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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT

ON
BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN AN OPEN
CHANNEL FLOW WITH RIGID VEGETATION

Submitted by:
VANGARI SAIDATTA
REGD. NO: -15D91A0167
Civil Engineering Department
AURORA’S SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACADEMY,
BANDLAGUDA, HYDERABAD 500005

Under the Guidance of:


PROF. K. K. KHATUA
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, NIT, ROURKELA
&
MR. J. R. KHUNTIA
Ph. D SCHOLAR, NIT, ROURKELA

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


National Institute of Technology
Rourkela -769008, Odisha, India

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INDEX

1. ABSTRACT
2. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE
3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS
 BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS CALCULATION
 BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION

5. CONCLUSION
6. REFERENCES

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I express my special thanks to Dr. Jenifa Latha, (HOD, CE), Dr. Kamalini Devi and
Mr. Rohith SR Mane for their effort for the opportunity to do my internship at NIT, Rourkela
with advanced laboratory facility in Hydraulics laboratory of Civil Engineering Department.

I also sincerely thankful to Prof. K. K. Khatua and Ph. D. researcher Mr. J. R.


Khuntia of NIT, Rourkela who has guided me with all his effort to provide us technical
knowledge and expertise for making this internship successful.

I would like to thank my parents for supporting me.

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BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN AN OPEN
CHANNEL FLOW WITH RIGID VEGETATION

ABSTRACT
This report evaluates the vegetation resistance in terms of Reynolds shear stress and
boundary Shear stress by using artificial rigid vegetation under an emergent condition. The
position of the stem is in the staggered arrangement. The dowels are partially submerged by
the water. The stem causes and effects of vortices and wake formations due to the flow of
water through the dowels. The experiment is conducted to find the velocity in three directions
of flow by using Micro-ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) and boundary shear stress is
calculated by Pitot tube. The distribution of velocity and boundary shear stress in a
rectangular simple channel has been examined experimentally, and the influence of varying
the bed roughness. The resistance of the channel bed was varied by means of artificial strip
roughness elements, and measurements made of the wall and bed shear stresses. The water
passes through the artificial rigid vegetation in the simple channel. As the boundary shear
stress depends on velocity field, the shape of cross-section, variation in shear on a simple
channel with respect to flow depth. The distribution of shear on simple channel concluded
that when flow increases the shear also increases in the bed. The experiments help to predict
the flood conditions and help the people to evacuate the region. Bed shear stress is an
important parameter required for estimating sediment transport rates in the simple channel.
As the boundary shear stress depends on velocity field, the shape of cross-section, variation
in shear on a simple channel with respect to flow depth. The vegetation increases flow
resistance, sediment transport, and deposition.
Keywords: Acoustic Doppler velocimetry, Boundary shear stress, Vegetation density, Flow
resistance, Emergent flow, Rigid vegetation,

INTRODUCTION
The passage in which liquid is not completely enclosed by a solid boundary but has a
free surface exposed to the atmosphere is called ‘open channel flow’. Vegetation can cause
energy dissipation via drag force due to an interaction between vegetation and flow. In an
open channel flow, there are 2 types of conditions i.e., emergent/submerged, we consider the

