0 views

Uploaded by raghu_thinks

- Cufsm Overview
- 1-s2.0-004579499400528B-main
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 88
- Column Report.xlsx
- Static and Dynamic Buckling of Thin-Walled Plate Structures
- Purlin Design
- FEM 14 Report
- Columnas
- Beam Design IS800 2007
- Members in Compression - III
- 7a. Columns.pdf
- 0192 Design Optimization of Eot Crane Bridge
- 2E5 Glass Structures L8 2014 VU
- Buckling EULER
- British Channel
- Chapter 12
- Design of Timber to BS 5268
- Structural Engineering
- Design of Crane Runway Beam With Channel
- Built Up Columns

You are on page 1of 8

for structures dimensioned on optimum-design principles

ABSTRACT--Tee-section columns have been tested under p. 35). This philosophy of optimal design received

conditions that provide a close relationship between the results widespread acceptance over the period of expansion in the

so obtained and the behavior of certain classes of stiffened- aerospace industries in the second quarter of this century,

plate structures, it is shown that severe imperfection sensitivity eventually coming to form the basis of many of the classic

arises when the overall column critical load is coincident, or works on minimum weight analysis J - ' But it has recently

nearly coincident, with the local torsional critical load of the

been suggested that considerable caution needs to be

stiffener. And, although the present results are clearly not

directly applicable to stiffened-plate design, it is suggested exercised in adopting this approach to structures displaying

that, if these systems are to be designed with even greater many possible modes of buckling. 5'6

material efficiencies than at present, the interactive mechanics Many of the earlier discussions on minimum-weight

observed could acquire increasing design importance. design recognized the fact that, as one approached the

Accordingly, suggestions ate made as to the form of research optimal geometry, a classical estimate of collapse load

needed to provide a rational basis for the design of such "determines the upper limit to the efficient utilization of

'optimized' stiffened-plate structures. structural materials," and that when all the necessary

"compromises . . . in design and fabrication" are taken

List of Symbols into account, the structure "can rarely expect to realize

these upper limits" (Ref. 4, p. xi). Accordingly, it was the

b spacing between stiffeners usual practice in aerospace applications to perform

d = depth of stiffeners extensive experimental investigations on individual com-

D = flexural rigidity of stiffener plate ponents and complete airframes, to ensure that the as-built

e = eccentricity of axial load system possessed adequate safety factors. This practice,

Co fabrication imperfection although feasible in a typical production run, where many

E = modulus of elasticity hundreds of identical structures are manufactured, becomes

F = force in load cell impractical when a one-off, large-scale structure is being

F o = initial force in load cell designed. In these cases, it is necessary to incorporate

I = second moment of area of T-section reliable estimates of the upper limits of strength in the

k = constant used for local critical load design process itself, and not to rely on the classical

f = wavelength of local critical mode--lateral stiffener estimates of collapse loads as many current design proposals

spacing suggestJ ,~ It is the aim of the present experimental program

L length of model to illustrate the dangers of relying on classical estimates of

P = axial load collapse for a structural component of increasingly wide

P b = maximum or buckling load

application--the stiffened plate; also to show that, while

ecrlt minimum critical load classical minimum-weight principles may provide a useful

P~: = overall or 'Euler' critical load means of deriving suitable structural geometries, the com-

e L = local critical load bined effects of structural imperfections and the highly

P , = uniform axial-compression yield load

unstable forms of buckling behavior make classical

t = thickness of stiffener and flange plates estimates of collapse loads an unreliable basis for the

6 = maximum overall deformation of model design of these components. An additional aim is to

# = Poisson's ratio

suggest that, until reliable methods for estimating the

reductions in collapse load become available, it might

Introduction indeed be fortunate that "in practice such ideal conditions"

for achieving simultaneous buckling "may not be easily

In discussing the question of optimal structural design,

obtained" (Ref. 1, p. 35).

it has recently been accepted' that "for a given loading

Structures composed of flat plates are currently receiving

system, the maximum efficiency can be obtained when all

considerable interest in relation to the economies they

possible modes of failure (overall and local instabilities, permit in the construction of box-girder bridges, ocean

yielding of material, etc.) occur at the same time" (Ref. 1, drilling platforms and ship hulls, to name a few. For the

buckling of such plate assemblages, Van der Neut was the

first to draw explicit attention to the potential dangers

C.P. Ellinas and J.G.A. Croll are Research Assistant and Lecturer, arising when deformations into local and overall modes

respectively, Department o f Civil and Municipal Engineering, UniversRy

College, London, England. P. Kaoulla is associated with R.H. Husband

for a box column occur at around the same critical

and Partners, Consulting Engineers, London. S. Kattura is associated with loads. 9 Since its presentation, many others have con-

Public Works Division, Kuwait Government, Kuwait. centrated on the mechanics of imperfection sensitivity

