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The non-proprietary test problems that have been used to validate some of the

capabilities provided in INSTED for the analysis of internal flow are presented in

this section. Sufficient information is provided to enable you to complete the test

problems without referring to the original sources of the various test problems.

These sources are given, as are a few notes to aid in the comparison exercise.

Some diagnostic results reported in the sources are given here and compared with

INSTED predictions. The percentage difference is given when diagnostic results

are presented. You will be expected to have simulated some of these sample

problems before attempting to solve more realistic engineering problems. While

the capability for analysis of heat transfer in an annulus is provided in the internal

flow module, no test problems for the annulus are presented in this chapter.

Application-oriented examples for the annulus are presented in the section on

concentric tube heat exchangers. The input data for the test problems is contained

in the distribution disks. Finally, when differences are indicated between INSTED

results and the results from the source, this is often due to the use of simpler and

probably less accurate formulas in the source.

Test Problem 1

Problem Statement:

Condensing Steam

Oil in at

1cm

35oC,

mm

0.05kg/s

L=?

Suppose that such a system includes a process during which engine oil

flows through a 1-cm-ID, 0.02-cm-wall copper tube at the rate of 0.05

kg/s. The oil enters at 35C and is to be heated to 45C by

atmospheric-pressure steam condensing on the outside. Calculate the

length of tube required.

Source:

Frank Kreith & Mark Bohn. 1993. Fifth Edition. Principles of heat

transfer. West Educational Publishing, Boston. Page 393.

Comments:

In INSTED, choose the 'Tube Length' task and the option to enter

mass flow rate (not the velocity).

From the source: Cp=1964 J/kg K, =876 kg/m3, k=0.144 W/m K,

=0.210 N s /m2, Pr=28.7.

Based on the input data, INSTED classifies this problem as

Laminar, Developed, Moderate/High Prandtl number'.

The wall has a fixed temperature. The source assumes the wall

temperature is 373.15 K.

INSTED requires a friction factor. Absolute roughness is obtained

from Thaerocomp's database. The smooth pipe option is selected

from this database. No additional data is required to obtain a

friction factor. The friction factor value suggested at Moody chart

calculation is used, which is 2.11.

Diagnostic results from source areas follows:

LMTD & (T) (K) 59.9 (N/A) 59.86 (60) < 1%

L (m) 9.92 9.8847 < 1%

h (W/m2K) 52.7 52.7 < 1%

q (LMTD) (W) 979.72

q (T) (W) 983 982.00 < 1%

f N/A 2.11

a. is potentially more accurate than the Dittus and Boelter formula

used in the source.

b. No allowance is made for the friction in this source, whereas, in

INSTED, a friction factor is required.

Test Problem 2

Problem Statement:

Air at 2 atm and 200C is heated as it flows through a tube with a

diameter of 1 in (2.54 cm) at a velocity of 10 m/s. Calculate the heat

transfer per unit length of tube if a constant-heat-flux condition is

maintained at the wall and the wall temperature is 20C above the air

temperature, all along the length of the tube.

Source:

J.P. Holman. 1990. Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill Publishing

Company, New York. Second Edition, Page 293.

Comments:

In INSTED, choose the 'heat flow rate' task and the option to enter

velocity (not mass flow rate).

Since the outlet temperature is given, a good approach for this

problem will be to first estimate it (using INSTED), by evaluating

properties at the inlet temperature. A more representative bulk

temperature can then be calculated and used to evaluate properties.

However, the restriction on wall temperature (20C above local

bulk temperature) makes this impossible to do. What we have done

is to simply set the inlet and outlet bulk temperatures to the same

value of 200C.

Per unit length (that is, 1 m) is considered.

Data in source are used. Thaerocomp's database is not needed.

From the source: Cp=1025 J/kg K, =1.493 kg/m3, k=0.0386 W/m

K, =2.57X10-5 N s /m2, Pr=0.681

Based on the input data, INSTED classifies this problem as

'Turbulent, Developed, Moderate/High Prandtl number'.

