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Plumbing Codes

and Green
Building Design

By: Julius Ballanco, P.E.


JB Engineering and Code Consulting, P.C.
The First Plumbing Codes

• A little history on
Plumbing Codes.
• Take the water from a
point remote from the
sewage
• When discharging to a
river, place the
sewage downstream
from the water intakes
Plumbing Started Outdoors

• Plumbing and
sanitation was not
important to early
settlers
• The business was
taken outside
• Outhouse were
regulated based on
distance to the house
and the water supply
IAPMO on the West Coast

• Formed in 1926 as
Los Angeles Plumbing
Inspectors
• Changed names
many times
• Issue first form of a
plumbing code in
1932
• The latest edition is
the 2006 Code
ICC International Plumbing Code

• The ICC is the


combination of the
old BOCA, SBCCI,
and ICBO.
• They have published
the International
Plumbing Code since
1995
Green Building and LEEDs

• The hottest area in


Plumbing Codes is green
building.
• Plumbing Codes are
reviewing LEEDs
regarding green building.
• Green building design
includes water
conservation, energy
conservation, and
recycling.
LEED and USGBC

• Plumbing Codes are looking at LEED point


system that is regulated by the US Green
Building Council (USGBC)
• Different levels depending on how green.
• Plumbing areas for LEED points include:
– Water conservation
– Water reuse
– Storm water harvesting
– Green building material
UPC Alternative Engineered
Design
• New Section 301.4 allows an alternative
engineered design of any plumbing
system.
• Must be designed by a registered design
professional.
• Technical data is required to substantiate
the design.
• Allows for any design concept that is safe
and protects public health.
Green and the Plumbing Code

• The Plumbing Codes are


attempting to respond to
the green building
initiative.
• Some green building
concepts have been
adopted.
• Others are still being
reviewed
• Chapter 16 was added to
UPC
UPC Chapter 16 (New)

• There are two parts to Chapter 16:


– Gray water systems
– Reclaimed water
• Grey water is the reuse of waste water for
agricultural purposes
• Reclaimed water was intended to apply to
municipally supplied reclaimed water
– Other reclaimed water is used
Chapter 16 – Part 1, Gray Water

• Gray water systems


are only permitted for
single family dwellings
• The source of gray
water includes:
bathtub, shower,
lavatory, and clothes
washer waste water
• Kitchen sinks cannot
discharge to the gray
water system
Gray Water Irrigation

• The irrigation system


must be a subsurface
system
• The holding tanks
must have overflows
connected to the
building drain
• The requirements for
the fields are well
defined
Chapter 16 – Part 2, Reclaimed
Water
• Reclaimed water is
water that has tertiary
treatment
• The water may be
used for flush water
closets and/or urinals
• Reclaimed water is
not permitted to be
used in single family
dwellings
Reclaimed Water
• The piping system must be
purple wrapped and
continuously labeled:
Reclaimed water, do not
drink.
• The building must be
labeled:
CAUTION
RECLAIMED WATER, DO
NOT DRINK.
DO NOT CONNECT TO
DRINKING WATER
SYSTEM.
Non Water Supplied Urinals

• Non water supplied urinals


are very popular in LEED
buildings
• Permitted by IPC and NSPC
• UPC does not directly permit
non water supplied urinals
• Change has been proposed
to include fixture in UPC
• Numerous manufacturers
Water Conservation
• Plumbing Codes
have long
embraced water
conservation
– Showers
– Lavatory faucets
– Kitchen sinks.
• Attempts to restrict
showers to one
shower head
Water Pipe Sizing

• Plumbing Codes
allow sizing based
on lower flows
• Must be part of
engineered design
• Results in different
pipe sizes
• Different
controlling factors
Low Flow Urinals

• Urinal flow rate is


down significantly
• Manufacturers are
producing urinals that
flush half to one eight
of a gallon
• Codes want
compliance with
ASME or ANSI
standard
Dual Flush

• Dual flush is
permitted by
ASME standards
• Standards are
referenced in every
Plumbing Code
• Can be used for
water conservation
High Efficiency Toilets (HET)

• EPA’s new
program of HET is
acceptable to the
Plumbing Codes
• The water closets
must conform to
ANSI/ASME
A112.19.2
• Referenced
standard in Code
Copper Tubing Press Connect

• All Plumbing Codes listed the new copper


press connect fittings.
• Many manufacturers of the product
• Being viewed as green building because
no flames, no gases from solding, and low
energy joint.
Multiple Temperature
System Design
• Water Piping System
Keeping Hot Water Hot –
Conservation of Energy
• Two common methods of maintaining hot water
temperature
– Heat tracing (self limiting)
– Recirculation
• If the hot water piping extends more than 100 ft
from the water heater, a recirculation line is
required by Plumbing Codes
– Recirculation pipe should be sized for maximum
velocity of 1-2 ft/sec (3 ft/sec max)
– Recirculation piping is required to be insulated.
Recirculation Standard Loop

Shut Off Valve


Control Valve
Check Valve

Return to
Water Heater

Hot Water
Supply
Controlled Flow – Green Design

• A controlled flow roof drain uses the roof as a


reservoir, gradually discharging to the sewer.
• Good for areas with marginal public systems.
• Requires coordination with structural engineer.
• Can include green roof design.
Roof for Controlled Flow
• Most roofs are
membrane roofs.
• Ponding on the roof is
necessary.
• The roof must be
designed for the load.
• The typical storm is a
100 year storm of 24
hour duration.
• Ponding is only
permitted for 24
hours.
The Siphonic System – Water Reuse

• A siphonic roof
drainage system is
installed as a
complete system with:
– Special siphonic roof
drains
– A piping network that is
engineered
– An open discharge at
the base of the system
ASPE Has a New – A collection tank for
Standard – ASPE 45 drainage, ideal for
water reuse systems
Siphonic Roof Drain

• A siphonic roof drain


must convert the flow
from open channel to
siphonic.
• An accumulation of
water is required to go
siphonic.
• When the rain storm is
light, the drains are
open channel flow.
Creating a Siphon

• Each drain has a


measure of depth
where the drain turns
siphonic.
• The velocity of the
drain increases
tremendously.
• The drain can convert
back and forth
between siphonic and
open channel flow.
Siphonic and Green Building

• Siphonic Roof Drain • LEEDs


– Special drain required – Siphonic provides a
– Sump needed to collect collection point that can
the water be used for water
– More engineering reuse
– Smaller pipe size – Smaller drains
conserve resources
– Less expensive to
install
– Inspectors don’t
understand system
– Indirect connection to
the public sewer
Thanks for Your Time.
Any questions?