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A Reading and Writing Skills answers

Disclaimer XD: ang mga sumusunod nasagot ay hindi ko pagaari, ito’y


compilation lamang ng mg sagot mula sa FB group na Oral communication and
EAPP posted by Elisha Joy Marquez Julian, ako’y walang kahit ano mang
conneksyon sa taong yan, pero nais kong magpasalamat

LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. READING AN


D WRITING.
This is the stage where you polish the order of your ideas and filter the information needed to get
your point across and correct any mechanical errors.
The correct answer is: Revising
This refers to the set of basic questions that can start the exploration of your topic.
The correct answer is: journalists' questions
This stage in the writing process narrows your topic into the most important and relevant.
The correct answer is: Pre-writing
Which of the following statements is not true?
The correct answer is: You must start thinking about writing a completely unfamiliar topic and
explore it along the way.
True or False: Output is important, but an effective written work is still valued.
The correct answer is: True

Learning activity 2. reading and writing.


Arrange the following sentences to form a comprehensive paragraph.
1.Guerrilla movements can exist only when they have some support from the people in their area of
operations
2.The greater the support the more effective the guerrillas become
3.This is because in all lands where a strong, ideologically motivated guerrilla force looks in struggle
with the government, ultimate victory goes to the side which succeeds in rallying people
4.Conversely, when the people deny or withdraw their support, the guerrilla lose their ability to
disengage, disappear and exist and shortly are down and wipe out
5.The decisive factor in the twilight war in South Vietnam is the support of the rural masses
Read the following jumbled paragraph and answer the succeeding question:
(A) For the first time however, the waters of Laguna de Bay are serving a new and different purpose.
(B) Today, these lands can be planted to palay during off-season. (C) They are being harnessed to
water rice field along the shores which are idle during the dry season. (D) Fish abound in its waters
and its shores have been favorable breeding ground for ducks. (E) Laguna de Bay has, for
centuries, been a major source of livelihood for people living along its shores.
Which is the most fitting 4th sentence for the given paragraph?
The correct answer is: B
(A) Gone with the Wind is not just Scarlett O’Hara’s story; it is also the story of another remarkable
woman, Melanie Wilkes. (B) The author describes Melanie as having “the face” of a sheltered child
who had never known anything but simplicity and kindness, truth and love, a child who had never
looked upon harshness or evil, and would not have recognized them if she saw them.” (C) Strangely
enough, the qualities that weakened Melanie in Scarlett’s eyes—loyalty, naivete, and simplicity—
actually proved to make Melanie a strong person.
The correct answer is: C
Read the following jumbled paragraph and answer the succeeding question.
(A) Guerrilla movements can exist only when they have some support from the people in their area
of operations. (B) This is because in all lands where a strong, ideologically motivated guerrilla force
looks in struggle with the government, ultimate victory goes to the side which succeeds in rallying
people. (C) Conversely, when the people deny or withdraw their support, the guerrilla lose their
ability to disengage, disappear and exist and shortly are down and wipe out. (D) The decisive factor
in the twilight war in South Vietnam is the support of the rural masses. (E) The greater the support
the more effective the guerrillas become.
Which is the fitting 3rd sentence in the paragraph?
The correct answer is: B
Improvements in health, education and trade are essential for the development of poorer nations.
__________, the governments of richer nations should take more responsibility for helping the
poorer nations in such areas.
The correct answer is: However

Learning Activity 3. Reading and


Writing..
Read the following narrative essay:
Jerry was the kind of guy you love to hate. He was always in a good mood and always had
something positive to say. When someone would ask him how he was doing, he would reply, "If I
were any better, I would be twins!" He was a unique manager because he had several waiters who
had followed him around from restaurant to restaurant. The reason the waiters followed Jerry was
because of his attitude. He was a natural motivator. If an employee was having a bad day, Jerry was
there telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the situation.”
The writer presented what point of view?
The correct answer is: Second person
Read the following narrative essay:
I can remember my first ascension to a mountain top well. It happened about three years ago, when
it was autumn, and the weather in the mountains was gloomy. My friends offered me to travel to the
western Carpathian Mountains, and after a short period of hesitation, I accepted their invitation.
There was nothing much to do for me at the time, so I thought a change of surrounding would only
be of use to me.
What narrative device was used in the paragraph?
The correct answer is: Flashback
A strategy in writing a definition paragraph that shows the evolution of the word and how it was
formed.
The correct answer is: Etymology
True or False: The main aim of descriptive paragraphs is to describe a particular thing as accurately
as possible.
The correct answer is: False
This is one of the terms used in writing narratives that refers to the outcome of the characters’
actions.
The correct answer is: Resolution
The correct answer is: Resolution

LEARNING ACTIVITY 4. READING


AND WRITING.
----There are five transition words used in the following cause and effect paragraph. Write them in
order in the given spaces below:
In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in
urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of
the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in
cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas.
Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers.
The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move
to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and
culture, such as sports stadiums, theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made
city life appear more interesting than life on the farm, and therefore drew them away from rural
communities.
1. for
2. first
3.second
4.finally
5.therefore

LEARNING ACTIVITY 5. READING


AND WRITING.
---Which of the following statements is not true?�
The correct answer is: Internet has become so widespread that it is hard to track the cause of
serious problems encountered by its users.
----Which of the following is not a proposed solution of the author?�
The correct answer is: Install anti-virus programs that could prevent potential malware.
----- According to the essay sample, which of these is not a problem specified by the author? (Write
the letter of the correct answer)
�a. children can access potentially dangerous sites�
b. news and company websites are hacked
�c. online fraud�
d. websites with unverified authenticity.
The correct answer is: d
----An example of a dangerous site that children can easily access:
The correct answer is: pornography sites
----Is the conclusion positive or negative?�
The correct answer is: Neutral�
SHORT QUIZ 1. READING AND
WRITING.
True or False: It's best to think of different topics and discover various points of focus so you can
keep your options open before writing.
The correct answer is: False
True or False: In brainstorming, you must find the related ideas to the topic you have in mind and
link it to subtopics.
The correct answer is: False
Learning to write is a
The correct answer is: sequential
A pre-writing strategy which is the process of pouring out all your thoughts nonstop in an exact
order, language and form as you think them.
The correct answer is: Freewriting
Complete the following sentence: "Writing without _________
form and content
Correct is like a human body without skeleton; writing without ___________ is like a skeleton with no
flesh."
The correct answer is: form and content
In writing a text, these two elements must be present: content and
The correct answer is: form
Which of the following statements is true?
The correct answer is: You must come up with all the possible ideas from the pre-writing stage.
A stage in writing where you look for any mechanical errors.
The correct answer is: Revising
True or False: The final draft does not require editing or revising.
The correct answer is: False
Pre-writing requires an
The correct answer is: open