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emergent condition of flow under artificial rigid vegetation. An open channel has its top
surface exposed to the atmosphere and due to the existence of the free surface; the pressure in
it is constant and atmospheric. All open channels have a bottom slope and hence gravity force
is predominant for causing the flow. The open channel can have an only main channel called
as a simple channel. There are two types of flows i.e., steady flow and unsteady flow, the
experiment is done by this flows under an emergent condition through artificial rigid
vegetation.
In this channel artificial bed with roughness is considered for bed shear stress is
calculated by using a Pitot tube. The presence of emergent vegetation in wetlands and rivers
has an impact on physical and biological processes in the aquatic environments. The
vegetation-induced drag reduces flow discharge in a channel and helps in flood attenuation
and sediment deposition. Open channel flows, if vegetated, are not only resisted by boundary
shear but also by drag induced by the stems and foliage. Therefore, the resistance to
vegetated open channel flows generally depends on channel geometry, vegetation
configuration, and surface characteristics of both channel boundary and vegetation. (Jarvela,
2002a) is stated that it is generally agreed that vegetation increases the flow resistance and
modifies sediment transport and deposition. Flow resistance varies from flow depth, stem
concentration, stem length and stem diameter. Mostly this study focused on velocity profile
and turbulent characteristics of the vegetated channel are suggested by (Yen, 2002). A model
is developed by (Nepf, 1999) to describe the drag, turbulence, and diffusion of flow through
emergent vegetation. Vegetations linked to wake generation affects vegetative drag and
turbulence intensity. (Pathirana et al., 2008) described bed shear in unsteady open channel
flow. The velocity profile, turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress for accelerating and
decelerating flows in the rough channel are measured by (Graf, 1995). (Khuntia.et.al 2017)
has stated that a flow resistance in open channel with emergent rigid vegetation that varies
with flow depth, vegetation density, and stem diameter. (Khuntia, 2016) had a research of
secondary current effects flow prediction in open channel flow. The Secondary flow is
present in the open channel due to complex three-dimensional flow structures as a result of
existing natural features. The vegetation hydraulic radius is defined by taking into account the
effects of vegetation size and density. (Darby and Throne, 1996) has developed the physical
based method of predicting the impacts of vegetation growth flow resistance and flood
capacity. The resulting model is capable of simulating Stage-Discharge curves in a simple
channel. The conversion of mean kinetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy within stem
wakes arguments the turbulence intensity because wake turbulence is generated at the stem
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scale has suggested by (Nepf et al., 1997). The main aim of this paper is to present a
theoretical model for computation of Reynolds stress and bed shear stress due to unsteady
flow in open channel with the emergent flow. In this study, it also describes the drag
turbulence and diffusion of flow through emergent vegetation. The design of a simple
channel is an assumption that referred to the open channel. In this study, it also describes the
drag turbulence and diffusion of flow through emergent vegetation. The design of a simple
channel is an assumption that referred to the open channel.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE:
Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in the fluid mechanics and
hydraulics laboratory at NIT, Rourkela channel. The physical based method of predicting the
impacts of vegetation growth flow resistance and flood capacity. The resulting model is
capable of simulating Stage-Discharge curves in a simple channel. The vegetation hydraulic
radius is defined by taking into account the effects of vegetation size and density.
The experiment is used to find the velocity in three directions of flow by using a device
names ADV (acoustic Doppler velocimetry) and boundary shear stress is calculated by Pitot
tube. This experiment is to calculate the boundary shear stress, velocity profile, Reynolds
shear stress, pressure, vegetation density, discharge in a volumetric tank. the density of
vegetation is 38stems/1m2.water is released by opening the inlet valve into the simple
channel. The water passes through the artificial rigid vegetation. In this experiment, we use a
Pitot tube to measure the static and dynamic pressure inflow of water which is connected to
an inclined manometer. A mathematical expression dimensional geometry and hydraulic
parameter such as aspect ratio, the lateral distance along a width of the channel.

Fig. 1(a): Layout of a rectangular simple channel with rigid vegetation

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Fig. 1(b): Overhead Tank

Fig. 1(c): Volumetric Discharge Tank and vertical manometer

This experiment is based on the geometry of channel and flow characteristics. Here we
considered the experiment on a rectangular simple channel where it consists of channel bed
mat with plastic rigid grass and artificial rigid stems are attached to it. The honeycomb
structure is placed beside the headgate of the inlet chamber. While the experiment starts the
water recirculates from the sump tank to an overhead tank and volumetric discharge tank.
The water passes through the suction pipe that is connected to the 10HP centrifugal pump,
then water passes into an overhead tank. The water flows into a simple channel through the
pipe by opening the inlet valve in the chamber where the head gate is present. The
honeycomb structure is placed in the chamber to reduce the inlet turbulence. The water flows
through the simple channel due to gravitational force and the channel has a bed slope of
0.0012. The honeycomb structure is made up of plastic hard pipes as shown in Fig 2.

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Fig. 2: Honeycomb structure Fig. 3: Rectangular simple channel

The geometry of a simple rectangular channel is about 11m long and 0.6m wide and 0.6m
depth. The bed mat total thickness is about 1.5 cm and height itself of plastic rigid grass
thickness is about 0.5 cm as shown in Fig 4.

Fig. 4: Bed mat roughness with plastic rigid grass

The adjustable valve is connected to the outlet to maintain the water level. To acquire the
knowledge in the simple channel the stems are arranged in staggered form. The diameter of
the cylindrical rod is 8mm and height of 15cm.the spacing of rods from one row to another
row is about 9.5cm and lateral spacing between two rods is about 8.5cm.

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Fig. 5: Staggered arrangements

The inlet flow data is collected from the flow meter near the pump, note down the
readings, thereafter close the outlet valve of a volumetric tank for calculating discharge. The
manometer is attached to the wall of a volumetric tank to measure the depth. The time taken
(t) for each 1cm depth of manometer up to 20 readings with the help of stopwatch. The
surface area(A) of a volumetric tank is 22.0911m2

𝐴(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘) × 1𝑐𝑚𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ


𝑄=
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 (𝑠𝑒𝑐)

The water flows through the rectangular channel with emergent condition over artificial rigid
vegetation that flow hits the stem and wakes (the divergence of water while hit an obstruction
in the flow) are generated and also vortices (the water circulates around the stem and flows
towards the direction of flow) is formed along the stem as shown in Fig.7(a) and 7(b).