INSTED requires a friction factor. Absolute roughness is obtained

from Thaerocomp's database. The smooth pipe option is selected

from this database. No additional data is required to obtain a

friction factor. The friction factor value suggested at Moody chart

calculation is used, which is 0.02793.

Diagnostic results from source

Nu 42.67 39.38 < 8%

LMTD & (T) (K) 59.9 (N/A) 59.86 (60) < 1%

h (W/m2K) 64.85 64.85 <8%

q' (T) (W/m) 103.5 95.52 < 8%

f N/A 0.02793

a. is potentially more accurate than the Dittus and Boelter formula

used in the source.

b. No allowance is made for the friction in this source, whereas, in

INSTED, a friction factor is required.

Test Problem 3

Problem Statement:

Water at 60C enters a tube of 1-in (2.54 cm) diameter at a mean

flow velocity of 2 cm/s. Calculate the exit water temperature if the

tube is 3.0 m long and the wall temperature is constant at 80C.

Source:

J. P. Holman. 1990. Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill Publishing

Company, New York, Second Edition, Page 294. This is also the

same as example 5.2 (page 224) of Basic Heat Transfer by Frank

Kreith & William Z. Black, Harper & Row Publishers, 1980.

Comments:

In INSTED, choose the 'outlet temperature' task and the option to

enter velocity (not mass flow rate).

Data in source are used. Thaerocomp's database is not needed.

From the source: Cp=4180 J/(kg K), =985 kg/m3, k=0.651 W/m

K, =4.71X10-4 N s /m2, b=5.55X10-4 N s /m2, w=3.55X10-4 N s

/m2, Pr=3.02.

Based on the input data that excludes the effect of viscosity on

temperature, INSTED classifies the problem as 'Laminar, Entry,

Moderate/High Prandtl number' when the effect of viscosity at the

wall is included. In INSTED, wall viscosity changes the problem

type only in laminar, non-annulus cases.

INSTED requires a friction factor. Absolute roughness is obtained

from Thaerocomp's database. The smooth pipe (glass) option is

selected from this database. No additional data is required to obtain

a friction factor. The friction factor value suggested in INSTED is

used, which is 0.06024.

Nu 5.816 5.817 <1%

h (W/m2K) 149.1 149.1 <1%

Tb,mean 66C 65.99C <1%

Name of data file: Holman.294.

Test Problem 4

Problem Statement:

An electronic device is cooled by water flowing through capillary

holes drilled in the casing as shown in the Figure below. The

temperature of the device casing is constant at 353 K. The capillary

holes are 0.3 m long and 2.54 X 10-3 m in diameter. If water enters at a

temperature of 333 K and flows at a velocity of 0.2 m/s, calculate the

outlet temperature of the water.

Source:

Frank Kreith & Mark Bohn. 1993. Fifth Edition. Principles of heat

transfer. West Educational Publishing, Boston. Page 403.

Comments:

In INSTED, choose the 'outlet temperature' task and the option to

enter velocity (not mass flow rate).

Units are SI.

Data in source are used. INSTED's database is not needed.

From the source: Cp=4181 J/(kg K), =983 kg/m3, k=0.658 W/m

K, =4.72X10-4 N s /m2, w=3.52X10-4 N s /m2, Pr=3.0.

Based on the input data that excludes the effect of viscosity on

temperature, INSTED classifies the problem as "Laminar,

developed, moderate/high Prandtl number." When the effect of

viscosity at the wall is included, the classification changes to

"laminar, entry length, moderate/high Prandtl number." In

INSTED, wall viscosity changes the problem type only in laminar,

non-annulus cases.

INSTED requires a friction factor. Absolute roughness is obtained

from Thaerocomp's database. The smooth pipe (glass) option is

selected from this database. No additional data is required to obtain

a friction factor. The friction factor value suggested in INSTED is

used, which is 0.06049.