SHORT QUIZ 2. READING AND


WRITING..
1. Arrange the following sentences to form a coherent paragraph.
[There have been immense advances in technology in most aspects of people’s lives, especially in
the field of education.]. [Nowadays, an increasing number of students rely on computers for research
and to produce a perfect paper for school purposes. ]. [Others have decided to leave the original
way of learning and to get knowledge through online schools.]. [These changes in the learning
process have brought a special concern regarding the possible decrease of importance of teachers
in the classroom.].
2. Choose the correct transition words for the paragraph from the given choices below. You may use
the same word multiple times.
The correct answer is:
Every four years, the whole world stops to watch international sporting events [such as] the
Olympics and the Football World Cup in which athletes show their best performance to make their
country proud. These sporting occasions have proved to be helpful in easing international tension in
difficult times when powerful leaders were trying to control the world’s economy and other
governments were fighting over the land.
The Olympic Games are one of the best examples which prove how sporting events can bring
nations together, at least temporarily. [from] the ancient History, [when] Greeks and Romans would
interrupt battles to participate in the games, to the more recent international disputes, when athletes
from Palestine and Israel would forget their differences, compete peacefully and even embrace each
other after an event. [moreover], these popular events have called the world’s attention to the terrible
consequences of wars; [thus] some leaders have tried to reach agreements to end their disputes
and live peacefully.
Similarly, international sporting events show benefits in some developing countries which live in a
daily internal civil war. [for example], Brazil has a high rate of unemployment, lack of education,
hunger, crime, poverty and corruption which leads to an immense embarrassment of being Brazilian
and a low self-esteem. [however], when the Football World Cup starts, the Brazilian squad, which is
considered the best team in the world, provokes an amazing feeling of pride in their country. Most
people seem to forget all their problems and even the criminal activity decreases. They paint roads
with the national colors, wear the Brazilian team shirts and buy national flags. [moreover], the
competition brings families and neighbors together and even rival gangs watch the games and
celebrate peacefully.
[in conclusion], popular sporting events play an important role in decreasing international tensions
and liberating patriotic feelings as history has shown.
3. Arrange the following sentences to form a coherent paragraph.
The correct answer is:
[For some people the little green tassels dropping from the trees and the fluffy pink, white, and
yellow blossoms announce the arrival of allergy season.]. [For others a big, furry dog or a soft
feather pillow brings on the sneezes or itchy eyes.]. [Still others are in trouble if they accidentally eat
honey, chocolate, or water chestnuts.]. [Although millions of Americans have allergies, no one knows
definitely how allergies develop or why some people have them and others do not.]. [ Doctors have
made some progress in diagnosis.]. [Yet allergies remain a mystery that is only partially understood
and only partially treatable.].
4.Which of the following contains the topic sentence?
(A) Today’s world has been divided into developing and industrialized countries which the main
difference between them is the amount of money that governments apply in important sectors such
as education, health and commerce. (B) Most of the poorer nations are buried in debts as a result of
their unbalanced finances which are reflect in a failed health care, an unstructured education system
and a weak international trade. (C) This vicious cycle will continue indefinitely unless wealthier
nations show interest in minimizing the worldwide economic differences, as well as taking more
responsibility for assisting less fortunate countries.
The correct answer is: A
5.Choose the proper pattern of arrangement of the following jumbled paragraph.
(A) For the first time however, the waters of Laguna de Bay are serving a new and different purpose.
(B) Today, these lands can be planted to palay during off-season. (C) They are being harnessed to
water rice field along the shores which are idle during the dry season. (D) Fish abound in its waters
and its shores have been favorable breeding ground for ducks. (E) Laguna de Bay has, for
centuries, been a major source of livelihood for people living along its shores.
The correct answer is: E, C, A, B, D
6. Which among the set of sentences is most appropriate to be the 4th sentence?
(A) Yet allergies remain a mystery that is only partially understood and only partially treatable.
(B) Still others are in trouble if they accidentally eat honey, chocolate, or water chestnuts.
(C) Doctors have made some progress in diagnosis.
(D) For others a big, furry dog or a soft feather pillow brings on the sneezes or itchy eyes.
(E) Although millions of Americans have allergies, no one knows definitely how allergies develop or
why some people have them and others do not.
(F) For some people the little green tassels dropping from the trees and the fluffy pink, white, and
yellow blossoms announce the arrival of allergy season.
The correct answer is: E
7.Which of the following contains the topic sentence?
(A) As an English writer has written, “Providence in her wise disposition has placed these people in a
garden of Eden, where the means of subsistence are found without much labor, and does not
require them to toil and slave to satisfy their personal wants.” (B) By the yard stick of human action
in temperature countries, the Filipinos do not work hard. (C) Foreign writers have rashly accused the
Filipinos of “indolence.” (D) The Filipinos take life easy because of the tropical climate and the
liberality of nature. (E) Such may seem the case, but foreign critics are interpreting it as a
manifestation of racial laziness.
The correct answer is: B

LONG QUIZ 1. READING AND


WRITING..
A. The correct answer is:
Arrange the following sentences to form a coherent paragraph.
Shakespeare never grows old. Why is that? It’s because he expresses timeless truths with
unparalleled literary excellence. The study of Shakespeare is essential for a good education.
[The first reason to study Shakespeare is to develop one’s appreciation for great literature].
[Shakespeare’s genius is evident, not only in his sonnets and other poems, but in some three dozen
plays]. [His characters are vivid and his plots compelling]. [Once you’ve met them, who can ever
forget Hamlet or Lady Macbeth - his grief, or her guilt - or Beatrice and Benedick, and their
humorous banter?] It’s not an accident that Shakespeare is the most-quoted author in the English
language. [He also confers a rich vocabulary]. [The prestigious Oxford English Dictionary estimates
that Shakespeare “coined” about 1700 words]. [What better way to develop an appreciation for great
literature than by studying the best?]
[Clearly, there is an enduring value in Shakespeare]. [In addition to his literary gifts, Shakespeare
reveals deep spiritual insights]. [ The plays of Shakespeare rest upon and express a Biblical
worldview]. Although he tapped many sources for inspiration, his primary source was Scripture. One
researcher has documented over 1,300 Biblical references in Shakespeare, an average of about
forty per play. Shakespeare wrote from a God-centered, redemptive perspective. The great Biblical
themes are all there.
Given the magnitude of his contribution, it is no wonder that scholars like E. D. Hirsch have insisted
on the importance of reading Shakespeare to develop a basic, “cultural literacy.” Shakespeare
provides a wonderful ‘bridge’ for discussing the great questions of life, and for rediscovering the
richness in Western civilization.
The works of Shakespeare constitute a rich literary, spiritual and cultural treasure, just waiting for
discovery. Students of Shakespeare are rewarded for their efforts. But that’s a bonus. It’s like getting
paid to play.
B. The correct answer is:
Arrange the following sentences to form a coherent paragraph.
Every four years, the whole world stops to watch international sporting events such as the Olympics
and the Football World Cup in which athletes show their best performance to make their country
proud. These sporting occasions have proved to be helpful in easing international tension in difficult
times when powerful leaders were trying to control the world’s economy and other governments
were fighting over the land.
[The Olympic Games are one of the best examples which prove how sporting events can bring
nations together, at least temporarily]. [From the ancient History, when Greeks and Romans would
interrupt battles to participate in the games, to the more recent international disputes, when athletes
from Palestine and Israel would forget their differences, compete peacefully and even embrace each
other after an event]. [Moreover, these popular events have called the world’s attention to the terrible
consequences of wars; thus some leaders have tried to reach agreements to end their disputes and
live peacefully].
Similarly, international sporting events show benefits in some developing countries which live in a
daily internal civil war. [For example, Brazil has a high rate of unemployment, lack of education,
hunger, crime, poverty and corruption which leads to an immense embarrassment of being Brazilian
and a low self-esteem]. [However, when the Football World Cup starts, the Brazilian squad, which is
considered the best team in the world, provokes an amazing feeling of pride in their country]. [Most
people seem to forget all their problems and even the criminal activity decreases]. They paint roads
with the national colors, wear the Brazilian team shirts and buy national flags. [Moreover, the
competition brings families and neighbors together and even rival gangs watch the games and
celebrate peacefully].
[In conclusion, popular sporting events play an important role in decreasing international tensions
and liberating patriotic feelings as history has shown].
C. The correct answer is:
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate transition word. Choose one from the given choices below.
Turkish governments have been trying to join the European union for years. Despite all the difficult
tasks that have to be achieved in order to join the EU, Turkish governments are persistent. Turkish
citizens seem to agree with their governments, too. Why do we insist on becoming a member of the
union then? It is probably because of the differences between the happiness levels of Turkish and
EU citizens.
A study has been conducted on contentment and optimism of people in Turkey and the EU, which
revealed that as a nation we have low levels of satisfaction and happiness. Nearly two thirds of
Turkish people are discontent with their lives, [while] four fifths of the EU citizens are satisfied with
their lives. Approximately the same results can be observed on people’s thoughts about their
countries’ present and future conditions. It is obvious that people in the EU are happier than the
people in Turkey, [but] why are we unhappy and pessimistic in contrast to EU citizens?
There are plenty of reasons for the discontentment of people in Turkey compared to those in EU,
[but] there are some reasons of greater significance, [such as] differences in income, welfare, and
stability.
[first of all], it is known that there is a great gap between the incomes of Turkish and EU citizens.
This means that a person in EU who does the same job as a person in Turkey will receive a higher
salary in Europe than in Turkey. Similarly, an unemployed person in EU is paid more or has more
pension and social rights than an unemployed person in our country.
[moreover], there is another fact which is a result of earlier ones: there are many people below
poverty line and starvation limit in Turkey. These conditions lead to dissatisfaction in the country, we
cannot be happy when we are starving, can we?
[furthermore], Turkish economic and government systems lack stability. Considering successive
crises and growths following these, it can be said that Turkish economy is fluctuating. Just as the
economy, government has no sign of continuity. Each new government blames the previous
governments and changes what they have done. These acts are justified as being necessary [but]
generally lead to nothing but corruption. Lack of continuity causes confusion, [as] people need time
to get used to new conditions. If you do not give them enough time and change the conditions again,
just like in Turkey, the result will be confusion followed by depression. [however], in Europe there is
a system that goes on without great disruptions, which means that there is a stable life and a
predictable, better to say a hopeful, future.
As I mentioned before, our persistence in joining the EU may be because of their happiness against
our discontentment. We hope to find satisfaction, which we could not find alone, in Europe.
Considering the fact that neither EU nor any other unions can grant happiness without any effort, is it
not better that we work for our own benefit, not only to join the EU?
D. Identify the topic sentence.
(A) Most people want to get married and have children. (B) Perhaps they want to leave a trace or
offspring after them, so that they become somehow “immortal”. (C) And it is commonly said that
children are the ultimate bliss in our lives. (D) Although many people agree with this statement, to
my mind, it is not true
The correct answer is: D
E.Identify the topic sentence.
(A) Everyday in one way or another we are trying to find happiness in a complete chaos, that is what
all we are struggling for. (B) Actually, temporary happiness is everywhere if we want to find it and
search for it. (C) Sometimes it is just as close as a cute kitten to us, sometimes giving a hand to
someone who is in need of us is enough. (D) Even taking a breath may give somebody the absolute
happiness at times. (E) But what if we leave temporary happiness alone and decide to construct our
lives on basic principles of permanent happiness? (F) Certainly these principles depend on one’s
characteristics and point of view. (G) In my opinion, social relations, acceptance and independence
are the most important elements of permanent happiness in life.
The correct answer is: G
F. Identify the topic sentence.
(A) The expansion of the world population is the most important problem that should be solved in
order not to confront in the near future big social problems such as bad economic circumstances and
lack of resources, food and housing. (B) Birth control, although may lead to religious, cultural and
moral objections, is the fastest way to reduce the population growth rate. (C) Therefore,
governments should begin programs of birth control even in a compulsory manner due to the fact
that group survival is more important than individual freedom.
The correct answer is: A

long quiz 2. reading and writing..