Longitudi~L

stiffener

Latera ~,

Fig. 1--Typical stiffened plate showing

element modeled in tests

"~'~ F'Lange~ b

plate

associated with this simultaneous or near simultaneous single longitudinal stiffener taken from a stiffened plate

mode design for the box column. '~ Each of these of sufficient width, so that, under uniform axial compression,

contributions has drawn attention to the severe imperfection adjacent longitudinal stiffeners would all behave identically.

sensitivity that occurs in the box column or wide sandwich Use of this symmetry is suggested in Fig. 1.

panel when the simultaneous critical load, or "naive ''6 Both the stiffener and flange plates were cut from mild-

approach to optimum design is pursued. On account of steel sheet. After machining to the exact dimensions, the

their rather wide applicability, it was natural that similar stiffeners were attached to the flange plates by means of a

attention would soon be directed toward the possibility of spot-welding technique. For this attachment, one side of

similar phenomena occurring in the behavior of stiffened the stiffener panel was cut to a depth of 10 ram, at

plates. approximately 10-mm intervals, over its full length.

The following describes a short series of experiments, Alternate strips so formed were then bent, as shown in

performed in 1972 as a final-year undergraduate research Fig. 2(a), to either side of th e stiffener to provide sufficient

project, whose objective was that of confirming the metal to allow the stiffener plate to be spot-welded to the

predictions of possibly severe imperfection sensitivity for flange plate. Apart from the laboratory fabrication con-

the interactive buckling that would arise when stiffened venience this allowed, such a joint effectively eliminated

plates are highly optimized. The experimental program any significance of residual welding stresses. Further, it

does not provide definitive information on the behavior closely simulated the common prototype connection in

of stiffened plates--this was not the intention. What it which stiffeners are attached to the flange, as shown in

does show is that the reduction in the buckling loads, Fig. 2(b), by intermittent welds staggered alternately on

from those predicted from a linearized critical-load analysis, either side of the stiffener. Attachment of the short sections

is sufficiently severe for this phenomenon to warrant of lateral stiffener was achieved by a similar spot-welding

considerably greater attention than it has received in the technique.

past. Once fabricated, the models were welded to end plates,

each with four studs allowing the carefully prepared vee-

The Models notch support arrangement to be attached. The vee-notch

end-support plates had slotted bolt holes to allow adjust-

The models were chosen to approximate the action of a ment of the vee-notch to any desired eccentricity with

Longitudat

~L~J stiffener~-~l~ . . . . . t Id

__

I I I |

ft

welding used in models

(b) Staggered fillet welding

common in prototype

stiffened-plate structures

l

I

(a) (b)

S c r e w adju'5 t m en t - - - ~

d ev:c e

" Load t r a n s m i t t i n g

X

Dial gages

F /'

. .....J

er head

I.-,,,~,.-.,-b - -- End p l a t e -

bearings

Guide box - - -- [ !1 i

Flange plate ....

L !l

Cou nt erweJ ~ h t

RJgld p l a t e s

support frzme

-~y [

E Micrometer screws

~z [ Lat era[

. Lor g : t u d ,/a[ b ae r i ng sapport

, --.

stiffener t

_ Lateral b e a r ng

supports

/Y ,Nv'vv'x,y'vv~ vYx

?~/////,I Light contact

/My ~ Y s ( k , ~

Lx Section XX

Section ZZ

I

Fig. 3 - - D e t a i l s of model and test rig

respect to the neutral axis of the T-section. It is estimated than 3 deg, so that any tendency for horizontal loading at

that eccentricities could be set to within _+0.1 mm using the load-transmitting bearing at B was small. But, in any

this arrangement. The models were then placed into the case, these horizontal loads would, for the reasons discussed

support frame by means of a fixed knife edge at the above, not be transmitted to the models, but would be

bottom, and a knife edge attached to a plunger head at absorbed by the support structure.

the top. The plunger itself was constrained to move The knife edge and supports were such that, while

vertically by means of 4 sets of roller bearings between it offering no resistance to overall flexural rotations of the

and a rigid hollow mild-steel guide box as shown in Fig. 3. models, they provided complete rigidity to torsional

By this means, the overall buckling of the T-section rotations. However, to prevent an overall torsional buckling

corresponded with that of a simply supported column, of the T-section from occurring, four sets of roller bearings

with any small component of horizontal load, occurring were attached in positions shown in Fig. 3, in such a way

at the load-transmitting bearing, being transmitted directly that they would correspond with the locations of typical

into the support frame. lateral stiffeners in an orthotropically stiffened plate. Like

To enable some information to be obtained on the the case of the orthotropically stiffened plate, the lateral

elasto-plastic unloading that takes place after the maximum deformations of the stiffener were prevented at the positions

loads are reached, the semi-rigid loading device shown in of these lateral bearing supports. The roller bearings were

