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ON

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN AN OPEN

CHANNEL FLOW WITH RIGID VEGETATION

Submitted by:

VANGARI SAIDATTA

REGD. NO: -15D91A0167

Civil Engineering Department

AURORA’S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACADEMY,

BANDLAGUDA, HYDERABAD 500005

PROF. K. K. KHATUA

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, NIT, ROURKELA

&

MR. J. R. KHUNTIA

Ph. D SCHOLAR, NIT, ROURKELA

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela -769008, Odisha, India

1

INDEX

1. ABSTRACT

2. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE

3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS CALCULATION

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION

5. CONCLUSION

6. REFERENCES

2

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I express my special thanks to Dr. Jenifa Latha, (HOD, CE), Dr. Kamalini Devi and

Mr. Rohith SR Mane for their effort for the opportunity to do my internship at NIT, Rourkela

with advanced laboratory facility in Hydraulics laboratory of Civil Engineering Department.

Khuntia of NIT, Rourkela who has guided me with all his effort to provide us technical

knowledge and expertise for making this internship successful.

3

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN AN OPEN

CHANNEL FLOW WITH RIGID VEGETATION

ABSTRACT

This report evaluates the vegetation resistance in terms of Reynolds shear stress and

boundary Shear stress by using artificial rigid vegetation under an emergent condition. The

position of the stem is in the staggered arrangement. The dowels are partially submerged by

the water. The stem causes and effects of vortices and wake formations due to the flow of

water through the dowels. The experiment is conducted to find the velocity in three directions

of flow by using Micro-ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) and boundary shear stress is

calculated by Pitot tube. The distribution of velocity and boundary shear stress in a

rectangular simple channel has been examined experimentally, and the influence of varying

the bed roughness. The resistance of the channel bed was varied by means of artificial strip

roughness elements, and measurements made of the wall and bed shear stresses. The water

passes through the artificial rigid vegetation in the simple channel. As the boundary shear

stress depends on velocity field, the shape of cross-section, variation in shear on a simple

channel with respect to flow depth. The distribution of shear on simple channel concluded

that when flow increases the shear also increases in the bed. The experiments help to predict

the flood conditions and help the people to evacuate the region. Bed shear stress is an

important parameter required for estimating sediment transport rates in the simple channel.

As the boundary shear stress depends on velocity field, the shape of cross-section, variation

in shear on a simple channel with respect to flow depth. The vegetation increases flow

resistance, sediment transport, and deposition.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler velocimetry, Boundary shear stress, Vegetation density, Flow

resistance, Emergent flow, Rigid vegetation,

INTRODUCTION

The passage in which liquid is not completely enclosed by a solid boundary but has a

free surface exposed to the atmosphere is called ‘open channel flow’. Vegetation can cause

energy dissipation via drag force due to an interaction between vegetation and flow. In an

open channel flow, there are 2 types of conditions i.e., emergent/submerged, we consider the

4

emergent condition of flow under artificial rigid vegetation. An open channel has its top

surface exposed to the atmosphere and due to the existence of the free surface; the pressure in

it is constant and atmospheric. All open channels have a bottom slope and hence gravity force

is predominant for causing the flow. The open channel can have an only main channel called

as a simple channel. There are two types of flows i.e., steady flow and unsteady flow, the

experiment is done by this flows under an emergent condition through artificial rigid

vegetation.

In this channel artificial bed with roughness is considered for bed shear stress is

calculated by using a Pitot tube. The presence of emergent vegetation in wetlands and rivers

has an impact on physical and biological processes in the aquatic environments. The

vegetation-induced drag reduces flow discharge in a channel and helps in flood attenuation

and sediment deposition. Open channel flows, if vegetated, are not only resisted by boundary

shear but also by drag induced by the stems and foliage. Therefore, the resistance to

vegetated open channel flows generally depends on channel geometry, vegetation

configuration, and surface characteristics of both channel boundary and vegetation. (Jarvela,