Fig. 6: Emergent flow Fig. 7(a): Wakes formation Fig. 7(b): Vortices

Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) were introduced in 1993. The ADV


(Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) works on the principle of Doppler principle. This device is
manufactured by SonTek, and used to measure 3 Dimensional of velocity in the large, simple

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channel flow. The ADV uses this principle to measure the velocity of water in three
dimensions. The device sends out a beam of acoustic waves at a fixed frequency from a
transmitter probe. These waves bounce off of moving particulate matter in the water and
three receiving probes capture the change in frequency of the returned waves. The ADV then
calculates the velocity of the water in the x, y, and z directions. The remote sampling volume
is located typically 5 or 10 cm from the tip of the transmitter. For each receiver, the ADV
device records a velocity component, a signal strength value, a signal-to-noise (SNR) and a
correlation value. The signal strength, SNR and correlation values are used primarily to
determine the quality and accuracy of the velocity data.

Fig. 8: Micro ADV and ADV series


Using micro-ADV we have calculated 3D data sets and evaluated Reynolds stress and
calibrating coefficients. The coefficient plays an important role in the prediction of depth-
averaged velocity and boundary shear stress of open channel flow. These are found to vary
with flow depth geometry, roughness, and hydraulic condition. Generally, down prove and up
prove ADV is used in a particular vertical section along the lateral direction of the channel.
The ADV is connected to the computer that shows the time of data acquisition by Sontek
software of micro-ADV as shown in Fig 9. The acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) needs
no calibration and is, therefore, a potentially useful tool for measuring velocities in the
laboratory or in the field. We investigate its reliability for measurements in concentrated
cohesive sediment suspensions, where the particle size is usually unknown due to the
occurrence of flocculation, and where there is considerable acoustic wave absorption.

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Fig. 9: Data acquisition in Sontek ADV software

A point gauge is used to measure the depth of water in the channel. It is important that
in bank flow (i.e. flow within the main channel) is modeled accurately since the flow is
present in the main channel. In the three-dimensional flow field, the flow is usually consisting
of two components i.e., primary flow and secondary flow. The primary flow is parallel to the
longitudinal direction of flow and the secondary flow is perpendicular to the primary flow
direction. Flow component along the direction of flow is called longitudinal velocity or primary
flow and other two components of flow (i.e. transverse or y and vertical or z-direction)
comprising another flow is called secondary flow.

Boundary shear stresses can be calculated with the help of a pitot tube, which is
connected to an inclined manometer. Here we consider two pressures i.e., static pressure and
dynamic pressure is connected from Pitot tube to inclined manometer. The difference
between the two pressure readings is known as Pitot tube readings.

In this experiment, the ADV is positioned in between two rows of vertical distances
making it into 3 lines (LINE-1, LINE-2, LINE-3) and also consider 7 positions along lateral
direction from the mid of the rectangular channel.for each line there should be 7 positions and
different sampling values( e.g 0.5,1,2 for down probe and 6,7,8 for the up probe ) as required
in a certain depth. This experiment is continued for each steady and unsteady flow. This
process is continued till we get the velocities at each depths that we get from the computer,
from that files we find the Reynolds shear stress (product of two fluctuation velocities with
water density), depth average velocity and boundary shear stress. as the positioning of ADV
is shown in Fig 10.Line-1 and line-3 are near to the vegetated rods, line-2 is in between the
two vegetated rigid rows.

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Fig 10 Positioning of ADVin The Channel

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS (𝝉):

In this result we calculated by using a pitot tube, whereas the procedure is similar as
like depth-averaged velocity instead of ADV, we use a pitot tube. The diameter of the pitot
tube is about 0.00477. The resistance to flow in the turbulent rough‐flow range depends
primarily upon the size, shape, and arrangement of the granular material making up the
boundary.

In the graph, the abscissa indicates lateral distance (m) and the ordinate represents the
boundary shear stress (N/m2) as represented in graphs as shown in below figures.

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS (𝝉)CALCULATION:

To calculate boundary shear stress, we use the formulas i.e.,

∆𝑃 = 𝑑𝑥 × sin 𝜃 × 𝜌 × 𝑔 ……………...(Eqn.1)

Whereas,

dx = difference between static pressure and dynamic pressure

sin 𝜃 = angle measured by using tape of inclined manometer as a right-angled


triangle

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𝜃 = tan−1 [𝑏]….. …………..(Eqn.2)

Substitute the Eqn.2 angle 𝜃 value in Eqn.1

Whereas,

h= height of the right-angled triangle (from inclined manometer edge to bottom base
plate)

b= base of a right-angled triangle

𝑑2
boundary shear stress i.e., ∆𝑝 × 4𝜌𝜗2 ……………….(Eqn.3)

d = diameter of pitot tube (0.00477)