Fig. 3 was employed. For this, a constant counterweight housed in carefully machined bearing blocks rigidly

W was applied at the end D of an effectively rigid beam connected to the model, but positioned so that they

AD. Beam AD was pinned at A and supported through a constrained the model to move between two smooth,

load cell and screw adjustment device at C. Initially, the effectively rigid, parallel plates. In positioning the models

loading arm and counterweight were equilibrated by in the support rig, it was found that considerable care was

developing a force, Fo, in the load cell. To load the model, necessary to ensure that, while suppressing these deforma-

the screw device at C was adjusted to produce the desired tions, the bearings provided negligible resistance to the

displacement at B. By recording the new force, F , in the overall deformations occurring in the column. During

load cell, the vertical load, P , being transmitted to the testing, additional precautions were taken to ensure that

model was then calculated from the expression these bearings offered no significant frictional constraint

to the overall deformations of the model. The system was

P = 8(Fo - F) unloaded at frequent intervals throughout the loading

range. If the model returned back to its original deforma-

With the restrictions of load-cell accuracy, the axial load tion state to within the recording accuracy, it was concluded

P could be established to an accuracy of + 0.30 kN. The that nonconservative effects of all sources had not

rotations of beam AD, on loading, were at all times less occurred. Apart from these bearings, the longitudinal

edges of the flange plates were stress free. TABLE 1 - - S U M M A R Y OF MODEL GEOMETRY AND CRITICAL

With the above arrangement, the models did not LOAD CHARACTERISTICS

completely simulate the continuity condition that would,

in reality, exist between adjacent stiffener elements in a Model b d t b d PL PL Pc.,

typical stiffened plate. In addition, with this experimentally Group (mm) (mm) (ram) d t (kN) PE P~

more convenient longitudinal edge condition, the model

would display somewhat differera initial local buckling A 100 16.5 1.17 6.06 14.1 8.16 1.82 0.160

characteristics to that of a typical stiffener in a wide B 100 20.5 1.17 4.87 17.5 8.56 1.04 0.285

stiffened plate. However, for the interactive buckling C 100 28.5 1.17 3.51 24.4 9.21 0.45 0.299

being studied, in which the overall buckling sets the flange

in tension, so that it tends to increase the out-of-plane

deformation of the stiffener and decrease that in the

flange plates, the effects of these approximations decrease

as the overall deformation increases. At the maximum, or with the longitudinal stiffener spacing or, in the present

buckling, loads found in the models, the overall deforma- context, flange width b = 100 mm, and the lateral

tions were found to be sufficiently large that this effect stiffener spacing e - - 1 6 6 mm. Overall, the effective

would have had only a minor influence on the buckling lengths of the T-section columns were L -- 890 mm. With

characteristics. In any case, these slight physical differences these dimensions held constant, the ratio between the

would not affect the important phenomenon displayed by overall column critical load, PE, and the minimum local

the models. torsional critical load, PL, was then controlled with the

Cross sections considered were of the type shown in only remaining cross-sectional dimension, d. The overall

Fig. 4, and dimensions of the models were chosen to be column critical load was calculated using the Euler

typical of those employed in existing prototype box- equation

girder structures. In these structures, nondimensional 7r2EI

relationships among the stiffener depth, d, the lateral PE-- L 2

spacing between longitudinal stiffeners, b, and the stiffener

thickness, t, will generally lie in the ranges ~6 for a simply supported column of length, L , second

b moment of area about the neutral axis, I, and modulus

3 <--~ < 6 of elasticity, E.

The minimum local torsional critical load, PL, was

15<d<25 calculated using a Rayleigh-Ritz method similar to that

t suggested by Timoshenko." In this analysis, only the

length of T-section between two consecutive lateral

For the present models, the flange and web were fabricated stiffeners was considered. By taking suitable displacement

from the same mild-steel plate of thickness t = 1.17 mm, functions for both the stiffener and the flange, the local

P Models

kN Group C /

20.0

lrZ //'

/

Fig. 4--Variation of overall, Models Models

P~, and local, PL, critical Group a GroupB

loads with stiffener depth, d /

100

-I-'/

0.0

0.0 10.0 20.0 d mm

torsional critical load was given in the same form as _+0.0025 ram. Out-of-plane deformations of the flanges

Timoshenko by and stiffener were measured with similar screw micrometers.