----What type of definition is used in the given paragraph?
Newton’s First Law: If the total force acting on an object is zero, its center of mass continues in the
same state of motion.
In other words, an object initially at rest is predicted to remain at rest if the total force acting on it is
zero, and an object in motion remains in motion with the same velocity in the same direction. The
converse of Newton’s first law is also true: if we observe an object moving with constant velocity
along a straight line, then the total force on it must be zero. You may encounter the term “net force,”
which is simply a synonym for total force
The correct answer is: Denotation
----True or False: The rising action refers to events caused by the climax.
The correct answer is: False
.----Read the following paragraph and identify what type of description is used:
Back in 1999 this fearless athlete posed in this football picture. In the far distance below the
cloudless sky stands an off-white stadium. Embedded in the center is large, cracked, blue, painted,
letters that spell out BISON. Beneath the old stadium are rows of worn-out bleachers which are
completely empty. Up in front stands the competitor down on one knee. As you observe more, the
sport player is wearing a blue Bison jersey sporting the number 60. To the left above the freshly
trimmed green grass that engulfs this player’s figure lays a football. In the center of the picture, you
see her pale white face and dark brown eyes. Around these features you can not help but notice the
bronzed hair; which appears to be pulled back around this slender face. Her stern look shows how
proud she is; nonetheless, all the confidence she carries on her padded up shoulders. This unique
woman is not only elegant and brave; she is my sister, Margaret Eva Hoyt.
The correct answer is: Subjective description
-----Read the given paragraph below:
Differences Between Tokyo and Kyoto
In recent decades, the title of one of the most popular cultures worldwide should be definitely given
to Japan. Millions of people all over the world study the Japanese language, watch dorama
(dramatic TV series on all kinds of topics) or animation, read and write haiku, and make pen pals
with Japanese people. Countless people buy tickets and fly to the country of the rising sun to see its
wonders with their own eyes.
Among the most popular destinations—mostly because these city names are most known to the
western public—are Tokyo and Kyoto. And perhaps for an inexperienced traveler, there is a
dilemma: where to go? Mostly, people know that Tokyo is a mega city of the future, and Kyoto has
more to do with ancient culture, traditions, and so on. Basically it is true, but at the same time, there
also exist more subtle differences one should consider when choosing their destination point in
Japan.
The first of them is prices. Tokyo is expensive—as you might expect from the capital of the most
urbanized country in the world (the prices below are listed in Japanese yen: 1 USD approximately
equals 100 yen). So, to grab some inexpensive snack in Tokyo would cost around 850 yen. Having a
three-course meal for two people in a mid-range restaurant, in case you travel with your spouse, will
cost you 5,230 yen. A one-way ticket on Tokyo transport costs you 190 yen, and renting one room
apartment outside of the city center costs 77,853 yen (and this is probably a weekly price). Just do
not expect this apartment to be big and cozy; most likely it will be tiny, with basic utilities, and with no
central heating (actually, there is no such thing in Japan at all—everyone warms their house up on
their own). If you think of buying an apartment in Tokyo, forget it—one square meter of a room
outside of the city center is around 1 million yen (double the price if you want to live closer to the city
center).
Kyoto is not much cheaper. Although dining in a restaurant is cheaper—only 4,000 yen for two
persons in a mid-range restaurant—transportation costs are surprisingly higher: 235 yen for a ride
(however, if you want to purchase a monthly pass, it is cheaper to do in Kyoto rather than in Tokyo:
8,410 yen compared to 10,000 yen). If you think you can save some money buying food in a market,
you are correct only in particulars: some products in Japan cost a lot of money no matter where you
buy them. For example, white rice costs 850 yen for 1 kg in Kyoto (453 yen in Tokyo). White bread,
tomatoes, chicken breasts, and especially cheese—these are the most expensive products both in
Kyoto and in Tokyo. Speaking of accommodation, renting or buying an apartment in Kyoto is much
cheaper: for a one room apartment outside of Kyoto’s center, you must pay 48,000 yen to rent, or
300,000 yen per square meter if you want to buy it (Numbeo.com).
Tokyo is great to visit if you enjoy hustle and bustle, if you want to feel the heartbeat of a mega-city,
dive into its life, and experience all those crazy things people in the West usually tell about Japan.
Be prepared for the overcrowded subway— and “overcrowded” is a gentle way to put it; in fact, you
can take a 60-minute ride in the subway, and your feet will not even touch the floor, because you will
be squeezed between other people so tight that you can even take a nap in this position. Kyoto, on
the other hand, is good to visit for all those who feel inspired by traditional Japanese culture: haiku,
hanami, court customs, the No theater, and so on. In Kyoto, you will not see amazing skyscrapers,
over 280 subway stations, and the craziness of the famous Shibuya crossing; instead, get prepared
for temples, tea houses, museums: all things antique and authentic. But, if you want modernity, go to
Tokyo, and you will not feel disappointed—this city already lives in the future (Go Overseas).
It is difficult to say which city is better for an inexperienced tourist to visit, Tokyo or Kyoto. Kyoto is
cheaper, especially in terms of renting an apartment, and is more suitable for those looking for the
old Japanese culture weaved into sophisticated palaces made during Heian-jidai. Tokyo, on the
contrary, is an enormous metropolis, with crazy prices, crazy transportation, crazy everything. The
atmospheres are different, but both of the cities will make you awed, so if you have a chance, you
should definitely visit them.
Based on the given example of compare and contrast essay, which of the two cities is cheaper in
terms of dining?
The correct answer is: Kyoto
------True or False: Descriptive paragraphs may or may not appeal to the five senses of the readers.
The correct answer is: False
----Cause and effect requires a
The correct answer is: coherent
-------The correct answer is:
Based on the sample paragraph, complete the outline:
I. [Personal Computer]
A. [Desktop]
- [permanent location required]
- [more power]
- [more storage]
- [more versatile]
B. [Laptop/notebook]
- [portable]
- [battery-operated]
- [slightly larger than a hardcover book]
II. [Workstation]
A. [enhanced capabilities]
B. [suitable for game development]
III. [Server]
A. [needs optimization]
B. [lots of memory]
IV. [Main frame]
A. [network of terminals]
V. [Supercomputer]
B. [for massive jobs of calculation]
-----Read the given paragraph below:
Differences Between Tokyo and Kyoto
In recent decades, the title of one of the most popular cultures worldwide should be definitely given
to Japan. Millions of people all over the world study the Japanese language, watch dorama
(dramatic TV series on all kinds of topics) or animation, read and write haiku, and make pen pals
with Japanese people. Countless people buy tickets and fly to the country of the rising sun to see its
wonders with their own eyes.
Among the most popular destinations—mostly because these city names are most known to the
western public—are Tokyo and Kyoto. And perhaps for an inexperienced traveler, there is a
dilemma: where to go? Mostly, people know that Tokyo is a mega city of the future, and Kyoto has
more to do with ancient culture, traditions, and so on. Basically it is true, but at the same time, there
also exist more subtle differences one should consider when choosing their destination point in
Japan.
The first of them is prices. Tokyo is expensive—as you might expect from the capital of the most
urbanized country in the world (the prices below are listed in Japanese yen: 1 USD approximately
equals 100 yen). So, to grab some inexpensive snack in Tokyo would cost around 850 yen. Having a
three-course meal for two people in a mid-range restaurant, in case you travel with your spouse, will
cost you 5,230 yen. A one-way ticket on Tokyo transport costs you 190 yen, and renting one room
apartment outside of the city center costs 77,853 yen (and this is probably a weekly price). Just do
not expect this apartment to be big and cozy; most likely it will be tiny, with basic utilities, and with no
central heating (actually, there is no such thing in Japan at all—everyone warms their house up on
their own). If you think of buying an apartment in Tokyo, forget it—one square meter of a room
outside of the city center is around 1 million yen (double the price if you want to live closer to the city
center).
Kyoto is not much cheaper. Although dining in a restaurant is cheaper—only 4,000 yen for two
persons in a mid-range restaurant—transportation costs are surprisingly higher: 235 yen for a ride
(however, if you want to purchase a monthly pass, it is cheaper to do in Kyoto rather than in Tokyo:
8,410 yen compared to 10,000 yen). If you think you can save some money buying food in a market,
you are correct only in particulars: some products in Japan cost a lot of money no matter where you
buy them. For example, white rice costs 850 yen for 1 kg in Kyoto (453 yen in Tokyo). White bread,
tomatoes, chicken breasts, and especially cheese—these are the most expensive products both in
Kyoto and in Tokyo. Speaking of accommodation, renting or buying an apartment in Kyoto is much
cheaper: for a one room apartment outside of Kyoto’s center, you must pay 48,000 yen to rent, or
300,000 yen per square meter if you want to buy it (Numbeo.com).
Tokyo is great to visit if you enjoy hustle and bustle, if you want to feel the heartbeat of a mega-city,
dive into its life, and experience all those crazy things people in the West usually tell about Japan.
Be prepared for the overcrowded subway— and “overcrowded” is a gentle way to put it; in fact, you
can take a 60-minute ride in the subway, and your feet will not even touch the floor, because you will
be squeezed between other people so tight that you can even take a nap in this position. Kyoto, on
the other hand, is good to visit for all those who feel inspired by traditional Japanese culture: haiku,
hanami, court customs, the No theater, and so on. In Kyoto, you will not see amazing skyscrapers,
over 280 subway stations, and the craziness of the famous Shibuya crossing; instead, get prepared
for temples, tea houses, museums: all things antique and authentic. But, if you want modernity, go to
Tokyo, and you will not feel disappointed—this city already lives in the future (Go Overseas).
It is difficult to say which city is better for an inexperienced tourist to visit, Tokyo or Kyoto. Kyoto is
cheaper, especially in terms of renting an apartment, and is more suitable for those looking for the
old Japanese culture weaved into sophisticated palaces made during Heian-jidai. Tokyo, on the
contrary, is an enormous metropolis, with crazy prices, crazy transportation, crazy everything. The
atmospheres are different, but both of the cities will make you awed, so if you have a chance, you
should definitely visit them.
Which of the two cities has the higher cost for transportation?
The correct answer is: Kyoto
=----This refers to the logical transition of one sentence or paragraph to another
The correct answer is: consistency
----
_____ refers to the technique that suggest hints on future events in a story.
The correct answer is: Foreshadowing
----True or False: The subject in a descriptive paragraph may be conveyed in detail through an
explanation of its significance.
The correct answer is: True