2002a) is stated that it is generally agreed that vegetation increases the flow resistance and

modifies sediment transport and deposition. Flow resistance varies from flow depth, stem

concentration, stem length and stem diameter. Mostly this study focused on velocity profile

and turbulent characteristics of the vegetated channel are suggested by (Yen, 2002). A model

is developed by (Nepf, 1999) to describe the drag, turbulence, and diffusion of flow through

emergent vegetation. Vegetations linked to wake generation affects vegetative drag and

turbulence intensity. (Pathirana et al., 2008) described bed shear in unsteady open channel

flow. The velocity profile, turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress for accelerating and

decelerating flows in the rough channel are measured by (Graf, 1995). (Khuntia.et.al 2017)

has stated that a flow resistance in open channel with emergent rigid vegetation that varies

with flow depth, vegetation density, and stem diameter. (Khuntia, 2016) had a research of

secondary current effects flow prediction in open channel flow. The Secondary flow is

present in the open channel due to complex three-dimensional flow structures as a result of

existing natural features. The vegetation hydraulic radius is defined by taking into account the

effects of vegetation size and density. (Darby and Throne, 1996) has developed the physical

based method of predicting the impacts of vegetation growth flow resistance and flood

capacity. The resulting model is capable of simulating Stage-Discharge curves in a simple

channel. The conversion of mean kinetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy within stem

wakes arguments the turbulence intensity because wake turbulence is generated at the stem

5

scale has suggested by (Nepf et al., 1997). The main aim of this paper is to present a

theoretical model for computation of Reynolds stress and bed shear stress due to unsteady

flow in open channel with the emergent flow. In this study, it also describes the drag

turbulence and diffusion of flow through emergent vegetation. The design of a simple

channel is an assumption that referred to the open channel. In this study, it also describes the

drag turbulence and diffusion of flow through emergent vegetation. The design of a simple

channel is an assumption that referred to the open channel.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE:

Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in the fluid mechanics and

hydraulics laboratory at NIT, Rourkela channel. The physical based method of predicting the

impacts of vegetation growth flow resistance and flood capacity. The resulting model is

capable of simulating Stage-Discharge curves in a simple channel. The vegetation hydraulic

radius is defined by taking into account the effects of vegetation size and density.

The experiment is used to find the velocity in three directions of flow by using a device

names ADV (acoustic Doppler velocimetry) and boundary shear stress is calculated by Pitot

tube. This experiment is to calculate the boundary shear stress, velocity profile, Reynolds

shear stress, pressure, vegetation density, discharge in a volumetric tank. the density of

vegetation is 38stems/1m2.water is released by opening the inlet valve into the simple

channel. The water passes through the artificial rigid vegetation. In this experiment, we use a

Pitot tube to measure the static and dynamic pressure inflow of water which is connected to

an inclined manometer. A mathematical expression dimensional geometry and hydraulic

parameter such as aspect ratio, the lateral distance along a width of the channel.

6

Fig. 1(b): Overhead Tank

This experiment is based on the geometry of channel and flow characteristics. Here we

considered the experiment on a rectangular simple channel where it consists of channel bed

mat with plastic rigid grass and artificial rigid stems are attached to it. The honeycomb

structure is placed beside the headgate of the inlet chamber. While the experiment starts the

water recirculates from the sump tank to an overhead tank and volumetric discharge tank.

The water passes through the suction pipe that is connected to the 10HP centrifugal pump,

then water passes into an overhead tank. The water flows into a simple channel through the

pipe by opening the inlet valve in the chamber where the head gate is present. The

honeycomb structure is placed in the chamber to reduce the inlet turbulence. The water flows

through the simple channel due to gravitational force and the channel has a bed slope of

0.0012. The honeycomb structure is made up of plastic hard pipes as shown in Fig 2.

7

Fig. 2: Honeycomb structure Fig. 3: Rectangular simple channel

The geometry of a simple rectangular channel is about 11m long and 0.6m wide and 0.6m

depth. The bed mat total thickness is about 1.5 cm and height itself of plastic rigid grass

thickness is about 0.5 cm as shown in Fig 4.

The adjustable valve is connected to the outlet to maintain the water level. To acquire the

knowledge in the simple channel the stems are arranged in staggered form. The diameter of

the cylindrical rod is 8mm and height of 15cm.the spacing of rods from one row to another

row is about 9.5cm and lateral spacing between two rods is about 8.5cm.