7r2D

P~ = k . - -

d Test Results

Two models from each of groups A, B and C were

where D is the flexural rigidity of the stiffener plate, and fabricated and tested. Each model was first exhaustively

b tested under elastic conditions for a wide range of differing

(I + -d)

. @,, load eccentricities. The general procedure followed was to

load the model up to a level where incremental displace-

I1 + ments became excessive, suggesting that a limit point

was imminent. To enable retesting of the models, it was

6(1 - ff)(l + generally not possible to actually observe the maximum

for each imperfection test. For, even with the very rigid

loading system employed, it was not always possible to

For the special case of no flange, that is, b = 0, the edge stabilize all equilibrium states on the equilibrium path

of the web connected to the flange would reduce to a subsequent to reaching the maximum load. In these

simple support, and the coefficient k reduces to circumstances, a violent dynamic snap-buckling occurred

almost simultaneously with the attainment of the limit

k = 0.444 + ( d ~ , state. During the dynamic 'snap', plastic collapse was

found to occur. It was for this reason that it was possible

to test only two of the eccentricities over the full elasto-

which compares closely with the expression plastic loading range.

For all experiments reported, unloading checks were

k = 0.456 + [ d ~ z made at frequent intervals to ensure that no permanent set

had occurred during the previous load increment. Also,

given by Timoshenko (Ref. 15, p. 362). Figure 4 shows each elastic test was performed at least twice, to ensure

the dependence of both P~ and PL on the stiffener depth, repeatability of the results. When all the elastic tests were

d, and indicates the three values of d chosen for the completed, one of each model group was tested to

present models. Table 1 summarizes the geometric destruction with as small a loading eccentricity as possible.

properties of these three models. The second model from each group was then tested to

destruction with a large eccentricity. Detailed results were

All models were fabricated from mild-steel sheet with a

modulus of elasticity of 206 GN/m 2, Poisson's ratio of as follows :

0.27, and a yield stress of 205 MN/m 2. With these

characteristics, the axial force at the minimum critical Group A

load, P~ri,, would be approximately a quarter of the

axial load-producing yield, Py, had the column remained F i g u r e 5 s u m m a r i z e s the results f o r tests o n the m o d e l s

straight. with d = 16.5 mm, for which the minimum local critical

For all models tested, the overall deformation was load is almost twice the overall 'Euler' critical load.

measured using a light contact screw micrometer as Clearly shown on the plot of axial load, P , against the

depicted in Fig. 3, with reading accuracy to within maximum component of overall deformation, 6, is the

Pl ' '~P I

0 ~OJ;

10 A

1.0

e : C C, m r~

:d:16 b

2s : ~/ '

05 ~,s 05 4 . . . . . . . . .

L

I

i

@.0 0. O If

O0 5 0 5 mm 0.0 100 e Mm

(a) (b)

Fig 5 - - ( a ) Nature of load-overall d e f o r m a t i o n response for varying load eccentricity, e. Models with P,/P, = 1 8 2

(b) Sensitivity of buckling load, P,,, to the magnitude of load eccentricity, e

P/P P I P E =~ 0~,

E

Group B

1.0 1.0 I

tzl 17 LP

- ~ : 2 0 5

I\

i \ 8 e

e=00 i \

0.5 0.5

I

I

]

I

' . / ~ ' ~ 0 13 0

I

i

i

I eo

0.0 0.0 I

(a) (b)

Fig. 6 - - ( a ) N a t u r e of load-overall deformation response for varying load eccentricity, e. Models with PLIPF = 1.04.

(b) Sensitivity of buckling load, P,,, to the magnitude of ioad eccentricity, e

very severe sensitivity of the nonlinear response t o the as shown in Fig. 6(a), additional small changes in positive

magnitudes of the single imperfection of load eccentricity load eccentricity result in very substantial additional

that was able to be controlled in these tests. The maximum reductions in the buckling load. For example, an eccentricity

loads reached, Pb, both measured and extrapolated, are of only e = 3.5 ram, or an out-of-straightness of approxi-

shown in Fig. 5(b) to highlight these characteristics of mately 1 in 300, gives rise to a buckling load of only 40

imperfection sensitivity. With an eccentricity e = 0 percent that of the minimum overall 'Euler' critical load.

representing the load applied at the neutral axis of the T- For an unrealistic load offset of e = 19.5, or its equivalent

section, the reduction in maximum or buckling load to 85 1 in 50 out-of-straightness, the buckling load was found

percent that of the minimum critical load is primarily due to occur just after the onset of plasticity at a load of

to the very small overall and local fabrication imperfections less than 20 percent that of the minimum critical load.

that must inevitably exist in the models. Small changes in But again the severe imperfection sensitivity is more

loading eccentricity, which of course represent only one clearly shown in Fig. 6(b), where the locus of buckling

component of the critical imperfection, are seen to loads, Pb, both measured and extrapolated, shows how an

produce very severe additional changes in the buckling extremely minor change of small loading eccentricities

load. With an eccentricity of e = 10 mm, which would be and, of course, by implication, also an equivalent overall

almost equivalent to an out-of-straightness of 1 in 100, geometric imperfection, results in a very large change in

the buckling load is reduced to only 35 percent of the the buckling load. This form of behavior is that which

minimum critical load which, in this case, corresponds would accompany the highly unstable form of associated

with that of the overall 'Euler' critical load. interactive bifurcation predicted from a classical post-