LONG QUIZ 3. READING AND


WRITING..
Read the following essay and answer the following questions.
The times when parents were responsible for their children’s academic accomplishments—and
students themselves—seem to have gone. Nowadays, many people believe it is the high school
administration, teachers, and the government that are responsible for students getting good grades.
Before, when you got an F, your parents would blame you; today, they would rather go to your
school and demand your teacher to give you a better grade. Such an approach leads to
irresponsible behavior: students care less about their grades and start skipping classes, considering
them to be boring. And although there is seemingly nothing wrong with skipping a boring class you
think you would not need in future, in fact doing so has a number of negative impacts on your future.
To start with, parents of a student who skips school lose huge amounts of money (given that it is not
the student who pays for studying). In the United States, free education is a rare privilege; every
single class skipped is worth a certain amount of money. Whether a student studies at high school,
college, or university, it does not matter—the average cost of a skipped class is in the range
between $50 to $100 (IFR). If a student chooses to skip classes regularly, it will cost him or her or
his or her parents a lot of money annually, without getting the result: education and knowledge.
The likeliness to get lower grades when skipped classes is another consequence. Whereas those
who stay in class obtain at least some knowledge, even if they are not bright, a person who skips
classes is at higher risks of obtaining no knowledge at all. Besides, teachers may have a bias toward
such a student, and will treat him or her unfairly even though this person might be bright and studied
the subject on his or her own. Needless to say, this situation can lead to a failure during exams or
getting expelled from an educational institution (FRI).
According to research, only five absences is usually enough for a student’s academic performance
to drop. Five more absences would most likely lead to a decreased chance to graduate a particular
educational institution: on average, skippers are about 20% less likely to successfully graduate. If a
student studies at high school, he or she has a 25% less chance to enter any type of higher
education institution. They are also 2.5 times more likely to have to live on welfare compared to their
more disciplined peers (Middle Earth).
Skipping classes has yet another not-so-obvious consequence: a student is more likely to become
engaged in activities that neither the American society nor the legislative system would approve.
Skipping classes does not always imply staying at home; more likely, a student would spend their
time outdoors, and chances to get involved in antisocial behavior (substance abuse, shoplifting,
gambling, and so on) increase. No need to say it can cause a person to enter prison eventually.
Skipping classes is not so harmless as it might seem. It is a direct waste of money for all those who
have to pay for the education—and such people are the majority. Students who skip classes are
more likely to get lower grades and face a biased attitude from their teachers; moreover, they have
lower chances to successfully graduate, and enroll in a college—of any type. Such students are also
more likely to live on welfare, and get engaged in antisocial behavior. Therefore, this problem should
be treated with all possible attention from teachers, parents, and authorities.
QUESTIONS:
Paragraph order: Logical order =logical
Signal words used (arranged according to its order in the essay):
1. before
2.today
3. although
4. in fact
5.to start with
6.Whether.. or
7.if
8.whereas
9.even if
10. besides
11.According to
12. yet
13.such
14. therefore
Type of paragraph development: Answer:
cause and effect

THIRD PERIODICAL EXAM. READING WRITING.


The most common method of discovering a topic.
The correct answer is: Brainstorming
Which step in writing process includes coming up with ideas for you to write?
The correct answer is: Pre-writing
Tell which figure of speech is used in the following sentences.
The leaves of the trees waved in the wind
.The correct answer is: Personification
The sequential flow of ideas in a sentence.
The correct answer is: Coherence
Each level of an outline must have same grammatical structures.
The correct answer is: Parallel structure
_________ is the part of the story where the characters and setting are introduced. It also tells
backstories and other important plot events.
The correct answer is: Exposition
The logical transition of one sentence or paragraph to another.
The correct answer is: Consistency
_________ is the formal definition of a term.
The correct answer is: Denotation
Tell which figure of speech is used in the following sentences.
Laughter is music for the soul.
The correct answer is: Metaphor
Tell which figure of speech is used in the following sentences.
Her eyes were like fireflies
.The correct answer is: Simile
Which of these statements are supporting details?
I. But they face certain problems which cannot be discussed with his relatives – in whatever relation
they may stand and here is the need of a friend, of course a true friend. There is no matter which
cannot be discussed with a friend.
II. Friendship is seen even among animals.
III. Men of similar moral idea irrespective of social, cultural, educational and financial idea may grow
true friendship.
The correct answer is: Both II and III are supporting details
The correct answer is: Both II and III are supporting details
_________ shows the formation of the word and how it has evolved through time.
The correct answer is: Etymology
There are terms that are defined by the author’s perspective and experiences. What are these terms
called?
The correct answer is: Connotation
Nordquist suggested the structure of paragraphs in a problem-solution essay to serve as a guide on
what to include in that type of essay. Which of the following is the elaboration of the problems and
the search for the solution?
The correct answer is: Problem Paragraph
The most unrestrained method in finding a suitable topic.
The correct answer is: Freewriting
Which of the following is the best test of friendship?
The correct answer is: Adversity
Which step in the writing process includes expressing ideas in sentences and paragraphs?
The correct answer is: Writing
Why are human beings the best creation of God?
The correct answer is: Because human beings have moral feelings.
Tell which figure of speech is used in the following sentences.
I’m so hungry I could eat a horse!
The correct answer is: Hyperbole
The time and the place where the story takes place.
The correct answer is: Setting
Which of the following sentences is not coherent?
The correct answer is: Summer is the smell of mowed grass, the sound of outdoor concerts, and the
way grilled hamburgers taste.
The highest point in a story.
The correct answer is: Climax
Which of the following statements is true about the three main principles in developing classification
paragraphs?
I. The specific items identified in paragraphs must belong to one class only to avoid confusion.
II. Classification paragraphs must contain consistency wherein one sentence or paragraph is parallel
to another.
III. Classification paragraphs require the writer to include connected classes/groups to the paragraph
to complete the image of the main idea.
The correct answer is: All of the statements are correct.
Which step in the writing process includes correcting mechanical errors and filtering the information
needed to get your point across?
The correct answer is: Revising
The technique in finding a writing topic by finding the relationships between ideas.
The correct answer is: Clustering
The element of a paragraph that gives life to the characters and gives sense to the setting.
The correct answer is: Plot
A story cannot be without a foundation. The writer gives the readers a view of what has happened to
the characters in the past and how they came to be. Which narrative device is used to show these
parts of the story?
The correct answer is: Backstory
The intent of dividing items into groups.
The correct answer is: Exclusiveness
Which of the following sentences is the topic sentence of the paragraph?
The correct answer is: Friendship means closeness, association, relationship, and mutual trust –
without any selfish motive.
Which of the following is not true about the topic sentence of a paragraph?
The correct answer is: The topic sentence gives life to the paragraph.
Which step in the writing process includes checking for errors of your work?
The correct answer is: Editing
_________ is the outcome of the events and the character’s actions.
The correct answer is: Resolution
Read the paragraph and answer the following questions.
There are a few places that can boast an act of creation everyday. A newspaper is one of them. Out
of the daily newsroom whirl emerges a remarkable product. In a matter of hours, thousands of words
and pictures are put together in a cohesive pattern designed to inform, enlighten, and entertain the
reader. To a casual observer, the men and women working in the newsroom may appear to be
running about aimlessly amid the clatter of typewriters and the continually ringing telephones.
Actually, the scurrying around, the occasional shouting, the general air of excitement are all part of a
controlled procedure. Each editor, reporter, and copyboy has a designated job, the end result of
which is the newspaper that rolls off the press on time.
1. The topic sentence in the paragraph is sentence number
ANSWER: three =3
2. The type of paragraph development: Answer
descriptive =description
3. Give one signal word from the paragraph, indicating space, location and place. Answer: amid
Which narrative device is used by the writer to present hints to future events?
The correct answer is: Foreshadowing
Based on the paragraph, why are true friendships rarely seen?
The correct answer is: Because true friendships depend upon selection of a friend.
There are terms that are associated with indirectly related words through analogy. What are these
terms called?
The correct answer is: Comparison
Tell which figure of speech is used in the following sentences.
He’s as gentle as a bunny.
The correct answer is: Simile