𝜌 = density of water (1000 kg/m3)

𝜗 = kinematic viscousity of water (1.004 × 10−6 m2/s)

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𝑑
𝑋 ′ = 𝑙𝑜𝑔 [∆𝑝 × 2] …………………….(Eqn.4)
4𝜌𝜗

Substitute the Eqn.3 value in Eqn.4 ,we get 𝑋′ value

The variable x’values is in between 3 conditions i.e.,

𝑌 ′ = 0.5𝑋 ′ + 0.037 0 ≤ 𝑋′ ≤ 2.90 ……………(Cond.1)

3 2
𝑌 ′ = −0.0060𝑋 ′ + 0.1437𝑋 ′ − 0.1381𝑋 ′ + 0.8287 2.90 ≤ 𝑋′ ≤ 5.6

………………………….(Cond.2)

𝑋 ′ = 𝑌 ′ + 2𝑙𝑜𝑔10 [1.95𝑋 ′ + 4.02] 5.6 ≤ 𝑋 ′ ≤ 7.6 …………...(Cond.3)

The above conditions are in logarithmic values, convert into antilogarithmic value


𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑌 ′ = 10𝑌 …………………(Eqn.5)

2
𝑌′ 4𝜌𝜗
Boundary shear stress 𝜏 = 10 × ( 2 ) …………………(Eqn.6)
𝑑

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Substitute Eqn.5 in Eqn.6, we get boundary shear stress (𝜏) value

By using the above Equation we can find boundary shear stress the graph is between 𝜏

and lateral distance.

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION :

LINE-1
Flow depth 0.075m LINE-2
LINE-3
Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Lateral distance(m)

Fig.11: Boundary shear stress vs Lateral distance of Rectangular Simple Channel

LINE-1
Flow depth 0.09m LINE-2
LINE-3
Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Lateral distance(m)

Fig.12: Boundary shear stress vs Lateral distance of Rectangular Simple Channel

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LINE-1
Flow depth 0.10m
LINE-2
LINE-3
Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Lateral distance(m)

Fig.13: Boundary shear stress vs Lateral distance of Rectangular Simple Channel

LINE-1
Flow depth 0.105 m LINE-2
LINE-3
Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Lateral distance(m)

Fig.14: Boundary shear stress vs Lateral distance of Rectangular Simple Channel

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LINE-1
Flow depth 0.115 m LINE-2
LINE-3
Boundary shear stress(N/m2)

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Lateral distance(m)

Fig. 15: Boundary shear stress vs Lateral distance of Rectangular Simple Channel

Boundary shear stress is defined as the friction between the flow of water and the bed,
which opposes the flow of water due to bed. The Line-2 is free from vegetation because it lies
between two vegetated rows. The line-1 and line-3 are near to the stems so graphs vary from
line-2. The magnitude of boundary shear stress has been found higher values near Line-2
because there is no vegetation. Near Line-1 and Line-3 has been found boundary shear stress
values approximately of both lines due to the presence of vegetation. These values are taken
along the symmetrical section of the simple rectangular channel.

CONCLUSION

The experimental investigation has been carried out in rough bed with artificial rigid
vegetation in the rectangular simple channel to study the depth-averaged velocity and
boundary shear stress, flow resistance, velocities in 3 dimensional u,v and w along the
channel in a steady flow of water. Reviewing all the aspects regarding these parameters some
conclusions are made and summarized.

1. Variation in depth-averaged velocity graph at different depths was observed in a


rectangular simple channel of artificial rigid vegetation by extracting the data from the
computer and calculating Reynolds shear stress. The data is collected by generating
velocities by ADV device.

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2. The boundary shear stress graphs have the variation at different depths were observed
in the rectangular simple channel with bed roughness. These values depend upon the
pitot tube readings of static pressure and dynamic pressure.
3. Reynolds shear stress is the main coefficient for calculating depth-averaged velocity
that Data acquisition in SonTek ADV software
As the boundary shear stress depends on velocity field, the shape of cross-section,
variation in shear on a simple channel with respect to flow depth. The vegetation increases
flow resistance, sediment transport, and deposition. The drag exerted on boundaries of the
densely vegetated channel is not significant compared to drag on vegetal element implies to
gravitational flow.
Flow resistance due to the artificial rigid vegetation of fundamental properties based on
resistance equation is the density of vegetation and deformation of the canopy in a flow. This
procedure is applied to parameterize the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for flow
through the staggered arrangement of rigid emergent vegetation. The design of a simple
channel is an assumption that referred to the open channel. The distribution of shear on
simple channel concluded that when flow increases the shear also increases in the bed. This
experiment helps to predict the flood conditions and helps the people to evacuate the region.

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