With a negative eccentricity greater than co, the column buckling analysis. So that, for experiments carried out on

buckling was such that the flange and not the stiffener a large number of different test specimens, all nominally

was subject to the greatest intensity of compressive stress. the same but with slightly different inherent geometric

In this case, it was the destiffening of the flange which imperfections, a large scatter in experimental results could

largely controlled the local buckling and, consequently, be expected. In these cases, the buckling loads may be

the interactive buckling. The results for these cases were considerably lower than the minimum classical critical

found to be qualitatively similar to those described above. loads; a form of behavior which has been observed for a

However, it must be remembered that the idealizations long time in relation to tests on thin shells, and for which

involved in the present models make this interaction of considerable research effort has been expended to

little direct practical relevance to the problem of a wide, understand the causes.

multiply stiffened plate. For this reason, the results of What is also more evident in Fig. 6(b) is the fact that a

these tests are not included. small change in a large load eccentricity produces a

proportionally smaller change in buckling load than that

Group B for small imperfections. For the present case, the buckling

load would appear to be tending toward a lower bound

The extreme sensitivitY of the buckling load to small asymptote at a load level around 20 percent of the minimum

imperfections is illustrated in this case of almost simultaneous critical load, P~. It has recently been suggested that the

local and overall critical loads, that is optimum design, ~ estimation of this lower bound could play an important

in Fig. 6. Even for an axial load applied at the neutral role in the provision of safe design estimates of buckling

axis, that is at e = 0, the buckling load for t h i s model loads for such imperfection-sensitive structures. ' 3.,4,, 7.,8

was only 70 percent of the minimum critical load. Also, As for the tests in Fig. 5, the results of Fig. 6(b) again

I

Group C

~.0 1.0

\

..... l . . . . .

e:l.0

~ 5Z}

/

Lb:,O d

0.5 0.5

U -7

I

i

--

0.0 0.0 i

(a) (b)

Fig 7--(a) Nature of load-overall deformation response for varying load eccentricity, e. Model with P, iP~ - 05.

(b) Sensitivity of buckling load, P,,, to the magnitude of load eccentricity, e

suggest that, if the axial load P were applied with a dependence upon the magnitude of the controlled overall

negative eccentricity, then it would compensate some of load eccentricity, e, and, as shown in Fig. 7(b), the

the overall geometric imperfections that exist in the magnitudes of the elastic buckling loads, Pb, are also

models. Indeed, if the locus of Pb, shown in Fig. 6(b), highly dependent upon the magnitudes of these imperfections.

were extrapolated back to Pb/P, = 1, then an eccentricity Unlike either of the previous groups of tests, though,

of -eo would be required to counterbalance the other the experiments of group C enabled the colunm, with

inherent geometric flaws that exist in the models. These very small loading imperfections, to sustain loads slightly

geometric flaws would be composed of distortions both in excess of the minimum local critical load. This can be

in the form of the local-buckling mode and in the overall explained in much the same way as the response of the

mode. But the results for e = 0.0, presented in Fig. 6(b), related box-column interactive buckling. ~8 In the box

show that, even with the semi-rigid loading device used column, the post-critical stiffness of the local buckling

for the present tests, the equilibrium states just beyond allows loads slightly in excess of the local critical load to

the maximum load are unstable. Consequently, an un- occur for increasing local distortion. Maximum loads occur

controlled dynamic snap buckling occurred. During this in these cases when the local distortions have reached

snap-buckling, the model was found to develop plastic magnitudes sufficient to produce a reduction in the effective

deformations, so that the behavior beyond the dynamic overall column stiffness to a level that the current

snap-buckling corresponded to an elasto-plastic unloading. column critical load just equals the load level producing

At large overall displacements, the models had developed these local distortions. The magnitude of this load reserve

well-defined plastic-collapse mechanism. Even for the depends largely upon the magnitudes of local fabrication

e = 19.5 mm case, a sudden plastic unloading occurred imperfections in the model. Again, for reasons discussed

at a small deflection subsequent to reaching the maximum in relation to the box column, '8 the lower bound asymptote

axial load. occurs for the present models at a somewhat higher load

It is perhaps worth stressing that had the tests been level. From Fig. 7(b), it appears that the lower bound

performed using a force-controlled loading device, which asymptote is around 0.25PL.