Learning Activity 7 (Reading and Writing Skills)


Which among the following choices is the most suitable/strongest inference for the given sentence?
"He admitted to plagiarizing this piece of text."
---The correct answer is: There are several passages that are exactly the same in structure, albeit
the use of synonyms
In the analysis of a written text, in what element does the following question fall?
What is the author trying to emphasize in the text?
---The correct answer is: Drawing Conclusions
In the analysis of a written text, in what element does the following question fall?
How does this statement relate to the other parts of the text?
---The correct answer is: Organization
Statements of ______ may be proven through personal observations, researches, and
experimentation.
---The correct answer is: fact
In the analysis of a written text, in what element does the following question fall?
To whom did the author intend to write the text for?
---The correct answer is: Audience

Learning Activity 8 (Reading and Writing Skills)


So, although on the surface volunteering may look like “working for free,” in fact it is a great
investment in one’s future career.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
Defense mechanisms are numerous, and each person has a set of their own.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
Stories about being abducted by aliens are frightening, because knowing the size of the Universe,
one can never be sure that aliens do not exist, or that their intentions are non-hostile.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
During your first two days in a hostel, you can meet more new people than you did throughout your
whole last year of office work.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
Too much alcohol may cause a lot of heart-related diseases.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact

Learning Activity 9 (Reading and Writing Skills)


This is portrayed by the use paraphrasing another author's statement. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Intertext
This is achieved through an accumulation of a variety of texts connecting to a single text to form a
meaning. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Intertext
This goes beyond what is included in the text, with references a reader can easily access. What is
being described?
---The correct answer is: Hypertext
The commonly used strategy in digital media/text. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Hypertext
This analyzes the media in which the text is used. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Context

Learning Activity 10 (Reading and Writing Skills)


Rowling created truly vivid characters; however, not all of them revealed their potential from the very
beginning. Surprisingly, the one who truly took his time before finally showing his personality was
Harry. Whereas Ron, Hermione, Draco, Snape, and other characters possessed vivid and readable
personalities from the very beginning, for a long time, Harry remains some kind of an “event-trigger,”
whose main goal is to move the story forward.
---The correct answer is: Counterclaim
Many high school graduates simply do not have an opportunity to continue their education right
away (Saiz, Report on Education to Career Conversion).
---The correct answer is: Assertion - fact
They conducted a study in which a group of healthy young men slept 8 hours one night, and then
abstained from sleep another night.
---The correct answer is: Assertion - fact
Abortion causes severe psychological and emotional damage to a woman who has undergone this
surgery.
---The correct answer is: Claim
R. Dworkin does something rather novel and considers that, rather than being immoral, something
could be from a different moral code (1977, p. 995). This, of course, makes perfect sense, and is
what I have said already. I would even go so far as to suggest that it is impossible to act immorally.
This is another reason morality and legality must remain separate, because, whereas illegal acts
exist, immoral ones do not.
---The correct answer is: Assertion - fact

Learning Activity 11 (Reading and Writing Skills)


What did the main idea of the story make you feel as the reader? Identify what is described.
---The correct answer is: theme
A review of Harry Potter contains the following passage:
It all starts in a rather trivial way though—with a boy being branded as the “unique one,” a survivor of
a terrible assault with a destiny to defeat an evil overlord. However, this is the basic layer of the
story, so to say.
What guide question did it answer?
---The correct answer is: What is the conflict of the story?
You must have an interest in the book you're analyzing.
---The correct answer is: True
After reading the book, that's when to take notes of what you have read.
---The correct answer is: False
This is where you identify the climax of the story.
---The correct answer is: plot

Learning Activity 12 (Reading and Writing Skills)


A part of the research report that gives the synthesis of the supporting details.
---The correct answer is: Review of Literature
The part of a research report that describes the procedure to arrive at the result.
---The correct answer is: Methods
This part of a research report describes the instrument used to arrive at a result.
---The correct answer is: Methods
This identifies what type of research it is going to be.
---The correct answer is: Research questions/hypothesis
The step in writing a research report wherein you formulate questions related to the topic.
---The correct answer is: planning the research

Learning Activity 13 (Reading and Writing Skills)


It is in bad taste to stress your interest in applying for the job in the company.
---The correct answer is: False
Identify which part of the resume the following information belongs to:
Certificate of N5 level Japanese Language Proficiency.
---The correct answer is: Educational qualifications
Identify which part of the resume the following information belongs to:
Experienced with Moodle.
---The correct answer is: Technical/software skills
You may choose not to include your address in the email copy of your application letter.
---The correct answer is: False
The application letter must be in strict business letter format.
---The correct answer is: True

Short Quiz 7 (Reading and Writing Skills)


In the analysis of a written text, in what element does the following question fall?
How does this contribute to the variety of texts done discussing the same topic?
---The correct answer is: Research/Sources
The text does not have a meaning by itself.
---The correct answer is: True
In the analysis of a written text, in what element does the following question fall?
Is the stand of the author clear?
---The correct answer is: Topic and position
Which among the following choices is the most suitable/strongest inference for the given sentence?
"Drug use is detrimental to society."
---The correct answer is: There has been multiple instances and cases displaying the dire
consequences of drugs on people.
In the analysis of a written text, in what element does the following question fall?
Where was the text published or found?
---The correct answer is: Audience
Which of the following words does not signal a statement of opinion?
---The correct answer is: according to
This is a strategy that is purposefully writing a passage leaning towards a single perspective.
---The correct answer is: slanting
In the analysis of a written text, in what element does the following question fall?
In what tone did the author write the text?
---The correct answer is: Style
Which among the following choices is the most suitable/strongest inference for the given sentence?
"This group has garnered the most music awards for this year."
---The correct answer is: They have received multiple awards from different award-giving bodies.
What do you call the terms used in a text that need further definition as they are exclusively used in
a field of study?
---The correct answer is: jargon

Short Quiz 8 (Reading and Writing Skills)


If you move to China, you will discover another reason why this country is worth moving to: its
prices.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
The police should be responsible of the people’s safety and not a source of fear.
---The correct answer is: Claim of policy
Global warming, despite others’ doubts, exists.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
The four circles, or stages of mourning are denial, anger, bargaining, and depression; the exit is
acceptance.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
Let us choose to believe the opposite, and not doubt the possibility of us being the masters of our
lives, so that no ‘cunning demon’ can distract us with false perceptions and throw us off the right
path.
---The correct answer is: Claim of policy
At least 25 percent of the federal budget should be spent on helping upgrade business to clean
technologies, researching renewable energy sources, and planting more trees in order to control or
eliminate pollution.
---The correct answer is: Claim of policy
Volunteering is a great alternative to a number of other activities, since it can help you acquire work
experience and get a job.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
Time is gold.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
Anger can be effectively used to establish and defend your personal boundaries, personal space,
sense of justice, beliefs, and so on.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
Western classical music has not just artistic and cultural value, but also causes a number of
unexpected and (fortunately) positive effects on the human mind.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact

Short Quiz 9 (Reading and Writing Skills)


Through this, the text related to the topic you are reading may be easily found through search
engines. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Hypertext
At its whole, this will heavily affect the way the text is written. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Context
These are the circumstances surrounding a topic. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Context
This is also known as "interactive multimedia."
---The correct answer is: Hypertext
This can be divided into static (or something prepared or stored in advance) or dynamic (something
that continually changes). What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Hypertext
In the analysis of this, even the way pictures are selected is scrutinized. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Context
This is described as "a structural analysis of texts in relation to the larger system of signifying
practices or uses of signs in culture." What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Intertext
A nonlinear way of presenting information. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Hypertext
This refers to the occasion or situation in which the reader can consider while analyzing. What is
being described?
---The correct answer is: Context
This builds relationships and connections among social meanings. What is being described?
---The correct answer is: Intertext