8

Fig. 5: Staggered arrangements

The inlet flow data is collected from the flow meter near the pump, note down the

readings, thereafter close the outlet valve of a volumetric tank for calculating discharge. The

manometer is attached to the wall of a volumetric tank to measure the depth. The time taken

(t) for each 1cm depth of manometer up to 20 readings with the help of stopwatch. The

surface area(A) of a volumetric tank is 22.0911m2

𝑄=

𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 (𝑠𝑒𝑐)

The water flows through the rectangular channel with emergent condition over artificial rigid

vegetation that flow hits the stem and wakes (the divergence of water while hit an obstruction

in the flow) are generated and also vortices (the water circulates around the stem and flows

towards the direction of flow) is formed along the stem as shown in Fig.7(a) and 7(b).

Fig. 6: Emergent flow Fig. 7(a): Wakes formation Fig. 7(b): Vortices

(Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) works on the principle of Doppler principle. This device is

manufactured by SonTek, and used to measure 3 Dimensional of velocity in the large, simple

9

channel flow. The ADV uses this principle to measure the velocity of water in three

dimensions. The device sends out a beam of acoustic waves at a fixed frequency from a

transmitter probe. These waves bounce off of moving particulate matter in the water and

three receiving probes capture the change in frequency of the returned waves. The ADV then

calculates the velocity of the water in the x, y, and z directions. The remote sampling volume

is located typically 5 or 10 cm from the tip of the transmitter. For each receiver, the ADV

device records a velocity component, a signal strength value, a signal-to-noise (SNR) and a

correlation value. The signal strength, SNR and correlation values are used primarily to

determine the quality and accuracy of the velocity data.

Using micro-ADV we have calculated 3D data sets and evaluated Reynolds stress and

calibrating coefficients. The coefficient plays an important role in the prediction of depth-

averaged velocity and boundary shear stress of open channel flow. These are found to vary

with flow depth geometry, roughness, and hydraulic condition. Generally, down prove and up

prove ADV is used in a particular vertical section along the lateral direction of the channel.

The ADV is connected to the computer that shows the time of data acquisition by Sontek

software of micro-ADV as shown in Fig 9. The acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) needs

no calibration and is, therefore, a potentially useful tool for measuring velocities in the

laboratory or in the field. We investigate its reliability for measurements in concentrated

cohesive sediment suspensions, where the particle size is usually unknown due to the

occurrence of flocculation, and where there is considerable acoustic wave absorption.

10

Fig. 9: Data acquisition in Sontek ADV software

A point gauge is used to measure the depth of water in the channel. It is important that

in bank flow (i.e. flow within the main channel) is modeled accurately since the flow is

present in the main channel. In the three-dimensional flow field, the flow is usually consisting

of two components i.e., primary flow and secondary flow. The primary flow is parallel to the

longitudinal direction of flow and the secondary flow is perpendicular to the primary flow

direction. Flow component along the direction of flow is called longitudinal velocity or primary

flow and other two components of flow (i.e. transverse or y and vertical or z-direction)

comprising another flow is called secondary flow.

Boundary shear stresses can be calculated with the help of a pitot tube, which is

connected to an inclined manometer. Here we consider two pressures i.e., static pressure and

dynamic pressure is connected from Pitot tube to inclined manometer. The difference

between the two pressure readings is known as Pitot tube readings.

In this experiment, the ADV is positioned in between two rows of vertical distances

making it into 3 lines (LINE-1, LINE-2, LINE-3) and also consider 7 positions along lateral

direction from the mid of the rectangular channel.for each line there should be 7 positions and

different sampling values( e.g 0.5,1,2 for down probe and 6,7,8 for the up probe ) as required

in a certain depth. This experiment is continued for each steady and unsteady flow. This

process is continued till we get the velocities at each depths that we get from the computer,

from that files we find the Reynolds shear stress (product of two fluctuation velocities with

water density), depth average velocity and boundary shear stress. as the positioning of ADV

is shown in Fig 10.Line-1 and line-3 are near to the vegetated rods, line-2 is in between the

two vegetated rigid rows.

