rainforest countries are often poor and cannot afford to buy
land. Instead, these farmers clear rainforest h land to raise their animals or grow their crops. Because
tropical rainforest soil is so poor in nutrients, framers cannot reuse the same land year after year. In the
following years, farmers just clear more land, destroying the forest piece by piece. Already more than 30
tropical countries have reached a critical level of forest destruction and one-time exporters of timber
such as Nigeria and Thailand now have to import timber for their domestic needs.
Should we get all excited and worried about the loss of the forests ? Yes, we should. Healthy trees are a
vital part of the environment, and keep the entire balance of the atmosphere agreeable to all life forms.
Forests are catchment areas for rainwater, holding the rainwater in the leaves of the trees, so that it will
not sink so quickly into the earth's crust. Furthermore, the forests help maintain the water cycles in the
area. The masses of cloud that provide the rain are formed over the moist forests. Thus, the destruction
of forests may also lead to a reduction in rainfall over the area, resulting in drought.
Forests also protect and feed the earth's fragile mantle of soil. Tees curb soil erosion. Without the tree
cover, the land is totally exposed to the agents of erosion, such as strong winds and heavy rainfall. The
strong winds blow away the top layers of the soil and he flowing water carries it away into the rivers,
lakes or sea. Consequently, the once fertile land is converted into a barren wasteland. In addition,
denuded hill slopes are vulnerable to landslides, which can be catastrophic disasters, resulting in the loss
of homes and lives.
Apart from preventing soil erosion and landslides, forests, with their abundant supply of leaves, give
compost back to the land, thus helping it to remain fertile. the leaves of the trees and the droppings of
the birds, animals and insects which live in them, fall to the ground, where they decay and replenish the
soil with mulch, minerals and manure.
Forests are rich in flora and fauna. The rainforests are home to over half of the entire species of the
world, which are being destroyed with the rainforests; and some of those species that are killed will
never return again. Plants and creatures are god's gift to us and they serve mankind, each in its own
way. For example, plants are the source of our clothes; and the rubber used for tyrescomes from trees.
Plants are also the source of sugar, coffee, tea, rice, wheat and many delicious and nutritious fruit.
In addition, most of the medicines that have been used by men are derived from plants and animals. Most
of the Chinese medicines, for example, such as ginseng and ginkgo, are herb-based. An example from the
realm of modern Western medicine is the drug 'vincristine'. This drug, which is derived from a jungle
plant, is used in the treatment of leukemia. Many of those species that have not yet been discovered may

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네이버 No.1 아이엘츠 카페 아독사
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very likely cure cancer, AIDS, and many of the other diseases and virus-based illnesses of today. In fact,
one research scientist in the field of botany has concluded that in Costa Rica's forests alone, 15 percent
of the plant species may have the potential as a treatment for cancer. What potential life-saving
medicines are we losing each day as the forests are being destroyed ?
Apart from all this, let us keep in mind the most basic function of trees, which is that they provide
oxygen. All living creatures need to breathe oxygen in order to stay alive. A treeless planet will be an
airless and, therefore, a dead one.

Questions
From paragraph 1-2 :
1. (a) State two main ways that forests are being destroyed.
(b) What is the main purpose for the burning of the trees in the forests of the Amazon ?
From paragraph 2 :
2. What point is the writer trying to show in mentioning the fact that Nigeria and Thailand have to import
timber ?
From paragraph 3 :
3. (a) Explain why the destruction of forests may lead to drought.
(b) Find a word in this paragraph which means "very important".
From paragraph 4 :
4. (a) Why is soil erosion a greater problem in areas that have been cleared of forests ?
(b) Explain the meaning of "... denuded hill slopes ..." without using the italicised word.
From paragraph 7 :
5. What is 'vincristine' ?

Answers
1. (a) They are felled and burnt down.
(b) The land is cleared for cattle grazing.
2. They have lost too much of their forests.
3. (a) Forests are catchment areas for rainwater, preventing rainwater from sinking so quickly into the
ground. Masses of rain-bearing clouds form over the moist forests. Thus the destruction of the forests
may cause a reduction of rain in the area.
(b) Vital
4. (a) Without the tree cover, the land is totally exposed to the agents of erosion, such as strong winds
and heavy rainfall.
(b) Hills that have been cleared of all vegetation.
5. It is a drug used in the treatment of cancer.

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