is perhaps closer to the situation that occurs in, say, a

box-girder bridge, the buckling would have taken place D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s

with considerably greater violence. The instant a maximum

load was reached in these cases, an explosive snap-buckling The limited number of tests described clearly show the

would occur, and the system would suffer gross plastic potential significance of interactive buckling behavior for

distortions before static equilibrium could again be the T-section models and, by analogy, for an important

restored at this load. class of stiffened-plate structures. By choosing dimensions

of the models so that they are typical of those existing in

prototype structures, it has been demonstrated that, in

Group C

using the simultaneous critical-load philosophy of

The results for this group of tests, shown in Fig. 7, 'optimum design', it is not adequate to rely on the usual

display similar characteristics to those of group A. Again, linear estimates of critical load and the conventional factors

the load paths represented in Fig. 7(a) show strong of safety. The combined effects of initial imperfections,

and the progressive coupling between local and overall (c) the elucidation of simple but reliable lower-bound

buckling modes, may result in elastic buckling loads estimates of elastic-buckling loads, which, in the manner

considerably lower than the minimum critical load and, suggested in Ref. 18 for box columns, could be crucial

unlike the case of single mode buckling that occurs in design aids;

columns or even unstiffened plates, buckling can occur (d) reliable estimates of plastic-collapse loads which take

with little warning and with considerable violence. full account of their dependence upon the precollapse

The severe reductions in buckling loads reported can be local and overall elastic deformations.

interpreted in terms of two complementary effects. First,

the influence of the initial overall geometric distortions

and the loading eccentricity apply to the column a non- ExperimentalAccuracy

uniform distribution of compressive stresses, in which the With the limitations to load and deformation recording

longitudinal fibers at the free edge of the stiffener are accuracy noted above, it is estimated that the experimental

subjected to compressive stresses higher than the average. plots in Figs. 5 to 7 could be obtained to within 1-2 percent

Due to this redistributed stress, the axial load needed to in the vicinity of the buckling loads. Taking into account

produce local torsional buckling of the stiffener is reduced. the accuracies of recording model geometry, material

As loading progresses, the corresponding overall column properties and loading eccentricities, together with the

deformation further increases the effective eccentricity of small uncertainties arising from support and bearing

the load, so that the ratio of maximum fiber compressive friction, the overall accuracy of the results is estimated

stress to the average is continuously increasing with to be within 6 percent.

increasing load. Correspondingly, the load needed to

produce local buckling will also be reducing as loading

progresses. Acknowledgments

But, in addition to the above, there is the second and The experimental results described were part of an

complementary cause of the observed interactions. Initial undergraduate final-year research project which followed

geometric imperfections in the form of the local-torsional- the earlier project of R.D. Allen and W.P.C. Buckhurst.

buckling mode, together with the incremental local The authors acknowledg e their important contributions

deformations that occur on loading, cause a substantial and also those of J. Jackson in fabricating all the test

decrease in the overall moment-curvature stiffness of the equipment.

column. As loading progresses, therefore, the effective

critical load of the column is continuously decreasing. It

is the combined effect of the redistribution of stresses due References

to overall distortions which accelerate the growth of local 1. Wei-Wen Yu., Cold-formed Steel Structures, McGraw-Hill Book

deformations, together with the reduction in the overall Co. (1973).

2. Zahorski, A., "'Effects o f Material Distribution on Strength o f

stiffness caused by these local distortions that produces Panels, "" J. Aero. Sci., XI (3), 247-253 (Jul. 1944).

the interactive buckling characteristics observed. 3. Shanley, F.R., Weight-strength Analysis o f Aircraft Structures,

For the class of model considered and, by analogy, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1952).

certain stiffened-plate structures, it has been shown that 4. Gerard, G., Minimum Weight Analysis o f Compression Structures,

N. Y.U. Press, New York (1956).

reductions in buckling loads are sufficiently severe, that 5. Koiter, W.T. and Skaloud, M., "'Interventions'; presented in

the usual factors of safety could not be relied upon to "'Comportement posteritiques des plaques utilisees en construction

guarantee the requisite strength. Imperfections considered metallique, " Int. Colloquium held at University o f Liege, 1962, Memoires

above are in excess of the geometric tolerances acceptable Soc. Royale Sci. de Liege, Series 5, VIII (5), 64-68, 103-104 (1962).

6. Hutchinson, J. 14/. and Koiter, W.T., "Post-buckling Theory,"

in most code requirements, but it is possible that in-service Appl. Mech. Rev., 23, 1353-1366 (1970).

loading conditions could produce 'equivalent imperfections' Z Rao, S.S., "'Optimization o f Complex Structures to Satisfy Static,

of these magnitudes in prototype structures. But there are Dynamic and Aeroelastic Requirements, "" Int. J. Num. Meth. in Engrg.,

reasons for supposing that this class of stiffener is potentially 8, 249-269 (1973).