Short Quiz 10 (Reading and Writing Skills)


St. Thomas Aquinas gave five proofs for God’s existence. The first two are cosmological: there can
be no uncaused cause, so the universe could not have created itself, so there must be a first
cause/prime mover, (Appiah, 2003, p. 322), which he calls “God.” This, in my view, does not prove
anything. He is saying the universe cannot have come from nothing, but its creator can. If God is an
exception to the “no uncaused cause” rule, why cannot the universe be? (Russell, 1927).
---The correct answer is: Counterclaim
Lord Templeman suggested that the issue of consent was irrelevant to the question of the illegality
of an action, since the latter constitutes a breach of the peace. This traces back to high-minded
English snobbery about a king needing able-bodied soldiers. The idea seems to be that a society is
more important than its individuals. But this is, of course, erroneous, for it seems obvious, upon
reflection, that there can be nothing more sacred than individual liberty.
---The correct answer is: Counterclaim
On the other hand, the exploitation of the system of standardized testing is linked to a number of
issues. Thus, many feel that tests do not provide accurate evaluations of a student’s knowledge and
learning capabilities, particularly due to the fact that in order to pass a test, a simple memorization is
preferred to critical thinking and higher learning (Strong 254).
---The correct answer is: Counterclaim
Of course, any book can be described like this; for example, the plot of “The Lord of the Rings” can
be described even in a shorter way: “Four guys go to a dangerous land to defeat ancient evil by
destroying an important artifact, and their friends help them.” However, unlike Tolkien’s novel,
Twilight has nothing to offer to a reader except the events described in the previous paragraph. This
is ridiculous, considering four published books, some sort of online encyclopedia, and movies.
---The correct answer is: Counterclaim
It is equally possible many gods could exist. Furthermore, St. Thomas uses “God” as a label for the
first cause. The first cause is not necessarily the Christian God (Dawkins, 2007, p. 101)—all-
knowing, all-powerful, and all-good (all-k.p.g.), or anything God is usually considered to be.
---The correct answer is: Assertion - fact
Insomnia affects not only the mind, but also the body in ways no less devastating; specifically,
according to a study conducted by the University of Chicago, sleep deprivation is closely connected
to the reduced control of blood-sugar levels.
---The correct answer is: Assertion - fact
Insomnia, or sleep deprivation, is a dangerous condition leading to a wide range of health problems.
---The correct answer is: Claim
Studying is a necessity rather than a privilege.
---The correct answer is: Claim
A woman who has undergone the abortion procedure may develop such persistent symptoms as
shame, a sense of isolation, a loss of self-confidence and/or trust in other people, nightmares,
insomnia, anxiety, loneliness, and suicidal thoughts. As an unpleasant bonus, these symptoms can
be accompanied with various eating disorders (American Pregnancy Association).
---The correct answer is: Assertion - fact
What epicness is there in a lovey-dovey story about a relationship between a schoolgirl and a
vampire? Obviously none, neither in the novel, nor in the movies—it is simply a marketing turn
aimed at making the source look like something more worthwhile than it is.
---The correct answer is: Assertion - opinion

Short Quiz 11 (Reading and Writing Skills)


A review of the Twilight Saga contains the following passage:
The first and foremost question: why would a 104 year-old person fall in love with a teenager?
Theoretically, people get wiser when they get older, although reality proves it is not necessarily so. I
would understand if Edward treated Bella as an adopted daughter, at least. But love? There is a
special word for adult men having romantic and sexual relationships with teen girls. Also, according
to folklore, vampires are sadistic, vile, and sexually-insatiable creatures, so in a proper vampire
story, exploitation and being devoured would be Bella’s only options. But a true, clean, and romantic
love? This is stupid. The only reason why it became possible is probably because aging has
negatively affected Edward’s (and his family’s) mental capabilities. Also, why would Bella not feel
scared of knowing people who suck blood, or who can turn into savage beasts? What kind of weird
taste or fetish is that? And it is not only Bella and Edward acting weird—Jacob, Victoria, the vampire
clans, and other folks appearing in Twilight seem to have little to no common sense, reason, or logic.
What guide question did it answer?
---The correct answer is: What is the weakness of the plot?
Where did the story take place and how does it relate to the story?
---The correct answer is: setting
In evaluating an article, it is important for it to be generally unknown so you can grab the reader's
attention.
---The correct answer is: False
A critique must contain the following parts except for:
---The correct answer is: comparison with other relevant works
This part of the literary analysis gives the subtopics.
---The correct answer is: body
It is important to dwell on the author's life and his works in a literature analysis.
---The correct answer is: False
There are different interpretations of a single literature. There may be similarities in some but there
will always be differences.
---The correct answer is: True
This part of a literature review contains the general indications of the work.
---The correct answer is: introduction
What happens in the story that changed the course of the character/s?
---The correct answer is: conflict
In writing a critique, focus on the flaws of the text.
---The correct answer is: False

Short Quiz 12 (Reading and Writing Skills)


The part of a project proposal that gives the funding details.
---The correct answer is: budget
The cover sheet must be in ______ format.
---The correct answer is: APA
A part of the project detail that emphasizes what the project can contribute to a group of people in
the society.
---The correct answer is: Deliverables
An element of a good project proposal that details where to get the funds to bring the project to
fruition.
---The correct answer is: Resources
A part of the project proposal that identifies similar solutions.
---The correct answer is: motivation
This informs the recipient of what the project aims to achieve.
---The correct answer is: goals and objectives
The references of the research report is recommended to be in MLA format.
---The correct answer is: False
A part of the project detail that uses diagrams to illustrate what tools to use in the implementation of
the project.
---The correct answer is: Architecture and environment
This gives what the end product of the project is.
---The correct answer is: Deliverables
This part of the project details identifies the implementation challenges.
---The correct answer is: project details

Short Quiz 13 (Reading and Writing Skills)


Use any font you want in creating your resume as long as it is somewhat readable.
---The correct answer is: False
Identify which part of the resume the following information belongs to:
Skilled in written and oral communication.
---The correct answer is: Key skills
Identify which part of the resume the following information belongs to:
Finished a Bachelor's Degree in Accountancy (2011-2015)
---The correct answer is: Educational qualifications
Identify which part of the resume the following information belongs to:
I have volunteered for various non-government organizations, handling public relations and
advertising of events. (She is applying for PR specialist in a company)
---The correct answer is: Opening statement
The opening paragraph of your application letter must contain:
---The correct answer is: how you learned about the position or the company
Your resume must include your birthday and gender.
---The correct answer is: False
Prior research about the company you're applying for helps in composing your application letter.
---The correct answer is: True
Factual errors in your resume are worse than typographical errors.
---The correct answer is: True
Which is the usual format followed in sending an application letter via email?
---The correct answer is: name, position
Identify which part of the resume the following information belongs to:
Can handle pressure.
---The correct answer is: Personal attributes
Long Quiz 4 (Reading and Writing Skills)
Critical reading is a way to identify new ways of thinking.
---The correct answer is: True
Often mistaken as a plagiarized passage.
---The correct answer is: Intertext
A strategy in critical reading that requires the reader to put himself/herself on the author's shoes.
---The correct answer is: Contextualizing
This involves the analysis of the author's use of signs in obtaining the meaning of the text.
---The correct answer is: Intertext
This element of text is identified for the reader to know how this was developed and asserted
throughout the text.
---The correct answer is: purpose
Therefore, I think it is important to learn to distinguish between light constructive feelings of care,
and intense romantic addiction, which can lead to unforeseen consequences.
---The correct answer is: Claim of policy
The death penalty is an unfair and rather ineffective means of punishment.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
Feminism should be seen as a movement that has a role and value for the real world that is
extremely difficult to underestimate.
---The correct answer is: Claim of policy
You will identify this through comparing and contrasting the text to other works.
---The correct answer is: What a text does
This uses various techniques such as allusion, quotation and referencing.
---The correct answer is: Intertext
Reading like a writer can help you understand how the process of writing is a series of making
choices, and in doing so, can help you recognize important decisions you might face and techniques
you might want to use when working on your own writing.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
This helps the reader control the level of detail of the document he/she is examining.
---The correct answer is: Hypertext
Video games are perhaps the most popular and widespread form of entertainment at present.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
One of the most important functions of the judicial system is to punish the criminals and to protect
the innocent.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
Instead of killing time playing Angry Birds, one might want to use their gadget as a learning tool—
modern mobile devices are perfectly suited for this purpose.
---The correct answer is: Claim of policy
In ____, the critical reader does not accept anything at face value, thus recognizing the fact that
everything must be thoroughly understood.
---The correct answer is: evaluating an argument
The following are the types of reading and discussion in critical reading except:
---The correct answer is: What a text will do
You will identify this through taking notes and paraphrasing the key points.
---The correct answer is: What a text says
Standardized tests are meant to set a high standard and promote objectivity.
---The correct answer is: Claim of value
For political correctness to achieve its goals, too many words have to be banned.
---The correct answer is: Claim of policy
Critical reading may only consist of negative observations and analysis.
---The correct answer is: False
One of the main purposes of testing is to set a standard: a performance baseline of progress for all
parties involved in the educational process—students, teachers, and school districts, and to hold
them accountable for achieving it.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
People in democratic countries vote for their candidates on presidential elections, freely express
themselves, practice any religion they want, and enjoy many other rights and freedoms, all of which
are guarded by numerous laws, bills, non-governmental organizations, and so on.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
This is used to establish connections between language, images, characters, topics, themes and the
like.
---The correct answer is: Intertext
It is recommended to read looking only for facts and more information.
---The correct answer is: False
This type of reading aims to find a particular piece of information in a text.
---The correct answer is: scanning
Execution is actually a judicial murder.
---The correct answer is: Claim of fact
Critical reading aims to find the faults and flaws in the text.
---The correct answer is: False
It is important to slowly read and savor the text you're reading in order to critically analyze it.
---The correct answer is: True
It's deemed irrelevant to consider other points of view other than what the text presents.
---The correct answer is: False