11

Fig 10 Positioning of ADVin The Channel

In this result we calculated by using a pitot tube, whereas the procedure is similar as

like depth-averaged velocity instead of ADV, we use a pitot tube. The diameter of the pitot

tube is about 0.00477. The resistance to flow in the turbulent rough‐flow range depends

primarily upon the size, shape, and arrangement of the granular material making up the

boundary.

In the graph, the abscissa indicates lateral distance (m) and the ordinate represents the

boundary shear stress (N/m2) as represented in graphs as shown in below figures.

∆𝑃 = 𝑑𝑥 × sin 𝜃 × 𝜌 × 𝑔 ……………...(Eqn.1)

Whereas,

triangle

12

ℎ

𝜃 = tan−1 [𝑏]….. …………..(Eqn.2)

Whereas,

h= height of the right-angled triangle (from inclined manometer edge to bottom base

plate)

𝑑2

boundary shear stress i.e., ∆𝑝 × 4𝜌𝜗2 ……………….(Eqn.3)

2

𝑑

𝑋 ′ = 𝑙𝑜𝑔 [∆𝑝 × 2] …………………….(Eqn.4)

4𝜌𝜗

3 2

𝑌 ′ = −0.0060𝑋 ′ + 0.1437𝑋 ′ − 0.1381𝑋 ′ + 0.8287 2.90 ≤ 𝑋′ ≤ 5.6

………………………….(Cond.2)

The above conditions are in logarithmic values, convert into antilogarithmic value

′

𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑌 ′ = 10𝑌 …………………(Eqn.5)

2

𝑌′ 4𝜌𝜗

Boundary shear stress 𝜏 = 10 × ( 2 ) …………………(Eqn.6)

𝑑

13

Substitute Eqn.5 in Eqn.6, we get boundary shear stress (𝜏) value

By using the above Equation we can find boundary shear stress the graph is between 𝜏

LINE-1

Flow depth 0.075m LINE-2

LINE-3

Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lateral distance(m)

LINE-1

Flow depth 0.09m LINE-2

LINE-3

Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lateral distance(m)

14

LINE-1

Flow depth 0.10m

LINE-2

LINE-3

Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lateral distance(m)

LINE-1

Flow depth 0.105 m LINE-2

LINE-3

Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lateral distance(m)

15

LINE-1

Flow depth 0.115 m LINE-2

LINE-3

Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Lateral distance(m)

Fig. 15: Boundary shear stress vs Lateral distance of Rectangular Simple Channel

Boundary shear stress is defined as the friction between the flow of water and the bed,

which opposes the flow of water due to bed. The Line-2 is free from vegetation because it lies

between two vegetated rows. The line-1 and line-3 are near to the stems so graphs vary from

line-2. The magnitude of boundary shear stress has been found higher values near Line-2

because there is no vegetation. Near Line-1 and Line-3 has been found boundary shear stress

values approximately of both lines due to the presence of vegetation. These values are taken

along the symmetrical section of the simple rectangular channel.

CONCLUSION

The experimental investigation has been carried out in rough bed with artificial rigid

vegetation in the rectangular simple channel to study the depth-averaged velocity and

boundary shear stress, flow resistance, velocities in 3 dimensional u,v and w along the

channel in a steady flow of water. Reviewing all the aspects regarding these parameters some

conclusions are made and summarized.

rectangular simple channel of artificial rigid vegetation by extracting the data from the

computer and calculating Reynolds shear stress. The data is collected by generating

velocities by ADV device.

16

2. The boundary shear stress graphs have the variation at different depths were observed

in the rectangular simple channel with bed roughness. These values depend upon the

pitot tube readings of static pressure and dynamic pressure.

3. Reynolds shear stress is the main coefficient for calculating depth-averaged velocity

that Data acquisition in SonTek ADV software

As the boundary shear stress depends on velocity field, the shape of cross-section,

variation in shear on a simple channel with respect to flow depth. The vegetation increases

flow resistance, sediment transport, and deposition. The drag exerted on boundaries of the

densely vegetated channel is not significant compared to drag on vegetal element implies to

gravitational flow.