8. Avent, R.R. and Robinson, J.H., "'Elastic Stability o f Polygon

not the most imperfection sensitive. Highly optimized use Folded Plate Columns, "" Proc. A.S.C.E., 102 (ST5), 1015-1030 (May 1976).

o f 'bulb flats', or other forms of stiffener in which the 9. Neut, A. van der, "'The Interaction o f Local Buckling and Column

free edges are reinforced, could be expected to show inter- Failure o f Thin-walled Compression Members, "' Proc. 12th Int. Cong.

active buckling characteristics with even more extreme AppL Mech., Stanford, 1968, HetEnyi, M. and Vinceti, W.G., eds.,

Springer Verlag, 389 (1969).

reductions in buckling load than those described above. If 10. Koiter, W.T. and Kuiken, G.D.L., The Interaction between Local

the tendency to increase material efficiency is to be Buckling and Overall Buckling on the Behavior o f Built-up Columns,

continued, therefore, it would seem of considerable WTHD Rap. 23 Delft (1971).

-importance that research effort should be directed towards 11. Neut, A. van der, "'The Sensitivity o f Thin-walled Compression

Members to Column Axis Imperfections, "" Int. J. Solids and Struct., 9,

providing simple but rational bases for the design of such 999-1011 (1973).

stiffened plates. From the evidence presented in the 12. Thompson, J.M.T. and Lewis, G.M., "On the Optimum Design o f

above tests, it would certainly appear unwise to apply the Thin-walled Compression Members, '" J. Mech. and Phys. Solids, 20, 101-

simultaneous collapse optimization procedure until such 109 (1972).

13. Svenson, S.E. and Croll, J.G.A., "'Interaction between Local and

an understanding is achieved, or without careful experi- Overall Buckling, "" Int. J. Mech. ScL, 307-321 (1975).

mental proof testing. The research needed would appear 14. Thompson, J.M.T., Tulk, J. and Walker, A.C., "'An Experimental

to require : Study o f Imperfection Sensitivity in the Interactive Buckling o f Stiffened

(a) extensive experimental studies on elastic models to Plates, "' Proc. L U. T.A.M. Syrup. Buckling Struct., Harvard (1974);

Springer Verlag (1974).

obtain more detailed understanding of the interactive 15. Timoshenko, S., "'Theory o f Elastic Stability, "" McGraw-Hill Book

buckling behavior for all classes of stiffened plate, and Co., New York and London (1936).

how this depends upon the magnitudes of independently 16. Murray, N.W., "'Buckling o f Stiffened Panels Loaded Axially and

controlled local and overall imperfection magnitudes; in Bending, '" Struct. Eng., 51 (8) (1973).

17. Croll, J.G.A., "'Towards Simple Estimates o f Shell Buckling Loads,"

(b) theoretical studies of the coincident or near- Der Stahlbau, Part L 8, 243-248 (1975); Part 11, 9, 283-285 (1975).

coincident branching phenomena associated with such 18. Croll, J.G.A., "'Model o f Interactive Buckling o f Stiffened Plates, ""

imperfection sensitivity; J. Engrg. Mech. Div., Proc. A.S.C.E., 101 (EM5), 575-591 (1975).

- Cufsm OverviewUploaded bychristos032
- 1-s2.0-004579499400528B-mainUploaded byDimvoulg Civil
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 88Uploaded bypawkom
- Column Report.xlsxUploaded byChhon Chhour
- Static and Dynamic Buckling of Thin-Walled Plate StructuresUploaded byBerPessutto
- Purlin DesignUploaded bykarfung
- FEM 14 ReportUploaded bycornelo2007
- ColumnasUploaded byandreinarod
- Beam Design IS800 2007Uploaded byvishalnalwar
- Members in Compression - IIIUploaded byMohamed El-zamany
- 7a. Columns.pdfUploaded byZain Ahmad
- 0192 Design Optimization of Eot Crane BridgeUploaded byJignesh Tala
- 2E5 Glass Structures L8 2014 VUUploaded byMK
- Buckling EULERUploaded byIdehen Kelvin
- British ChannelUploaded bydoshi78
- Chapter 12Uploaded bygreen77park
- Design of Timber to BS 5268Uploaded byMohamed Abd
- Structural EngineeringUploaded byJohnsonDaniel
- Design of Crane Runway Beam With ChannelUploaded bylatyrniang
- Built Up ColumnsUploaded byMihajloDjurdjevic
- Built Up ColumnsUploaded byfinn.crown
- KANCHANALAI - Framed Columns Under Minor Axis BendingUploaded bymarinamovia
- INTRODUCTION Column StabilityUploaded byMohd Yasir Pilus
- 10aUploaded byadnandj
- Column designUploaded byBaskar Kannaiah
- Lab 3 Sheet Buckling-21Sep11Uploaded byMohd Fazli
- Sunder CFT Column ReportUploaded bysunder kumawat
- Brazier LoadsUploaded byManoj Manoharan
- IS 7906_1Uploaded bykamalkraj4002
- Fundamentals of Structural Stability for Steel Design Part 1Uploaded bygimusi