Variable Kreith INSTED Difference

Nu 5.67 5.805 <3%

h (W/m2K) 1479 1503.76 <2%

Tb,out (K) 345 .00 371.476 <8%

Name of data file: Krbohn.403

Test Problem 5

Problem Statement:

A 2.0-cm-diameter tube having a relative roughness of 0.001 is

maintained at constant wall temperature of 90C. Water enters the tube

at 40C and leaves at 60C. If the entering velocity is 3 m/s, calculate

the length of tube necessary to accomplish the heating.

Source:

J. P. Holman. 1990. Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill Publishing

Company, New York. Second Edition, Page 297.

Comments:

In INSTED, choose the "Length of Tube (Duct)" task and the

option to enter velocity (not mass flow rate).

The given inlet and outlet temperatures are used as the (respective)

bulk temperatures.

Data in source are used. Thaerocomp's database is not needed.

From the source: Cp=4174 J/kg K, =978 kg/m3, k=0.664 W/m K,

=4.0X10-4 N s /m2, b=5.55X10-4 N s /m2, w=2.81X10-4 N s

/m2, Pr=2.54.

Based on the input data, INSTED classifies the problem as

turbulent, with moderate/high Prandtl number. Internally, INSTED

forces a fully developed flow whenever the task is to find tube

length, as in the present case.

INSTED requires a friction factor. Absolute roughness is obtained

by multiplying the given roughness by the diameter of tube. This

value is entered as user-specified absolute roughness, in the Moody

chart environment. No additional data is required to obtain a

friction factor. The friction factor value suggested in INSTED is

used, which is 0.02145.

Diagnostic results from source are as follows:

L (m) 1.40 1.4558 < 4%

Nu 666.8 633.93 < 5%

h (W/m2K) 22,138.0 21029.9 5%

q (LMTD) (W) 75316.5

q (T) (W) 77,812.0 76947.2 < 2%

f .0218 .02145 < 2%

Explanation of difference:

Different formulas are used in INSTED and the source. The source

is based on Petukhov formula, whereas Gnielinski-type formula is

used in INSTED. Gnielinski's approach to calculate in INSTED

has been discussed under 'Internal Flow'.

Name of data file: Holman.297

Test Problem 6

Problem Statement:

A liquid metal flows at a mass rate of 3 kg/s through a constant

heat flux 5-cm-i.d tube in a nuclear reactor. The fluid at 473 K is to

be heated with the tube wall 30 K above the fluid temperature.

Determine the length of the tube required for a 1-K rise in bulk

fluid temperature, using the following properties:

= 7.7 x 103 kg/m3

v = 8.0 x 10-8 m2/s

cp = 130 J/(kg K)

k = 12 W/mK

Pr = 0.011

Source:

Frank Kreith & Mark Bohn. 1993. Fifth Edition. Principles of heat

transfer. West Educational Publishing, Boston. Page 422.

Comments:

In INSTED, choose the 'length of tube (duct)' task and the option

to enter velocity (not mass flow rate).

The inlet and outlet temperatures (473 K and 474 K) are used as

the (respective) bulk temperatures.

This is a liquid metal flow, since Prandtl number is not greater than

0.05. The condition of constant surface heat flux is used.

Data in source are used. Thaerocomp's database is not needed.

Based on the input data, INSTED classifies the problem as

turbulent, developed, liquid metal.

INSTED requires a friction factor. Absolute roughness is obtained

from Thaerocomp's database, using the smooth wall (glass) option.

No additional data is required to obtain friction factor. The friction

factor value suggested in INSTED is used, which is 0.01706.

Diagnostic results from source:

LMTD & (T) (K) (30) 29.497 (29.5) (< 2%)

L (m) 0.0307 .02894 < 6%

h (W/m2K) 2692.00 2908.41 < 9%

q' (LMTD) (W/m) 389.96

q (T) (W) 390.00 390.00 0%

f N/A 2.11

Explanation if difference:

a. different formulas are used in INSTED and the source for the

calculation of Nusselt number.

b. friction factor is not used in source

Name of data file: Kreith.247

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