Long Quiz 5 (Reading and Writing Skills)


Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
The study, "A Content Analysis of The Catalyst’s News Stories From 1986 to 2010", seeks to find out
how The Catalyst, the official student publication of Polytechnic University of the Philippines selected
and treated the news articles they have published from 1986 to 2010.
The researchers wanted to classify the news issues which The Catalyst gave emphasis on into
categories: Political, Financial/Economic, Peace and Order, Social, Rebellion, Religious,
Sports/Entertainment, Miscellaneous and Politics within University. The researchers also sorted The
Catalyst’s news articles in terms of the following: Scope/Origin, Chronology/Sequence, Structure and
Content. Lastly, the researchers intended to determine the treatment and the tone of the news
articles.
The researchers used convenience sampling method. The researchers have content analyzed 84
existing issues from the year 1986 up to 2010. The researchers categorized 586 news articles from
the said issues into categories based on the criteria following the three major variables in content
analysis by Elena Pernia (2004).
Based on the observations and results of the content analysis, it was determined that The Catalyst’s
style changed from the orthodox style in 1986 to different forms of layout in the later years.
Moreover, The Catalyst transitioned from using blue ink to mainly using black ink and later on red
ink.
Moreover, the scope of The Catalyst’s news was mostly local. The student publication usually
covered events within the university. Most of the student publication’s news stories were straight
news. The news articles were mostly treated as neutral, meaning the news were written merely as
statement of events in the simplest and most objective way. The researchers concluded that The
Catalyst has performed its duty as the official student publication of PUP through disseminating
information that would be of concern to the students and the university.
---The correct answer is:
Abstract
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
The researchers used the three major variables by Pernia (2004) as basic instrument in analyzing
the news stories of The Catalyst. With each category is a set of keywords to make the coding easier
for the coders. The coders would determine the category an article belongs to through the keywords
provided.
---The correct answer is: Methods
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
The researchers analyzed all the news stories of each issue of The Catalyst starting from 1986 up to
2010, with the exception of the special issues released and the issues without dates available in the
university archives. There were no recorded issues of The Catalyst in the year 1989 and 1990 due to
problems within the publication while there were no issues for the year 1999 at the archives during
the time of the coding. News roundups and news bits in every issue are also not included in this
particular study but would focus on the stories in the news section and sports section.
---The correct answer is: Limitations
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
Due to lack of job opportunities here in the Philippines, there are Filipinos who were willing to work
abroad to earn higher salary compared to the Philippines’. These people are called OFWs or
Overseas Filipino Workers. They are ready to sacrifice their lives here in the Philippines for the sake
of earning more money. Because of this, they were referred to as “New Heroes”.
Our government is not that vocal about the progress of the country’s economy through the help of
OFWs yet they encourage more Filipinos to accept different jobs abroad.
The OFWs’ children are the ones highly by their parent’s departure. They have to suffer the
loneliness of not having their parent/s with them.
Although they have guardians to look after them and to care for them, nothing can compare to a
parent’s love and affection.
There are laws and agencies that protect and support OFWs but the child would not be ensured of
their parent’s safety. They would be surely anxious of the condition of their parents because of the
distance that makes the young ones worry about them.
---The correct answer is: Results
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
In line with this, the scope of the publication’s news articles is within the immediate proximity which
is the university and its branches. Therefore, these findings reflect that The Catalyst does its duty as
the student publication to serve the student body, first and foremost.
The ruling quantity of news classified into spot news depicted that the abundance of news within the
local proximity were given the utmost priority by the editorial board. Events which occurred in PUP
demanded immediate publication to easily spread the information to the rest of the university.
---The correct answer is: Conclusion
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
Departure of Filipinos was beneficial to the country and to the families of OFWs, since the dollar
reserve that we can get from them saved us from economic turmoil. But let us think about the
children as well, they may experience great loneliness due to their parent’s absence.
Communication is important, considering the distance between the parent and the child. The OFWs
should communicate with their children regularly so as not to create a distance between them. It
could also help the child if the parent is easily approachable. Imagine if communicating devices did
not exist. It would be a great suffering for both the parents and the children since snail mail, the
alternative communication, would take a long time of process just to reach the receiver, unlike e-
mail, in which the message would be sent in just a matter of seconds.
If the parents truly care for the child, they would always make a way to extend their love overseas to
reach them through communication.
The children also need their guardians to plan “outings” and other activities that they would all enjoy
for them not to feel alone.
---The correct answer is: Recommendations
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
The History of Philippine Journalism
Journalism in the Philippines has gone through a number of both setbacks and boosts. The history
of Philippine journalism presented in this study is cited from “Journalism for Filipinos” by Malinao
(2003).
In the year 1637, the first Philippine Newsletter was published - the “Successos Felices” (Fortunate
Events) of Tomas Pinpin, the father of Filipino printing. Aside from Pinpin’s one-shot fling at
journalism, the “Hojas Volantes” (Flying sheets) or Spaniards’ notice to the public, were widely
distributed in the country for mass readership.
---The correct answer is: Review of Literature
Questions:
1. In the resume, where does the information number 6 fall under?
---The correct answer is: List of key skills
2. In the resume, where does the information number 5 fall under?
---The correct answer is: Educational qualifications
3. In the resume, where does the information number 3 fall under?
---The correct answer is: Opening Statement
4. In the resume, where does information number 4 fall under?
---The correct answer is: Personal attributes/career overview
5. In the resume, where does information number 2 fall under?
---The correct answer is: Contact details
Questions:
1. What question does the following passage in the sample book review answer:
"The language Tolkien uses (and he was a British professor of linguistics and philology), the
aforementioned epic scales of storyline, the incredibly diverse cultural background behind the
novel—its characters, plot, described events—this and many other factors make reading the trilogy
rather an intellectual than entertaining occupation."
---The correct answer is: Does the way a character speaks help you to understand how that
character thinks and feels? If so, how?
2. What question does the following passage in the sample book review answer:
"And the books are indeed full of awe-inspiring moments; here are just a few of them: the first fight
with the Nazguls; the battle with the ancient demon in desolated Moria and Gandalf’s
disappearance; the death of Boromir (in my opinion, one of the most tragic moments in world
literature of the 20th century); the resurrection of Gandalf the White; the transformation of King
Theoden; the siege of Helm’s Deep; the uprising of the ents and Saruman’s exile; recruiting of the
undead army by Aragorn; the battle for Minas Tirith and the sortie to the Black Gate of Mordor; the
defeat of the Witch-King of Angmar; the annihilation of the Ring; Aragorn’s marriage with Arwen and
honors to the hobbits; finally, Frodo’s departure to the West.
---The correct answer is: What is the high point of the story? Why is this incident more important
than the others?
3. What element does the following passage discuss in the passage from the sample book review:
"While working on the book, Tolkien invented at least two fully functional languages: Elven and
Dwarven; he interpreted the Scandinavian myths (“The Saga of the Nibelungs“, in particular) and
used them to create his own unique plot, world, and characters. The number of cultural and literary
references used in “The Lord of the Rings” is enormous."
---The correct answer is: Dialogue
4. What element does the following passage discuss in the passage from the sample book review:
"The saga tells a story unfolding around The One Ring, created and lost by Sauron—an ancient
demigod of the world of Middle Earth, and the main antagonist of the saga."
---The correct answer is: Plot
5. What element does the following passage discuss in the passage from the sample book review:
"It is almost impossible to say more about the plot, because at the end of the first book, it branches
into multiple storylines."
---The correct answer is: Plot
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
The research is a quantitative research dealing with the computed numerical figures from analyzing
each news story. Through this, the researchers analyzed each criterion that will determine the
changes made in The Catalyst’s news stories over the years in terms of physical changes, as well as
in content.
---The correct answer is: Limitations
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
The researchers have coded a total of 586 news stories from The Catalyst’s issues from the year
1986 to 2010. The table above shows that focus-wise, The Catalyst presented a substantial amount
of news articles with miscellaneous issues taking up 26.97% of the total number of articles. As
provided in the definition of news by Bangkok Post, there are miscellaneous stories which
continually appear in the news section. In this study, these news articles are common stories within
PUP which did not fall to any of the other categories.
---The correct answer is: Results
Identify the part of the research report where the following passage falls:
OFW parents could influence their children in either good or bad way. Children who have parents as
overseas workers would be considered well-off in life because of the money, not to mention, dollars
sent to them. But OFWs are willing to endure all the pains and sufferings of having their families
away from them because in the end, they are recognized by the government and by every Filipino.
Because of this, former President Corazon Aquino acknowledged their sacrifices, efforts and
contributions by referring to them as the modern heroes in the speech she gave last 1988 to a group
of domestic helpers in Hong Kong.
In honor of the OFWs who kept our country’s economy afloat as well as their families’ lives, the
Philippines celebrates December as the “Month of Overseas Filipino Workers”, to pay tribute to
them.
---The correct answer is: Introduction
Questions:
1. What type of job application letter is given?
---The correct answer is: hardcopy
2. What position is the person applying for?
---The correct answer is: programmer
3. In what paragraph number did the applicant summarize his experiences?
---The correct answer is: 3
4. In what paragraph number did the applicant describe his/her skills?
---The correct answer is: 2
5. What is the name of the applicant?
---The correct answer is: John Donaldson
Questions:
1. What is the main goal/objective of the project proposal?
---The correct answer is: To identify and describe the monitoring of three common precursors and
evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in predicting earthquakes.
2. What part of the project proposal does the following sentence fall under:
"Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the library, there is no
appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. The only costs, which will be
minor, are for copying articles, printing the review, and spiral binding the review. I estimate that I can
do these tasks for under $10."
---The correct answer is: Budget
3. What part of the project proposal does the following sentence fall under:
"I am a senior in the Geological Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and
stratigraphy, all of which have included the principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships."
---The correct answer is: Preparation
4. What part of the project proposal does the following sentence fall under:
"Because I already possess several books and articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time
will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to
the audience."
---The correct answer is: Resources
5. What part of the project proposal does the following sentence fall under:
"A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in earthquake-
prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur."
---The correct answer is: Significance