- (1980) Design Specification of Tolerances for Geometric Imperfections in Concrete Cooling TowersUploaded byraghu_thinks
- OMAE2014-24246Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- ISOPE-I-18-586Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- Long-term Dynamic Behavior of Monopile Supported Offshore Wind Turbines in SandUploaded byraghu_thinks
- A Modal Superposition Method for Non-linear StructuresUploaded byraghu_thinks
- (2015) Seismic Performance Evaluation and Retrofit of Fixed Jacket Offshore Platform StructuresUploaded byraghu_thinks
- (1985) Residual Strength of Dented Tubulars- Impact Energy CorrelationUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Non-linear Dynamic Analysis With Deterministic and Random Seas-The Case of Minimum PlatformsUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Sesam Floatover Analysis WhitepaperUploaded byraghu_thinks
- (1982) Deformation characteristics of tubular members with reference to impact loads from collision and dropped objects.pdfUploaded byraghu_thinks
- is 1893Uploaded bysaf
- The Effect of Wave in-Deck in Conventional Pushover AnalysisUploaded byraghu_thinks
- OTC 7152.pdfUploaded byraghu_thinks
- OTC 18984Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- OMAE-17-1047Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- A Probabilistic Evaluation of Wind Turbine Fatigue Design RulesUploaded byraghu_thinks
- OTC 5882Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- OTC 3616Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- On the Energy Dissipation of Jacket Type Offshore Platforms With Different Pile–Leg InteractionsUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Structural Integrity of Offshore Wind Turbines-PresentationUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Shear Wave Velocity Measurements and Soil–Pile System Identifications in Dynamic Centrifuge TestsUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Challenges in Predicting Power Output From Offshore Wind FarmsUploaded byraghu_thinks
- OTC 7482Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- OMAE2008-57203Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- On Fatigue Damage Assessment for Offshore Support StructuresUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Deterministic Versus Probabilistic Based Seismic Design Criteria - Adriatic SeaUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Caa Paper 99004Uploaded byraghu_thinks
- Seismic Considerations in Design of Offshore Wind TurbinesUploaded byraghu_thinks
- Caisson Foundations for Competitive Offshore Wind Farms in ITALYUploaded byraghu_thinks

- National and Regional Road Network Optimization for Senegal Using Mobile Phone DataUploaded bybsvsey
- HEAT TRANSFER IMPROVEMENT IN RADIATOR BY EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WALLS EMISSIVITYUploaded byIJORAT
- 2 Modelling o Activated SludgeUploaded byAli Rıza Üreten
- NSITUploaded byAjit Kumar K
- Sample of citing a source quoted in another source.pdfUploaded byZan Retsiger
- The Source of Hydraulic PowerUploaded bysekar507
- POWERbot user manualUploaded bysgross2130
- Artículo How to rescue CRM (rev1)Uploaded byOscar Bravo
- 1- Data WarehousesUploaded bymoh7711753
- Jessica+Swm+Greece+Study Inception+Report.nov09Uploaded byibitzis
- A632 Gear Vibration GeneticUploaded byfaitpaschier125
- Expert Series - How a SPO Solves Business ProblemsUploaded bypie3us
- Analytical Services and Laboratory Studies _ Noria CorporationNoria CorporationUploaded bysatya_chaganti
- SI 520 HW 7 Phase II: Website MockupUploaded byandykryshak
- AN1890Uploaded byAli Kashi
- 2013 Finite Element Model of a Kantele With Improved Sound RadiationUploaded byHelio Vitor Cantanhêde
- Sap Business Objects Edge Series 3.1 Install Windows EnUploaded bySilu Leon
- OMC231120 BSC6900 GSM V900R011 Installation & Commissioning ISSUE 1.00Uploaded byMoch Farizd Nur
- 6828680 How to Decode ISUP MessagesUploaded byAyan Chakraborty
- Sullair Part List v2 44-55-75 KWUploaded byRamon Sanhueza
- AeroKret BrochureUploaded byBala Bala
- At Load Power Factor CorrectionUploaded byBi Bim Bap
- Carbozinc+858Uploaded byjasminnee
- robbins_mng8ce_14_2 bnUploaded bykramjos
- SP-TCS-211Uploaded bym
- A Case Study of Pollution of DelhiUploaded bychiragjn120
- 10-02Uploaded byDamian Berdusco
- briannas college resume 2017Uploaded byapi-384563147
- purchasesop-140305221543-phpapp01Uploaded byAnkit Rastogi
- 80MM MINI Portable Thermal Printer Instruction Manual-20160224Uploaded byNicole Zijiang