Flow resistance due to the artificial rigid vegetation of fundamental properties based on

resistance equation is the density of vegetation and deformation of the canopy in a flow. This

procedure is applied to parameterize the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for flow

through the staggered arrangement of rigid emergent vegetation. The design of a simple

channel is an assumption that referred to the open channel. The distribution of shear on

simple channel concluded that when flow increases the shear also increases in the bed. This

experiment helps to predict the flood conditions and helps the people to evacuate the region.

REFERENCE: -

1. Abderrezzak, K. E. K., Camenen, B., & Paquier, A. (2008). “Estimation of the

boundary shear stress distribution in open channel using flownet”. Journal of

Hydraulic Research, 46(5), 716-720.

2. Bicudo, J. R., and M. F. Giorgetti. (1991): "the effect of strip bed roughness on the

reaeration rate coefficient." Water Science and Technology 23.10-12 1929-1939.

3. Darby, S. E., and C. R. Thome, (1994). "fluvial maintenance operations in managed

alluvial rivers." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 4, 130-

148.

4. Dietrich, William Eric. (1982): "flow, boundary shear stress, and sediment transport

in a river meander." 4717-4717.

5. Ghosh, S., and S. B. Jena. (1971). "boundary shear distribution in open channel

compound." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers 49(4), 417-430.

17

6. Ghosh, SN, and LK MISRA. (1977): "distribution of boundary shear and effect of

non-uniformity flow resistance. R." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil

Engineers 63.3 701-709.

7. Ghosh, S. N., and PL MEHTA. (1974): ." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil

Engineers 57(1), 159-163.

8. Hassan, M. A., & Reid, I. (1990). “the influence of microform bed roughness

elements on flow and sediment transport in gravel bed rivers”. Earth Surface

Processes and Landforms, 15(8), 739-750.

9. Jarvela, J. (2002a). “Flow resistance of flexible and stiff Vegetation: a flume study

with natural plants”, J. Hydrol., 269(1–2), 44–54.

10. Jarvela, J. (2002b). “determination of flow resistance of vegetated channel banks and

floodplains”. In River Flow 2002 (Eds. Bousmar, D. and Zech, Y.), Swets &

Zeitlinger, Lisse, pp. 311–318.

11. Khuntia, Jnana Ranjan. “effect of secondary current on flow prediction in an open

channel flow.” Diss. 2016.

12. Khuntia, J. R., K. Devi, & K. K. Khatua, (2017). “flow resistance in open channel

with emergent rigid vegetation.

13. Knight, D. W. (1981). “boundary shear in smooth and rough channels”. J. Hydrauls.

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14. Knight, D.W. and Macdonald, J.A., 1979. “open channel flow with varying bed

roughness”. J. Hydraul. div.105(9), 1167-1183.

15. Masterman, R, and Thorne, C. R (1992). "predicting influence of bank vegetation

on channel capacity." J. Hydr. Engineering, 118(7), 1052-1058.

16. Maclean, A. G., & Willetts, B. B. (1986). “measurement of boundary shear stress in

non-uniform open channel flow”. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 24(1), 39-51.

17. McLean, S. R., S. R. Wolfe, and J. M. Nelson. (1999): "predicting boundary shear

stress and sediment transport over bed forms." Journal of Hydraulic

Engineering 125(7), 725-736.

18. Sterling, M., & Knight, D. W. (2000, December). “resistance and boundary shear in

circular conduits with flat beds running part full”. In Proceedings of the Institution of

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Ltd.

19. Yen, B.C. (2002). “open channel flow resistance”, J. Hydr. Engineering, 128(1), 20–

39.

18

20. Yang, S. Q., & McCorquodale, J. A. (2004). “determination of boundary shear stress

and reynolds shear stress in smooth rectangular channel flows”. Journal of hydraulic

engineering, 130(5), 458-462.

21. Yang, S. Q. (2005). “interactions of boundary shear stress, secondary currents and

velocity”. Fluid dynamics research, 36(3), 121.

19

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