Fourth Quarter Exam (Reading and Writing


Skills)
Match the term to its description.
---The correct answer is:
Identifying the main ideas and supporting details to support the claim. - [Outlining and Summarizing]
Acknowledging the differences between personal existing values and attitude and the author's
perspective. [Contextualizing]
Done to get an initial understanding of the text. [Previewing]
Consult related readings in order to learn how to approach the same topic in different ways.
[Compare and Contrast]
An idea, an opinion, a judgment or a point of view that the writer wants you to accept. [Claim]
This consists of reasons and evidence that will prove to the readers that the conclusion presented is
worth accepting. [Support]
Newer knowledge is obtained through this way of learning as this is the key to understanding the
author's point of view. [Asking questions]
Weighing in on the consistency of claims and support. [Evaluation]
The reader must be able to track the pattern in the author's thoughts and presentation of his/her own
beliefs. [Reflecting on challenges to beliefs and values]
_______ the material enables the reader to grasp the organization and the content of the text in the
shortest possible time. [Skimming]
Assertions that are based on facts and has to be proven by reliable proofs. [Opinion]
An assertion that relies on personal choice. [Preference]
Claims made to rebut a previous claim. [Counterclaim]
The part of a literary review that emphasizes the main point of the review. [Conclusion]
The part of a research report that states the significance of the research. [Introduction]
This includes the instrument used in the research. [Methods]
A part of the project proposal that states what the project will produce. [Deliverables]
The part of the project proposal that states what makes the project unique. [Implementation Issues
and Challenges]
This part of the project proposal explains what the project wants to achieve. [Project Summary]
This part of the project proposal explains the problem and what makes it interesting. [Motivation]
In which element does the following questions fall?
---The correct answer is:
Is the author's claim objective? [Topic and Position]
From what perspective did the author write the text? [Style]
Is the information arranged according to the content, by the author's argument or by the needs of the
audience? [Organization]
Which of the references elicits further discussion? [Research/Sources]
Where is the text found? [Audience]
Does the text mean to persuade? [Purpose/Context]
Are the sources credible? [Proof/Evidence]
Which of the evidence carries the more weight? [Proof/Evidence]
How is the information arranged in the text? [Organization]
What can you infer from the writer's choice of words? [Style]
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Despite all the joy that video games can bring to children and teenagers, ...
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Video games use their characters in the games ...
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: Video games is not suitable for children and teenagers
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Video games help players improve social skills and reflexes
5. Which of the following is correct according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Video games offer simplified and conditional models of environments and
people.
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Death penalty is an unfair and rather ineffective ...
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Death penalty can be overturned.
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: Death penalty can hardly be called ...
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: These has been numerous evidence ...
5. What is the stand of the author in the imposing of death penalty?
---The correct answer is: He/she is against it.
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Romeo and Juliet's love story is dysfunctional.
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Romeo has immediately set his eyes on Juliet...
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: It is important to learn to distinguish love from ...
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Romeo and Juliet's love progressed swiftly and carefully ...
5. Which of the following is correct according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: William Shakespeare did not mean for his characters to be idyllic.
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Many arguments in favor of the usage ...
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Tests help see the bias of teachers ...
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: Improvements must be made in the distribution ...
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Most of the time, standardized tests encourage ...
5. What is the stand of the author in this argument?
---The correct answer is: He/she weighs in on both advantages and disadvantages ...
Match the term to its description.
---The correct answer is:
Identifying the main ideas and supporting details to support the claim. - [Outlining and Summarizing]
Acknowledging the differences between personal existing values and attitude and the author's
perspective. [Contextualizing]
Done to get an initial understanding of the text. [Previewing]
Consult related readings in order to learn how to approach the same topic in different ways.
[Compare and Contrast]
An idea, an opinion, a judgment or a point of view that the writer wants you to accept. [Claim]
This consists of reasons and evidence that will prove to the readers that the conclusion presented is
worth accepting. [Support]
Newer knowledge is obtained through this way of learning as this is the key to understanding the
author's point of view. [Asking questions]
Weighing in on the consistency of claims and support. [Evaluation]
The reader must be able to track the pattern in the author's thoughts and presentation of his/her own
beliefs. [Reflecting on challenges to beliefs and values]
_______ the material enables the reader to grasp the organization and the content of the text in the
shortest possible time. [Skimming]
Assertions that are based on facts and has to be proven by reliable proofs. [Opinion]
An assertion that relies on personal choice. [Preference]
Claims made to rebut a previous claim. [Counterclaim]
The part of a literary review that emphasizes the main point of the review. [Conclusion]
The part of a research report that states the significance of the research. [Introduction]
This includes the instrument used in the research. [Methods]
A part of the project proposal that states what the project will produce. [Deliverables]
The part of the project proposal that states what makes the project unique. [Implementation Issues
and Challenges]
This part of the project proposal explains what the project wants to achieve. [Project Summary]
This part of the project proposal explains the problem and what makes it interesting. [Motivation]
In which element does the following questions fall?
---The correct answer is:
Is the author's claim objective? [Topic and Position]
From what perspective did the author write the text? [Style]
Is the information arranged according to the content, by the author's argument or by the needs of the
audience? [Organization]
Which of the references elicits further discussion? [Research/Sources]
Where is the text found? [Audience]
Does the text mean to persuade? [Purpose/Context]
Are the sources credible? [Proof/Evidence]
Which of the evidence carries the more weight? [Proof/Evidence]
How is the information arranged in the text? [Organization]
What can you infer from the writer's choice of words? [Style]
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Despite all the joy that video games can bring to children and teenagers, ...
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Video games use their characters in the games ...
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: Video games is not suitable for children and teenagers
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Video games help players improve social skills and reflexes
5. Which of the following is correct according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Video games offer simplified and conditional models of environments and
people.
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Death penalty is an unfair and rather ineffective ...
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Death penalty can be overturned.
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: Death penalty can hardly be called ...
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: These has been numerous evidence ...
5. What is the stand of the author in the imposing of death penalty?
---The correct answer is: He/she is against it.
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Romeo and Juliet's love story is dysfunctional.
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Romeo has immediately set his eyes on Juliet...
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: It is important to learn to distinguish love from ...
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Romeo and Juliet's love progressed swiftly and carefully ...
5. Which of the following is correct according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: William Shakespeare did not mean for his characters to be idyllic.
Questions:
1. Which of the following is the overall claim of the given essay?
---The correct answer is: Many arguments in favor of the usage ...
2. Which of the following information does not support the claim?
---The correct answer is: Tests help see the bias of teachers ...
3. What is the overall conclusion of the essay?
---The correct answer is: Improvements must be made in the distribution ...
4. Which of the following statements is incorrect according to the essay?
---The correct answer is: Most of the time, standardized tests encourage ...
5. What is the stand of the author in this argument?
---The correct answer is: He/she weighs in on both advantages and disadvantages ..